Langrangian and Hamilton Dynamics Fundamentals

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Langrangian and Hamilton Dynamics Fundamentals

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LAGRANGE'S FORMULATION

Unit 1:

In mechanics we study particle in motion under the action of a force.

Equation of motion describes how particle moves under the action of a force.

However, every motion of a particle is not free motion, but rather it is restricted by

putting some conditions on the motion of a particle or system of particles. Hence the

basic concepts like equations of motion, constraints and type of constraints on the

motion of a particle, generalized coordinates, conservative force, conservation

theorems, DAlemberts principle, etc. on which the edifice of mechanics is built are

illustrated in this unit.

Introduction :

Mechanics is a branch of applied mathematics deals with the motion

of a particle or a system of particle with the forces Suppose a bullet is fired from a

fixed point with initial velocity u, not exactly vertically upward but making an angle

y

with the horizontal. Then

what instruments do

mathematicians need to find the

. position of the bullet at some

y = u sin u .

y = u sin - gt instant latter, its velocity at that

instant, the distance covered by

x = u cos

the path followed by the bullet at

mg

x

O . the end of its journey?

x = u cos

Well, to answer such questions, mathematicians do not need any meter stick

to measure the distance covered by the bullet at the instant, they don't need any

speedometer to find its speed at any instant t, nor they need any clock to see the time

required to cover the definite distance. In fact, they need not have to do any such

experiment. What they need to describe the motion of the bullet are simply the co-

ordinates. Hence the single most important notion in mechanics is the concept of co-

ordinates. But the co-ordinates however, just play a role of markers or codes and will

no way influence or affect the motion of the bullet. These are just mathematical tools

in the hands of a mathematician. Thus the instruments in the hands of a

mathematician are the co-ordinates. With the help of these co-ordinates, the motion

of a particle or system of particle can completely be described.

For instance, to discuss the motion of the bullet, take P(x, y) be any point on

the path of the bullet. The only force acting on the bullet is the gravitational force in

the downward direction. Resolving this force horizontally and vertically, we write

from Newton's second law of motion the equations of motion as

x = 0,

. . . (1)

y = g.

Integrating the above two equations and using the initial conditions we

readily obtain

x = u cos ,

. . . (2)

y = u sin gt ,

where u is the initial velocity of the bullet when t = 0. Integrating equations (2) once

again and using the initial conditions we obtain

x = u cos t , . . . (3)

1 2

y = u sin t gt . . . . (4)

2

Equations (2) determine the velocity of the bullet at any time t, while equations (3)

and (4) determine the position of the bullet at that instant. Further, eliminating t from

equations (3) and (4), we get

1 gx 2

y = x tan . . . . (5)

2 u 2 cos 2

This equation gives the path of the bullet and the path is a parabola.

However, the co-ordinates used to describe the motion of a particle or system

of particles must be linearly independent. If not then the number of equations

describing the motion of the system will be less than the number of variables and in

this case the solution can not be uniquely determined. For example if the particle

moves freely in space, then three independent co-ordinates are used to describe its

motion. These are either the Cartesian co-ordinates (x, y, z) or the spherical polar co-

ordinates ( r , , ) . If however, the particle is moving along one of the co-ordinate

axes in space, then all the three co-ordinates are not independent, hence these three

co-ordinates can not be used for its description. Along a co-ordinate axis only one

co-ordinate varies and other two are constants and only the varying co-ordinate can

be used to describe the motion of the particle.

Basic concepts:

1. Velocity: Let a particle be moving along any path with respect to the fixed

point O. If r is its position vector, then the velocity of the particle is defined as the

time rate of change of position vector. i.e.,

v = r ,

where dot denotes the derivative with respect to time. If further r = xi + yj + zk is

+ yj

+ zk

, where x , y , z

are called the components of the velocity along the coordinates axes.

2. Linear momentum: The linear momentum of a particle is defined as the

product of mass of the particle and its velocity. It is a vector quantity and is denoted

by p. Thus we have p = mv . The direction of momentum is along the same direction

of the velocity. In terms of the linear momentum of the particle the equation of

motion is given by F = p .

3. Angular momentum: The angular momentum of a particle about any fixed

point O as origin is defined as r p . It is a vector quantity and denoted by L . Thus

linear momentum of the particle.

4. Torque (Moment of a Force): The time rate of change of angular

momentum L is defined as torque, It is denoted by N . Thus

dL d

N= = ( r p)

dt dt

d

N = ( r mr ) ,

dt

= r mr + r F,

dL

N= = r F.

dt

Equation of Motion and Conservation Theorems :

1. For a Particle :

Consider a particle of mass m whose position vector with respect to some

fixed point is r . If F is a force applied on the particle then the equation of motion

of the particle is given by Newtons second law of motion

dp

F= , . . . (1)

dt

where

dr

p=m = mr

dt

is the linear momentum of the particle. The force is defined to be

F = mass accel.

F = ma .

Hence equation (1) becomes

d 2r

= a. . . . (2)

dt 2

Integrating this equation we get

dr

= at + c , . . . (3)

dt

where c is the constant of integration and is to be determined. Now applying the

dr

initial conditions, we have when t = 0, = u initial velocity.

dt

c=u

Hence equation (3) becomes

v = u + at . . . . (4)

This equation determines the velocity of the particle at any instant t. Integrating (4)

again we get

1

r = ut + at 2 + c1 ,

2

where c1 is the constant of integration. At t = 0, r = 0 c1 = 0 . Hence we have

1

r = ut + at 2 . . . . (5)

2

This equation gives the distance covered by the particle at any time t. One can

combine equations (4) and (5) and write

v 2 = u 2 + 2ar . . . . (6)

This equation determines the velocity of the particle at a given distance. Equations

(4), (5) and (6) are the algebraic equations of motion and are derived from the

equation (1) namely

F = p . . . . (7)

This is the differential equation of motion. It follows from equation (7) that if the

applied force is zero then the linear momentum of the particle is conserved.

