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EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF

KEVLAR AND E-GLASS FIBRE


REINFORCED WITH EPOXY RESIN
USING CLUTCH PLATE
ABSTRACT

Automobile Clutch plates performance on contact conditions at the pad to disc


interface. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of different material
composition on friction & wear of Clutch Plate material.

The review of paper is to represent a general study on the alternative material


for the clutch plate material.

In the present work, Kevlar and e-glass fibre reinforced epoxy composites were
developed. The effect of fibre loading varying from on the mechanical
properties of fibre epoxy composite was studied. The study of mechanical
properties of the composites was also investigated
Chapter-1

INTRODUCTION
Chapter-1

INTRODUCTION

In order to converse natural resources and economize energy, reduction of


wear has been the main focus of automobile manufacturers in the present
scenario. Weight reduction can be achieved primarily by the introduction of better
material, design optimization and better manufacturing processes. The introduction
of composite materials was made it possible to reduce the weight of clutch plate
without any reduction on wear capacity and stiffness. Since, the composite
materials have more elastics strain energy storage capacity and high strength to
weight ratio as compared with those are being replaced by composite clutch plate.

Honeycomb structure

Honeycomb structures are natural or manmade structures that have the geometry of
a honey comb to allow the minimization of the material used to reach minimal
weight and maximum strength. A honeycomb structure provides a material with
least density and relative high compression properties and shear properties. The
honeycomb sandwich construction is one of the most valued structural engineering
innovations developed by the composites industry. Used extensively in aerospace
and many other industries, the honeycomb sandwich provides the following key
benefits over conventional materials
High stiffness
Durability
Production cost savings
Very low weight

Hexcel began developing honeycomb over 40 years ago, and now supplies a range
of high performance honeycombs, prepregs and redux film adhesives all ideally
suited to the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich constructions. Hexcel is also the
leading supplier of lightweight Honeycomb sandwich panels. This guide explains
how to design and manufacture honeycomb sandwich panels, from materials
selection and analysis of mechanical properties, through to production methods,
and includes basic sample calculations for simple constructions. More complex
calculations may require computer modeling which, although mentioned briefly, is
beyond the scope of this publication.

CLUTCH PLATE

A clutch is a mechanical device that engages and disengages the power


transmission, especially from driving shaft to driven shaft.
Clutches are used whenever the transmission of power or motion must be controlled
either in amount or over time (e.g., electric screwdrivers limit how much torque is
transmitted through use of a clutch clutches control whether automobiles transmit
engine power to the wheels). In the simplest application, clutches connect and
disconnect two rotating shafts (drive shafts or line shafts). In these devices, one
shaft is typically attached to an engine or other power unit (the driving member)
while the other shaft (the driven member) provides output power for work. While
typically the motions involved are rotary, linear clutches are also possible. In a
torque-controlled drill, for instance, one shaft is driven by a motor and the other
drives a drill chuck. The clutch connects the two shafts so they may be locked
together and spin at the same speed (engaged), locked together but spinning at
different speeds (slipping), or unlocked and spinning at different speeds
(disengaged).
Manufacturing

Modern clutch development focuses its attention on the simplification of the overall
assembly and or manufacturing method. For example, drive straps are now
commonly employed to transfer torque as well as lift the pressure plate upon
disengagement of vehicle drive. With regard to the manufacture of diaphragm
springs, heat treatment is crucial. Laser welding is becoming more common as a
method of attaching the drive plate to the disc ring with the laser typically being
between 2-3KW and a feed rate 1m/minute.

Dampers

A clutch damper is a device that softens the response of the clutch


engagement/disengagement. In automotive applications, this is often provided by a
mechanism in the clutch disc centers. In addition to the damped disc centers, which
reduce driveline vibration, pre-dampers may be used to reduce gear rattle at idle by
changing the natural frequency of the disc. These weaker springs are compressed
solely by the radial vibrations of an idling engine. They are fully compressed and
no longer in use once the main damper springs take up drive.

Load

Mercedes truck examples: A clamp load of 33 kN is normal for a single plate 430.
The 400 Twin application offers a clamp load of a mere 23 kN. Bursts speeds are
typically around 5,000 rpm with the weakest point being the facing rivet.
Torque limiter

Also known as a slip clutch or safety clutch, this device allows a rotating shaft to
slip when higher than normal resistance is encountered on a machine. An example
of a safety clutch is the one mounted on the driving shaft of a large grass mower.
The clutch yields if the blades hit a rock, stump, or other immobile object, thus
avoiding a potentially damaging torque transfer to the engine, possibly twisting or
fracturing the crankshaft. Motor-driven mechanical calculators had these between
the drive motor and gear train, to limit damage when the mechanism jammed, as
motors used in such calculators had high stall torque and were capable of causing
damage to the mechanism if torque wasn't limited. Carefully designed clutches
operate, but continue to transmit maximum permitted torque, in such tools as
controlled-torque screwdrivers.
Chapter-2

LITERATURE SURVEY
Chapter-2

LITERATURE SURVEY

Investigation of composite clutch plate in the early 60s failed to yield the
production facility because of inconsistent fatigue performance and absence of
strong need for mass reduction. Researches in the area of automobile components
have been receiving considerable attention now. Particularly the automobile
manufactures and part makers have been attempting to reduce the weight of the
vehicles in recent years. Emphasis of vehicles weight reduction in 1978 justified
taking a new look at composite spring. Studies are made to demonstrate viability
and potential of FRP in automotive structural application. The Development of alit
flex suspension clutch plate is first achieved.

