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Mar 24, 2017

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fuzzy logic book

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10 tayangan

fuzzy logic book

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A computational paradigm that is based on how humans

think.

Fuzzy Logic looks at the world in imprecise terms, in much the

same way that our brain takes in information (e.g.

temperature is hot, speed is slow), then responds with precise

actions.

The human brain can reason with uncertainties, vagueness,

and judgments. Computers can only manipulate precise

valuations. Fuzzy logic is an attempt to combine the two

techniques.

Fuzzy a misnomer, has resulted in the mistaken suspicion

that FL is somehow less exacting than traditional logic.

What Is Fuzzy Logic ?

theory.

Designed to deal with reasoning that is approximate rather than

accurate.

Consequence of the 1965 proposal of fuzzy set theory by Lotfi

Zadeh.

In contrast with "crisp logic", where binary sets have binary logic,

fuzzy logic variables may have a truth value that ranges

between 0 and 1.

Can include linguistic variables, like: high, low, hot, cold, and

very.

What Is Fuzzy Logic ?

It is able to simultaneously handle numerical data and

linguistic knowledge.

A technique that facilitates the control of a complicated

system without knowledge of its mathematical description.

Fuzzy logic differs from classical logic in that statements are no

longer black or white, true or false, on or off.

In traditional logic an object takes on a value of either zero or

one.

In fuzzy logic, a statement can assume any real value

between 0 and 1, representing the degree to which an

element belongs to a given set.

Fuzzy logic

Fuzzy logic addresses key problem in expert systems

o How to represent domain knowledge

o Humans use imprecisely calibrated terms

o How to build decision trees on imprecise thresholds

Where not to use fuzzy

logic

Do not use fuzzy logic if:

o Humans do not understand the system

o Different experts disagree

o Knowledge can not be expressed with verbal rules

o Gut instinct is involved

Not just objective analysis

Examples where fuzzy logic is used

Automobile and other vehicle subsystems, such as ABS and cruise control

(e.g. Tokyo monorail)

Air conditioners

The Massive engine used in the Lord of the Rings films, which helped show

huge scale armies create random, yet orderly movements

Cameras

Digital image processing, such as edge detection

Rice cookers

Dishwashers

Elevartors

Washing machines and other home appliances

Video game artificial intelligence

Massage boards and chat rooms

Fuzzy logic has also been incorporated into some microcontrollers and

microprocessors, for instance Freescale 68HC12.

Specific Fuzzified Applications

Elevators Cranes

Vacuum Cleaners Electric Razors

Hair Dryers Camcorders

Air Control in Soft Television Sets

Drink Production Showers

Noise Detection

on Compact Disks

In the city of Sendai in Japan, a 16-station subway system is

controlled by a fuzzy computer (Seiji Yasunobu and Soji

Miyamoto of Hitachi) the ride is so smooth, riders do not

need to hold straps

Nissan fuzzy automatic transmission, fuzzy anti-skid braking

system

CSK, Hitachi Hand-writing Recognition

Sony - Hand-printed character recognition

Ricoh, Hitachi Voice recognition

Tokyos stock market has had at least one stock-trading

portfolio based on Fuzzy Logic that outperformed the Nikkei

exchange average

Intel Corporation's Embedded Microcomputer Division Fuzzy Logic

Operation

http://www.intel.com/design/mcs96/designex/2351.htm

For washing machines, Fuzzy Logic control is almost

becoming a standard feature

fuzzy controllers to load-weight, fabric-mix, and dirt

sensors and automatically set the

wash cycle for the best use of power, water, and

detergent

GE WPRB9110WH Top Load Washer

Others: Samsung, Toshiba, National, Matsushita, etc.