Consider a system of n particles of masses m1 , m2 ,..., mn having position

system will experience two types of forces.

i) External forces on the system Fi ( e ) , i = 1, 2,..., n .

Thus the total force acting on the i th particle of the system is given by

Fi = Fi ( e ) + Fji( int ) ,

j

where F( j

ji

int )

is the total internal force acting on the i th particle due to the

interaction of all other (n-1) particles of the system. Thus the equation of motion of

the i th particle is given by

Fi ( e) + Fji( int ) = p i . . . . (1)

j

The equation of motion of the whole system is obtained by summing over i the

equation (1) we get

F( ) + F(

i

e

ji

int )

= p i .

i i j i

We write this equation as

F( ) +

i

i

e

i , j ,i j

Fji( int ) = p i .

i

. . . (2)

The term

i , j ,i j

Fji( int ) represents the vector sum of all the interaction forces due to the

hence Fji = 0, i = j . Also the internal forces obey the Newtons third law of

motion. That is the action of one particle on the other is equal but opposite to the

action of second on the first. This implies that the mutual interaction between the

i th and j th particles are equal and opposite. i.e.

This gives

i , j ,i j

Fji( int ) = 0 .

F ( ) = p ,

i

i

e

i

i

F e = P , . . . (3)

where P is the total momentum of the system and F e = P is the total external force

acting on the system.

Conservation Theorem of Linear momentum of the system of particles :

Theorem 1 : If the sum of external forces acting on the particles is zero, the total

linear momentum of the system is conserved.

Proof : Proof follows immediately from equation (3). i.e., if

F e = 0 P = const.

Angular Momentum of the system of particles :

Consider a system of n particles of masses m1 , m2 ,..., mn having position

Li = ri pi .

Thus the total angular momentum of the system about any point is equal to the vector

sum of the angular momentum of individual particles. Hence we have

L = r p .

i

i

i

i i . . . (1)

If N is the total torque acting on the system, then equation of motion of the system is

given by

dL d

N= = ri pi .

dt dt i

dL

N= = ri pi + ri p i . . . . (2)

dt i i

But we have

r p = r m r = 0 .

i

i i

i

i i i . . . (3)

Now consider

r p = r F ( ) + F (

i i i i

e

ji

int )

i i j

r p = r F ( ) + r F (

i

i i

i

i i

e

i

i

j

ji

int )

r p = r F ( ) + r F (

i

i i

i

i i

e

i, j

i ji

int )

. . . (4)

i, j

i ji

int )

can be expanded for i j as

r F(

i, j

i ji

int )

= ( r2 r1 ) F12( int ) + ( r3 r1 ) F13( int ) + ( r3 r2 ) F23( int ) + ...

r F(

i, j

i ji

int )

= ri rj Fji( int ) ,

r F(

i, j

i ji

int )

= rij Fji( int ) , for rij = ri rj . . . (5)

r F(

i, j

i ji

int )

= rji Fij(int ) ,

r F(

i, j

i ji

int )

= rij Fji( int ) . . . (6)

r F(

i, j

i ji

int )

=0 . . . (7)

Consequently, on using equations (3), (4) and (7) in equation (2) we readily obtain

dL

= ri Fi ( ) .

e

N= . . . (8)

dt i

This equation shows that the total torque on the system is equal to the vector sum of

torques acting on the individual particles of the system.

Conservation Theorem of Angular momentum of the system of particles:

Theorem 2 : If the total external torque acting on the system of particles is zero,

then the total angular momentum of the system is conserved.

Proof : Proof follows immediately from equation (8). i.e., if

N = 0 L = const.

Some definitions:

Centre of Gravity (Centre of Mass): It is the point of the body at which the whole

mass of the body is supposed to be concentrated. If R is the position vector of the

centre of mass of the body with respect to the origin then its coordinates are given by

m r i i

R = ( x, y ) = i

, where M = mi is the total mass of the body.

M i

Example 1: Show that the total angular momentum of a system of particles can be

expressed as the sum of the angular momentum of the motion of the centre of mass

about origin plus the total angular momentum of the system about the centre of mass.

Solution: Consider a system of n particle of masses m1 , m2 ,..., mn having position

Li = ri pi .

Thus the total angular momentum of the system about any point is equal to the vector

sum of the angular momentum of individual particles. Hence we have

L = r p .

i

i

i

i i (1)

Let R be the radius vector of the centre of mass with respect to the origin and ri be

the position vector of the i th particle with respect to the centre of mass. Then we have

ri = ri + R. (2)

Differentiating this equation with respect to t we get

ri = ri + R .

i.e., vi = vi + v,

Using the equation (2) in the equation (1) we get

(

L = Li = ri + R mi ( v + vi ) ,

i i

)

L = ri mi v + mi ri v + R mi v + R mi vi,

i i i i

d

L = ri pi + mi ri v + R mi v + R mi ri,

i i i dt i

Consider the term

m r = m ( r R ) ,

i

i i

i

i i

m r = m r m R,

i

i i

i

i i

i

i

m r = MR MR ,

i

i i

m r = 0.

i

i i

L = ri pi + R mi v,

i i

L = R Mv + ri pi. (4)

i

This shows that the total angular momentum about the point O is the sum of the

angular momentum of the centre of mass about the origin and the angular momentum

of the system about the centre of mass.

