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Typical Elemental Compositions of Hydrocarbons

Atom Crude Oil Natural Gas


(mass%) (mass%)
C 83 87 65 80
H 10 14 1 25
N 0.1 2 1 15
O 0.1 2 0 0.5
S 0.05 2 0 0.2
He, Ar, Kr trace trace
222Rn, 210Po trace trace
Metals (Ni, V, Hg,) trace trace
Normal Alkanes

Name 2D structure 3D structure formula Abbr.

H
Methane H C H CH4 C1
H

H H H H H H
hexane H C C C C C C H C6H14 nC6
H H H H H H

Common name: normal paraffins


General formula: CnH2n+2
Iso-alkanes
Name 2D structure 3D structure formula Abbr.
H
Dimethyl- H H C HH
propane C5H12 iC5
H C C C H
H H C HH
H
H
H C H
Methyl- C5H12 iC5
H H H
butane
H C C C C H
H H H H

Common name: iso paraffins Carbon atoms 4 8 12 18


General formula: CnH2n+2 Isomers 2 18 355 60523
Cyclo-alkanes
Name 2D structure 3D structure formula Abbr.

Cyclo- C5H10 cC5


pentane

Methyl C7H14 cC7


cyclo-
hexane

Common name: napthenes


General formula: CnH2n
Arenes
Name 2D structure 3D structure formula Abbr.

Benzene
C6H6 aC6

Methyl
benzene C7H8 aC7

Naphthalene
C10H8

Common name: aromatics


General formula: C6H6 n(CH2) (for 1 ring)
General Reservoir Fluid Composition
Molar Mass Density Mole %
N2
CO2 N2, CO2, H2S: non hydrocarbons
H2S C2: pure components
C6: sum of components (pseudo
C1 groups)
C2 Cn+: Sum of all components
C3 heavier than Cn-1
n is generally 7, 10, 12 or 20.
iC4 from literature (fixed)
nC4 from literature (varies)
iC5 from measurement

nC5
C6 < open an example
C.. pVT report >
Cn +
Sulfur compounds

Mercaptans R-S-H
Disulfides R-S-S-R

Hydrogen sulfide Butanethiol


Sulfides R-S-R
Methyl ethyl disulfide

Cyclic sulfides
Thiophenes Ethyl-propyl-sulfide

Thiepane
Thiophene Benzo[b]naphtho
[2,3-d]thiophene
Benzothiophene
Nitrogen compounds

Indole

Pyrrole Benzocarbazole
Non basic Carbazole
Nitrogen

Quinoline
Pyridine Benzoquinoline
Indoline
basic
Oxygen compounds

Furans
Carbon dioxide

Carboxylic acids
R-COOH
Alcohols R-OH Benzofuran

Benzoic acid
Phenol
Metals and Organo-metals

Metallic elements
Nickel (Ni), Vanadium (V), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg)

Organometallic compounds
Zinc (Zn), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg) Nickel (Ni), Vanadium (V), Iron (Fe)
Radio-active Elements

222Rn

210Po
Gas
Period: 3.8 d
Origin: 238U Solid
Period: 138 d
Origin: 238U
Expected Issues from Hydrocarbon Composition

H2S is a highly toxic gas (sour gas) that can kill (HSE issue).
High CO2 or N2 content could be an issue for gas flaring.
222Rn and 210Po are radioactive elements (HSE issue long term production).
Metal elements (Ni, V, etc.) are catalyst poisons and therefore are an issue for
refining process.
Hg reacts with some common metals (gold, silver, copper, aluminum) and will
create problems during processing & transport process. In addition, it is a
toxic metal that presents HSE issues.