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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013)

Experimental Study on Environmental Exposure Of Kevlar


Epoxy Composites
Praveen Shaju.C1, Manikandan.T2, Sai Balaji.S3
1
Assistant Professor, Department Of Aeronautical Engineering, Sri Shakthi Institute Of Engineering And Technology,
L&T By-pass Road, Coimbatore-641062.
2
Assistant Professor, Department Of Aeronautical Engineering, Sathyabama University,
Jeppiaar Nagar,Rajiv Gandhi Road, Chennai-600119
3
Department Of Aeronautical Engineering ,Sri Shakthi Institute Of Engineering And Technology,
L&T By-pass Road, Coimbatore-641062.
Abstract This project presents the characterization of Aramid composites have been found to be superior to
Kevlar fiber composites exposed to different environmental glass fiber composites in both tensile-tensile and flexural
conditions.The investigation involves the study of mechanical fatigue loading. Aramid fibers are electrical insulators. Un-
behavior of the specimen made up of bi-directional kevlar149 der para-aramid comes Kevlar and Twaron. There are dif-
fiber and epoxy resin of standard size
ferent types of Kevlar fibers. They are Kevlar 29, Kevlar
(280mm*18mm*3.8mm), subjected to various adverse condi-
tions of environment at different intervals of exposure.The 49, Kevlar 68, Kevlar 119, Kevlar 129, Kevlar 149, Kevlar
objective of the research endeavor is to characterize the ten- HT and Kevlar KM2.
sile behavior of normal as well as impacted aramid fiber com- Kevlar 149:
posites when exposed to different environmental conditions at
three different exposure times. Kevlar 149 is one of the newly developed fibers in the
Kevlar family. It has a very high tensile modulus and hence
Keywordscomposites, Kevlar, Tensile strength, Impact the impact resistance is very high compared to other fibers.
strength Kevlar 149 uptakes moisture very less when compared to
Kevlar 29 and Kevlar 49.These fibers also show resistance
I. INTRODUCTION to flame. Hence, it is mainly applied in the aircraft industry.
In recent years composites have received considerable atten- Table 1.1.
tion as alternatives to steel and aluminium as structural materials Properties of Kevlar Fibers.
in construction,,aircraft applications,aerospace industries etc.,due
to their high strength to weight ratio,competent mechanical prop- Properties Units Kevlar29 Kevlar49 Kevlar149
erties and ease of handling. As aramids have 5-10% higher me-
chanical properties than other synthetic fibers, these are displacing Density g/cc 1.44 1.44 1.47
metal wires and inorganic fibers from the market of high perfor-
mance uses like various structural composites for application in
aircraft, marine and automobile, ropes for offshore oil rigs and Diameter m 12 12 12
bullet proof vests. These fibers not only have better mechanical
properties than steel and glass fibers on an equal weight basis, but
also maintain these properties at high temperatures as aramid
polymers are excellent heat and flame resistant. Tensile Mpa 3600 3600-4100 3400
strength
II. MATERIAL SELECTION
. Aramid Fibers:
Aramid fiber is the generic term for a specific type of Tensile Gpa 83 130 186
aromatic polyamide fiber.Aramid fibers can be separated
into two types: the para-aramids and the meta-aramids Ar- Modulus
amid fibers offer some significant advantages over other
fibers.Due to their highly aromatic and ordered structure,
aramids have very high thermal resistance for organic ma-
terials.