Haier ESL-T21 Top Load Washer

Miele WT945 Front Load All-in-One Washer / Dryer

AEG LL1610 Front Load Washer

Zanussi ZWF1430W Front Load Washer

NASA has studied fuzzy control for automated space docking:

simulations show that a fuzzy control system can greatly reduce

fuel consumption Canon developed an auto-focusing camera

that uses a charge-coupled device (CCD) to measure the clarity

of the image in six regions of its field of view and use the

information provided to determine if the image is in focus. It also

tracks the rate of change of lens movement during focusing, and

controls

its speed to prevent overshoot.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuzzy_system

The camera's fuzzy control system uses 12 inputs: 6 to obtain the

current clarity data provided by the CCD and 6 to measure the

rate of change of lens movement. The output is the position of

the lens. The fuzzy control system uses 13 rules and requires 1.1

kilobytes of memory.

In 1965, Lotfi A. Zadeh of the University of California at

Berkeley published "Fuzzy Sets," which laid out the

mathematics of fuzzy set theory and, by extension, fuzzy

logic.

Zadeh had observed that conventional computer logic

couldn't manipulate data that represented subjective or

vague ideas, so he created fuzzy logic to allow

computers to determine the distinctions among data

with shades of gray, similar to the process of human

reasoning.

What is fuzzy logic?

Definition of fuzzy

Fuzzy not clear, distinct, or precise; blurred

A form of knowledge representation suitable for notions

that cannot be defined precisely, but which depend

upon their contexts.

Why use fuzzy logic?

Pros:

Conceptually easy to understand w/ natural maths

Tolerant of imprecise data

Universal approximation: can model arbitrary nonlinear

functions

Intuitive

Based on linguistic terms

Convenient way to express expert and common sense

knowledge

Cons:

Not a cure-all

Crisp/precise models can be more efficient and even

convenient

Other approaches might be formally verified to work

Fuzzy sets and concepts are commonly used in natural language

John is tall

Dan is smart

Alex is happy

The class is hot

E.g., the crisp set Tall can be defined as:

What about 1.78 meters?

In a fuzzy set a person with a height of 1.8 meters would be

considered tall to a high degree

A person with a height of 1.7 meters would be considered tall to

a lesser degree etc.

The function can change for basketball players, Danes,

women, children etc.

Formal Definition

Fuzzy logic provides a method to formalize reasoning when

dealing with vague terms.

Traditional computing requires finite precision which is not

always possible in real world scenarios. Not every decision is

either true or false, or as with Boolean logic either 0 or 1.

Fuzzy logic allows for membership functions, or degrees of

truthfulness and falsehoods. Or as with Boolean logic, not only 0

and 1 but all the numbers that fall in between.

Fuzzy Set Theory

set, or it does not.

elements in the range [0,1], with 0 and 1 being no and

full inclusion, the other values being partial membership.

Where did Fuzzy Logic come from

categories, yet still make solid, adaptive decisions.

might make them easier to create, and more effective.

Simple example of Fuzzy Logic

Controlling a fan:

Conventional model

if temperature > X, run fan

else, stop fan

Fuzzy System -

if temperature = hot, run fan at full speed

if temperature = warm, run fan at moderate speed

if temperature = comfortable, maintain fan speed

if temperature = cool, slow fan

if temperature = cold, stop fan

TRADITIONAL

REPRESENTATION OF LOGIC

bool speed;

get the speed

if ( speed == 0) {

// speed is slow

}

else {

// speed is fast

}

Better (Fuzzy Representation)

Slowest

For every problem

must represent in [ 0.0 0.25 ]

terms of fuzzy sets.

Slow

What are fuzzy sets? [ 0.25 0.50 ]

Fast

[ 0.50 0.75 ]

Fastest

[ 0.75 1.00 ]

Representing Fuzzy Sets

float speed;

get the speed

if ((speed >= 0.0)&&(speed < 0.25)) {

// speed is slowest

}

else if ((speed >= 0.25)&&(speed < 0.5))

{

// speed is slow

}

else if ((speed >= 0.5)&&(speed < 0.75))

{

// speed is fast

}

else // speed >= 0.75 && speed < 1.0

{

// speed is fastest

}

Range of logical values in Boolean and fuzzy logic

(a) Boolean Logic. (b) Multi-valued Logic.