Based on consideration of chipping resistance base part resistance and


fatigue resistance, a carbon glass fiber hybrid laminated spring is constructed. A
general discussion on analysis and design of constant width, variables thickness, and
composite clutch plate is presented. The fundamental characteristics of the double
tapered FRP beam are evaluated for clutch plate application. Recent development
have been achieved in the field of materials improvements and quality
assured for composite clutch plate based on micro structure mechanism. All these
literature report that the cost of composite clutch plate is higher than that of steel
clutch plate Hence an attempt has been made to fabricate the composite clutch
plate with the same cost as that of steel clutch plate

Material properties and design of composite structures are reported in


many literatures. Very little information are available in connection with finite
element analysis of clutch plate in the literature, than too in 2D analysis of clutch
plate Ballinger C.A. Getting Composites into Construction, Reinforced Plastics, 1995.
Composite clutch plate in the early 60 failed to yield the production facility because
of inconsistent fatigue design and analysis of composite clutch plate in light
vehicle International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER)
performance and absence of strong need for mass reduction. Researches in the area
of automobile components have been receiving considerable attention now.
Particularly the automobile manufacturers and parts makers have been attempting
to reduce the weight of the vehicles in recent years. Emphasis of vehicles weight
reduction in 1978 justified taking a new look at composite springs. Studies are
made to demonstrate viability and potential of FRP in automotive structural
application. The development of lit flex suspension clutch plate first achieved.
Based on consideration of chipping resistance base part resistance and fatigue
resistance, a carbon glass fiber hybrid laminated spring is constructed. A
general discussion on analysis and design of constant width, variable thickness,
and composite clutch plate is presented.

The fundamental characteristics of the double tapered FRP beam are


evaluated for clutch plate application. Recent developments have been achieved in
the field of materials improvement and quality Assured for composite clutch plate
based on microstructure mechanism. All these literature report that the cost of
composite; clutch plate is higher than that of clutch plate. Hence an attempt has
been made to fabricate the composite clutch plate with the same cost as that of
clutch plate. Miravete. A, Castejon. L, Bielsa.J, Bernal.E- Analysis and Prediction
of large composite Structures, 1990.Material properties and design of composite
structures are reported in many literatures. Very little information is available in
connection with finite element analysis of clutch plate in the literature, than too in
2D analysis of leaf spring. At the same time, the literature available regarding
experimental stress analysis more. The experimental procedures are described in
national and international standards. Recent emphasis on mass reduction and
developments in materials synthesis and processing technology has led to proven
production worthy vehicle equipment. Rajendran I et al, investigated the
formulation and solution technique using genetic algorithms (GA) for design
optimization of composite clutch plate(Rajendran I et al,2002).
Chapter-3
COMPOSITE MATERIALS
Chapter-3

COMPOSITE MATERIALS

Composite materials are materials made from two or more constituent materials
with significantly different physical or chemical properties, that when combined,
produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.
The individual components remain separate and distinct within the finished
structure. The new material may be preferred for many reasons: common examples
include materials which are stronger, lighter or less expensive when compared to
traditional materials.

Typical engineered composite materials include:

Composite building materials

Reinforced plastics

Metal Composites

Ceramic Composites

Composite materials are generally used for buildings, bridges and structures such
as boat hulls, swimming pool panels, race car bodies, shower stalls, storage
tanks, imitation granite and cultured marble sinks and counter tops. The most
advanced examples perform routinely on spacecraft in demanding environments.

Composite building materials


Concrete is the most common artificial composite material of all and typically
consists of loose stones (aggregate) held with a matrix of cement. Concrete is a
very robust material, much more robust than cement, and will not compress or
shatter even under quite a large compressive force. However, concrete cannot
survive tensile loading (i.e., if stretched it will quickly break apart). Therefore to
give concrete the ability to resist being stretched, steel bars, which can resist high
stretching forces, are often added to concrete to form reinforced concrete.

Reinforced plastics

Fibre-reinforcement polymers or FRPs include carbon-reinforcement


polymers or CFRP, and or GRP. If glass-reinforcement polymers ossified by
matrix then there are thermoplastic composites, short fiber thermoplastic, or
long fibre-reinforced thermoplastics. There are numerous thermoset composites,
but advanced systems usually incorporate armid fibre and carbon fibre in an epoxy
resin matrix. Shape memory polymer composites are high-performance
composites, formulated using fibre or fabric reinforcement and shape memory
polymer resin as the matrix. Since a shape memory polymer resin is used as the
matrix, these composites have the ability to be easily manipulated into various
configurations when they are heated above their activation temperatures and will
exhibit high strength and stiffness at lower temperatures. They can also be
reheated and reshaped repeatedly without losing their material properties. These
composites are ideal for applications such as lightweight, rigid, deployable
structures rapid manufacturing and dynamic reinforcement.

Metal Composites

Composites can also use metal fibres reinforcing other metals, as in metal
matrices composites (MMC) or ceramic matrices composites (CMC), which
includes bone and concrete. Ceramic matrix composites are built primarily for
fracture toughness, not for strength. Additionally, thermoplastic composite
materials can be formulated with specific metal powders resulting in materials
with a density range from 2 g/cm to 11 g/cm (same density as lead). The most
common name for this type of material is "high gravity compound (HGC),
although "lead replacement" is also used. These materials can be used in place of
traditional materials such as aluminum, stainless steel, brass, bronze, copper,
lead, and even tungsten in weighting, balancing (for example, modifying the
centre of gravity of a tennis request), vibration damping, and radiation shielding
applications. High density composites are an economically viable option when
certain materials are deemed hazardous and are banned (such as lead) or when
secondary operations cost (such as machining, finishing, or coating) are a factor.
A sandwich structured composites is a special class of composite material that is
fabricated by attaching two thin but stiff skins to a lightweight but thick core. The core
material is normally low strength material, but its higher thickness provides
the sandwich composite with high bending stiffness with overall low density.

