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2, DECEMBER 2015

Hydromagnetic Flow of a Viscous Fluid with

Oscillatory Suction Velocity

A. S. Idowu*, O. Komolafe

ABSTRACT: This work considered the unsteady hydromagnetic flow of an electrically conducting, incompressible,

viscous fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate. The oscillatory suction velocity is normal to the plate. The

uniform magnetic field influence is normal to the flow and the permeability of the medium is time dependent. The

oscillatory suction velocity was defined so as to eliminate any complexity in the equations that were derived. The

problem was solved using a modified technique of the Homotopy analysis method. The results obtained were

discussed for various effects of material parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles .

KEYWORDS: Heat transfer, Mass transfer, Oscillatory suction velocity, Hydromagnetic flow, Vertical porous plate

The procedure of heat and mass transfer is seen in separated using their abilities to conduct heat.

motion caused by buoyancy in the atmosphere. It also In the past couple of years, an intensive research effort

happens that a lot of movement processes occur in industries has been devoted to problems on heat and mass transfer in

and natural environment in which energy and mass transfer view of their application to astro-physics,geo-physics,

take place at the same time. Heat and mass transfer also chemistry and engineering. In addition, the problem of heat

happen in bodies of water and inside different layers of the and mass transfer is also encountered in chemical process

earth body. In chemical processes, turbo machinery, water industries such as polymer production and food processing.

treatment power generation and aerospace technology, Many researchers have studied the problems on free

unsteady oscillatory free convective flow is of very high convection and mass transfer flow of a viscous fluid through

importance.Such flows happen due to unsteady motion of a porous media. In some studies,the permeability of the porous

boundary layer or unsteady temperature conditions. medium was assumed to be constant while some assumed it

When it comes to industrial processes such as drying, to be time dependent.

water purification, energy transfer in cooling towers, power Panda and Mohapatra (2012) studied the effects of some

generation and flow in a desert cooler, a combination of heat pertinent parameters on unsteady oscillatory flow of an

and mass transfer problems with chemical reactions are of incompressible, electrically conducting viscous Liquid

great importance. This type of problems have received great through a porous medium past an infinite vertical porous

attention from researchers in recent years. It happens that plate with constant suction velocity. A transverse uniform

heat and mass transfer, together with chemical reaction magnetic field was applied. The system was assumed to be

happen simultaneously. Possible applications of this type of rotating. it was shown that the effects of magnetic field and

flow can be found in many industries. Take for instance, in rotating parameter enhanced the velocity field. It was also

the power industry,among the methods of generating electric realized that the rotating parameter was independent of the

power is one in which electrical energy is extracted directly magnetic field. In the absence of rotation, the magnetic field

from a moving conducting fluid. has no significant contribution.

The study of heat generation or absorption effects in Choudhary and Bandita (2013) investigated the effects

moving fluids is important in view of several physical of visco-elastic parameter on the hydromagnetic oscillatory

problems, such as fluids undergoing heat-emitting or heat- porous plate in presence of heat source. It was seen that the

absorbing chemical reactions. Effective cooling of moving velocity field was significantly affected at every point of the

machine parts and electronics have become necessary as a fluid region by the visco-elastic parameter.Rao, et al (2011)

result of the fast growth in electronic technology. Cooling of studied the effects of pertinent parameters on heat and mass

electronic equipment ranges from computers of various sizes transfer in magneto Hydrodynamic flow of a viscous fluid

and uses and from energy supplies to telephone switch past a vertical plate under oscillatory suction velocity using

boards. Thermal diffusion effect has been used to separate the finite element solution method. It was observed that

mixtures of very light gases such as hydrogen and helium. velocity decreases with an increase in Hartmann number M

as well as Prandtl number Pr and Schmidt number Pr for

*Corresponding authors e-mail address: asidowu@gmail.com doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njtd.v12i2.3