Crisp set theory is governed by a logic that uses one of

only two values: true or false. This logic cannot represent

vague concepts, and therefore fails to give the answers

on the paradoxes.

The basic idea of the fuzzy set theory is that an element

belongs to a fuzzy set with a certain degree of

membership.

Thus, a proposition is not either true or false, but may be

partly true (or partly false) to any degree. This degree is

usually taken as a real number in the interval [0,1].

The classical example in fuzzy sets is tall men. The

elements of the fuzzy set tall men are all men, but their

degrees of membership depend on their height.

Degree of Membership

Name Height, cm Crisp Fuzzy

Chris 208 1 1.00

Mark 205 1 1.00

John 198 1 0.98

Tom 181 1 0.82

David 179 0 0.78

Mike 172 0 0.24

Bob 167 0 0.15

Steven 158 0 0.06

Bill 155 0 0.01

Peter 152 0 0.00

Crisp and fuzzy sets of tall men

Degree of Crisp Sets

Membership

1.0

0.8

Tall Men

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

150 160 170 180 190 200 210

Height, cm

Degree of Fuzzy Sets

Membership

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

150 160 170 180 190 200 210

Height, cm

A fuzzy set is a set with fuzzy boundaries

Let X be the universe of discourse and its elements be

denoted as x. In the classical set theory, crisp set A of X is

defined as function fA(x) called the characteristic function

of A

1, if x A

f A ( x)

0, if x A

This set maps universe X to a set of two elements. For any

element x of universe X, characteristic function fA(x) is equal to 1

if x is an element of set A, and is equal to 0 if x is not an element

of A.

In the fuzzy theory, fuzzy set A of universe X is defined by

function A(x) called the membership function of set A

A(x): X [0, 1], where:

A(x) = 1 if x is totally in A;

A(x) = 0 if x is not in A;

x of universe X, membership function A(x) equals the degree to

which x is an element of set A. This degree, a value between 0

and 1, represents the degree of membership, also called

membership value, of element x in set A.

How to represent a fuzzy set in a

computer?

example, we can obtain fuzzy sets of tall, short and average

men.

The universe of discourse the mens heights consists of three

sets: short, average and tall men. As you will see, a man who is

184 cm tall is a member of the average men set with a degree

of membership of 0.1, and at the same time, he is also a

member of the tall men set with a degree of 0.4.

Crisp and fuzzy sets of short, average and tall

men

Degree of Crisp Sets

Membership

1.0

0.8 Short Average Short

Tall

Tall Men

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

150 160 170 180 190 200 210

Height, cm

Degree of Fuzzy Sets

Membership

1.0

0.8

0.6 Short Average Tall

0.4

0.2 Tall

0.0

150 160 170 180 190 200 210

Representation of crisp and fuzzy subsets

(x)

X Fuzzy Subset A

1

0

Crisp Subset A Fuzziness Fuzziness x

sigmoid, Gaussian and pi. However, these functions increase the

time of computation. Therefore, in practice, most applications use

linear fit functions.

For example, the fuzzy set of tall men can be

represented as a fit-vector

o Tall men ={0/180, 0.5/185, 1/190}

o Average men ={0/165, 1/175, 0/185}

o Short men ={1/160, 0.5/165, 0/170}

Fuzzy logic example

Linguistic Variables

Linguistic variables are the input or output variables of

the system whose values are words or sentences from a

natural language, instead of numerical values.

Let temperature (t) is the linguistic variable which

represents the temperature of a room.

To qualify the temperature, terms such as hot" and

cold" are used in real life.

These are the linguistic values of the temperature.

Then, T(t) = {too-cold, cold, warm, hot, too-hot} can be

the set of decompositions for the linguistic variable

temperature.

Each member of this decomposition is called a linguistic

term and can cover a portion of the overall values of

the temperature.

A temperature value can be considered as cold" and too-cold" at the

same time, with different degree of memberships.