Products

Fiber-reinforced composite materials have gained popularity (despite their


generally high cost) in high-performance products that need to be lightweight,
yet strong enough to take harsh loading conditions such as aerospace
components, boat and scull hulls, bicycle frames, swimming pool panels and
racing car bodies. Other uses include fishing rod, storaging tank, swimming pool
panels, and baseball bats. The new Boeing 787 structure including the wings and
fuselage is composed largely of composites. Composite materials are also
becoming more common in the realm of orthopedic surgery. Carbon composite is
a key material in today's launch vehicles and heat shield for the phase of
spacecraft. It is widely used in solar panel substrates, antenna reflectors and yokes
of spacecraft. It is also used in payload adapters, inter-stage structures and heat
shields of launch vehicle.

Chapter-4
MATERIALS AND
METHODS
Chapter-4

MATERIALS AND METHODS

4.1 CLASSIFICATION OF FIBERS

Natural fibers include those made from plant, animal and mineral sources. Natural
fibers can be classified according to their origin.

Animal fiber
Mineral fiber
Plant fiber
4.1.1. ANIMAL FIBER

Animal fiber generally comprise proteins; examples mohair, wool, silk, alpaca,
angora.

Animal hair (wool or hair)

Fiber taken from animals or hairy mammals. E.g. Sheeps wool, goat hair
(cashmere, mohair), alpaca hair, horse hair, etc.

Silk fiber:

Fiber collected from dried saliva of bugs or insects during the preparation of
cocoons. Examples include silk from silk worms.

Avian fiber

Fibers from birds, e.g. feathers and feather fiber.


4.1.2. MINERAL FIBER

Mineral fibers are naturally occurring fiber or slightly modified fiber procured
from minerals. These can be categorized into the following categories:

Asbestos

The only naturally occurring mineral fiber. Varietions are serpentine and
amphiboles, anthophyllite.

Ceramic fibers:

Glass fibers (Glass wood and Quartz), aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, and boron
carbide.

Metal fibers

Aluminum fibers

4.1.3. PLANT FIBER

Plant fibers are generally comprised mainly of cellulose: examples include cotton,
jute, flax, ramie, sisal and hemp. Cellulose fibers servers in the manufacture of
paper and cloth. This fiber can be further categorizes into following.

Seed fiber:

Fibers collected from the seed and seed case e.g. cotton and kapok.

Leaf fiber
Fibers collected from the leaves e.g. sisal and agave.

Skin fiber

Fibers are collected from the skin or bast surrounding the stem of their respective
plant. These fibers have higher tensile strength than other fibers. Therefore, these
fibers are used for durable yarn, fabric, packaging, and paper. Some examples are
flax, jute, banana, hemp, and soybean.

Fruit fiber

Fibers are collected from the fruit of the plant, e.g. coconut (coir) fiber.

Stalk fiber

Fibers are actually the stalks of the plant. E.g. straws of wheat, rice, barley, and
other crops including bamboo and grass. Tree wood is also such a fiber. The natural
fibers can be used to reinforce both thermosetting and thermoplastic matrices.
Thermosetting resins, such as epoxy, polyester, polyurethane, phenolic, etc. are
commonly used today in natural fiber composites, in which composites requiring
higher performance applications. They provide sufficient mechanical properties, in
particular stiffness and strength, at acceptably low price levels. Considering the
ecological aspects of material selection, replacing synthetic fibers by natural ones
is only a first step. Restricting the emission of green house effect causing gases
such as CO2 into the atmosphere and an increasing awareness of the finiteness of
fossil energy resources are leading to developing new materials that are entirely
based on renewable resources.

Applications of natural fiber composites


The natural fiber composites can be very cost effective material for following
applications: Building and construction industry: panels for partition and false
ceiling, partition boards, wall, floor, window and door frames, roof tiles, mobile or
pre-fabricated buildings which can be used in times of natural calamities such as
floods, cyclones, earthquakes, etc. Storage devices: post-boxes, grain storage silos,
bio-gas containers, etc. Furniture: chair, table, shower, bath units, etc. Electric
devices: electrical appliances, pipes, etc. Everyday applications: lampshades,
suitcases, helmets, etc. Transportation: automobile and railway coach interior, boat,
etc. Toys

4.2 AUTOMOTIVE CLUTCH SYSTEM

Automotive clutches are situated between the engine and the transmission which
provides mechanical pairing between the engine and transmission input shaft.
Manual transmission cars need a clutch to enable engaging and disengaging the
transmission.

Clutch mainly consists of six major parts: flywheel, clutch disc, diaphragm
spring, pressure plate, clutch cover and the linkage necessary to operate the clutch

MATERIAL USED FOR CLUTCH PLATE

Grey cast iron


The clutch disc is generally made from grey cast iron (FG 300).Because of its high
heat and wear resistant but its ramic based composites are used as clutch disc
material due to its high thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The material is
considered valuable for to dissipate heat at higher rate. St 42(IS 1079) is used as
clutch plate material because of its wear resistance property but its cost is high and
have low corrosion resistance.

