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Engineering Encyclopedia

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

Introduction To Nondestructive Testing

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional
Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services.
Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi
Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramcos
employees. Any material contained in this document which is not
already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given,
or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part,
without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering
Services, Saudi Aramco.

Chapter : Inspection For additional information on this subject, contact


File Reference: COE10901 J.L. Mckissack on 874-2514
Engineering Encyclopedia Inspection
Introduction to Nondestructive Testing

CONTENTS PAGES

NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING: PURPOSE, ADVANTAGES, AND


IMPORTANCE........................................................................................................... 1
Purpose ............................................................................................................ 1
Advantages ...................................................................................................... 2
Importance....................................................................................................... 2

IDENTIFYING SIGNIFICANT BASE METAL AND WELD METAL


DISCONTINUITIES................................................................................................... 3
Base Metal Discontinuities.............................................................................. 3
Inherent ................................................................................................ 3
Primary Process ................................................................................... 4
Secondary Process ............................................................................... 4
Weld Metal Discontinuities ............................................................................. 5
Nonrelevant Indications ..................................................................... 10
Defects ............................................................................................... 10

IDENTIFYING THE CODES, STANDARDS, PROCEDURES, AND


INSTRUCTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH NONDESTRUCTIVE
TESTING AT SAUDI ARAMCO ............................................................................ 12
Purpose of Standards..................................................................................... 12
American National Standards Institute (ANSI).................................. 12
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) ....................... 12
American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) ..................... 14
American Welding Society (AWS).................................................... 14
American Petroleum Institute (API) .................................................. 14
Saudi Aramco Inspection Procedures (SAIPs) .................................. 15
Saudi Aramco General Instructions (SAGIs)..................................... 15

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Introduction to Nondestructive Testing

LOCATING NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING REQUIREMENTS AND


ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR WELDMENTS ................................................... 17
Power Piping ................................................................................................. 17
Chemical Piping ............................................................................................ 18
Liquid Petroleum and Anhydrous Ammonia Piping ..................................... 18
Gas Transmission Piping............................................................................... 18
Power Boilers ................................................................................................ 18
Heating Boilers.............................................................................................. 18
Pressure Vessels ............................................................................................ 19
Buildings and Structures................................................................................ 19
Large Low Pressure Storage Tanks ............................................................... 19
Above Ground Atmospheric Storage Tanks.................................................. 20
Drilling Platforms.......................................................................................... 20

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Introduction to Nondestructive Testing

NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING: PURPOSE, ADVANTAGES, AND IMPORTANCE

Purpose

The purpose of nondestructive testing (NDT) is to prevent the premature failure of


components or weldments and to improve the reliability and the safety of production and
maintenance operations at Saudi Aramco. NDT is used during fabrication and construction,
as well as maintenance repair activities, to check and to monitor the condition of equipment
that is used in all aspects of oil extraction and refining.

NDT is an important tool that allows the user to find potential problems that could result in an
unexpected failure of piping, vessels, or other components during normal operation. When a
problem is found, it can be fixed before a situation develops that could result in personnel
injury, equipment or production loss, or damage to the environment. Saudi Aramco is fully
committed to improve the quality, reliability, and safety of production and maintenance
operations at their many facilities.

The role of the Engineer who is responsible for the design, maintenance, or operation of
mechanical systems is to recognize when NDT can be used and should be used to ensure or to
improve the safety, quality, and reliability of Saudi Aramco facilities and equipment.
Performance of this role requires Engineers to have knowledge of the benefits of NDT and of
the requirements for NDT. The requirements for NDT have been established for specific
components and systems, and these requirements are based on years of experience and
empirical data. Engineers should use this past experience and the new developments in NDT
technology to check for and to eliminate material conditions that have caused problems in the
past.

The following examples are of how NDT can be used in mechanical inspection processes to
improve quality, reliability, and safety:

To check the integrity of pipelines or vessels that contain flammable or toxic


substances.

To determine the effects of erosion and corrosion on pipelines, components,


and storage tanks.

To identify cracks or weak areas that result from cyclic stresses during normal
or severe service conditions.