Membership Functions

of a FLS, to map the non-fuzzy input values to fuzzy linguistic terms and vice

versa. A membership function is used to quantify a linguistic term.

Membership Functions

functions:

The membership function must be a real valued

function whose values are between 0 and 1.

The membership values should be 1 at the center of

the set, i.e., for those members that definitely belong

to the set.

The membership function should fall off in an

appropriate way from the center through the

boundary.

Membership Functions for T(temperature) = {too-cold, cold, warm,

hot, too-hot}.

Different Types of Membership

Functions.

There are different forms of membership functions such as triangular,

trapezoidal, Gaussian, or singleton. The most common types of

membership functions are triangular, trapezoidal, and Gaussian

shapes.

Singleton

triangle

Trapezoid

al

Sigmoidal

Trapezoidal Membership Functions

LeftTrapezoid

Left_Slope = 0

Right_Slope = 1 / (A - B)

CASE 1: X < a

Membership Value = 1

CASE 2: X >= b

Membership Value = 0

CASE 3: a < x < b

Membership Value = Right_Slope * (X - b)

RightTrapezoid

Left_Slope = 1 / (B - A)

Right_Slope = 0

CASE 1: X <= a

Membership Value = 0

CASE 2: X >= b

Membership Value = 1

CASE 3: a < x < b

Membership Value = Left_Slope * (X - a)

Regular Trapezoid

Left_Slope = 1 / (B - A)

Right_Slope = 1 / (C - D)

CASE 1: X <= a Or X >= d

Membership Value = 0

CASE 2: X >= b And X <= c

Membership Value = 1

CASE 3: X >= a And X <= b

Membership Value = Left_Slope * (X - a)

CASE 4: (X >= c) And (X <= d)

Membership Value = Right_Slope * (X - d)

Membership functions: S-function

The S-function can be used to define fuzzy sets

S(x, a, b, c) =

0 for x a

2(x-a/c-a)2 for a x b

1 2(x-c/c-a)2 for b x c

1 for x c

Membership functions: Function

(x, a, b) =

S(x, b-a, b-a/2, b) for x b

1 S(x, b, b+a/2, a+b) for x b

Membership functions: S-function

The S-function can be used to define fuzzy sets

Membership functions: Function

Simple membership functions

Piecewise linear: triangular etc.

Easier to represent as e ep ese t and calculate

saves computation

Membership Functions

Degree of Truth or "Membership"

1

0

10 30 50 70 90 110

Temp. (F)

Membership Functions

How cool is 36 ?

1

0

10 30 50 70 90 110

Temp. (F)

Membership Functions

How cool is 36 F ?

It is 30% Cool and 70% Freezing

1

0.7

0.3

0

10 30 50 70 90 110

Temp. (F)

Linguistic Hedges

Modifying the meaning of a fuzzy set using hedges

such as very, more or less, slightly, etc.

Fuzzy sets with the hedge very

Degree of

Membership

1.0

Short Short

Tall

0.8

0.6 Average

0.4

Very Short Very

VeryTall

Tall

Tall

0.2

0.0

150 160 170 180 190 200 210

Height, cm

Representation of hedges in fuzzy logic

Representation of hedges in fuzzy logic

(continued)

Operations of fuzzy sets

The classical set theory developed in the late 19th century by

Georg Cantor describes how crisp sets can interact. These

interactions are called operations.

Cantors sets

Complement

Crisp Sets: Who does not belong to the set?

Fuzzy Sets: How much do elements not belong to the set?

we have the set of tall men, its complement is the set of NOT

tall men.

When we remove the tall men set from the universe of discourse,

we obtain the complement.

If A is the fuzzy set, its complement A can be found as follows:

A(x) = 1 A(x)

Containment

Crisp Sets: Which sets belong to which other sets?

Fuzzy Sets: Which sets belong to other sets?

smaller set is called the subset. For example, the set of

tall men contains all tall men; very tall men is a subset of

tall men. However, the tall men set is just a subset of the

set of men.