IDOWU and KOMOLAFE: HOMOTOPY ANALYSIS OF UNSTEADY HYDROMAGNETIC FLOW FLUID 49

cooling of plate ( Gr > 0 ), whereas velocity increases with the permeability number have an increasing effect on the velocity

increase in Prandtl number Pr and Schmidt number Sc for profiles for cooling of the plate (Gr > 0) . The Schmidt,

heating of the plate ( Gr < 0 ). It was as well discovered that Prandtl and Magnetic numbers have decreasing effects on the

the velocity increases with an increase in permeability velocity profile. The reverse of these effects is the case for

parameter K for cooling of the plate ( Gr > 0 ) and the heating of the plate ( Gr < 0 ).

velocity decreases with an increase in permeability parameter In previous work involving suction velocity oscillatory

K for heating of the plate ( Gr < 0 ). Furthermore, the about a mean velocity v the suction velocity is represented

velocity increases with an increase in Grashoff number Gr as v = v (1 eint ) . The problem often generate a complex

and modified Grashoff number Gm . Also the, temperature part which is always discarded by researchers. Over the

and concentration decreases with an increase in Prandtl years, various modifications have been made to the method

number Pr and Schmidt number Sc respectively. which was originally introduced by Liao (1991). The

Ramana (2012) investigated the effect of material modification to the later is therefore referred to as the new

parameters on MHD oscillatory flow past a vertical porous Homotopy Analysis Method(nHAM).

plate embedded in a rotating porous medium. It was It is the aim of this present work to treat the whole

discovered that increase in the magnetic parameter and problem as real. The suction velocity will be represented by

rotation parameter has an increasing effect on the velocity v = v (1 ent ) where n is the frequency and t is time. This

profile. Decrease in permeability parameter brings about a research work considered the values of y from 0 to infinity.

decrease in the velocity field. The same was true of Schmidt A modified Homotopy Analysis method was used in this

number, the temperature drops out significantly. research work.

Das(2010) analyzed the theoretical unsteady

hydromagnetic free convective flow of a viscous

II. MATERIALS AND METHOD

incompressible electrically conducting fluid past an infinite

vertical porous plate through a porous medium in the present An unsteady hydromagnetic flow of viscous,

of constant suction and heat source. The result reveals that incompressible electrically conducting fluid pass an infinite

the effect of increasing magnetic parameter M retard the porous plate in a porous medium of time dependent

velocity of the flow field at all point, while an increase in permeability and suction velocity was considered as shown in

Grashoff number for heat transfer or heat source/sink Figure 1. In Cartesian co-ordinate system, x-axis is assumed

parameter accelerate the velocity of the flow field at all point. to be along the plate in the direction of the flow and y-axis

It also happened that for smaller values of permeability

normal to it. A uniform magnetic field is introduced normal

parameter, the velocity increases at all point of the flow field

with increasing permeability, whereas for higher values of to the direction of the flow.

permeability, the effect reverses. A growing magnetic

parameter M or Prandtl number Pr decelerates the

temperature of the flow field at all point. While a growing

permeability parameter or heat source parameter reverses the

effect.

Naik (2014) studied the effect of thermal radiation on

unsteady hydromagnetic free convective oscillatory couette

flow of a viscous fluid embedded in a porous medium. The

problem was solved using the finite difference scheme. It was

observed that Grashoff and Eckert numbers tends to retard

fluid velocity, whereas Hartmann number, Prandtl number,

Porosity number and thermal radiation parameter have Figure 1: Physical sketch and geometry of the problem.

reverse effect on it. Eckert number tends to enhance fluid

temperature whereas Prandtl number and Thermal radiation In the analysis, all the fluid properties are assumed to be

parameter have reverse effect on it. The profile for skin constant except that of the influence of the density variation

friction due to velocity profile rises under the effect of of the temperature. Therefore, the base flow in the medium is

Grashoff number and Eckert number and falls under the entirely due to buoyancy force caused by temperature and

effects of Prandtl number, porosity number and Thermal difference between the wall and medium. Initially t 0 , the

radiation parameter. plate as well as fluid is assumed to be at the same

Venkateswarly, et al (2013) presented a study of temperature and the concentration of species is very low.

unsteady MHD flow of an incompressible, electrically When t > 0 , the temperature of the plate is instataneously

conducting viscous fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate raised (or lowered) to Tw and the concentration of the species

under oscillatory suction velocity using the Galerkin finite

method. Results were discussed for Grashoff number is raised (or lowered) to Cw under the stated assumption and

corresponding to the cooling and heating of the plate. It was taking the Boussinesqs approximation into account, the

seen that increase in Grashoff, Modified Grashoff and

50 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT, VOL. 12, NO. 2, DECEMBER 2015.