To observe operating characteristics of equipment or systems.

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Advantages

NDT improves reliability through the detection of potential problems that could result in
premature system or component failures. Nondestructive tests are performed before the first
installation, after repairs, and at regularly scheduled intervals throughout the life of critical
components. The continuous performance of NDT at regularly scheduled intervals provides
an added level of confidence in the continued reliability of the component or system on which
the NDT is performed.

Because components that are tested through use of NDT are not destroyed and can still be
used after they are tested, NDT is more cost effective than any type of destructive testing.
Defects that are identified through use of NDT during the fabrication of a system cost less to
repair than defects that must be repaired in the field after the system is operational.

The capability of NDT to identify discontinuities has also led to an increase in the initial
quality of fabrications and repairs. When a person who fabricates or repairs a component is
aware that the fabrication or the repair will be subjected to NDT, that person is more likely to
correctly perform the fabrication or repair because he knows that the NDT will identify any
discontinuities.

Importance

NDT can be an extremely effective tool to inspect and to examine systems and components;
however, a solid understanding of the principles of the various NDT methods is required to
properly use NDT. By understanding the basic principles of the various NDT methods, an
Engineer will be able to determine the most appropriate NDT method for a given test
scenario. Not all of the NDT methods are equally effective. Some NDT methods are only
capable of surface examinations; other NDT methods can examine the entire volume of welds
or components. Some NDT methods cannot be used on nonferrous materials, and still other
methods are not conducive to extremely corroded or rough surfaces. Module COE 109.02
will provide more information on the capabilities and the limitations of the various NDT
methods.

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IDENTIFYING SIGNIFICANT BASE METAL AND WELD METAL


DISCONTINUITIES

Refer to the Introduction for Lesson 14 in the Supplemental Text, ASNT Manual. These
two paragraphs describe the relationship between discontinuity and a defect in reference to
NDT. Discontinuities can be further classified as either base metal or weld metal
discontinuities. The geometry of the indication determines whether the discontinuity is
described as a linear indication or a rounded indication.

Base Metal Discontinuities

A discontinuity is an interruption of the typical structure of a material such as a lack of


homogeneity in the mechanical, metallurgical, or physical characteristics of the material or
weldment. Base metal discontinuities are classified in accord with the point in the
manufacturing process in which such discontinuities occur. These discontinuities are
classified as follows:

Inherent

Primary Process

Secondary Process

Inherent

Inherent discontinuities result from the original melt, casting, or solidification of the ingot of
primary metal or alloy. The following examples of inherent discontinuities can be found in
the ASNT Manual:

Figure 14:2, which is on page 14:4 of the ASNT manual, shows an example of
a stringer.

Figure 14:3, which is on page 14:5 of the ASNT manual, shows an example of
a seam.

Figure 14:4, which is on page 14:5 of the ASNT manual, shows an example of
a lamination.

Figure 14:5, which is on page 14.5 of the ASNT manual, shows an example of
a pipe.

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Primary Process

Primary process discontinuities are formed during the rough shaping and forming of metals
during primary processing such as forging, casting, rolling and drawing. The following
examples of primary process discontinuities can be found in the ASNT Manual:

Figure 14:6, which is on page 14:6 of the ASNT manual, shows and example
of a forging lap.

Figure 14:7, which is on page 14:6 of the ASNT manual, shows and example
of a forging burst.

Figure 14:8, which is on page 14:7 of the ASNT manual, shows and example
of flaking.

Figure 14:9, which is on page 14:7 of the ASNT manual, shows and example
of a cold shut.

Figure 14:10, which is on page 14:8 of the ASNT manual, shows and example
of a shrinkage crack.

Figure 14:11, which is on page 14:8 of the ASNT manual, shows and example
of a seam.

Secondary Process

Secondary process discontinuities are associated with final finishing operations such as
machining and heat treatments. The following examples of secondary process discontinuities
can be found in the ASNT Manual:

Figure 14:12, which is on page 14:8 of the ASNT manual, shows an example
of a heat crack.