Sintered brass

Sintered brass material is used as clutch plate material because of their resilience at
high loads and high temperatures as well as their cost in comparison to alternative
friction materials. The main disadvantage is that the sintered brass material is much
softer as compared to the opposing hardened steel plates, as exposed by larger
amount of high sliding acceleration and high friction coefficient but production
cost is high and more weight.

Asbestos

In past, Asbestos was used as a clutch plate material due to its high heat resistance
and good strength. Disadvantage of asbestos is that it will create lung cancer such
as colon, throat and esophageal cancer.

E-Glass fiber composite


Commercially E-Glass fiber composite is used as clutch plate materials because of
its High stiffness, high strength and relatively low density. Disadvantages of E-
glass are generated heat would not have dissipated as much as for a long time on
its surface and load increases matrix starts deforming and then detaches from fiber
surface and gets trapped in between the sliding surface.

Metal Matrix Composites

Metal Matrix Composites are composed of a metallic matrix (Al, Mg, Fe, Cu etc)
and a dispersed ceramic (carbides, oxide,) or metallic phase (Pb, Mo, W etc).
Ceramic reinforcement may be silicon carbide, silicon nitride, boron carbide,
alumina, boron nitride etc. whereas metallic reinforcement may be tungsten,
beryllium etc. MMCs are used for Space Shuttle, bicycles, electronic substrates,
automobiles, commercial airliners golf clubs and a variety of other applications.
From material point of view, when compared to polymer matrix composites, the
advantages of MMCs lie in their maintenance of strength and stiffness at elevated
temperature, good abrasion and sneak resistance properties. Some MMCs are still
in the development stage or the early stages of production and are not so widely
recognized as polymer matrix composites. The disadvantages of MMCs are their
high costs of fabrication, which has placed limitations on their real applications.
There are also advantages in some of the physical attributes of MMCs such as no
major moisture absorption properties, non-inflammability, thermal conductivities,
low electrical and resistance to most radiations.

Properties of Clutch Plate Material


Material must have high coefficient of friction

Materials must resist wear effects such as scoring, galling and ablation

Materials should resistant to the environment (moisture and dust)

Material should possess good thermal properties, good thermal conductivity,


high heat capacity and with stand high temperature

Material should withstand high contact pressure

PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION

Problem identification clutch plate

The gearbox has two rotating shafts one that drives the motor and another that
powers a separate device. The clutch is the connector between the two shafts,
which enables them to spin at the same time, together. In addition, the clutch also
decouples the two shafts, which enables them to spin at different speeds. In a
vehicle, the clutch is what is used to regulate the power to the engine and to control
the transfer of power from the vehicles engine to both the transmission and the
wheels. Essentially, the faster the engine goes, the more adjustment is required
before the clutch connects to the wheels, which allows your vehicle to switch to a
different gear. This is a simple explanation of what happens whenever you change
gears. Regardless of whether you drive an automatic or manual, the principle is
basically the same.
The clutch system in a car is based on friction between the flywheel and pressure
plate, and eventually these parts will begin to wear and the clutch will need
replacing. Nevertheless, there are common clutch problems, and if you can identify
a problem early, it could just save you a lot of money.

A car that is driven smoothly, without towing extra loads, can get over 100,000
kilometers out of a clutch. When a vehicle is thrashed, or is constantly dealing with
extra loads, the clutch will wear out much faster.

Once the friction materials on the clutch parts start to wear out, instead of engaging
tightly and spinning together, as they usually would, the two parts spin at different
speeds and caused increased wear.

Clutch Slipping

A new slipping clutch will most probably be related to operator abuse, like riding
the clutch on hills, poor friction point, or oil contamination, and should be rectified
immediately before unnecessary wear occurs.
An adjustment might be in order before the clutch fails completely.

A clutch will naturally start to slip once the parts are wearing out- no clutch lasts
forever! If your clutch is reasonably new and is slipping, get the problem checked
out early, the more the slipping goes on, the greater the wear will be, so identifying
the problem early might save you the expense of a replacement clutch.

You will often experience clutch slip when towing, or with the engine under load,
and this is just due to the extra pressure being placed on the clutch.

Clutch Sticking or Grabbing

Aside from slipping, clutches can also stick, or grab, also known as chattering.
This can be caused by a number of issues, the main ones being:

Clutch cable needs replacing

Flywheel is warped or damaged

Oil contamination of the clutch linings

Do You Have a Clutch problem? Listening for Clutch Noise.

The easiest way to determine if you have a clutch problem is to listen carefully
when you use the clutch and also to be aware of how the clutch pedal feels under
your foot. When you can suddenly hear strange noises, like squealing, chirping, or
rumbling, then it is time to get the clutch looked at.

Change in the Clutch Pedal


If you suddenly have to push the clutch pedal flat to the floor, then you may need
some adjustment in the clutch cabling, or have a problem in the hydraulics, if you
car is fitted with them. Whatever the issue with you clutches, getting it assessed
early has the potential to save you replacing the whole clutch system, which is a
reasonably expensive repair. Being in tune with your car and keeping it service
regularly will help to pick up issues before they become major expenses.

