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S C I E N C E P A S S I O N T E C H N O L O G Y

EARTH PRESSURE EVALUATION AND SAFETY ASSESSMENT


EMPLOYING A NOVEL MEASUREMENT DEVICE
THE INCLINODEFORMETER

Georg M. Ausweger & Franz Tschuchnigg

Computational Geotechnics Group


Institute for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering
Graz University of Technology

5th International Conference on Geotechnical and Geophysical Site Characterisation


Earth pressure evaluation and safety assessment employing a novel measurement device The Inclinodeformeter
2 Inclinodeformeter Earth pressure changes Application Back analyses - FEA Conclusion

CONTENT

Introduction - The Inclinodeformeter


Determination of earth pressure changes
Application
Back analyses by means of 2D FEA
Conclusion

ISC 5, 05-09 September 2016


Earth pressure evaluation and safety assessment employing a novel measurement device The Inclinodeformeter
3 Inclinodeformeter Earth pressure changes Application Back analyses - FEA Conclusion

INTRODUCTION

In many cases the determination of earth pressure in sloping terrain is difficult


Installation of standard measurement devices for earth pressure measurements is
relatively complex => measured data is influenced by installation effects
Understanding the earth pressure changes in a sliding layer of a creeping landslide is
essential for analysis and stabilisation of such landslides (Schwager & Puzrin, 2014)

=> ETH Zurich (Schwager, 2013) developed a novel measurement device


for determining earth pressure changes in the subsoil
The Inclinodeformeter (IDM)

ISC 5, 05-09 September 2016


Earth pressure evaluation and safety assessment employing a novel measurement device The Inclinodeformeter
4 Inclinodeformeter Earth pressure changes Application Back analyses - FEA Conclusion

THE INCLINODEFORMETER

IDM enables back calculation of earth pressure


development
IDM probe is lowered into a classical inclinometer
casing

ISC 5, 05-09 September 2016


Earth pressure evaluation and safety assessment employing a novel measurement device The Inclinodeformeter
5 Inclinodeformeter Earth pressure changes Application Back analyses - FEA Conclusion

THE INCLINODEFORMETER

IDM enables back calculation of earth pressure


Additional sensors:
development 2 tilt
IDM probe is lowered into a classical inclinometer 1 temperature
casing 1 water pressure

Upper and lower wheel are guided in one groove and


the middle wheel (equipped with a tilt sensor) is
pushed into the opposite groove Tilt sensor

=> Based on tilt measurements diameter of the


inclinometer casing can be determined
(performed in two perpendicular directions)

ISC 5, 05-09 September 2016


Earth pressure evaluation and safety assessment employing a novel measurement device The Inclinodeformeter
6 Inclinodeformeter Earth pressure changes Application Back analyses - FEA Conclusion

DETERMINATION OF EARTH PRESSURE CHANGES (SCHWAGER 2013)


Idea: Change in earth pressure leads to a change in shape of inclinometer casing

Shape is determined by ovalization


value (diameter measurements):

=

Change in shape is determined by


change in ovalization value:

= =1 =0

ISC 5, 05-09 September 2016


Earth pressure evaluation and safety assessment employing a novel measurement device The Inclinodeformeter
7 Inclinodeformeter Earth pressure changes Application Back analyses - FEA Conclusion

DETERMINATION OF EARTH PRESSURE CHANGES (SCHWAGER 2013)


Idea: Change in earth pressure leads to a change in shape of inclinometer casing

Calculation of change in earth pressure:


- Constitutive behavior of pipe, grout and
soil has to be determined
- Major principal stress direction () has to
be assumed (rotation of the ellipse)

Assumption:
is equal to the resulting displacement
vector of the inclinometer casing (from
conventional inclinometer measurements)

ISC 5, 05-09 September 2016


Earth pressure evaluation and safety assessment employing a novel measurement device The Inclinodeformeter
8 Inclinodeformeter Earth pressure changes Application Back analyses - FEA Conclusion

APPLICATION OF THE IDM PROBE

Cantilever wall
Main characteristics
- Existing wall stabilizes cutting for a highway
- Height: 12.90m
- High horizontal deformations

To avoid collapse:
=> 3 rows of pre-stressed grouted anchors (pre-
stress forces between 50 kN and 340 kN)

ISC 5, 05-09 September 2016


Earth pressure evaluation and safety assessment employing a novel measurement device The Inclinodeformeter
9 Inclinodeformeter Earth pressure changes Application Back analyses - FEA Conclusion

APPLICATION OF THE IDM PROBE

Cantilever wall
Main characteristics
- Existing wall stabilizes cutting for a highway
- Height: 12.90m
- High horizontal deformations

To avoid collapse:
=> 3 rows of pre-stressed grouted anchors (pre-
stress forces between 50 kN and 340 kN)

Main concern: increased earth pressure Measurements with the IDM probe
due to the pre-stressing of the anchors (before and after the remediation work)
ISC 5, 05-09 September 2016
Earth pressure evaluation and safety assessment employing a novel measurement device The Inclinodeformeter
10 Inclinodeformeter Earth pressure changes Application Back analyses - FEA Conclusion

MEASURMENT RESULTS
Inclinometer measurements RESULTS:
Displacement [mm] Conv. inclinometer measurements:
-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 => after the installation of the pre-
0 stressed anchors a deformation in
After anchor
2 installation negative direction