Figure 14:13, which is on page 14:9 of the ASNT manual, shows an example
of a quench crack.

Figure 14:14, which is on page 14:9 of the ASNT manual, shows an example
of a grinding crack.

For more information on each class of base metal discontinuity, refer to pages 14:4 through
14:9 of the supplemental text, ASNT Manual.

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Weld Metal Discontinuities

This section describes the typical weld metal discontinuities that are encountered in Saudi
Aramco systems and components. For more information on welding discontinuities, refer to
pages 14-10 through 14-12 of the supplemental text, ASNT Manual.

Figure 1 shows cracks in welds. Cracks can be either longitudinal (aligned with the weld
bead) or transverse (perpendicular to the weld bead) and they can occur from stresses that are
developed during the welding process. Cracks also can be either surface or subsurface.
Cracks severely reduce the strength of a weld. Welds with cracks are not reliable. Only very
small cracks are acceptable, and such cracks are only acceptable in non-critical applications.

Figure 1. Cracks in Welds

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Figure 2 shows slag inclusions. Slag inclusions are located within a weld and they occur
when gases, impurities, or flux contaminate a slag weld. Slag inclusions do not always
present a serious problem unless they are very large or if there are many small inclusions in a
given area. Slag inclusions weaken the welds.

Figure 2. Slag Inclusions

Figure 3 shows lack of fusion. Lack of fusion generally is located at the weld metal and base
metal interface and it occurs when the molten weld metal does not completely fuse with an
adjacent weld bead or with the base material. Lack of fusion will almost always be classified
as a defect because the weld is not reliable.

Figure 3. Lack of Fusion

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Figure 4 shows incomplete root penetration. Incomplete root penetration occurs when the
weld metal does not completely penetrate into the root area and consume both base materials.
Incomplete root penetration creates a weak area in the weldment and is unacceptable in
critical applications.

Figure 4. Incomplete Root Penetration

Figure 5 shows weld undercut. Weld undercut is an area in which the actual weld is less than
the specific contour. Undercutting results in a depression on the surface at the point at which
the weld metal contacts the base metal. As the size of the undercut increases, the effective
cross-sectional area of the base metal is reduced and causes a decrease in the strength of the
base metal.

Figure 5. Weld Undercut

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Figure 6 shows cold lap. Cold lap occurs when the weld metal freezes too quickly and does
not fuse with the surface of the base metal. Cold lap is most typically found on the cover pass
at the toe of the weld.

Figure 6. Cold Lap

Figure 7 shows root concavity. Root concavity occurs in weld joints that are welded from one
side only, an example of which would be pipe. The following are typical causes of root
concavity:

Too much heat, which causes shrinkage.

A root opening that is too wide.

Insufficient deposits of weld metal.

Figure 7. Root Concavity

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Figure 8 shows a crater pit. Crater pits are located on the weld bead surface and are generally
associated with Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). Crater pits result from the rapid
breaking of the electric arc so that the weld puddle freezes too quickly and shrinks, which
leaves a small void.

Figure 8. Crater Pit

Figure 9 shows an arc strike. Arc strikes are caused by dragging the electrode over the
surface of the base metal in an effort to initiate an arc for welding. Such strikes that are
within the weld groove are generally acceptable as long as the arc is properly prepared and is
fully consumed in the weld.

Figure 9. Arc Strike

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Figure 10 shows weld porosity. Weld porosity is caused by inadequate flux or shielding gas
coverage, which allows oxygen to contaminate the molten weld metal prior to solidification.
The porosity can be located on the weld surface but is typically located within the weld.
Moisture or other contaminants, such as oil, that are on the base metal also can vaporize
during welding and can result in gas bubbles being trapped in the weld metal.

Figure 10. Porosity

Nonrelevant Indications

NDT can produce or reveal indications that are not caused by actual discontinuities and these
indications are known as nonrelevant indications. Examples of nonrelevant indications
include scratches or water spots on radiographic film and liquid penetrant indications that
result from the inability to adequately remove all of the surface penetrant. Such indications
can be determined to be nonrelevant by the NDT technician based on the method of NDT, the
configuration of the component being examined, and the appearance of the indication. For
more information on nonrelevant indications, refer to pages 14-2 and 14-3 of the
supplemental text, ASNT Manual.