4.3 SELECTION OF MATERIALS

This chapter describes the details of processing of the composites and the
experimental procedures followed for their mechanical characterization. The
materials used in this work are

Kevlar fiber

E-glass fiber

epoxy

1. KEVLAR FIBERS

Kevlar is the registered trademark for a para aramid synthetic fiber, related to other
aramids such as Nomex and Technora. Developed by Stephanie Kwolek at DuPont
in 1965, this high-strength material was first commercially used in the early 1970s
as a replacement for steel in racing tires. Typically it is spun into ropes or fabric
sheets that can be used as such or as an ingredient in composite material
components. Currently, Kevlar has many applications, ranging from bicycle tires
and racing sails to body armor, because of its high tensile strength to weight ratio
by this measure it is 5 times stronger than steel.
Fig. Kevlar fiber

It is also used to make modern drumheads that withstand high impact. When used
as a woven material, it is suitable for mooring lines and other underwater
applications. A similar fiber called Twaron with roughly the same chemical
structure was developed by Akzo in the 1970s; commercial production started in
1986, and Twaron is now manufactured by Teijin. Kevlar was invented by Polish-
American chemist Stephanie Kwolek while working for DuPont, in anticipation of
a gasoline shortage. In 1964, her group began searching for a new lightweight
strong fiber to use for light but strong tires. The polymers she had been working
with at the time, formed liquid crystal while in solution, something unique to those
polymers at the time. The solution was cloudy, opalescent upon being stirred, and
of low viscosity" and usually was thrown away. However, Kwolek persuaded the
technician, Charles Smullen, who ran the spinneret, to test her solution, and was
amazed to find that the fiber did not break, unlike nylon.

Structure and properties

When Kevlar is spun, the resulting fiber has a tensile strength of about 3,620 MPa,
and a relative density of 1.44. The polymer owes its high strength to the many
inter-chain bonds. These inter-molecular hydrogen bonds form between the
carbonyl groups and NH centers. Additional strength is derived from aromatic
stacking interactions between adjacent strands. These interactions have a greater
influence on Kevlar than the vander Waals interactions and chain length that
typically influences the properties of other synthetic polymers and fibers such as
Dyneema. The presence of salts and certain other impurities, especially calcium,
could interfere with the strand interactions and care is taken to avoid inclusion in
its production. Kevlars structure consists of relatively rigid molecules which tend
to form mostly planar sheet-like structures rather like silk protein

Thermal properties

Kevlar maintains its strength and resilience down to cryogenic temperatures (196
C); in fact, it is slightly stronger at low temperatures. At higher temperatures the
tensile strength is immediately reduced by about 10 20%, and after some hours
the strength progressively reduces further. For example, at 160 C (320 F) about
10% reduction in strength occurs after 500 hours. At 260 C (500 F) 50% strength
reduction occurs after 70 hours. Kevlar fibers are highly crystalline aromatic
polyamide fibers. They have the lowest density and the highest tensile strength-to-
weight ratio. Kevlar-49 is the trade name

The major benefits of Kevlar fiber are

Lowest density

Highest tensile strength-to-weight ratio

Kevlar fiber- reinforced composites are

Bullet proof jackets

Biomedical

Armor vehicles

PROPERTIES OF KEVLAR FIBER

Properties value
Specific gravity 1.44

Modulus GPa 186

Strength MPa 3440

Percentage tensile elongation 2.5

Co-efficient of thermal expansion m/m/C -2.0

2. GLASS FIBER

GLASS FIBERS are among the most versatile industrial materials known today.
They are readily produced from raw materials, which are available in virtually
unlimited supply. All glass fibers described in this article are derived from
compositions containing silica. They exhibit useful bulk properties such as
hardness, transparency, resistance to chemical attack, stability, and inertness, as
well as desirable fiber properties such as strength, flexibility, and stiffness. Glass
fibers are used in the manufacture of structural composites, printed circuit boards
and a wide range of special-purpose products.

Fiber Forming Processes. Glass melts are made by fusing (co-melting) silica
with minerals, which contain the oxides needed to form a given composition. The
molten mass is rapidly cooled to prevent crystallization and formed into glass
fibers by a process also known as fiberization. Although this is the only process
used for manufacturing optical fibers, which are not discussed in this Volume, it is
a specialty process for manufacturing structural glass fibers such as silica or quartz
glass fibers. These and other specialty processes are highlighted wherever
appropriate but not discussed in full.

Additional details about fiber forming are provided in the section Glass
Melting and Fiber forming in this article. Sizes and Binders. Glass filaments are
highly abrasive to each other (Ref 4). Size coatings or binders are therefore
applied before the strand is gathered to minimize degradation of filament strength
that would otherwise be caused by filament-to-filament abrasion. Binders provide
lubrication, protection, and/or coupling. The size may be temporary, as in the form
of a starch-oil emulsion that is subsequently removed by heating and replaced with
a glass-to-resin coupling agent known as a finish. On the other hand, the size may
be a compatible treatment that performs several necessary functions during the
subsequent forming operation and which, during impregnation, acts as a coupling
agent to the resin being reinforced.

FIBER-GLASS SELECTION

There are four main types of glass used in fibreglass.

1. A-glass

2. C-glass

3. E-glass

4. E-glass

E-GLASS FIBER
E-Glass Fiber E-Glass fiber (E stands for electric) is made of alumina
borosilicate glass with less than 1 wt% alkali oxides. Some other elements may
also be present at low impurity levels. A typical nominal chemical composition of
E-glass fibers is SiO2 54 wt%, Al2O3 14 wt%, CaO + MgO 22 wt%, B2O3 10 wt
% and Na2O+K2O less than 2 wt%. Some reported advantages and disadvantages
of E-glass fiber.