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013)
.Matrix Material: So, to predict the strength of these fibers in such condi-
Matrix is the combination of adhesive and hardner. Res- tions, the specimens are immersed in the hydraulic fluid.
in and also the hardner has in the different forms or types, . Sulphuric Acid:
matrix materials are classified according to the adhesive
Some of the least recognized contributors to corrosion
and hardner.
are sand, dust and volcanic ash.Volcanic ash contains chlo-
Epoxy Resin: rides and sulphates, which are extremely corrosive in the
Epoxy is one of the major Thermoset matrix materials. presence of moisture. Therefore, the specimens are im-
mersed in 20% concentrated sulphuric acid and the
Epoxy resin, which is used in structural aerospace ap-
strengths are determined.
plications, particularly with carbon fibers, and electronics
applications such as printed circuit boards. Epoxies have . Sodium Hydroxide:
less shrinkage and higher strength/stiffness at moderate In solution, the positively charged metal ions can com-
temperatures. They are also corrosion-resistant to solvents, bine with negatively charged ions to form corrosion prod-
alkalis, and some acids. As with polyesters, epoxy resins ucts, such as metallic chlorides, oxides, hydroxides and
can be used in most composite manufacturing processes. sulphides. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries
They are available in different formulations to provide de- mostly as a strong chemical base. When this comes in con-
sired properties and optimize the manufacturing process. tact with the moisture in the atmosphere it causes corro-
Epoxies are used in resins for prepregs and structural adhe- sion. So, the specimens are immersed in 20% concentrated
sives.The extensive use of epoxy resin is due to sodium hydroxide solution and the strengths are deter-
1. The ease with which it can be processed. mined.
2. Excellent mechanical properties.
3. High hot and wet strength properties IV. PREPARATION OF THE TEST SPECIMEN
The Kevlar epoxy laminate obtained from the compres-
III. ENVIRONMENT SELECTION sion moulding machine will be having the dimensions of
The four different environmental solutions chosen for 300x300x3.8mm. As per ASTM D3039 standard the di-
testing the specimens are mensions of the tensile test specimen should be
Salt water 280x18x3.8mm.To prepare the specimens from the lami-
20% concentrated sulphuric acid nate, Water jet cutting machine which uses abrasive sand
mixed with water as cutting tool is used.
20% concentrated sodium hydroxide
Hydraulic Fluid (MIL-PRF-5606)
Reasons for choosing the Solutions:
. Sea Water:
Salt forms a strong electrolyte when dissolved in water,
which causes rapid corrosion of unprotected material sur-
faces. Kevlar 149 fibers are used for making high speed
boats especially sports boats. There are chances of fibers to
get exposed to sea water over a long period of time. So, in
order to predict the strength of fibers in such a condition,
sea water is chosen.
. Hydraulic Fluid:
The lubricants used are capable of minimizing moisture
intrusion and corrosion attack. However, at high tempera-
tures and pressures, oils can chemically react with impuri-
ties to produce acids. Kevlar 149 fibers are used in landing
Fig(a). Kevlar epoxy laminate after compression
gear doors and also in the control surfaces of wings of the
aircraft. There are chances of oil spilt during overhauling
process.
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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013)
The normal as well as impacted specimens are immersed
in the four solutions and the strengths of the specimens are
determined by tensile testing at regular intervals of time say
64hrs, 128hrs and 512 hrs respectively. The results are then
compared with the results of the specimens before immer-
sion.

Fig. (c) Load vs. Displacement graph for normal Specimen 1.

Fig(b) Specimens immersed in solutions

V. TENSILE TEST RESULTS


Tensile test results for normal specimen:
The pristine specimens are subjected to tensile testing
and a graph of load vs. displacement is obtained for speci-
men 1 and 2. From the graphs the ultimate tensile load Fig (d) Load vs. Displacement graph for normal Specimen 2
which the material can withstand is calculated and the av-
erage values are tabulated below in table . Tensile test results for impacted specimens:
The impacted specimens are then subjected to tensile
Table1.2
Tensile Testing Results for Normal Specimens testing. The graphs are obtained and the readings are tabu-
lated in the table
S.No. Ultimate Ten- Ultimate Average Ulti-
sile Strength Tensile Load mate Tensile
(Mpa) (KN) Load(KN)
Specimen 1 194.861 14.030
14.2525
Specimen 2 200.374 14.475

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013)

Fig.(g) Load vs. Displacement for normal specimens immersed in sea


water for 128 hours.
Fig. (e) Load vs. Displacement graph for impacted Specimen1.

Fig. (h) Load vs. Displacement for normal specimens immersed in


Fig. (f) Load vs. Displacement graph for impacted Specimen 2 20% Conc. H2SO4 for 128 hours.

Table 1.3.
Tensile Test Results for Impacted Specimens

S.No. Ultimate Ten- Ultimate Ten- Average Ul-


sile Strength sile Load timate Tensile
(Mpa) (KN) Load (KN)

Specimen 1 211.238 13.910 13.8125


Specimen 2 204.214 13.715

. Tensile test results for normal specimens immersed in


different solutions for 128 hours:
The tensile strength of the normal specimens immersed
in different solutions for 128 hours is found out. Fig.g,h,i,j
gives the load vs. displacement graph for normal specimens
immersed in sea water, 20% conc.H2SO4, 20% conc. NaOH Fig.(i) Load vs. Displacement for normal specimens immersed in 20%
Conc. NaOH for 128 hours.
and hydraulic fluid respectively.

119
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013)

Fig.(j) Load vs. Displacement for normal specimens immersed in


Hydraulic Fluid (MIL-PRF-5606) for 128 hours.
Table.1.4 Fig.(k) Load vs. Displacement for impacted Specimens immersed in
Tensile test result for normal specimens immersed in different solu-
Sea Water for 128 hours.
tions for 128 hours.