Defects

A defect in a component or a weld is a discontinuity or flaw that would probably result in an


early failure of the component or weld. Because all discontinuities are not defects, acceptance
criteria must be established to identify which discontinuities are acceptable. Past experience
has helped to establish the criteria for an acceptable discontinuity. These criteria are known
as acceptance criteria and they can be found in the applicable fabrication and construction
codes and standards. The discontinuities must be compared to the acceptance criteria to
determine whether they actually are defects.

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For example, 1/16" of weld undercut in material that is 1" thick would not be acceptable in
piping that is covered by ASME B31.1 (reference paragraph 136.4.2), but such an undercut
would be acceptable in structural materials that are covered by AWS D1.1 (reference
paragraph 8.15.1.5). Also, 1/8" of weld reinforcement on a piping girth weld with a 3/8" wall
thickness would be acceptable on an ASME B31.3 piping system; however, such a weld
reinforcement would not be acceptable on an ASME B31.1 piping system with a maximum
design temperature that is above 75oF.

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IDENTIFYING THE CODES, STANDARDS, PROCEDURES, AND INSTRUCTIONS


ASSOCIATED WITH NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING AT SAUDI ARAMCO

Purpose of Standards

The purpose of the standards that are associated with welding is to establish the minimum
requirements for design, materials, fabrication, inspection, and testing of welds to ensure a
level of quality and safety that is consistent with the intended service. Engineers that are
involved with NDT must be familiar with the various Codes, standards, procedures, and
instructions that are associated with NDT. Excerpts from the Codes, standards, procedures,
and instructions are contained in the Addendum.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

ANSI is the primary organization that is responsible for coordinating the activities of all other
standard writing organizations. ANSI primarily reviews and certifies that the standards are
correct. ANSI has established specific guidelines for the formation of other standard bodies
such as ASME and AWS. Recently, several ANSI piping standards (B31.1, B31.3, B31.4 and
B31.8) have been reclassified as ASME documents.

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

ASME Codes are among the most widely used in the petrochemical industry and they govern
items such as pressure vessels, boilers, and piping. The following is a list of the ASME
Codes that will be referenced during this course:

ASME Code B31.1

ASME Code B31.3

ASME Code B31.4

ASME Code B31.8

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section I

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IV

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII

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ASME Code B31.1 - Power Piping, pertains to the design, materials, fabrication, test, and
inspection of power and auxiliary piping. Typical systems at Saudi Aramco include steam,
water, gas, oil, and air services that support electric power generation. Refer to pages A1
through A8 of the Addendum for a more detailed explanation of the scope of ASME Code
B31.1.

ASME Code B31.3 - Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping, pertains to the design,
materials, fabrication, test, and inspection of chemical piping systems. Typical applications
include on-plot stripping steam, crude oil, acid, caustic, sour water, and cooling systems that
are used to refine petroleum products. Refer to pages A14 and A15 of the Addendum for a
more detailed explanation of the scope of ASME Code B31.3.

ASME Code B31.4 - Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum
Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols, pertains to the design, construction, inspection,
testing, operation, and maintenance of liquid petroleum and anhydrous ammonia piping
systems. Typical applications include off-shore and off-plot cross-country pipelines,
terminals, and tank farms. Refer to pages A39 and A40 of the Addendum for a more detailed
explanation of the scope of ASME Code B31.3.

ASME Code B31.8 - Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems, pertains to the
design, fabrication, installation, inspection, testing, and operation of gas transmission and
distribution systems (including gas pipelines), gas compressor stations, and gas metering and
regulating stations. Refer to pages A51 and A52 of the Addendum for a more detailed
explanation of the scope of ASME Code B31.8.

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section I - Power Boilers, pertains to the design,
material selection, fabrication, inspection, testing, and certification of power boilers that
exceed 15 psi for steam service and that exceed 160 psi and/or 250oF for hot water service.
Refer to page A60 of the Addendum for a more detailed explanation of the scope of ASME
Section I.

