Anda di halaman 1dari 25


Psoriasis (say "suh-RY-uh-sus") is a long-term
skin problem that causes skin cells to grow too
quickly, resulting in thick, white, silvery, or red
patches of skin.
Normally, skin cells grow gradually and flake off
every 4 weeks. New skin cells grow to replace the
layers of the skin as they shed.
But in psoriasis camera.gif, new skin cells
move rapidly to the surface of the skin in days
rather than weeks. They build up and form thick
patches called plaques (say "plax"). The patches
range in size from small to large. They most often
appear on the knees, elbows, scalp, hands, feet,
or lower back. Psoriasis is most common in
adults. But children and teens can get it too.
Having psoriasis can be embarrassing, and
many people, especially teens, avoid swimming
and other situations where patches can show. But
there are many types of treatment that can help
keep psoriasis under control.
Experts believe that psoriasis occurs when
the immune system overreacts, causing
inflammation and flaking of skin. In some cases,
psoriasis runs in families.

People with psoriasis often notice times when

their skin gets worse. Things that can cause
these flare-ups include a cold and dry climate,
infections, stress, dry skin, and taking certain

Researchers have been unable to identify a
singular cause for psoriasis, but studies suggest
psoriasis is an autoimmune diseaseit begins in
the immune system, the result of your immune
systems overreaction to stimuli.
In a properly-functioning immune system,
T-cells, a kind of white blood cell, protect the
body against infection and disease by identifying
and destroying foreign material. With psoriasis, T-
cells overreact, mistaking healthy skin cells for
dangerous ones, and set off a chain of unneeded
immune system responses.
Certain factors may trigger psoriasis in a
person who has never had symptoms before. And
for those who have psoriasis, these same factors
can trigger another bout with the disease.
Triggers include:
bacterial or viral infections, such as strep
throat or the common cold
diseases that weaken your immune system,
such as AIDS or cancer
emotional stress
dry air or dry skin (particularly from changes
in weather)
some medicines, such as beta-blockers,
lithium, and anti-malaria drugs
cuts, bites, or burns on the skin
too little sunlight or too much (sunburn)
increased alcohol intake

Symptoms of psoriasis appear in different ways.
Psoriasis can be mild, with small areas of rash.
When psoriasis is moderate or severe, the skin
gets inflamed with raised red areas topped with
loose, silvery, scaling skin. If psoriasis is severe,
the skin becomes itchy and tender. And
sometimes large patches form and may be
uncomfortable. The patches can join together
and cover large areas of skin, such as the entire
Psoriasis can also affect the fingernails and
toenails, causing the nails to pit, change color,
and separate from the nail bed.
In some people, psoriasis causes joints to
become swollen, tender, and painful. This is
called psoriatic arthritis (say "sor-ee-AT-ik ar-
Symptoms often disappear (go into
remission), even without treatment, and then
return (flare up).

Psoriasis of the occurrence and recurrence
affected by many factors, some patients were
upper respiratory tract infection and disease,
some patients are due to excessive mental stress
and disease, while some patients are eating a
certain food allergies caused by, This requires
that patients learn to self-summary of research
exploring the incidence laws, trying to find their
own specific reasons for each disease in the
future take note of life and reduce chance of a
First, prevention of infection: local Gan
Ranzao induce an important cause of psorasis,
especially after a cold, complicated by tonsillitis,
bronchitis, require active treatment to shorten
the course of the disease, repeated tonsil
infection, and psoriasis attacks are closer ties,
could consider tonsillectomy. This point is
particularly important for young patients
Second, allergic factors: It is important to
induce one of the causes of psoriasis. Due to diet
or drugs, or contact with certain substances
allergy can often induce the occurrence of
psoriasis. Patients with each relapse, the need to
be carefully recalled recently they had taken
something, has taken drugs, or exposed to a
chemical substance, so that the skin redness,
itching, psoriasis lesions appear, then the
substance in the future should try to avoid
Third, damp cold: by cold-induced psoriasis
of the number of attacks and more, the living
environment due to wet, cold, can
Benbingfasheng or worsen, so patients should
avoid large cold thermal stimulation of skin large
living room to maintain ventilation, dry, warm.
We know that stress can definitely make psoriasis
worse. Since yoga combines different methods
such as stretching or breathing and meditation,
you can help control the stress and possibly
improve blood flow to areas that involve
psoriasis. Yoga is also helpful to improve your
mood as well as make you sleep better. If a
psoriasis patient has psoriatic arthritis, yoga can
even help improve joint pain. Be sure to check
with your physician whether yoga is a good
activity for you. There is also some evidence that
mind and body practices such as yoga and
meditation influence gene expression and
counteract cellular damage that could be induced
by chronic stress. The exact mechanism of action
is unknown however. This is a good example of
mind body connection.