Constraint Motion :

Some times the motion of a particle or a system of particles is not free but it

is limited by putting some restrictions on the position co-ordinates of the particle or

system of particles. The motion under such restrictions is called constraint motion or

restricted motion. The mathematical relations establishing the limitations on the

position co-ordinates are called as the equations of constraints. Mathematically, the

constraints are thus the relations between the co-ordinates and the time t.

Consequently, all the co-ordinates are not linearly independent; constraint relations

relate some of them. Thus in general the constraints on the motion of a particle or

system of particles are always possible to express in the form

f r ( xi , yi , zi , t ) or or = 0 ,

where r =1,2,3,...,k the number of constraints and ( xi , yi , zi ) are the position co-

Examples of motion under constraints:

1. The motion of a rigid body,

2. The motion of a simple pendulum,

3. The motion of a particle on the surface of a sphere,

4. The motion of a particle along the parabola x 2 = 4ay ,

5. The motion of a particle on an inclined plane.

Holonomic and non-holonomic Constraints:

If the constraints on a particle or system of particles are expressible as

equations in the form

f r ( xi , yi , zi , t ) = 0, r = 1, 2,..., k . . . (1)

system of particles is called respectively holonomic or non-holonomic system if it

involves holonomic or non-holonomic constraints.

For example:

Constraints involved on the motion of a rigid body, and simple pendulum are

examples of holonomic constraints, while constraints involved in the motion of a

particle on the surface of a sphere, the motion of a gas molecules inside the container

are the examples of non-holonomic constraints. However, this is not the only way to

describe the non-holonomic system. A system is also said to be non-holonomic, if it

corresponds to non-integrable differential equations of constraints. Such constraints

can not be expressed in the form of equation of the type

f r ( xi , yi , zi , t ) = 0 .

holonomic system has integrable differential equations of constraints expressible in

the form of equations.

The constraints are further classified in to two parts viz., Scleronomic and

Rheonomic Constraints.

Scleronomic and Rheonomic Constraints :

When the constraint relations do not explicitly depend on time are called

scleronomic constraints. While the constraints, which involve time explicitly are

called rheonomic constraints. The examples cited above are all scleronomic

constraints. A bead moving along a circular wire of radius r with angular velocity

is an example of rheonomic constraint and the constraints relations are

x = r cos t , y = r sin t .

Worked Examples

Example 2 : Consider a system of two particles joined by a mass less rod of fixed

length l . Suppose for simplicity, the system is confined to the horizontal plane xy .

Suppose further that the system is so constrained that the centre of the rod cannot

have a velocity component perpendicular to the rod. Show that the constraint

involved in the system is non-holonomic.

y Solution: Let (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) be the

positions of the two particles connected by

v=0

the mass less rod of length l . The system is

(x2 , y2 ) shown in the fig.

Since the length between the two particles

x1 + x2 y1 + y2

,

(x1, y1 ) 2 2

is constant, clearly one of the constraint

x relations is

O

2 2

( x1 x2 ) + ( y1 y2 ) = l2 . . . (1)

x2 x1 = l cos ,

where, . . . (2)

y2 y1 = l sin

The constraint (1) is clearly holonomic. The other constraint is such that the

centre of the rod cannot have velocity component perpendicular to the rod.

Mathematically this is expressed as

( x1 + x2 ) cos ( 90 + ) + ( y1 + y 2 ) cos = 0 ,

( x1 + x2 ) sin = ( y1 + y2 ) cos . . . . (3)

This constraint can not be integrated and hence the constraint is non-holonomic and

consequently, the system is non-holonomic.

Degrees of freedom and Generalized co-ordinates :

Consider the motion of a free particle. To describe its motion we need three

independent co-ordinates, such as the Cartesian co-ordinates x, y, z or the spherical

polar co-ordinates r , , etc. The particle is free to execute motion along any one of

the axes independently with change in only one co-ordinate. In this case we say that

the particle has three degrees of freedom. Thus we define

specify the motion of the system completely by taking into account the constraints is

called degrees of freedom.

e.g. For a system of N particles free from constraints moving independent of each

other has 3N degree of freedom.

Generalized co-ordinates:

A system of N particles free from constraints has 3N degrees of freedom. If

however, there exists k holonomic constraints expressed in k equations

f i ( r1 , r2 ,..., rn , t ) = 0, i = 1, 2,..., k , . . . (1)

then 3N co-ordinates are not all independent but related by k equations given in (1).

We may use these k equations to eliminate k of the 3N co-ordinates, and we are left

with 3 N k = n (say) independent co-ordinates. These are generally denoted by

qj, j = 1, 2,..., n called the generalized co-ordinates and the system has 3N-k

degrees of freedom.

Definition: A set of linearly independent variables q1 , q2 , q3 ,...qn that are used to

describe the configuration of the system completely by taking into account the

constraints forces acting on it is called generalized co-ordinates.

Thus in general we have

No. of degrees of freedom No. of constraints= No. of generalized co-ordinates.

Note: The generalized co-ordinates need not be the position co-ordinates, which have

the dimensions of length, breath and height, but they can be angles, charges or

momentum of the particle.