SOLUTIONS ULTIMATE TENSILE


LOAD (KN)

SALT WATER 12.355

20% CONC.H2SO4 11.450

20% CONC.NaOH 8.580

HYDRAULIC FLUID 11.135

After 128 hours salt water has the least effect towards
the specimens. The effect of 20% conc.H2SO4 and hydrau-
lic fluid towards the specimens are also very less. But, the
effect of 20% conc.NaOH is very high. Fig.(l) Load vs. Displacement for impacted specimen immersed in
20% Conc. H2SO4 for 128 hours.
. Tensile test results for impacted specimens immersed in
different solutions for 128 hours:
The tensile strength of impacted specimens immersed in
different solutions for 128 hours is found out. Fig.k,l,m&n
gives the load vs. displacement graphs for specimens im-
mersed in sea water, 20% conc.H2SO4, 20% conc.NaOH
and hydraulic fluid. The results are tabulated in table 6.6.

Fig.(m) Load vs. Displacement for impacted specimens immersed in


20% Conc. NaOH for 128 hours

120
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013)

Fig.(n) Load vs. Displacement for impacted specimens immersed in


Hydraulic Fluid (MIL-PRF-5606) for 128 hours. Fig.(o) Load vs. Displacement for normal specimens immersed
in Sea Water for 512 hours.
Table 1.5.
Tensile test results for impacted specimens immersed in different
solutions for 128 hours.

SOLUTIONS ULTIMATE TENSILE


LOAD (KN)

SALT WATER 11.42

20% CONC.H2SO4 9.880

20% CONC.NaOH 8.505

HYDRAULIC FLUID 10.060

From the table it is seen that the reaction of acid and


base on the specimens is much higher than salt water and Fig.(p) Load vs. Displacement for normal specimens immersed in
hydraulic fluid. But, effect of salt water is very less. 20% Conc.H2SO4 for 512 hours.

Tensile test results for normal specimens immersed in dif-


ferent solutions for 512 hours:
The tensile strength of normal specimens immersed in
various solutions for 512 hours is found out. Fig.o,p,q&r
gives the load vs. displacement graph for specimens im-
mersed in sea water, 20%conc.H2SO4, 20% conc.NaOH
and hydraulic fluid respectively. The ultimate tensile
strength the material can withstand is listed in table 6.7

Fig.(q) Load vs. Displacement for normal specimen immersed in 20%


Conc.NaOH for 512 hours.

121
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013)

Fig.(r) Loadvs.Displacement for normal specimens immersed in Hy-


draulic Fluid (MIL-PRF-5606) for 512 hours. Fig.(s) Load vs. Displacement for impacted specimens immersed in
Sea Water for 512 hours.
Table 1.6
Tensile test result for normal specimen immersed in various solutions
for 512 hours

SOLUTIONS ULTIMATE TENSILE


LOAD (KN)

SALT WATER 13.195

20% CONC.H2SO4 11.025

20% CONC.NaOH 8.025

HYDRAULIC FLUID 9.115

From the table it is clear that the reaction of conc.NaOH


on specimens is much higher when compared with the oth- Fig.(t) Load vs. Displacement for impacted specimens immersed in
er solutions. The effect of hydraulic fluid is also more but 20% Conc. H2SO4 for 512 hours.
less than the base solution.
Tensile test results for impacted specimens immersed in
different solutions for 512 hours:
The strength of the impacted specimens after 512 hours
of immersion in various fluids is listed below in table 6.8.
figs,t,u&v gives the load vs. displacement graphs for spec-
imens immersed in sea water, 20% conc.H2SO4, 20% conc.
NaOH and hydraulic fluid respectively.

Fig.(u) Load vs. Displacement for impacted specimens immersed in


20% Conc. NaOH for 512 hours.
122
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013)
The hydraulic fluid (MIL-PRF-5606) shows about
36% reduction in tensile strength at the end of 512
hours.
It is seen that as time increases the strength of the spec-
imen immersed in salt water decreases but the reduction is
very slow. But, the strength of the normal as well as im-
pacted specimens immersed in sodium hydroxide solution
shows a drastic reduction in tensile strength. As the immer-
sion period increases, the strength reduces. The sodium
hydroxide solution enters into the voids very soon and re-
duces the strength. The reactions of the hydraulic fluid on
the specimens are also a bit slower. Compared to acid, the
base reactions are faster on the Kevlar epoxy specimens

Fig.(v) Load vs. Displacement for impacted specimen immersed in VII. SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK
Hydraulic Fluid (MIL-PRF-5606) for 512 hours.
The experimental highlights an important aspect that en-
Table 1.7 vironmental characterization of materials such as compo-
Tensile test for impacted specimens immersed in various solutions for sites is essential for their widespread applications in newer
512 hours.
and novel fields of science and engineering. The technique
SOLUTIONS ULTIMATE TENSILE of adding various additives to make polymeric matrix com-
LOAD (KN) posites resistant to various damaging environmental condi-
tions is also an important research area seeking attention
SALT WATER 10.140 from researchers and engineers belonging to the composite
fraternity.
20% CONC.H2SO4 10.000
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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
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