Acne is the common cause of spots. Most people
with acne are aged between 12 and 25 but some
older and younger people are affected. Boys are
more commonly affected than girls. Acne usually
affects the face but may also affect the back,
neck and chest. The severity can range from mild
to severe. About 8 in 10 teenagers develop some
degree of acne. Often it is mild. However, it is
estimated that about 3 in 10 teenagers have
acne bad enough to need treatment to prevent
scarring. Untreated acne usually lasts about 4-5
years before settling. However, it can last for
many years in some cases.

Acne occurs when the pores on your skin become
blocked with oil, dead skin, or bacteria. Each pore
on your skin is the opening to a follicle. The
follicle is made up of a hair and a sebaceous (oil)
gland. The oil gland releases sebum (oil), which
travels up the hair, out of the pore, and onto your
skin. The sebum keeps your skin lubricated and
soft. If you develop acne, this may be because of
one or more problems in this lubrication process.
These possible causes include:
too much oil or sebum is being produced by
the follicle
dead skin cells are accumulating in the pore
bacteria has built up in the pore
An overabundance of oil, a pore clogged by
dead skin cells, and bacteria all contribute to
the development of pimples.
A zit appears when the bacteria grows in the
clogged pore and the oil is unable to escape.

Acne can cause more than blemishes. Studies
show that people who have acne can have:
Low self-esteem: Many people who have
acne say that their acne makes them feel bad
about themselves. Because of their acne, they do
not want to be with friends. They miss school and
work. Grades can slide, and absenteeism can
become a problem because of their acne.
Depression: Many people who have acne suffer
from more than low self-esteem. Acne can lead to
a medical condition called depression. The
depression can be so bad that people think about
what it would be like to commit suicide. Many
studies have found that teens who believe that
they have bad acne were likely to think about
committing suicide.
Dark spots on the skin: These spots appear when
the acne heals. It can take months or years for
dark spots to disappear.
Scars (permanent): People who get acne cysts
and nodules often see scars when the acne
clears. You can prevent these scars. Be sure to
see a dermatologist for treatment if you get acne
early between 8 and 12 years old. If someone
in your family had acne cysts and nodules, you
also should see a dermatologist if you get acne.
Treating acne before cysts and nodules appear
can prevent scars.

Nobody is sure as to what causes acne and what
are the precautions for pimples. Top researchers
on the matter believe that the primary cause of
acne can be as a result of increase in androgen
levels in your body. Androgen is a hormone that
becomes active when one reaches puberty. This
hormone as a result of its breakdown, more oil is
produced from the base of your skin making it
easier for bacterias to infect your skin in the
process. Some of the common causes of acne
Sweating is a normal especially if you are a
healthy person. Usually one can sweat after a
hard days job or in some cases, after your daily
training exercise. Sweat has been known to
cause acne as its a mixture of dirt and bacteria.
Taking a shower at least twice in a day will
reduce the chances of acne from spreading, in
case you have already contracted it.
Changing skin products
Some skin products have a negative reaction
when they come in contact with skin. Some of
the Ingredients used in these products may
cause blemish purging. If this happens to you,
then it is better to avoid that product as it might
be the reason to your acne.
Mostly the affected in this case are women. Some
women will have an unbalance in their hormonal
levels during the menstrual period leading to
them having black or red spots. This condition
can be controlled if one takes birth control pills
which will improve the balance in hormones. Also
during pregnancy, the hormonal change may
lead to re occurrence of acne or for it to appear
for the first time.
Air travel
It sounds a bit weird but its true. The air planes
we travel in are designed to hold very minimum
amounts of humidity. Lack of enough moisture
will lead to blockage of your skin pores which will
result in dehydration of your skin cells. The skin
cells control movement of materials both coming
in and going out of your body. Meaning
accumulation of fats and bacteria, might lead to
one being infected with acne.
Consumption of dairy and sugary products
A diet with a lot of dairy and sugary products can
worsen acne or simply be the cause of it. An
excess consumption of this products lead to
formation of crystal blemishes which in later
cases, will end up appearing as scars. Consuming
a controlled amount of these products will have
no effects on your skin as far as acne is related.
Acne has also been said to be genetically passed
from one off spring to the other. In some studies,
two twins were observed to have acne when they
reached puberty while in other studies; acne was
experienced among the first degree relatives.