Transformation Relations:

It is always possible to express the position co-ordinates of a particle or a

system of particles in terms of generalized co-ordinates and vice-versa. This

expression is called the transformation relation.

e.g., If ri , i = 1, 2,3,...n are the position vectors of the n particles of the system and

ri = ri ( q1 , q2 , q3 ,...qn , t ) , . . . (1)

Work: Let a force F be acted on a particle whose position vector is r . Suppose the

particle is displaced through an infinitesimal distance dr due to the application of

force F. Then the work done by the force F is given by

dW = F dr

If the particle is finitely displaced from point P ( r1 ) to P ( r2 ) along any path, then

r2

W = F dr . . . (1)

r1

Conservative Force : The work given in expression (1) is in general depends on the

extreme positions of the particle and also the path along which it travels. If a force is

such that the work depends only upon the positions P1 , P2 and not on the path

followed by the particle, then the force F is called conservative force, otherwise non-

conservative.

Worked Examples

Solution : Let a particle of mass m move along a curve PQ under gravity. Thus the

z only force acting on the particle is its own

weight in the down ward direction. Therefore,

Y

P

work done by the force is given by

Q

X

Q W = F dr ,

P

are the components of the force along the co-

x

O b a ordinate axes. We see that X = 0 , and Y = w .

b

Hence W = wdy ,

a

This implies

W = w( a b) .

This shows that the work does not depend upon the path but depends on the

extreme points. Hence the gravitational force is conservative. Alternately, we say

that, the force F is conservative if the work done by it around the closed path is zero.

i. e. F is conservative iff F dr = 0 . . . (1)

F dr = F .ds,

s

. . . (2)

where ds is an arbitrary surface element. Thus from equations (1) and (2) we have

F is conservative iff F = 0 . . . (3)

However, F = 0 F is a gradient of some potential V.

V

F = V or F = ,

r

where V is a potential called potential energy of the particle and is a function of

position only. Thus the force F is conservative if

F = V . . . (4)

and conversely. The negative sign indicates that F is in the direction of decreasing V.

Example 4: Show that the inverse square law of attractive force (central force) is

conservative.

Solution: The inverse square law of force is the force of attraction between two

particles and is given by

m1m2

F = G . . . (1)

r2

where negative sign indicates that the force is directed towards the fixed point and it

is called the attractive force. We write the force as

k

F = r, for k = Gm1m2 . . . (2)

r3

For r = xi + yj + zk

k ( xi + yj + zk )

We have F = 3

. . . (3)

(x 2 2

+y +z )

2 2

Consider therefore

i j k

F =

x y z

Kx Ky Kz

r3 r3 r3

z y x z y x

F = K i 3 3 + j 3 3 + k 3 3 .

y r z r z r x r x r y r

3 yx 3 yx

3 yz 3 yz 3 xz 3 xz

F = K i 5 + 5 + j 5 + 5 + k 5 + 5 .

2 2 2

r r2 r r2 r r 2

F = 0.

This shows that the inverse square law of attractive force F is conservative.

Virtual Work :

If the system of forces acting on a particle be in equilibrium then their

resultant is zero and hence the work done is zero.

Thus in the case of a particle be in equilibrium there is no motion, hence there

arises no question of displacement. In this case we assume the particle receives a

small virtual displacement (the displacement of the system which causes no real

motion is called as virtual or imaginary displacement) and it is denoted by ri .

fixed instant t, hence change in time t is zero.

ri = ( dri )dt =o .

Thus the work done by the system of forces in causing imaginary

displacement is called virtual work. It is the amount of work that would have been

done if the actual displacement had been caused. Hence the expression for the virtual

work done by the forces is given by

Virtual work W = Fi ri . . . . (1)

i

If the forces are in equilibrium then the resultant is zero. Hence the algebraic

sum of the virtual work is zero. Conversely, if the algebraic sum of the virtual work

is zero then the forces are in equilibrium.

Note that this principle is applicable in statics. However, an analogous

principle in dynamics was put forward by DAlembert.

DAlemberts Principle :

DAlembert started with the equation of motion of a particle Fi = p i , where

Hence ( F p ) = 0,

i

i i

dynamical system appears to be in equilibrium under the action of applied forces Fi

and an equal and opposite effective forces p i . In this way dynamics reduces to

static. Thus

( F p ) = 0

i

i i the system is in equilibrium (the resultant is zero).

Hence the virtual work done by the forces is zero. This implies that

( F p ) r = 0 .

i

i i i

This is known as the mathematical form of DAlembert principle. This states that a

system of particles moves in such a way that the total virtual work done by the

applied forces and reverse effective forces is zero.

Note :

1. DAlembert Principle describes the motion of the system by considering its

equilibrium.

2. All the laws of mechanics may be derived from this single principle. Hence

DAlembert principle has been called the fundamental principle of

mechanics. We will solve some examples by using this principle.

Worked Examples

the DAlemberts principle to show that for equilibrium we must

xy

have yx gx = 0 .

Solution: Consider a particle of mass m be moving along

a circle of radius r in xy plane. Let (x, y) be the position

of the particle at any instant t with respect to the fixed- O

(x, y)

the position co-ordinates of the particle always lie on the

circle. Hence the equation of the constraint is

W = mg

x2 + y 2 = r 2 . . . (1)

2 x x + 2 y y = 0

y

or x= y . . . (2)

x

where x and y are displacement in x and y respectively. Now from

DAlemberts principle, we have

( F mr) r = 0 .

In terms of components we have

However, the only force acting on the particle at any instant t is its weight mg in the

downward direction. Resolving the force horizontally and vertically, we have Fx = 0

mx x ( mg + my) y = 0 .

m ( yx + gx ) x = 0 .

xy +

xy

yx gx = 0 , . . . (4)

which is the required equation of motion.

simple pendulum.