4
After 1 year
Depth [m]

6
- +
8

10

12

14

ISC 5, 05-09 September 2016


Earth pressure evaluation and safety assessment employing a novel measurement device The Inclinodeformeter
11 Inclinodeformeter Earth pressure changes Application Back analyses - FEA Conclusion

MEASURMENT RESULTS
Inclinometer measurements IDM measurements RESULTS:
Displacement [mm] Earth Pressure Change [kPa] Conv. inclinometer measurements:
-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 0 20 40 => after the installation of the pre-
0 0 stressed anchors a deformation in
After anchor
2 installation 2 negative direction

4 4
After 1 year IDM measurements:
Depth [m]

6 6 => increase of earth pressure due to


- + the installation of the anchors
8 8
=> one year after the remediation work
10 10 further increase of earth pressure

12 12

14 14 =0

ISC 5, 05-09 September 2016


Earth pressure evaluation and safety assessment employing a novel measurement device The Inclinodeformeter
12 Inclinodeformeter Earth pressure changes Application Back analyses - FEA Conclusion

BACK ANALYSES BY MEANS OF 2D FEA

Facts:
=> model dimensions L/H are 50/25 m
=> earth pressure (and earth pressure change)
in the region of retaining wall => fine
discretization
=> ~2400 elements (15-noded)
=> Hardening Soil model

ISC 5, 05-09 September 2016


Earth pressure evaluation and safety assessment employing a novel measurement device The Inclinodeformeter
13 Inclinodeformeter Earth pressure changes Application Back analyses - FEA Conclusion

BACK ANALYSES BY MEANS OF 2D FEA


Earth Pressure Change [kPa]
Results:
0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0
0.0 => FEA shows increase of earth pressure

2.0
Depth [m]

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0
FE-analysis
12.0 installation anchors

ISC 5, 05-09 September 2016


Earth pressure evaluation and safety assessment employing a novel measurement device The Inclinodeformeter
14 Inclinodeformeter Earth pressure changes Application Back analyses - FEA Conclusion

BACK ANALYSES BY MEANS OF 2D FEA


Earth Pressure Change [kPa]
Results:
0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0
0.0 => FEA shows increase of earth pressure
=0
=> IDM with =0:
2.0
- 0-2m measurements are distorted (concrete pavement of
adjacent street)
Depth [m]

4.0 - Good agreement above the reverse stem (~depth of -6m)


Reverse stem
6.0

8.0

10.0
FE-analysis
12.0 installation anchors

ISC 5, 05-09 September 2016


Earth pressure evaluation and safety assessment employing a novel measurement device The Inclinodeformeter
15 Inclinodeformeter Earth pressure changes Application Back analyses - FEA Conclusion

BACK ANALYSES BY MEANS OF 2D FEA


Earth Pressure Change [kPa]
Results:
0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0
0.0 => FEA shows increase of earth pressure
=0
=> IDM with =0:
2.0
- 0-2m measurements are distorted (concrete pavement of
adjacent street)
Depth [m]

4.0 - Good agreement above the reverse stem (~depth of -6m)


Reverse stem
6.0 => IDM with =30:
=30 - Good agreement below the reverse stem
8.0 => Direction of changes with depth

10.0
Possible Reasons:
=>Torsion of inclinometer casing
12.0 => Assumption of a rotated ellipse is questionable

ISC 5, 05-09 September 2016


Earth pressure evaluation and safety assessment employing a novel measurement device The Inclinodeformeter
16 Inclinodeformeter Earth pressure changes Application Back analyses - FEA Conclusion

CURRENT RESEARCH
Inclinometer casing with eight grooves (more measurements)
Research showed that (in some cases) shape of casing can not be described with an ellipse
=> Change of method: determination of oval with best fit of all measurements
Improved IDM system shows confident measurements

Wachter, 2016

WACHTER, B. (2016). Untersuchungen zur Messgenauigkeit und Weiterentwicklung der IDM-Sonde. Master thesis Graz
university of Technology, Graz, Austria.
MARTE, R.; WACHTER, B.; SCHWAGER, M.; AUSWEGER G. (2016). IDM Erddruckmessungen - Weiterentwicklung fr 8-Nut
Inklinometerrohr. In progress.

ISC 5, 05-09 September 2016


Earth pressure evaluation and safety assessment employing a novel measurement device The Inclinodeformeter
17 Inclinodeformeter Earth pressure changes Application Back analyses - FEA Conclusion

CONCLUSION

Successful application of the Inclinodeformeter for measuring the earth


pressure changes behind a retaining wall.
Comparisons with FE-analyses confirm the measurement results, but show
that the current approach used for the back analysis of earth pressure
changes needs some improvements.
=> Inclinometer casing with eight grooves

The analysis performed with a novel constitutive model for concrete the
position of the calculated tensile cracks show a very good agreement with
the cracks observed at the cantilever wall.

ISC 5, 05-09 September 2016


S C I E N C E P A S S I O N T E C H N O L O G Y

EARTH PRESSURE EVALUATION AND SAFETY ASSESSMENT


EMPLOYING A NOVEL MEASUREMENT DEVICE
THE INCLINODEFORMETER

Georg M. Ausweger & Franz Tschuchnigg

Computational Geotechnics Group


Institute for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering
Graz University of Technology

5th International Conference on Geotechnical and Geophysical Site Characterisation