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IV - Heating Boilers, pertains to the
design, material selection, fabrication, inspection, testing, and certification of heating boilers
that do not exceed 15 psi for steam service or that do not exceed 160 psi and 250oF for hot
water service. Refer to page A67 of the Addendum for a more detailed explanation of the
scope of ASME Section IV.

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V - Nondestructive Examination, provides
requirements and methods for NDT that include radiographic, ultrasonic, liquid penetrant,
magnetic particle, eddy current, visual examination, leak testing, and acoustic emission.
Refer to page A74 of the Addendum for a more detailed explanation of the scope of ASME
Section V.

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ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII - Pressure Vessels, pertains to the
design, material selection, fabrication, inspection, testing, and certification of pressure vessels.
The three classes of pressure vessels that are covered by this code are welded, forged, and
brazed. Typical applications include steam generators, heat exchangers, hydrocrackers,
fractionation towers, reformer reactors, and other components that are designed to contain
fluids or vapors at high temperatures and pressures. Refer to pages A77 and A78 of the
Addendum for a more detailed explanation of the scope of ASME Section VIII.

American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT)

ASNT is an organization that is dedicated to NDT. ASNT organizes and distributes technical
information that is specific to NDT. For example, ASNT developed the manual that is used
as the supplemental text for this course.

ASNT SNT-TC-1A - Recommended Practice for Personnel Qualification and Certification in


Nondestructive Testing, provides requirements for the qualification and certification of NDT
personnel.

American Welding Society (AWS)

The AWS is an organization that provides standards for the welded fabrication of structures
and bridges with structural steel and sheet metal. For the purpose of this course, only AWS
D1.1, the Structural Welding Code, will be referenced.

AWS D1.1 - Structural Welding Code, provides acceptance standards and welding
requirements for buildings, bridges, and tubular structures. The requirements for the
qualification of weld procedures and welders also are included in this Code. Typical
applications include structural steel for catwalks, landings, and buildings.

American Petroleum Institute (API)

The API establishes guidelines that are specific to the petroleum industrys equipment and
products. This course will only reference the following API Codes:

API 510

API 620

API 650

API RP-2A

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API 510 - Pressure Vessel Inspection Code, provides requirements for the maintenance
inspection, repair, alteration, and rerating procedures for pressure vessels that are used by the
petroleum and chemical process industries. Refer to page A118 of the Addendum for a more
detailed explanation of the scope of API 510.

API 620 - Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks, pertains
to the design and construction of large, low pressure, above ground storage tanks. Typical
applications include the storage of gases or vapors that results from refining operations. Refer
to page A123 of the Addendum for a more detailed explanation of the scope of API 620.

API 650 - Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage, provides material, design, fabrication, and
testing requirements for above ground atmospheric tanks. Typical applications include the
storage of crude and other liquid petroleum products. Refer to page A130 of the Addendum
for a more detailed explanation of the scope of API 650.

API RP-2A - Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing, and Constructing Fixed Off-
Shore Platforms, provides a guide for the design and construction of drilling platforms. Refer
to page A139 of the Addendum for a more detailed explanation of the scope of API RP-2A.

Saudi Aramco Inspection Procedures (SAIPs)

Saudi Aramco has two procedures that are important to the proper performance of NDT.
These SAIPs have been developed in accordance with industry Codes and Standards.

SAIP-04-P - Liquid Penetrant Examination of Welds and Components, is used by Saudi


Aramco personnel in the performance of liquid penetrant examinations to define the minimum
requirements and to establish applicable acceptance criteria. Refer to page A144 of the
Addendum for a more detailed explanation of the scope of SAIP-04-P.

SAIP-05-P - Magnetic Particle Examination of Welds and Components, is used by Saudi


Aramco personnel in the performance of magnetic particle examinations to define the
minimum requirements and to establish applicable acceptance criteria. Refer to page A167 of
the Addendum for a more detailed explanation of the scope of SAIP-05-P.