Solution : Consider a particle of mass m attached to one end of the string and other

O x end is fastened to a fixed point 0. Let l be

the length of the pendulum and the

l

angular displacement of the pendulum

B(x, y) shown in the fig.

A According to the DAlemberts principle we

mg sin

mg mg cos have

y

( F p ) r = 0

i

i i i

( F mr) r = 0 ,

where r is the distance of the particle from the starting point along the curve.

Resolving the force acting on the particle along the direction of motion and

perpendicular to the direction of motion we have

Classical Mechanics Page No. 21

( mg sin mr) r = 0 ,

where the negative sign indicates the force is opposite to the direction of motion.

Since r 0 we have

r = g sin .

. . . (1)

r = l .

Equation (1) becomes

g

= sin . . . . (2)

l

g

For small angle, we have sin = = .

l

Generalized Velocities :

From transformation equations we have

ri = ri ( q1 , q2 , q3 ,...qn , t ) , . . . (1)

ri r

r = q j + i . . . (2)

j q j t

Virtual displacement :

We find variation (change) in the transformation equation (1) to get

ri

ri = qj

q j

Note here that t term is absent because virtual displacement is assumed to take

place at fixed instant t, hence t = 0 .

Generalized force :

If Fi are forces acting on a dynamical system with position vectors ri then

virtual work done by these forces is given by

W = Fi ri ,

i

ri

= Fi qj ,

i j q j

r

= Fi i q j ,

j i q j

= Q j q j ,

j

where

ri

Q j = Fi . . . (1)

i q j

Note :

1. If forces are conservative then they are derived from potential V and are

given by

V

Fi = iV = .

ri

V

Consequently, the generalized forces are given by Q j = .

q j

position, velocity and time. i.e., U = U ( q j , q j , t ) . This is called velocity dependent

particle of charge q moving in an electromagnetic field. We will see latter in example

(8) that how the generalized potential can be determined in the case of a particle

moving in an electromagnetic field. In this case generalized forces are given by

U d U

Qj = + .

q j dt q j

3. If however, the system is acted upon by conservative forces Fi and non-

(

Q j = Fi + Fi (

d)

) qr

i

j

Qj =

V

q j

+ Q(j ) ,

d

where

ri

Q (j ) = Fi (

d d)

i q j

are non-conservative forces which are not derivable from the potential V. Such a

situation often arises when frictional forces or dissipative forces are present in the

system.

It is found by experiment that in general the dissipative or frictional forces are

proportional to the velocity of the particle.

Fi ( d ) = i ri ,

where i are constants. In such cases the generalized forces are obtained as

ri

Q(j d ) = Fi ( d ) ,

i q j

ri

= i ri

i q j

However, from transformation equation we obtain

ri r

= i .

q j q j

Thus we write

1 2

Q(j d ) = i ri ,

q j 2

R

= ,

q j

Classical Mechanics Page No. 24

1

where R=

2

i ri 2

Newtonian approach for the description of particle involves vector quantities.

We now introduce another formulation called the Lagrangian formulation for the

description of mechanics of a particle or a system of particles in terms of generalized

coordinates, generalized velocities with time t as a parameter. This formulation

involves scalar quantities such as kinetic energy and the potential energy and hence

proves to be easier then the Newtonian approach, because to deal with scalars is easy

than to deal with vectors.

Lagranges Equations of motion from DAlemberts Principle :

Theorem 3 : Obtain Lagranges equations of motion from DAlemberts principle.

Proof : Consider a system of n particles of masses mi and position vectors ri . We

know the position vectors ri are expressed as the functions of n generalized co-

ri = ri ( q1 , q2 , q3 ,...qn , t ) , . . . (1)

If Fi are the forces acting on the system, then by DAlemberts principle we have

( F p ) r = 0 ,

i

i i i . . . (2)

where, p i = mi

transformation equations we obtain the expression for the virtual displacement

ri

ri = qj ,

q j

where the term t is absent because the virtual displacement is assumed to take

place only in the co-ordinates and at the particular instant. Hence equation (2)

becomes

ri ri

F q q = m r q

i j

i j

i j

i i qj .

j j

ri r

F q i q j = mi

ri i q j ,

q j

j i j i, j

ri

or Q q = m r q

j

j j

i, j

i i qj , . . . (3)

j

where

ri

Q, = Fi . . . . (4)

q j

Consider

d ri r d r

ri =

ri i + ri i .

dt q j q j dt q j

Substituting this in equation (3) we get

d r d r

j j j

Q q = mi ri i ri i q j . . . . (5)

i, j dt q j dt q j

Now from equation (1) we have

ri r

ri = qk + i . . . . (6)

k qk t

ri r

= i . . . . (7)

q j q j

ri 2 ri 2 ri

= qk + . . . . (8)

q j k qk q j t q j

Also we have

d ri 2 ri 2 ri

= qk + . . . . (9)

dt q j k q j qk q j t

ri d r

= i

q j dt q j

In general we have

d d

= . . . . (10)

q j dt dt q j

On using equation (10) in equation (5) we get

d vi v

Q q = dt m v

j j i i

q j

mi vi i q j .

q j

j i, j

We write this as

d 1 1 2

Q q = dt q 2 m v

j j i i

2

q 2 mi vi q j ,

j j j i j i

d T T

or Q q = dt q

j j

qj ,

j j

j q

j

1

where T=

2 i

mi vi 2

d T T

j dt q Qj q j = 0 . . . . (11)

j q j

If the constraints on the motion of particles in the system are holonomic then q j are

d T T

Qj = 0 ,

dt q j q j

d T T

= Qj , j = 1, 2, 3,...., n . . . . (12)

dt q j q j

These are called the Lagranges equations of motion. We see that, to derive

the Lagranges equations of motion the knowledge of forces acting on the system of

particles will not be necessary.

