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Aperture

The aperture of the lens is the diameter of the iris in the lens. This iris controls
how much lights shines through the lens.

Depth of Field
The aperture also controls the depth of field. Just as squinting can sharpen
vision stopping down or closing the iris increases the depth of field or focus.
Some images may call for unlimited focus, requiring stopping down to a minimum
aperture such as f 32. To much in focus can also clutter the image with visual
noise. Shallow depth of field, achieved from wide open apertures, can help
isolate the subject from the background, distracting elements become a wash of
tone and color. Shallow depth of field can often has a dreamlike or romantic
quality.
DOF is controlled by
Aperture
The smaller the aperture the more the depth of field
Focal length
Longer lens have less depth of field
Wide lens have greater depth of field
Shooting distance
Focus on further objects have more depth of field
Closer objects have shallow depth of field
What is in focus
What needs to be in focus
1/3 2/3 rule
Depth of field preview button

Aperture blades in lens that narrow light, different openings 1 stop or full stop =
2x circle lets in light exponentially
1 stop down = half the light
1 stop up = twice the light
1.0
1.4
2
2.8
4
5.6
8
11
16
22
32
45
64

ISO
ISO can be though of as film speed. The number corresponds to the light
sensitivity of the sensor. Optimum image quality is achieved at lowest possible
ISO. As technology increases higher ISOʼs will have less grain, choosing a ISO
that is 1 or 2 stops higher can give 1 or 2 stops of adjustment to aperture or
shutter, which can mean more depth of field or a shutter speed that is hand
holdable in a dim room vs a shutter that requires a tripod.
1 full stop is double the ISO or twice the sensitivity

50
100
200
400
800
1600
3200
6400

Higher ISOʼs result in more grain.

Better iso setting is using high iso that is 2 stops less than top iso
Higher ISO gives faster shutter speeds

Bracketing
Bracketing or shooting multiple exposures of an image can help ensure proper
detail is available in challenging exposures. To bracket an image, shoot multiple
shots, varying the exposure by adjusting the less important variable in the
exposure triangle.

Vision meeting craft

Learning the craft of photography allows us to express our vision, every tip and
technique gives us another element we can control to create the photograph.
Learning the intricacies of camera control and image control allows the
photographer to be in the moment. If you find yourself adjusting settings when
you should be squeezing the shutter release this is a sign that you need to
practice the mechanics more.