IMPORTANCE OF E-GLASS

The E-glass fibre is a high quality glass, which is used as standard reinforcement
fibre for all the present systems well complying with mechanical property
requirements. Thus, E-glass fibre was found appropriate for this application.
E-GLASS CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

E-Glass - the most popular and inexpensive. The designation letter "E" means
"electrical implies that the it is an electrical insulator". The composition of E-glass
ranges from table.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION RANGE

Sio2 52-56%

Al2O3 12-16%

CaO 16-25%

B2O3 5-10%

PROPERTICE OF E-GLASS FIBER


PROPERTICE VALUE

Density, gm/cc 2.58

Elongation% 4.8

Annealing point C ( F) 657(1215)

EPOXY RESIN

Epoxy Resins Epoxy resins have been commercially available since the early
1950s and are now used in a wide range of industries and applications. Epoxies
are classified in the plastics industry as thermosetting resins and they achieve the
thermo set state by means of an addition reaction with a suitable curing agent. The
curing agent used will determine whether the epoxy cures at ambient or elevated
temperatures and also influence physical properties such as toughness and
flexibility
PROPERTIES OF EPOXY

The primary reason for epoxys popularity is its superb mechanical strength.
Welding is often the only alternative. Epoxy is nearly always cheaper and faster
than welding. Epoxy also has excellent resistance to chemicals. After setting, there
is no worry of a chemical reaction that will weaken the seal. It also resists heat.
That resistance makes it ideal for electronics and electrical systems and other
industrial applications. Those who use epoxy are aware of the superb mechanical
strength and low curing contraction. They also know the epoxy resins are well-
balanced industrial materials and suited to a broad range of applications. Engineers
are faced with concerns about heat dissipation, electrical insulation, adhering
dissimilar substrates, light weighting, sound dampening, vibration, and reduction
corrosion. Appearance has to be considered, as well as, assembling costs. Epoxy is
an adhesive formulation that meets all of those concerns. Its thermal and electrical
properties, strength, and durability are what epoxy is noted for. Those properties
along with the resistance to immersion and hostile chemical vapor are the reason
epoxy often is chosen by engineers.

Performance Properties
Performance properties held by epoxy are:

Biocompatibility

Environmentally friendly

Flame resistant

Food Safe

It has excellent gap filling properties. Epoxy is resistant to cold, radiation, and
steam. The superior performance of epoxy remains when exposed to adverse
environmental conditions.

METHODS

DIE MAKING

The tooling involved in plastic molding is quite similar to that of stamping dies.
The principal difference is that stamping requires force, while molding does not. In
plastic molding, two units are required whose design is such that, when brought
together, they make up a system of closed cavities linked to a central orifice.
Liquid plastic is forced through the orifice and into the cavities, or molds, and
when the plastic solidifies, the molds open and the finished parts are ejected.

MAKING PROCESS

Kevlar and e-glass fiber knitted fabric with are used in this study. Hardener used is
polyamide hardener. The epoxy resin and hardener are mixed in the ratio of 2:1 and
stirred thoroughly. Release agent used was mansion polish. Experimental methods
Most mentioned method to clean fibers found in literature is distilled water cleaning
and then alkaline treatment (NaOH). The concentration of NaOH used is 5%. The
fibers are washed with fresh water thoroughly. The fibers are then soaked in NaOH
solution for 8 hours. The fibres were then washed several times with fresh water to
remove the residual NaOH sticking to the fibre surface and neutralized by Acetic
acid finally washed again with water. The fibers were then dried at room
temperature for 10 hours.

MIXING PROCESS

Two part epoxy compounds are normally supplied in separate A - B containers,


either both full or in a pre-measured kit. Under the Resin lab designation; Part A is
the epoxy resin and the Part B is the polyamine hardener, with some systems the
Part B may be an anhydride. Epoxy resins are normally clear to slightly amber,
high viscosity liquids which may be filled with mineral fillers to improve
performance and lower cost. These sometimes can settle to the bottom of the
container and must be stirred to a homogeneous consistency before adding the
hardener. Epoxy resins can cause mild skin irritation and a form of dermatitis upon
repeated contact.

Hardeners: Part B, the hardener, is typically a polyamine or mixture of


polyamines and has can have strong ammonia-like smell. Most are considered
DOT Corrosive materials and should be respected as such. They are typically light
colored to dark amber liquids. The hardener, like the resin, can be filled with metal
or mineral fillers to improve performance or lower costs. And just like the resin,
these fillers may settle over time and must be stirred to a homogeneous consistency
before mixing with the resin. Some epoxy hardeners are based on anhydrides rather
than amines. These hardeners are more likely used in electrical potting and
encapsulation applications and are likely to be heat cured in nature. Both
polyamines and anhydrides are somewhat sensitive to moisture. Keep containers
tightly sealed and when used in meter-mix-dispense equipment it is best to use a
dry nitrogen purge or a dessicating air drier on the vent. Static Mixing Guidelines
Resin lab Technical Data Sheets include this general guide for ranking the ability
of a product to function acceptable in a range of applications. In general best case
is a 1/1 ratio with even viscosity, worst case is a 10/1 ratio with a wide viscosity
difference. The type of cartridge can also have a dramatic effect on dispense
quality, especially when used in a pulsing mode. Larger and thin walled cartridges
can induce a lead / lag effect where A and B show an extreme ratio change in a
very short period do to the expansion and relaxation of the cartridge barrel. The
thicker walled cartridges show much less tendency to produce this lead lag effect
which is a primary cause on intermittent tacky areas on small pottings or castings

This rating scale is a general guideline to give the user an expected level of success
in a typical bench-top dispensing scenario. Important process variables to consider
are: Cartridge type and size, wall thickness; manual or pneumatic gun type; static
mixer design and dimensions; product viscosity spread and ratio; shot size, shot
frequency, flow rate; temperature range during use. This scale also addresss
product stability in a cartridge. Factors such as filler content and settling rate,
storage temperature and cartridge orientation are important factors which affect
this. It is important for the user to define the optimum static mix for each
dispensing process; a change in any of the above variables can affect the mix
quality. Dispensing the product on a flat surface using the dispensing pattern can
help show the quality of mixing in terms of thoroughness and lead/lag consistency.