Like most health conditions, acne has more than
one cause. Gary Kraftsow, founder of the
American Viniyoga Institute and author of Yoga
for Wellness, says that while yoga cant address
all of acnes causes, such as a genetic
predisposition to breakouts, a targeted yoga
practice can help with others by combating stress
and promoting circulation to the face.

Stressed-out skin
One of the main causes of acne is stress, says
Kraftsow. Or, more specifically, an imbalance in
the autonomic nervous system (the system that
controls breathing, heart rate, digestion and
sexual arousal). Stress whether physical,
emotional or even dietary creates this
imbalance by stimulating the sympathetic
subsystem, often referred to as the fight or
flight response. The sympathetic response
makes your heart beat faster, floods the body
with hormones (including adrenalin) and diverts
blood away from the digestive system and the
skin. This can trigger acne outbreaks.
But what if stressed out is your status quo?
Thats where yoga comes in.
There are many calming postures that
encourage the parasympathetic or rest and
repose response instead, says Liz Lark, a yoga
teacher and co-author of Healing Yoga. Some
poses Lark suggests include:
Uttanasana (standing forward bend): Stand up
straight with your hands on your hips. Exhale and
bend forward from your hips, lengthening your
torso as you move toward the floor. With your
knees straight, bring your palms or fingertips to
the floor, or cross your forearms and hold your
elbows. Lengthen your torso with each inhalation
and deepen the bend with each exhalation. Relax
your head and neck. Hold for up to one minute,
then bring your hands back onto your hips. Come
up on an inhalation, keeping your torso long and
Janu Sirsasana (head-to-knee forward bend): Sit
on the floor on a folded blanket with legs
extended. Inhale, bending your right knee and
drawing your heel back toward your groin. Rest
your right foot against the inside of your left
thigh. Lay your outer right leg on the floor, with
your shin at a right angle to your left leg. Press
your right hand against your inner right thigh and
your left hand on the floor beside your hip.
Exhale and turn your torso to the left, reaching to
grasp your left foot in your right hand. Inhale and
lengthen through the top of your head, twisting
further to the left. Reach your left hand to the
outside of your left foot, exhaling as you bend
forward to touch your nose to your knee. Hold for
up to one minute, then release on an exhalation.
Repeat on the other side.
Supta Padangusthasana (reclining big toe pose):
Lie on the floor, legs extended. Exhale, bending
your left knee and hugging your thigh to your
stomach. Loop a strap around the arch of your
left foot, holding the strap with both hands.
Inhale and straighten your left knee, pressing
your heel toward the ceiling. Move your hands up
the strap until your elbows are fully extended,
pressing your shoulder blades into the floor. Once
your left leg is fully lengthened, extend through
your big toe. Turn your left leg outward to the left
from the hip joint, then exhale and swing it out to
the left, holding it a few inches off the floor.
Continue rotating your left leg, then inhale,
bringing it back to vertical. Hold for up to one
minute, then release on an exhalation. Repeat on
the other side.

Sinusitis or sinus infection is inflammation of the
air cavities within the passages of the nose.
Sinusitis can be caused by infection, allergies,
and chemical or particulate irritation of the
sinuses. Most people do not spread sinus
infections to other people.

