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SOLUTIONS TO CHAPTER 19 PROBLEMS

S.19.1 Referring to Fig. S.19.1

1
2.5

A
1 1
B B 5m
2.5 2.5

A
45
1
2.5
10 m

FIGURE S.19.1

the work absorbed in the yield lines is:


for the two panels A,
 
1
2m 3 10 5 8 m
2:5

for the two panels B,


 
1
235 0:4 m 1 0:6 m 5 4 m
2:5

1 1
3 3

45 A 3m 45 A 3m

1 C 1 C
3 3
B 4m B 4m

1 1
4 4
(a) 10 m (b) 7m 3m

FIGURE S.19.2

e368
Solutions to Chapter 19 Problems e369

    
1 1
The work done by the load 5 14 5 3 5 1535 5 291:7 kN m
2 3
Then

12 m 5 291:7

so that
m 5 24:31 kN m=m:

S.19.2 Consider the slab shown in Fig. S.19.2(a).


The work absorbed in the yield lines is:
for panel A,
 
1
m 3 10 5 3:33 m
3
for panel B,
 
1
2 m 3 10 5 5:0 m
4
for panel C,
 
1
0:6 m 3 7 5 1:4 m
3
The total work absorbed by the yield
 linesistherefore  m.
9.73
1 1
The work done by the load 5 10 7 3 3 3 1737 5 315 kN m
3 2
Therefore

9:73 m 5 315

i.e.
m 5 32:37 kN m=m
For the slab shown in Fig. S.19.2(b) the work absorbed in the yield lines is:
for panel A,
 
1
m37 5 2:33 m
3
for panel B,
 
1
2 m37 5 3:5 m
4
e370 Solutions Manual

for panel C,
 
1
0:6 m 3 7 5 1:4 m
3
The total work absorbed in the yield
 lines
 is therefore  m.  
 7.23
1 1 1
The work done by the load 5 10 7 3 3 1734 1333 5 255 kN m:
3 2 2
Therefore
7:23 m 5 255
i.e.
m 5 35:27 kN m=m:

S.19.3 Referring to Fig. S.19.3

x 1
2.5

B (12 kN/m2) (8 kN/m2) 2.5 m


1
x A

B 2.5 m

1
2.5

7m 3m

FIGURE S.19.3

the work absorbed in the yield lines is:


for panel A,
 
1 2m
0:4 m 3 5 5
x x

for panel B,
 
1
2m 1 m 3 10 5 16 m
2:5

The total work absorbed by the yield lines is therefore m[16 1 (2/x)].
Solutions to Chapter 19 Problems e371

2 0 1 0 13 2 0 13
1 1 1
The work done by the load is 5 1245x@ A 1 57 2 x@ A5 1 843 3 5@ A5
3 2 2
5 270 2 10x

Therefore
 
2
m 16 1 5 270 2 10x
x

i.e.

270 2 10x
m5  
2
16 1
x

Differentiating the above with respect to x and simplifying gives

8x2 1 2x 2 27 5 0

which gives

x 5 1:716 m

Then

m 5 14:73 kN m=m:

S.19.4 Referring to Fig. S.19.4

x 1
2.5

A 2.5 m
1
B
x
A 2.5 m

1
2.5

8m

FIGURE S.19.4
e372 Solutions Manual

the work absorbed in the yield lines is:


for panels A,
 
1
220 1 16 3 8 5 230:4
2:5
for panel B,
 
1 120
16 1 8 3 5 5
x x
       
1 1 2:5x
The work done by the load 5 w 8 2 x 3 5 1 5x 5 w 20 2
2 3 3
Then
 
2:5x 120
w 20 2 5 230:4 1
3 x
so that
 
120
230:4 1
x
w5   
2:5x
20 2
3
For a minimum value of w, dw/dx 5 0. Differentiating the above with respect to x and
simplifying gives

x2 1 1:0417x 2 12:5 5 0
which gives
x 5 3:053 m
Substituting for x in the above expression for w gives

w 5 15:45 kN=m2 :

S.19.5 Referring to Fig. S.19.5


the work absorbed in the yield lines is:
for panels A,
 
1
2m 3 5 1 1:2 m 3 5 5 8:8 m
2:5
for panels B,
 
1
2m 3 2:5 5 5:0 m
1
Solutions to Chapter 19 Problems e373

2.5 m 1.0 m 2.5 m


1 1
1 1
B B 1.0 m

1
2.5 (4 x) m
1 A A
2.5

C x

1
x

FIGURE S.19.5

for panel C,
 
1 13:2 m
m 3 6 1 1:2 m 3 6 5
x x

The total work absorbed by the yield lines is then 5 m[13.8 1 (13.2/x)].
2 0 1 0 1
1 1
The work done by the load 5 1542 3 2:5 3 1@ A 1 24 2 x 3 2:5@ A
3 2

0 1 0 1 0 1
1 1 1
1 2 3 2:5x@ A 1 1x@ A 1 14 2 x@ A 5 235 2 20x
3 2 1

Then
 
13:2
m 13:8 1 5 235 2 20x
x

For x 5 2:0 m; m 5 9:56 kN m=m


For x 5 2:5 m; m 5 9:70 kN m=m

For x 5 3:0 m; m 5 9:62 kN m=m

i.e.