In crisp sets, all elements of a subset entirely belong to a

larger set. In fuzzy sets, however, each element can

belong less to the subset than to the larger set.

Elements of the fuzzy subset have smaller memberships in it

than in the larger set.

Intersection

Crisp Sets: Which element belongs to both sets?

Fuzzy Sets: How much of the element is in both sets?

contains the elements shared by these sets. For example,

the intersection of the set of tall men and the set of fat

men is the area where these sets overlap.

In fuzzy sets, an element may partly belong to both sets with

different memberships. A fuzzy intersection is the lower

membership in both sets of each element. The fuzzy

intersection of two fuzzy sets A and B on universe of

discourse X:

AB(x) = min [A(x), B(x)] = A(x) B(x),

where xX

Union

Crisp Sets: Which element belongs to either set?

Fuzzy Sets: How much of the element is in either set?

The union of two crisp sets consists of every element that falls

into either set. For example, the union of tall men and fat

men contains all men who are tall OR fat.

In fuzzy sets, the union is the reverse of the intersection. That

is, the union is the largest membership value of the

element in either set.

The fuzzy operation for forming the union of two fuzzy sets A

and B on universe X can be given as:

where xX

Operations of fuzzy sets

Fuzzy logical operations

Step 1. Evaluate the antecedent for

each rule

Step 2. Obtain each rule's conclusion

Step 3. Aggregate conclusions

Step 4. Defuzzification

Fuzzy Inference

In binary logic we have only two possible values for a logical variable, true or false, 1

or 0. As we have seen in this chapter, many phenomena can be better represented

by fuzzy sets than by crisp classes. Fuzzy sets can also be applied to reasoning when

vague concepts are involved.

In binary logic reasoning is based on either deduction (modus ponens) or induction

(modus tollens). In fuzzy reasoning we use a generalized modus ponens which reads

as

Premise1: If x is A then y is B

Premise2: x is A

Conclusion: y is B

Here, A, B , A , and B are fuzzy sets where A and B are not exactly the same as A

and B .

Premise1: If the temperature is low then set the heater to high

Premise2: Temperature is very low

Conclusion: Set the heater to very high

With logic inference we normally have more than one rule. In fact, the number of

rules can be rather large. We know several methods for fuzzy reasoning

Inference

Input Fuzzifier Defuzzifier Output

Engine

Defuzzifier

Fuzzy

Knowledge base

crisp using membership functions analogous to the

ones used by the fuzzifier.

Five commonly used defuzzifying methods:

o Centroid of area (COA)

o Bisector of area (BOA)

o Mean of maximum (MOM)

o Smallest of maximum (SOM)

o Largest of maximum (LOM)

Inference

Input Fuzzifier Defuzzifier Output

Engine

Defuzzifier

Fuzzy

Knowledge base

Inference

Input Fuzzifier Defuzzifier Output

Engine

Defuzzifier

Fuzzy

Knowledge base

A ( z ) zdz

zCOA Z

,

Z

A ( z )dz

zdz

zBOA zMOM Z

,

A ( z )dz A ( z )dz,

Z

dz

zBOA

where Z {z; A ( z ) *}

A Simple FLS to Control an Air

Conditioner.

Fuzzification

various classes e.g. A temperature input might be

graded according to its degree of coldness, coolness,

warmth or heat.

We will see a complete example of the steps involved

later.

The purpose of fuzzification is to map the inputs from a

set of sensors (or features of those sensors) to values from

0 to 1 using a set of input membership functions.

Mamdani assumption

Min operation for AND operator between conditions in

one rule

IF a AND b THEN c

conclusions with the same decision value.