If you are plagued by sinus problems, take a
moment to consider these valuable parts of your
head. What can turn good sinuses into problem
Your sinuses are hollow air spaces within the
bones between your eyes, behind your
cheekbone, and in the forehead. They produce
mucus, which helps keep the inside of your nose
moist. That, in turn, helps protect against dust,
allergens, and pollutants.

Interesting Sinus Facts

No one is completely sure why we have sinuses,
but some researchers think they keep the head
from being too heavy.
Sinuses are also are responsible for the depth
and tone of your voice. This explains why you
sound like Clint Eastwood when your sinuses are
all stuffed up.
If the tissue in your nose is swollen from
allergies, a cold, or environmental triggers, it can
block the sinus passages. Your sinuses cant
drain, and you may feel pain.
There are eight sinus cavities in total. They are
paired, with one of each in the left and right side
of the face.

Two sinus cavities are located in the

Two are behind each cheekbone.
Two sinus cavities are within the bones
between your eyes.
Two are behind each eye.

Sinus infection, or sinusitis, is a common
condition that refers to inflammation of the
sinuses and nasal passages.
Acute sinusitis usually lasts fewer than eight
weeks or occurs no more than three times per
year, with each episode lasting no longer than 10
Chronic sinusitis lasts longer than eight weeks or
occurs more than four times per year, with
symptoms usually lasting more than 20 days.
Sinusitis can be caused by viruses, allergens,
pollutants, bacteria, and fungi.
Symptoms of sinusitis include
runny or stuffy nose,
postnasal drip,
pain or pressure around the eyes or
sore throat,
bad breath,
tooth pain, or
sensitive teeth.

Keep Your Cool

"When the heat is on, the membranes get dry,"

says Russell B. Leftwich, MD, an allergist in
Nashville, Tenn. Mucus isn't cleared as
effectively, boosting the risk of sinus problems.
He can't recommend a specific indoor
temperature range as ideal, but offers this guide:
"You are better off wearing a sweater and
keeping it cooler than cranking it up so you are
comfortable wearing only a T-shirt."
Let your nose guide your indoor
temperature range, suggests Lavi. "If you are not
waking up with nosebleeds or congestion, that is
probably a good temperature range."
Humidify Your Air
Strive for an indoor environment that's not too
dry and not too humid. " Dust mites love greater
than 50% humidity," Lavi warns. And if you're
allergic to dust mites, that's bad news for your
A too-humid indoor environment can also
encourage the growth of mold, which can also set
off sinus problems, says Todd Kingdom, MD,
professor of otolaryngology--head and neck
surgery at the University of Colorado School of
Medicine. Some people are more sensitive to this
than others are, he says.


1. Neti Pots A small pot is filled with a lukewarm
saline solution, and then it is poured into one
nostril and drains out the other side. The water
gently cleanses the sinus cavities, removing
mucous and relieving congestion, post-nasal drip
and sinus discomfort. If you have never tried a
neti pot, and you've had sinus issues or allergies
in the past, I'm telling you here, you have got to
try one! It is not as uncomfortable as you think,
and over time you'll wonder why you hadn't tried
it earlier. The Himalayan Institute is a very
reputable source for information on neti pots.

2. Asana Any physical movement when you're

under the weather is going to encourage the
lymph to move along and do its job, getting you
feeling healthy again. Even if it's just a few neck
and shoulder stretches, it's better than doing

For sinuses though, more specifically, it is

inversions that can really help to get things
loosened up and moving. These poses will
intensify the pressure in your head, but when you
right yourself, you should feel some relief shortly
after. Give it time, and be open-minded. Positive
energy is one behaviour that I feel can prevent
one from getting sick, and heal a person when
they do succumb to illness. Do each pose for
about one minute. Allow yourself to relax into the
pose and try to keep your breath as smooth and
steady as possible.
Poses I recommend for Beginners:
Child's Pose (Balasana)
Downward Facing Dog (Adho Mukha Svanasana)
Standing Forward Fold (Uttanasana)
Rabbit Pose (Sasangasana)
Poses I recommend for Intermediate to
Advanced: If you have not tried these poses
before, I highly recommend you get assistance
from a Certified Yoga Instructor. It is very
important to warm the body thoroughly before
attempting advanced inversions.
Shoulderstand (Salamba Sarvangasana)
Plow Pose (Halasana)
Headstand (Salamba Sirsasana)