Sc = ; Pr = ; M = ;

concentration in dimensionless form respectively are D k v

Continuity Equation u (1) g (Cw C )

=0 Gm =

t v3

u u

2

= g (T T ) g * (C C )

t y' 2 IV. THE HOMOTOPY ANALYSIS METHOD (HAM)

u B 2u Non-linear differential equations are difficult to solve,

(2)

k especially analytically. The homotopy analysis method

T T k 2T (3) (HAM) is one of the powerful analytic method to solve

v =

t y c p y '2 differential equation with a special advantage of being able to

C C 2C (4) solve non-linear differential equations. HAM enjoys great

v = D '2

t y y freedom in choosing initial approximations and auxiliary

Where u is the velocity along the x-axis, -the linear operators. The HAM can guarantee the convergence of

kinematic coefficient of viscosity, g-the acceleration due to the series solution by auxiliary parameters especially the

gravity, -the coefficient of volume expansion for the heat

convergence-controller parameter h . The HAM was

transfer, * -the volumetric coefficient of expansion with

introduced first by Liao (1991). A modified method of the

species concentration, T-the fluid temperature, T -the fluid HAM called the new HAM was used in this work. This

temperature at infinity, C -the species concentrated, C -the modification is as a result of work done by Hassan and EL-

species concentration at infinity, D-the chemical molecular Tawil (2010).

diffusivity,k-the mean assorption co-efficient,k is the This new method of the HAM improves the

constant permeability of the medium, -the density of the

convergence of the series solution, eliminates the unneeded

fluid, -the electrical conductivity, B -the magnetic field terms and reduces time consuming in the standard HAM. An

strength and t is the time. The corresponding boundary approximate solution is provided by re-writing the second

conditions are order differential equation in the form of two first order

t 0 : u = o, T = T , C = C forally

differential equation. The solution of these two differential

u = 0, T = Tw (Tw T )et , C

equations is obtained as a power series solution. This scheme

= Cw (Cw C )et

t > 0 : (5) was tested by Hassan and EL-Tawil (2010) on four exact

u 0 T T C

solvable differential equations. The results demonstrated

C asy aty = 0 reliability and efficiency of the algorithm developed.

From the continuity equation, it can be seen that v is

either a constant or a function of time. So assuming suction V. SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM

velocity to be oscillating about a non-zero constant mean, we

The equation for momentum,energy and concentration

write v = v (1 et ) where v is the mean suction velocity in dimensionless form are

-frequency of oscillation and v > 0 , < 1 are positive 1 u u

constants. The negative sign indicates that the suction (1 e nt ) =

4 t y

velocity is directed towards the plate. The permeability of the

medium is considered to be k (t ) . 2u u

(Gr )T (Gm)C M 2u (6)

y 2

k (1 e nt )

III. NON DIMENSIONALIZATION 1 T T 1 2T (7)

(1 ent ) =

The non dimensionless quantities introduced in these 4 t y Pr y 2

equation were defined as: 1 C C 1 2C

v y v 2t 4 (1 ent ) = (8)

y= ; t= ; n= 2 ; 4 t y Sc y 2

4 v

u

T T The relevant boundary condition in dimensionless form

u= ; T=

v Tw T are

C C k v 2 u = 0, T = 1 et ,

C= ; k = 2 ; (9)

Cw C C = 1 e aty = 0 t

g * (Tw T ) u 0, T 0, C 0asy

Gr =

v3 Re-arranging the eqns (6)-(8),

IDOWU and KOMOLAFE: HOMOTOPY ANALYSIS OF UNSTEADY HYDROMAGNETIC FLOW FLUID 51

(1 et )

y 2 4 t y effects of material parameters Gr,Gm,M,Sc,Pr and k on the

velocity, temperature and concentration fields.