Saudi Aramco General Instructions (SAGIs)

Saudi Aramco has two instructions that are important to the proper performance of NDT.
These SAGIs have been developed in accordance with industry codes and standards.

SAGI 448.001 - Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive Examination Personnel, is


the instruction that establishes the procedures and defines the requirements for the
qualification and certification of Saudi Aramco NDT personnel. Refer to page A198 of the
Addendum for a more detailed explanation of the scope of SAGI 448.001.

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SAGI 448.010 - Radiographic Examination, is used by Saudi Aramco personnel in the


performance of radiographic testing to determine the minimum requirements and to establish
applicable acceptance criteria. Refer to page A218 of the Addendum for a more detailed
explanation of the scope of SAGI 448.010.

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LOCATING NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING REQUIREMENTS AND ACCEPTANCE


CRITERIA FOR WELDMENTS

This portion of the Module identifies the section of the applicable codes, standards,
procedures, and instructions that contain the NDT requirements and acceptance criteria for the
following types of weldments:

Power Piping

Chemical Piping

Liquid Petroleum and Anhydrous Ammonia Piping

Gas Transmission Piping

Power Boilers

Heating Boilers

Pressure Vessels

Buildings and Structures

Large Low Pressure Storage Tanks

Above Ground Atmospheric Storage Tanks

Drilling Platforms

Power Piping

The NDT requirements for power piping welds are described in ASME B31.1, Chapter VI,
Table 136.4. Table 136.4 is located on page A11 of the Addendum. Table 136.4 shows the
various NDT requirements for pressure welds or for welds to pressure retaining components
based on piping service conditions. Table 136.4 shows that the specific requirements for
NDT depend on the design temperature and pressure ratings of a given system.

The weld acceptance criteria is located in paragraph 136.4 of ASME B31.1. Paragraph 136.4
is located on page A9 of the Addendum.

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Chemical Piping

The NDT requirements for chemical piping welds are described in ASME B31.3, Chapter VI,
paragraph 341.4. Paragraph 341.4 is located on page A28 of the Addendum. Table 341.3.2A
of ASME B31.3 shows the acceptance criteria for welds and it is based on the applicable
service conditions. Table 341.3.2A is located on page A26 of the Addendum. An
understanding of the service condition (normal fluid, severe cyclic, or category D) is critical
to determining the appropriate NDT requirements.

Liquid Petroleum and Anhydrous Ammonia Piping

The NDT requirements for liquid petroleum and anhydrous ammonia piping welds are
described in ASME B31.4, paragraph 434.8.5. Paragraph 434.8.5 is located on page A46 of
the Addendum. Additional requirements for inspection and testing are described in Chapter
VI. Chapter VI is located on pages A47 and A48 of the Addendum.

Gas Transmission Piping

The NDT requirements for gas transmission piping welds are described in ASME B31.8,
Chapter II, paragraph 826. Paragraph 826 is located on page A57 of the Addendum.
Knowledge of the weld location class is required to properly determine the NDT
requirements.

Power Boilers

The NDT requirements for the fabrication of power boilers are described in ASME Section I,
Part PW. Paragraphs PW-11 and PW-41 address NDT requirements that are based on
component diameter, wall thickness, and component exposure to radiant heat or furnace
gases. Paragraph PW-11 is located on page A62 of the Addendum and paragraph PW-41 is
located on page A63 of the Addendum.

The weld acceptance criteria is provided in paragraphs PW-51 and PW-52 of ASME Section
I. Paragraph PW-51 is located on page A65 of the Addendum and paragraph PW-52 is
located on page A66 of the Addendum.

Heating Boilers

ASME Section IV does not require specific NDT beyond a visual examination. The weld
acceptance criteria is provided in paragraph HW-820 of ASME Section IV. Paragraph HW-
820 is located on page A71 of the Addendum.

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Pressure Vessels

The NDT requirements for pressure vessel welds are described in ASME Section VIII,
Division 1, paragraph UW-11. Paragraph UW-11 is located on page A84 of the Addendum.
The NDT requirements may be based on the type of weld, the weld category, or the diameter
or the thickness of the weld. The weld acceptance criteria is provided in paragraph UW-51 of
ASME Section VIII. Paragraph UW-51 is located on page A85 of the Addendum.