IF a AND b THEN c

IF k AND b THEN d

IF a AND g THEN c

IF a AND b THEN f

Fuzzy Disjunction

AB = max(A, B)

AB = C "Quality C is the disjunction of Quality A

and B"

A B

1 1

0.75

0.375

0 0

(AB = C) (C = 0.75)

Fuzzy Conjunction

AB = min(A, B)

AB = C "Quality C is the conjunction of Quality A

and B"

A B

1 1

0.75

0.375

0 0

(AB = C) (C = 0.375)

Example: Fuzzy Conjunction

Calculate AB given that A is .4 and B is 20

A B

1 1

0 0

.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Example: Fuzzy Conjunction

Calculate AB given that A is .4 and B is 20

A B

1 1

0 0

.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Example: Fuzzy Conjunction

Calculate AB given that A is .4 and B is 20

A B

1 1

0.7

0 0

.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

A = 0.7

Example: Fuzzy Conjunction

Calculate AB given that A is .4 and B is 20

A B

1 1

0.9

0.7

0 0

.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

A = 0.7 B = 0.9

Example: Fuzzy Conjunction

Calculate AB given that A is .4 and B is 20

A B

1 1

0.9

0.7

0 0

.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

A = 0.7 B = 0.9

Apply Fuzzy AND

AB = min(A, B) = 0.7

Fuzzy Control

variables with fuzzy logic

Disjunction of Conjunctions

Inputs: Temperature

1

0

10 30 50 70 90 110

Temp. (F)

Inputs: Temperature, Cloud Cover

Temp: {Freezing, Cool, Warm, Hot}

1

0

10 30 50 70 90 110

Temp. (F)

1

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

Cloud Cover (%)

Output: Speed

Slow Fast

1

0

0 25 50 75 100

Speed (mph)

Rules

Sunny(Cover)Warm(Temp) Fast(Speed)

Cloudy(Cover)Cool(Temp) Slow(Speed)

rules...

Example Speed Calculation

o 65 F

o 25 % Cloud Cover ?

Fuzzification:

Calculate Input Membership Levels

65 F Cool = 0.4, Warm= 0.7

Freezing Cool Warm Hot

1

0

10 30 50 70 90 110

Temp. (F)

Sunny Partly Cloudy Overcast

1

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

Cloud Cover (%)

...Calculating...

If it's Sunny and Warm, drive Fast

Sunny(Cover)Warm(Temp)Fast(Speed)

0.8 0.7 = 0.7

Fast = 0.7

Cloudy(Cover)Cool(Temp)Slow(Speed)

0.2 0.4 = 0.2

Slow = 0.2

Defuzzification: Constructing the Output

Slow Fast

1

0

0 25 50 75 100

Speed (mph)

Find centroids: Location where membership is 100%

Defuzzification: Constructing the Output

Fast

70% Fast

Slow

1

0

0 25 50 75 100

Speed (mph)

100% Slow = 25

100% Fast = 75

Defuzzification: Constructing the Output

Slow Fast

1

0

0 25 50 75 100

Speed (mph)

Slow Fast

1

0

0 25 50 75 100

Speed (mph)

= (20*25+70*75)/(20 + 70)

= 63.8 mph

Rule Base

Air Temperature Fan Speed

Set cool {65, 55, 45} Set slow {50, 30, 10}

Set just right {70, 65, 60} Set medium {60, 50, 40}

Set warm {85, 75, 65} Set fast {90, 70, 50}

Set hot {, 90, 80} Set blast {, 100, 80}

Rules

Air Conditioning Controller Example:

If Cool then Slow

If OK then Medium

If Warm then Fast

IF Hot then Blast

Fuzzy Air Conditioner

0

100

s t If Hot

90 Bla then

Blast

80 Fa

st If Warm

then

70 Fast

60

Med If Just Right

ium then

50 Medium

40 IF Cool

Sl

ow then

30 Slow

if Cold

20

then Stop

10

St

o p

1

m

t

l

Ho

o

ar

Co

W

Co

Rig t

ht

Jus

ld

45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

Mapping Inputs to Outputs

Defuzzification

After the inference step, the overall result is a fuzzy value. This result

should be defuzzified to obtain a final crisp output. This is the purpose

of the defuzzifier component of a FLS. Defuzzification is performed

according to the membership function of the output variable. For

instance, assume that we have the result in Figure 5 at the end of the

inference. In this figure, the shaded areas all belong to the fuzzy

result. The purpose is to obtain a crisp value, represented with a dot

in the figure, from this fuzzy result

Average maximum

First maximum

Last maximum

u udu Center of gravity

u0 U

u du

U

Defuzzification algorithms

Temperature controller

Having the value of the temperature in the room we

switch on or switch off the fan.