3. Pranayama/Breathing Exercises: Though it may

seem counter-intuitive, breathing is another
practice that can alleviate sinus discomfort. Try
the following practices with a calm and relaxed
demeanor, focusing on keeping your prana
moving smoothly. You may wish to blow your
nose, or better yet, use your neti pot before you
try these exercises.
Belly Breathing: Lie on your back with your knees
bent and your hands on your belly. Breathe
deeply into the belly, focusing on expanding the
belly like a buddha, then draw the breath and
energy up through your ribs, chest and
shoulders. Exhale the same way, deflating your
belly, chest and shoulders, and squeezing all the
air out of your belly. Find your own rhythm.
Calming Breath: Sit comfortably. Bring your
right hand out in front of you, palm facing you.
Fold your index and middle fingers into the palm.
Place your ring finger on your left nostril to close
it off. Breathe into the right nostril for two counts.
Close off the right nostril with the thumb and
hold the breath for two counts. Release the left
nostril, exhale for two counts. Close off the left
nostril and hold the breath for two counts. Try
visualizing a square. If it feels uncomfortable to
hold the breath, simply pause instead. Increase
the count as you become comfortable, making
sure that you are doing equal counts for each

Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the
lung affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs
known as alveoli. It is usually caused by infection
with viruses or bacteria and less commonly other
microorganisms, certain drugs and other
conditions such as autoimmune diseases.

Pneumonia is due to infections caused primarily
by bacteria or viruses and less commonly by
fungi and parasites. Although there are more
than 100 strains of infectious agents identified,
only a few are responsible for the majority of the
cases. Mixed infections with both viruses and
bacteria may occur in up to 45% of infections in
children and 15% of infections in adults. A
causative agent may not be isolated in
approximately half of cases despite careful
The term pneumonia is sometimes more
broadly applied to any condition resulting in
inflammation of the lungs (caused for example by
autoimmune diseases, chemical burns or drug
reactions); however, this inflammation is more
accurately referred to as pneumonitis.
Conditions and risk factors that predispose
to pneumonia include smoking,
immunodeficiency, alcoholism, chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, chronic
kidney disease, and liver disease. The use of
acid-suppressing medicationssuch as proton-
pump inhibitors or H2 blockersis associated
with an increased risk of pneumonia. The risk is
also increased in old age.
Typical signs and symptoms include a cough,
chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.[4]
Diagnostic tools include x-rays and culture of the
sputum. Vaccines to prevent certain types of
pneumonia are available. Treatment depends on
the underlying cause. Pneumonia presumed to be
bacterial is treated with antibiotics. If the
pneumonia is severe, the affected person is
generally hospitalized.

"There are three types of pneumonia ventilator
associated pneumonia (VAP), community
acquired pneumonia (CAP) and health care
acquired pneumonia (HCAP)," Dr. Feroz explains.
"All of these are very serious and require
Patients can protect themselves by getting an
annual flu shot. People who have a compromised
immune system, COPD or diabetes, and are
seniors should receive the pneumococcal
"The flu virus changes each year, so you have to
stay up-to-date on your vaccinations," Dr. Feroz
says. "We see more cases in the winter because
the flu season causes a lot of damage to the
respiratory tract for some people. Even so,
pneumonia can happen anytime."
Dr. Feroz cautions patients who have had chest
pain and/ or are coughing up blood to seek
medical treatment.
"Pneumonia can be very serious," he says. "If
someone doesn't get treatment, then the
condition advances and we may have to do
surgery to expand the lungs. Maintaining a
healthy lifestyle goes a long way to avoiding a
trip to the hospital."


The Belly Breath
A complete breath fills the lungs to capacity and
helps clear secretions as you exhale. Lie on your
back with one hand on your stomach just above
your belly button and one hand on your chest.
Inhale slowly until your lungs fill completely
both your abdomen and chest should rise. Hold
your breath for three seconds, exhale slowly until
it feels as if your lungs are empty and then
contract your abdomen to push out more air
you may find yourself coughing. Repeat three to
five times and pause for three seconds between