1 2

k (1 et ) m u (Gr )T (Gm)C For various values of Grashoff number and modified

Grashoff number, the velocity profiles are plotted in Figures

u = v

2 and 3. The Grashoff number (Gr) signifies the relative

1 u u

v = (1 et ) effect of the thermal buoyancy force to the viscous

4 t y

hydrodynamics force in the boundary layer. It was observed

1 2 that there was an increase in velocity field with decrease in

k (1 et ) m u (Gr )T (Gm)C

Grashofff number.Same apply also to the modified Grashoff

u ( y , t ) = 0, v ( y , t ) = number. The effect of magnetic parameter M is shown in

u ( y , t ) v ( y , t ) Figure 4.

Lu ( y , t ) = Lv( y , t ) =

y y It was observed that the velocity increases with increase

1 u t u in magnetic parameter M. It is also observed that velocity

Au m 1 ( y , t ) = (1 e )

4 t y increases with decrease in permeability parameter K. For the

1 2 negative values of Grashoff number ( Gr < 0 ) i.e when the

k (1 et ) m u (Gr )T (Gm)C plate is being heated, Figures 8-11 shows the effects of

Bv m 1 ( x, t ) = 0 material parameters on the velocity profile. It is seen that

y

u1 = h ( v ) dy increase in magnetic number increases the velocity. Increase

0

in permeability parameter number also brings about a

1 u u

(1 e t ) decrease in velocity profile. Increase in Prandtl number also

y 4 t y

v1 = h dy

brings about an increase in velocity profile. Increase in

0

1

m u (Gr )T (Gm)C

2

Grashoff number brings about increase in the velocity profile.

k (1 et ) Increase in modified Grashoff number Gm increases the

for m 2 velocity profile.

y

u m ( y , t ) = (1 h )u m 1 ( x, t ) h ( v m 1 ( y , t ))dy The Prandtl number is the only parameter associated

0

v m ( y , t ) = (1 h )v m 1 ( y , t )

with the temperature field in the problem investigated. Figure

6 illustrates the effect of Prandtl number on the temperature

1 u m 1

y u m 1 1

h { (1 et ) t

m 2 u profile. An increase in Prandtl number decreases the

04 t y

k (1 e ) temperature field.

(Gr )T (Gm)C}dy

concentration equations with the introduction of , , h1 , andh2

.The values of , and were determined by using the

boundary conditions as y tends to infinity. The values of

h , h1 , and h2 are also determined.

The mathematical software, MAPLE 13, was used to

solve the system of equation up till the seventh iteration for

velocity, temperature and concentration.

7 7 7 (10)

u = um , T = Tm , C = Cm

m=0 m=0 m=0

The folowing values, = 0.005 , n = 0.5 , t = 3.142 Figure 2: Effects of Grashoff numbers on velocity profile

were used to determine the values of , , , h , h1 , h2

The Schmidt number is the only parameter associated

= 20, = 0.125, = 0.125, with the concentration field of the problem investigated.

h = 0.3, h1 = 1, h2 = 1. Figure 7 illustrate the effect of Schmidt number on the

concentration profile. It is seen that an increase in Schmidt

The value of Gm, Gr, Sc, Pr , m, k were also substituted number decreases the concentration field. Also concentration

to make the velocity,temperature and concentration equations field falls slowly and steadily for Hydrogen and Helium but

functions of y above. falls rapidly for Oxygen and Ammonia in comparison to

water vapour. This water vapour can be used for maintaining

normal concentration field and Hydrogen can be used for

VI DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

maintaining effective concentration field.

The temperature and the species concentration were

coupled to the velocity via Grashoff number (Gr) and

52 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT, VOL. 12, NO. 2, DECEMBER 2015.