Fuzzy controller

Inference rules

IF temperature IS cool THEN fan_speed IS medium

IF temperature IS warm THEN fan_speed IS low

IF temperature IS hot THEN fan_speed IS zero

How the controller works ?

warm (as 0.6, 60%) and hot (as 0.2, 20%)

parameter, evaluate the rules.

Only two given rules may be activated.

Activating rule nr 3 the value of fan_speed

means low and is set on 0.6

Activating rule nr 4 the value of fan_speed

means zero and is set on 0.2

in the natural language.

Values 60% and 20% are connected using

Center of Gravity (COG)) method and

calculated as 13.5 RPM

Fuzzy inference rules (mamdami)

1.if driver young and car power high then risk high

2.if driver young and car power average then risk high

3.if driver medium and car power high then risk average

4.if driver medium and car power average then risk low

Age of the driver Car power

1,2

1,2

1

1

young 0,8 small

0,8

medium 0,6 average

0,6

old high

0,4 0,4

0,2 0,2

0 0

20 30 40 50 60 20 70 120 170 220

1,2

Car power = {small,average,high}

1

risk = {low, average, high}

0,8 low

average

0,6

high

0,4

0,2

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Age of a driver

1,2

0,8 young

medium

0,6 old

0,4

0,2

0

20 30 40 50 60

Car power

Car power

1,2

0,8 small

average

0,6

high

0,4

0,2

0

20 70 120 170 220

Insurance company risk low

average

high

assurance risk

1,2

0,8

low

average

0,6

high

0,4

0,2

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Fuzzy inference rules (mamdami)

1,2

1,2

1,2 1

1

1 small low

young 0,8 0,8

0,8 average average

medium 0,6 0,6

0,6 high

old 0,4 0,4 high

0,4

0,2

0,2

0,2 0

0 0

20 70 120 170 220

20 30 40 50 60 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Driver age= 38 2nd with degree min(0.2,0.08) = 0.08

Car power = 166 3th with degree min(0.8,0.92) = 0.8

4th with degree min(0.8,0.08) = 0.08

KM

We find rules to activate

1.if driver young and car power high then risk high

2.if driver young and car power average then risk high

3.if driver medium and car power high then risk average

4.if driver medium and car power average then risk low

value in each rule

We find rules to activate

1.if driver young and car power high then risk high

2.if driver young and car power average then risk high

3.if driver medium and car power high then risk average

4.if driver medium and car power average then risk low

same decision but

different values.

We find rules to activate

1.if driver young and car power high then risk high

2.if driver young and car power average then risk high

3.if driver medium and car power high then risk average

4.if driver medium and car power average then risk low

2 rules with the

same decision but

different values.

So we have to

choose one decision

by calculation MAX

value

We find rules to activate

We find rules to activate

defuzzification

Center of gravity

Mean of maximum

First maximum

Last maximum

Fuzzy inference rules (mamdami)

Average with degree = 0.8

low with degree 0.08

Fuzzy inference rules (mamdami)

Average with degree = 0.8

low with degree 0.08

Mean maximum

20

high

First maximum

17,5

high

Last maximum

22,5

high

Notes: Drawbacks to Fuzzy logic

Requires tuning of membership functions

complex problems

uncertainty

CONCLUSION

Fuzzy logic provides an alternative way to represent

linguistic and subjective attributes of the real world

in computing.

applications in order to improve the efficiency and

simplicity of the design process.

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