SURFACE PREPARATION

If the surfaces that you intend to adhere together are not prepared properly, the best
adhesive in the world will not hold them together. The major problems in adhesive
delamination are dirt and oil. Whenever possible, the surfaces to be adhered should
be abraded with sand paper or by sand or shot blasting before the adhesive is
applied. Oil on the surface of steel or even oil from fingerprints can ruin a bond. If
the surface to be bonded is painted, the bond of the paint to the substrate will be a
limiting factor in the overall bond quality. Plastic surfaces should be abraded and
when possible flame treated or corona treated to remove any plasticizer from the
surface and provide an oxygen rich surface environment for the adhesive. Mixing:
When hand mixing the epoxy resins and the hardeners, it is best to pour the resin,
the Part A, into the mixing vessel first. The product should be weighed to the
nearest gram or to the nearest 0.5%, whichever is more precise.Next, the Part B is
added using the same weighing procedure. Mix the two components using a stir
stick or a paint mixer in a drill or drill press. Mix the product for at least 3 minutes
by the clock. Scraping the sides and bottom of the mix vessel frequently.
[Remember, it's just like baking a cake!] After the products have been thoroughly
mixed, the mixture should be poured into the mold or used in the adhesive step.
Often, the end product must be totally free of voids and bubbles. If this is the case,
the mix must be vacuumed before being poured into the mold. This is done by
putting the mix vessel into a vacuum chamber and pulling a vacuum of at least 28"
Hg. This will usually degas the product within 5 minutes. The reaction mixture will
bubble and froth. You should have a mix container at least 4 times the volume of
the liquid in the container for vacuum degassing. Therefore, 1 quart of the liquid
product will require a 1 gallon bucket to degas the mixture. If you intend to
vacuum degas a product, make sure that you tell Star Technology about your
wishes. We will need to formulate to product with a delayed gel time and extra air
release additives to allow sufficient time to accomplish the process.

REACTION RATES

Now is probably a good time to talk about the reaction rate of the mixture and what
effects it. Reaction rates are usually stated at a certain temperature and at a certain
mass of material. If you are working with a larger mass, the reaction time will be
shorter. Lower masses and thin films will be much longer. If the reaction starting
temperature is higher, the reaction rate will be faster. A rule of thumb is that for
every 10 degrees C that you increase the temperature of the reactants, the reaction
rate will double the gel time will be cut in half. That is why larger masses will react
more quickly than small masses. As the reaction proceeds, it generates its own
heat. The heat builds up inside the mixing vessel and the reaction goes faster,
which makes more heat, which makes the reaction go even faster

Hand Lay-Up
PROCESS

Gel coat is first applied to the mold using a spray gun for a high quality surface.
When the gel coat has cured sufficiently, roll stock fiber glass reinforcement is
manually placed on the mold. The laminating resin is applied by pouring, brushing,
spraying, or using a paint roller. FRP rollers, paint rollers, or squeegees are used to
consolidate the laminate, thoroughly wetting the reinforcement and removing
entrapped air. Subsequent layers of fiber glass reinforcement are added to build
laminate thickness. Low density core materials such as end-grain balsa, foam, and
honeycomb, are commonly used to stiffen the laminate. This is known as sandwich
construction.

Molds

Simple, single cavity molds of fiber glass composites construction are generally
used. Molds can range from small to very large and are low cost in the spectrum of
composites molds.
MATERIALS PREPARATIONS

The e-glass and Kevlar which is taken as reinforcement in this study is collected
from local sources. The epoxy resin and the hardener are supplied. Wooden mould
having been first manufactured for composite fabrication. The fiber material is
mixed epoxy resin by simple mechanical stirring and the mixture was poured into
various moulds, keeping in view the requirement of various testing conditions and
characterization standard. The composite sample of different composition is
prepared. The composite of mixing ratio of Kevlar fiber 15%, e-glass fiber 30%
and epoxy resin 55%. The different type of fiber is used, while keeping the length
of the glass fiber constant. The detailed composition and designation of composite
materials. A releasing agent is used on the mould release sheets to facilitate easy
removal of the composite from the mould after curing. The entrapped air bubbles
are removed carefully with a sliding roller and the mould is closed for curing at a
temperature Of 30 degree C for 24 hours at a constant load of 50kg .after curing
the specimen of suitable dimension is cut using a diamond cutter for mechanical
test as per the ASTM standards.
Chapter-5

MECHANICAL PROPERTY
TESTS
Chapter-5
MECHANICAL PROPERTY TESTS

Tensile tests are performed for several reasons. The results of tensile tests are used
in selecting materials for engineering applications. Tensile properties frequently are
included in material specifications to ensure quality. Tensile properties often are
measured during development of new materials and processes, so that different
materials and processes can be compared. Finally, tensile properties often are used
to predict the behavior of a material under forms of loading other than uniaxial
tension. The strength of a material often is the primary concern. The strength of
interest may be measured in terms of either the stress necessary to cause
appreciable plastic deformation or the maximum stress that the material can
withstand. These measures of strength are used, with appropriate caution (in the
form of safety factors), in engineering design. Also of interest is the materials
ductility, which is a measure of how much it can be deformed before it fractures.
Rarely is ductility incorporated directly in design rather, it is included in material
specifications to ensure quality and toughness.