m 5 9:70 kN m=m:
e374 Solutions Manual

S.19.6 Referring to Fig. S.19.6

2.5 m
1
x

B x

8m 1 A x
2.5

B 1
x 2.5 m
A

1
2.5
8m

FIGURE S.19.6

the work absorbed in the yield lines is:


for the panels A,
 
1
2m2:5 1 x 1 1:4 m 3 8 5 m10:96 1 0:8x
2:5

for the panels B,


 
1 12 m
2m 3 2:5 1 1:4 m 3 2:55
x x
  
12
Therefore the total work absorbed in the yield lines 5 m 10:96 1 0:8x 1
x
2 0 1 0 1 0 13
1 1 1
The work done by the applied load 5 2042:52 @ A 1 2:5x 3 2@ A 1 2 3 2:55:5 2 x@ A5
3 3 2

5 316:67 2 16:67x

Therefore
 
12
m 10:96 1 0:8x 1 5 316:67 2 16:67x
x
Solutions to Chapter 19 Problems e375

so that

316:67 2 16:67x
m5  
12
10:96 1 0:8x 1
x

The maximum value of m is most easily found using the trial and error method. Then,

For x 5 2:0 m; m 5 15:27 kN m=m


For x 5 2:5 m; m 5 15:48 kN m=m
For x 5 3:0 m; m 5 15:36 kN m=m

Therefore the required value of the moment parameter is 15.48 kNm/m.


S.19.7 The solution for the first part of the problem is identical to that for P.19.1 and gives

m 5 24:31 kNm=m:

Consider the secondary yield line pattern shown in Fig. S.19.7.


1/2.5

B B 5m
1/2.5
A

L 10-2L L

FIGURE S.19.7

For each of the panels A the work absorbed by the yield lines is m(10 2 2 L)(1/2.5) and
for each of the panels B the work absorbed by the yield lines is 0.4 m 3 5 3 (1/2.5). Also
the work done by the load is w[5 3 5 3 (1/3) 1 5(5 2 2 L)(1/2)]. Then, equating the work
absorbed by the yield lines to the work done by the load
2 m10 2 2 L1=2:5 1 2 3 0:4 m 3 5 3 1=2:5 5 w5 3 5 3 1=3 1 55 2 2 L1=2
Simplifying and substituting w 5 14 kN/m2 gives

17:5
2 m6 2 L 5 125 2 30 L
6
e376 Solutions Manual

from which
L 5 1:875 m

S.19.8 The yield line pattern for the top half of the slab is shown in Fig. S.19.8(a).

(a) 2m 3m 2m
1/2

A 2m

1/2 C
C
1/2
B 3m

1/3

(b) 1/3.5

1/3.5 1/3.5

E F
A A

45 1/3.5

FIGURE S.19.8

Then the work absorbed by the yield lines is:


Panel A: m 3 7 3 (1/2) 5 3.5 m
Panel B: m 3 7 3 (1/3) 1 1.5 m 3 7 3 (1/3) 5 5.83 m
Panels C: 2 m 3 5 3 (1/2) 5 5.0 m
The total work absorbed by the panels is then 14.33 m.
The work done by the load 5 15[5 3 4 3 (1/3) 1 5 3 3 3 (1/2)] 5 212.55
Solutions to Chapter 19 Problems e377

Equating the two values gives m 5 14.83 kNm/m.


Now consider the yield line pattern shown in Fig. S.19.8(b) and let the moment of resistance
of the beam EF be Mb.
The work absorbed by the yield lines is then
Panels A: 2[m 3 10 3 (1/3.5) 1 Mb 3 (1/3.5)] 5 5.714 m 1 0.571 Mb
Panels B: 2 3 m 3 7 3 (1/3.5) 5 4.0 m
The total work absorbed by the yield lines is then 9.714 m 1 0.571 Mb.
The work done by the load 5 15[7 3 7 3 (1/3) 1 7 3 3 3 (1/2)] 5 402.45
Equating the two values gives
9:714 3 14:83 1 0:571 Mb 5 402:45
from which

Mb 5 452:5 kNm

S.19.9 Referring to Fig. S.19.9 the work absorbed by the yield lines is as follows.

A 2.2 m

C
1/2.8
B D a a D B 5.6 m
1/2.2
C
1/2.8

I A 2.2 m

1/2.2

5m 4m 5m

FIGURE S.19.9

Panels A: 2 m 3 14 3 (1/2.2) 5 12.73 m


Panels B: 2 m 3 10 3 (1/2.2) 5 9.09 m
Panels C: 2 m 3 9.6 3 (1/2.8) 1 2 3 1.2 m 3 9.6 3 (1/2.8) 5 15.09 m
Panels D: 2 m 3 5.6 3 (1/2.8) 1 2 3 1.2 m 3 5.6 3 (1/2.8) 5 8.80 m
The total work absorbed by the slab is therefore 45.71 m.
The work done by the load is given by

Work done 5 144 3 2:22 3 1=3 1 2 3 2:8 3 5:6 3 2=3 1 2 3 9:6 3 2:2 3 1=2
12 3 5:6 3 2:2 3 1=2 1 2 3 4 3 2:8 3 1=2 5 1008
e378 Solutions Manual

Note that this is obtained by dividing the slab into a combination of rectangles, squares
and triangles, calculating their areas and multiplying by the displacement of their
centroids.
Therefore

45:71 m 5 1008

so that

m 5 22:05 kNm=m