Buildings and Structures

The NDT requirements for structural welds that are in statically loaded buildings and
structures are described in AWS D1.1, paragraphs 6.7 and 8.15. Paragraph 6.7 is located on
page A113 of the Addendum and paragraph 8.15 is located on page A114 of the Addendum.
The weld acceptance criteria for VT is located in paragraph A.15.1 of AWS D1.1. Paragraph
8.15.1 is located on page A114 of the Addendum. The weld acceptance criteria for RT is
located in paragraph 8.15.3 of AWS D1.1. Paragraph 8.15.3 is located on page A114 of the
Addendum. The weld acceptance criteria for PT and HT is located in paragraph 8.15.5 of
AWS D1.1. Paragraph 8.15.5 is located on page A115 of the Addendum.

Large Low Pressure Storage Tanks

The NDT requirements for welds that are in large low pressure storage tanks are described in
API 620, Section 5. Section 5 is located on pages A125 through A129 of the Addendum.
Information that is related to the type and orientation of the weld, as well as to the base
material thickness, is required to determine the NDT requirements.

The acceptance criteria requirements for HT and PT are respectively located in paragraphs
5.20.4 and 5.22.4 of API 620, Section 5. These paragraphs reference ASME Section VIII,
Appendices 6 and 8 for the actual acceptance criteria. Appendix 6 is located on pages A104
and A105 of the Addendum, and Appendix 8 is located on pages A109 and A110 of the
Addendum.

The acceptance criteria requirements for VT are located in paragraph 5.21.1 of API 620,
Section 5. These requirements must be agreed to by the purchaser and the manufacturer.

The acceptance criteria requirements for RT are located in paragraph 5.15.4 of API 620,
Section 5. This paragraph references ASME Section VIII, paragraph UW-51(b) for the actual
acceptance criteria. Paragraph UW-51(b) is located on page A86 of the Addendum.

The acceptance criteria for VT is located in paragraph 5.19 of API 620, Section 5.

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Engineering Encyclopedia Inspection
Introduction to Nondestructive Testing

Above Ground Atmospheric Storage Tanks

The NDT requirements for welds that are in above ground atmospheric storage tanks are
described in API 650, Section 5. Section 5 is located on pages A132 through A134 of the
Addendum. Information that is related to the type and orientation of the weld, as well as to the
base material thickness, is required to determine the NDT requirements.

The acceptance criteria requirements for RT are located in paragraph 6.1.5 of API 620. This
paragraph references ASME Section VIII, paragraph UW-51(b) for the actual acceptance
criteria. Paragraph 6.1.5 is located on page A137 of the Addendum and paragraph UW-51(b)
is located on page A86 of the Addendum.

The acceptance criteria requirements for HT and PT respectively are located in paragraphs
6.2.4 and 6.4.4 of API 620. These paragraphs reference ASME Section VIII, Appendices 6
and 8 for the actual acceptance criteria. Paragraphs 6.2.4 and 6.4.4 of API 620 are located on
page A138 of the Addendum. Appendix 6 of ASME Section VIII is located on pages A104
and A105 of the Addendum, and Appendix 8 of ASME Section VIII is located on pages A109
and A110 of the Addendum.

The acceptance criteria requirements for UT are located in paragraph 6.3.4 of API 620. These
requirements must be agreed upon by the purchaser and the manufacturer. Paragraph 6.3.4 is
located on page A138 of the Addendum.

Drilling Platforms

NDT requirements for drilling platforms are described in API RP-2A, Section 13. Section 13
is located on pages A141 through A143 of the Addendum. The Weld acceptance criteria is
located in paragraph 13.4.3b of API RP-2A, Section 13. This paragraph references AWS
D1.1 for the actual acceptance criteria. AWS D1.1 is located on pages A113 through A117 of
the Addendum. Paragraph 13.4.3b of API RP-2A also states that the acceptance criteria for
other NDT methods must be defined in the specifications.

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