Note : If the constraints are non-holonomic then the generalized co-ordinates are not

all independent of each other. Hence we cant conclude equation (12) from equation

(11).

Note: In deriving Lagranges equations of motion the requirement of holonomic

constraints does not appear until the last step.

Case (1) : Conservative system :

If the system is conservative so that particles move under the influence of a

potential which is dependent on co-ordinates only, then the forces are derived from

the potential V given by

V

Fi = iV = .

ri

In this case the components of generalized forces becomes

V ri V

Qj = = , and V V ( q j ) .

i ri q j q j

d (T V ) (T V )

= 0.

dt q j q j

where L which is a function of q1 , q2 , q3 ,..., qn , q1 , q2 , q3 ,..., qn and time t is called a

Lagrangian function of the system of particles. Then the equations of motion become

d L L

= 0 . j = 1, 2, ..., n . . . (13)

dt q j q j

These are called the Lagranges equations for motion for conservative holonomic

system.

Note : The Lagrangian L satisfying equation (13) is not unique. Refer Example (13)

bellow.

Case (2) : Non-conservative system :

In the case of non-conservative system the scalar potential U may be

function of both position and velocity. i.e., U = U ( q j , q j , t ) . Such a potential is

called as velocity dependent potential. In this case the associated generalized forces

are given by

U d U

Qj = + .

q j dt q j

Substituting this in the equation (12) we get

d L L

= 0 , j = 1, 2,..., n

dt q j q j

which are the Lagranges equations of motion for non-conservative forces.

Case (3) : Partially conservative and partially non-conservative system :

Consider the system is acted upon by conservative forces Fi and non-

dissipative forces are present in the system. In this case the components of

generalized force are given by

(

Q j = Fi + Fi (

d)

) qr i

j

Qj =

V

q j

+ Q(j ) ,

d

where the non-conservative forces which are not derivable from potential function V

are represented in Q(j d ) . Substituting this in equation (12) we readily obtain

d L L

= Q (j ) , j = 1, 2,..., n

d

. . . (14)

dt q j q j

where the Lagrangian L contains the potential of the conservative forces, and Q(j d )

represents the forces not arising from the potential V. However, it is found by

experiment that, in general the dissipative or frictional forces are proportional to the

velocity of the particles.

Fi ( d ) = i ri , i are constants.

Hence we have

ri

Q(j d ) = Fi ( d ) ,

i q j

ri

= i ri .

i q j

ri r

= i .

q j q j

Hence

1 2 R

Q (j d ) = i ri = ,

q j 2 q j

1

where R=

2 i

i ri 2

become

d L L R

+ = 0. . . . (15)

dt q j q j q j

Worked Examples

Conservation of Energy:

Example 7: Show that the total energy of a particle moving in a conservative force

field remains constant, if the potential energy is not an explicit function of time.

Solution : Let a particle of mass m be moving in the conservative field of force F.

Let r be the position vector of the particle at any instant. The total energy of the

particle is

E = T +V , . . . (1)

where T = kinetic energy,

V = potential energy.

Differentiating (1) with respect to t we get

dE dT dV

= + , . . . (2)

dt dt dt

where the force

dv

F =m

dt

Therefore

dv dr

Fdr = m dt

dt dt

Fdr = mvdv,

1

Fdr = d mv 2

2

Fdr = dT ,

dr dT

F = . . . . (3)

dt dt

Similarly, we have the potential energy V =V(r, t), therefore,

V V V V

dV = dx + dy + dz + dt ,

x y z t

V

dV = V .dr + dt ,

t

dV dr V

= V . + . . . . (4)

dt dt t

Substituting this in equation (2) we get

dE dr dr V

=F + V + ,

dt dt dt t

dE dr V

= ( F + V ) + .

dt dt t

Since F is conservative

F = V ,

dE V

= .

dt t

Now if the potential energy V is independent of time t then

dE

= 0.

dt

This implies that E is conserved.

Theorem 4 : If the force acting on a particle is conservative then the total energy is

conserved.

Proof : If the particle is acted upon by the force F, then if it moves from position P1

P2

W = F .dr . . . (1)

P1

dv

where F = p = m ,

dt

Classical Mechanics Page No. 32

Therefore,

P2 2 P

dv dr dv

W = m . dt = m .v dt

P1

dt dt P1

dt

P2

d 1

dt 2 mv

2

= dt ,

P1

P2

1

= mv 2 ,

2 P1

1 2 1 2

W = mv2 mv1 .

2 2

Thus W = T2 T1 . . . . (2)

Now, if the force F is conservative then it is derivable from a scalar potential

function V , which is a function of position only. Therefore, we have

V

F = V = , where V is the potential energy. Substituting this value in

r

equation (1) we get

P2

V

W = dr ,

P1

r

P2

= dV ,

P1

P

= (V ) P2 ,

1

W = V1 V2 . . . . (3)

From equations (2) and (3) we have

T2 T1 = V1 V2

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2 = constant

T + V = constant.

This shows that the total energy of the particle is conserved.

Aliter : The force field is conservative. This implies that

F = V , . . . (1)

where V is the potential energy. Newtons second law of motion defines the force by

F = mr . . . . (2)

Thus we have

V

mr = .

r

Multiply this equation by r , we get

V

mr r = r .

r

This we write as

d 1 2

mr + V = 0 .

dt 2

Integrating we get

1 2

mr + V = const.