(Gr < 0)

Figure 5: Effects of Permeability parameter on velocity profile

Figure 6: Effects of Prandtl number on Temperature profile Figure 10: Effects of Magnetic number on velocity profile for (Gr < 0)

IDOWU and KOMOLAFE: HOMOTOPY ANALYSIS OF UNSTEADY HYDROMAGNETIC FLOW FLUID 53

defined the oscillatory suction velocity with the complex

number. The similarity in results shows an efficiency in the

definition of oscillatory suction velocity used for the purpose

of this study.

REFERENCES

Choudhary, R., Das, B. (2013). Visco-elastic effect on

MHD free convective flow past an oscillating porous plate

through porous medium with heat source. International

Journal of Innovative Research in science Engineering and

Figure 11: Effects of Permeability parameter on velocity profile for

( Gr < 0 )

Technology, 2: 7287-7295.

Das S. S. (2010). Hydromagnetic convective flow past a

VII SUMMARY vertical porous plate through a porous medium with suction

Unsteady MHD flow of an incompressible, electrical and heat source. International Journal of Energy and

conducting, viscous fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate Environment 1(3):467-478.

of time dependent permeability under oscillatory suction Hassan, N. H., El-Tawil, M. A. (2012). A new

velocity normal to the plate has been studied. The oscillatory technique of unit homotopy analysis method for solving high-

suction velocity was defined as v = v (1 ent ) .The arising order Nonlinear Differential equation. Applied Mathematics

and Computation, 219: 708-728.

equations namely, momentum, energy and concentration

Komolafe, O. (2014). The Homotopy Analysis of

have been solved using a new technique of using Homotopy

analysis method. Through this method, the velocity, Unsteady Hydromagnetic Flow of a Viscous Fluid with

Oscillatory Suction Velocity,Unpublished M.Sc. Dissertation,

temperature and concentration profiles were obtained. The

2014.

effects of material parameters like the Grashoff,modified

Liao, S. J. (1991). The proposed Homotopy analysis

Grashoff, Prandtl, Schmidt and Hartmann numbers were

technique for the solution of no nlinear Problem, Ph.D thesis

checked on the velocity profile. Effect of the Prandtl number

Liao, S. J. (2003). Beyond Perturbalion: Introduction to

was checked on the temperature profile while varying effects

Homotopy analysis Method, Chapman and Hall/CRL press.

of Schmidt number were checked on the concentration

Naik, S. H. (2014). Thermal radiation effect on a

profile. These effects of varying parameters were shown with

unsteady hydromagnetic force convective oscillatory

the help of graphs.

convective flow of a viscous fluid embedded in a porous

VIII CONCLUSION medium. IJETTCS, 3 (4): 6-12.

With the oscillatory suction velocity defined as Panda, J. P., Mohapandra, J. K. (2012).

Hydromagnetic Oscillatory flow of a viscous liquid.

v = v (1 e nt ) , this took care of whatever complex

International Journal physics and mathematically sciences,

expression that might have been included in the equations

28: 239-243.

that were solved. The problem in this form is more applicable

Ramana G. V. (2012). MHD oscillatory flow past a

to real life problems. In the presence of complex expressions

vertical porous plate embedded in a rotating Porous medium.

which would be discarded while solving, the problem would

International Journal of Engineering. 3: 253-258

have deviated from real life applications thereby reducing the

Rao, J. A.: R. S. Raju, S. Sivaiah (2012). Finite

reliability of the model in relation to solving real problems. It

element solution of heat and mass transfer in MHD flow of a

was also observed that the new technique of using Homotopy

viscous fluid past a vertical plate under oscillatory suction

Analysis Method proved to be more efficient, faster and

velocity, Journal of Applied fluid mechanics, S: 1-10

easier to use in comparison to other methods.

Venkateswarly, M.: G. V. Ramana Reddy, D. V.

The various effects of material parameters were checked

Lakshmi (2013). Unsteady under oscillatory suction

on velocity, temperature and concentration profile. It was

velocity. Advances in Applied science Research, 4(6): 52-67.

seen that these

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