Low ductility in a tensile test often is accompanied by low resistance to


fracture under other forms of loading. Elastic properties also may be of interest, but
special techniques must be used to measure these properties during tensile testing,
and more accurate measurements can be made by ultrasonic techniques. This
chapterprovidesabriefoverviewofsomeofthemoreimportanttopicsassociated
withtensiletesting.Theseinclude

Tensilespecimensandtestmachines

Stressstraincurves,includingdiscussionsofelasticversusplastic
deformation,yieldpoints,andductility

Truestressandstrain

Testmethodologyanddataanalysis

Itshouldbenotedthatsubsequentchapterscontainmoredetailedinformationon
thesetopics.

Tensile Specimens and Testing Machines

Consider the typical tensile specimen. It has enlarged ends or shoulders for
gripping. The important part of the specimen is the gage section. The cross-
sectional area of the gage section is reduced relative to that of the remainder of the
specimen so that deformation and failure will be localizedinthisregion.
Thegagelengthistheregionoverwhichmeasurementsaremadeandiscentered
withinthereducedsection.Thedistancesbetweentheendsofthegagesectionand
the shoulders should be great enough so that the larger ends do not constrain
deformationwithinthegagesection,andthegagelengthshouldbegreatrelative
to its diameter. Otherwise, the stress state will be more complex than simple
tension.DetaileddescriptionsofstandardspecimenshapesaregiveninChapter3
andinsubsequentchaptersontensiletestingofspecificmaterials.

Tensile Strength

The tensile test of the composites was performed as per the ASTM D3039
standards. The test was done using a universal testing machine (Tinius Olsen
H10KS).The specimen of required dimension was cut from the composite cast. The
test was conducted at a constant strain rate of 2 mm/min. The tensile test
arrangement is shown in figure
Tensile test is used to determine the tensile strength of the specimen, %
elongation of length and % reduction of area. Tensile test is usually carried out in
universal testing machine.

A universal testing machine is used to test tensile strength of materials. It is


named after the fact that it can perform many standard tensile and compression
tests on materials, components, and structures. The specimen is placed in the
machine between the grips and an extensometer if required can automatically
record the change in gauge length during the test. If an extensometer is not fitted,
the machine itself can record the displacement between its cross heads on which
the specimen is held. However, this method not only records the change in length
of the specimen but also all other extending / elastic components of the testing
machine and its drive systems including any slipping of the specimen in the grips.
Once the machine is started it begins to apply an increasing load on specimen.
Throughout the tests the control system and its associated software record the load
and extension or compression of the specimen.

TENSILE TEST

Tensile test is used to find out

Tensile strength

Yield strength

% Elongation

% Reduction

HARDNESS TEST

This gives the metals ability to show resistance to indentation which show its
resistance to wear and abrasion. Hardness testing of welds and their Heat Affected
Zones (HAZs) usually requires testing on a microscopic scale using a diamond
indenter. The Vickers Hardness test is the predominant test method with Knop
testing being applied to HAZ testing in some instances. Hardness values referred
to in this document will be reported in terms of Vickers Number, HV.
TOUGHNESS TEST
The principal measurement from the impact test is the energy absorbed in
fracturing the specimen. Energy expended during fracture is sometimes known as
notch toughness. The energy expended will be high for complete ductile fracture,
while it is less for brittle fracture. However, it is important to note that
measurement of energy expended is only a relative energy, and cannot be used
directly as design consideration. Another common result from the Charpy test is by
examining the fracture surface. It is useful in determining whether the fracture is
fibrous (shear fracture), granular (cleavage fracture), or a mixture of both.
Fracture toughness test

The fracture toughness of the composite specimens was measured using Fracture
Tester (MTS 810 material test system). The specimens were cut according to
dimensions as specified by the ASTM E1820; this test method is for the opening
mode (Mode I) of loading. The objective of this test method is to load a fatigue pre
cracked test specimen as shown in Figure 8 to induce either or both of the
following responses

Unstable crack extension, including significant pop-in, referred to as


fracture instability in this test method;

Stable crack extension, referred to as stable tearing in this test method.

Toughness determined at the point of instability. Stable tearing results in


continuous fracture toughness versus crack extension relationship (R-curve) from
which significant point-values may be determined. Stable tearing interrupted by
fracture instability results in an R-curve up to the point of instability. This
investigation split into two major computation scopes to estimate the fracture
toughness and energy release rate: it include the experiment data for fiber
reinforcement epoxy composites specimens. Meanwhile, the compact tension (CT)
specimen was instructed according to the ASTM E 1820 standard for the fracture
toughness measurement. The thickness was 10mm for all the specimens, while the
initial notch length to specimen was between 10mm and the notch tip was
sharpened with a razor blade to simulate a sharp crack.
CONCLUSION
Chapter-6
CONCLUSION

Traditionally natural fibers are used to make high strength ropes in South India.
The results found that the mechanical properties have a strong association with the
dynamic characteristics. Both of the properties are greatly dependent on the
volume percentage of fibers. The composite having a Kevlar and e-glass volume
of showed a significant result compared to old clutch plate. It has been noticed that
the mechanical properties of the composites material such as tensile strength,
hardness and toughness etc.
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Arifuzzaman Khan GM, Shaheruzzaman Md. Rahman MH, Abdur Razzaque


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Baley C (2002) Analysis of flax fibers tensile behavior and analysis of the
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