2

This shows that the total energy of the particle moving in the conservative field of

force is constant.

Theorem 5 : If the external and internal forces are both conservative, then show that

the total potential energy V of the system is given by

1

V = Vi ( ) + Vij( ) ,

e int

i 2 i, j

where Vi ( e ) is the potential energy arises due to the external forces Fi ( e ) and Vij( int ) is

the internal energy arises due to internal forces Fji( int ) . Further show that the total

Proof : Two types of forces viz., external and internal forces are acting on the system

of particles. To find the total energy of the system, we find the work done by all the

forces external as well as internal in moving the system from initial configuration 1

to the final configuration 2. It is given by

2

W = Fi dri ,

i 1

where

Fi = Fi ( e ) + Fji( int )

j

2 2

W = Fi dri + (e)

F( ji

int )

dri . . . (1)

i 1 i , j ,i j 1

Vi (

e)

Fi ( ) = i Vi ( ) =

e e

ri

Vi ( )

2 2 e 2

Fi ( ) dri =

i

e

i ri

dri = dVi ( ) ,

i 1

e

1 1

2 2

i Fi dri = i Vi (e)

(e)

. . . (2)

1 1

2 2

i , j ,i j 1

Fji dri =

(int )

F(

i , j ,i j 1

ji

int )

dri . . . (3)

2 2

i , j ,i j 1

Fji dri =

(int )

F(

i , j ,i j 1

ij

int )

drj

2 2

F

i , j ,i j 1

( int )

ji dri = F(

i , j ,i j 1

ji

int )

drj ( Fji(int ) = Fij( int ) ) . . . (4)

2 2

1

i , j ,i j 1

Fji dri =

(int )

Fji(int ) ( dri drj )

2 i , j ,i j 1

2 2

1

F

i , j ,i j 1

(int )

ji dri = Fji( int ) drij ,

2 i , j ,i j 1

for drij = dri drj

Now if the internal forces Fji( int ) are conservative, there exists a potential Vij( int ) such

that

Fji = jiV ji = ,

rij

where ji is the gradient with respect to rji . Thus the above equation becomes

2 2 (int )

1 V

F

i , j ,i j 1

( int )

ji dri = ij drij ,

2 i , j ,i j 1 rij

2 2

1

F

i , j ,i j 1

(int )

ji dri = dVij(int ) ,

2 i , j ,i j 1

2

2

1

F ( int )

ji dri = Vij(int ) . . . . (5)

i , j ,i j 1 2 i, j 1

Substituting the values from equations (2) and (5) we get

2

W = [V ]1 = V1 V2 , . . . (6)

where

1

V = Vi ( ) + Vij( )

e int

. . . (7)

i 2 i, j

represents the total potential energy of the system of particles. Similarly the total

work done by the force on the system in terms of kinetic energy is given by

2

W = Fi dri

i 1

2

d dr

W = ( mi vi ) i dt

i 1

dt dt

2

dvi

= mi vi dt ,

i 1

dt

2

d 1 2

W = mi vi dt

i 1

dt 2

2

1

W = d mi vi2

i 1 2

2

1

W = mi vi2 = T2 T1 . . . (8)

i 2 1

From equations (6) and (8) we have

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2 .

This shows that the total energy of the system is conserved.

Example 8 : Find the velocity dependent potential and hence the Lagrangian for a

particle of charge q moving in an electromagnetic field.

Solution : Consider a charge particle of charge q moving with velocity v in an

electric field E and magnetic field B . The force acting on the particle is called

Lorenz force and is given by

F = q(E + v B) , . . . (1)

B = 0,

B . . . (2)

E = .

t

We know the vector identity A = 0 . Thus the Maxwell equation implies that

there exists the magnetic vector potential A which is a function of co-ordinates and

velocities such that

B = A. . . . (3)

Substituting this in the second Maxwell equation we get

E +

t

( A ) = 0,

A

E + = 0,

t

A

E + = 0. . . . (4)

t

We also know the vector identity

= 0 . . . (5)

Comparing equations (4) and (5) we see that, there exists a scalar potential which

is function of co-ordinates and not involving velocities such that

A

E+ =

t

A

E = . . . (6)

t

Using equations (3) and (6) in equation (1) we get

A

F = q + v A . . . (7)

t

where we have

= i +j +k ,

x y z

A A A A

=i x + j y +k z ,

t t t t

i j k

A Ay A A Ay Ax

A = = i z + j x z +k ,

x y z y z z x x y

Ax Ay Az

Ay Ax Ax Az Ay Ax Az Ay

v A = i v y vz + j vx vz +

x y z x x y y z

A A Az Ay

+ k vx x z vy

z x y z

Ax Ay Ax Ax Az

Fx = q + vy vz . . . (8)

x t x y z x

Now consider

A A Ax Az Ax A A A A A

vy y x vz = vx + v y y + vz z vx x + v y x + vz x

x y z x x x x x y z

. . . (9)

Also we have

dAx A A A A

= vx x + v y x + vz x + x ,

dt x y z t

Ax A A dA A

vx + v y x + vz x = x x . . . (10)

x y z dt t

Also

( v A ) = ( vx Ax + v y Ay + vz Az )

x x

A A A

x

( v A ) = vx x + v y y + vz z

x x x

. . . (11)

A A A A dA A

v y y x vz x z = ( v A ) x + x . . . . (12)

x y z x x dt t

dA

Fx = q ( v A ) x . . . (13)

x dt

Also

vx

( v A) =

vx

( vx Ax + vy Ay + vz Az ) = Ax

As is independent of vx , therefore we write

vx

( v A ) = Ax

d dA

dt vx

( v A) = x

dt

. . . (14)

d

Fx = q ( v A ) ( v A ) . . . (15)

x dt vx

Define the generalized potential

U = q ( v A ) . . . (16)

U d U

Fx = for x = vx . . . (17)

x dt x

Hence the Lagranges equation of motion

d T T

= Fx

dt x x

becomes

d T T U d U

= +

dt x x x dt x

d (T U ) ( T U )

=0

dt x x

d L L

= 0.

dt x x

where the Lagrangian of the particle L = T U becomes

1

L= m ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) q + q v A . . . . (18)

2

d T T

= Qj

dt q j q j

can also be written in the form

T T

2 = Qj .

q j q j

generalized velocities and time. Thus we have

T = T ( q j , q j , t ) . . . . (1)

dT T T T

=T = qk + qk + . . . . (2)

dt k qk k q

k t

T 2T T j 2T 2T

= qk + k + qk +

q j q

k q qk k q j qk q j t

j k

T 2T T 2T 2T

= qk + + qk + . . . . (3)

q j k q

j qk q j k q j qk q j t

d T 2T 2T 2T

= qk + qk + . . . . (4)

dt q j k qk q j k q

k q j t q j

T d T T

= . . . . (5)

q j dt q j q j

But it is given that

d T T

= + Qj .

dt q j q j

Consequently equation (5) becomes

T T T

+ Qj = .

q j q j q

j

T T

2 = Qj .

q j q j

F = ir kr cos , where k is constant and ir is the radial unit vector. Show that

angular momentum of the particle about the origin is conserved and obtain the

differential equation of the orbit of the particle.

Solution: Let (x, y) and ( r , ) be the Cartesian and polar co-ordinates of a particle

of mass M moving on a plane under the action of the given field of force

F = ir kr cos , . . . (1)

Since the force is explicitly given, hence the Lagranges equation motion

corresponding to the generalized coordinates r and are given by

Classical Mechanics Page No. 42

d T T

= Q , . . . (2)

dt

d T T

and = Qr , . . . (3)

dt r r

where T is the kinetic energy of the particle and is given by

1 1

T=

2 2

( )

M ( x 2 + y 2 ) = M r 2 + r 2 2 , . . . (4)

The components of generalized force along the radial direction and in the direction of

are given by

Qr = ir kr cos ,

Q = 0.

Hence equations (1) and (2) become

d

dt

(

Mr 2 = 0, )

Mr 2 = const.

This is the equation of motion of the orbit of the particle.

Example 11: Show that the Lagranges equation of motion can also be written as

L d L

L q j =0,

t dt q j

L = L ( q j , q j , t ) ,

dL L L L

= q j + qj + . . . (1)

dt j q j j q

j t

d L d L L

q j = q j + qj . . . (2)

dt j q j j dt q j j q j

d L L L d L

L q j = + q j . . . . (3)

dt q j t q j dt q j

j j

But from Lagranges equation we have,

d L L

= 0. . . . (4)

dt q j q j

Consequently, equation (3) becomes

d L L

L q j =0.

dt j q j t

conservative force F with components Fx = k 2 ( 2 x + y ) , Fy = k 2 ( x + 2 y ) , k is a

constant. Find the total energy of the motion, the Lagrangian, and the equations of

motion of the particle.

Solution: A particle is moving in a plane. Let (x, y) be the co-ordinates of the

particle at any instant t. If T and V are the kinetic and potential energies of the

particle then we have

1

T= m ( x 2 + y 2 ) , . . . (1)

2

and V = V ( x, y ) . . . . (2)

F = V ,

V V V

iFx + jFy = i +j +k

x y z

Classical Mechanics Page No. 44

V V

k 2 ( 2 x + y ) i k 2 ( x + 2 y ) j = i +j ,

x y

V

= k 2 ( 2x + y ) ,

x

V

= k 2 ( x + 2 y).

y

We write

V V

dV = dx + dy ,

x y

dV = k 2 ( 2 x + y ) dx + k 2 ( x + 2 y ) dy,

dV = k 2 ( 2 xdx + d ( xy ) + 2 ydy ) .

On integrating we get,

V = k 2 ( x 2 + xy + y 2 ) . . . (3)

E = T +V

While the Lagrangian of the motion is given by

1

L= m ( x 2 + y 2 ) k 2 ( x 2 + xy + y 2 ) . . . (4)

2

The Lagranges equations of motion corresponding to the generalized co-ordinates x

and y are respectively given by

mx + k 2 ( 2 x + y ) = 0,

my + k 2 ( x + 2 y ) = 0.

Velocities :

Theorem 6: Find the expression for the kinetic energy as the quadratic function of

generalized velocities. Further show that

i) when the constraints are scleronomic, the kinetic energy is a homogeneous

T

function of generalized velocities and q

j

j

q j

= 2T ,

T

ii) when the constraints are rheonomic then q

j

j

q j

= 2T2 + T1 ,

kinetic energy of the system is given by

1

T=

2 i

mi ri 2 , . . . (1)

where

ri = ri ( q1 , q2 , q3 ,...qn , t ) ,

ri r

ri = qk + i .

k qk t

Substituting this value in equation (1) we get

1 r r r r

T= mi

i

q j + i i qk + i

2 i j q j t k qk t

1 ri ri ri ri ri

2

T = mi . q j qk + 2 q j + ,

2 i j , k q j qk j q j t t

1 ri ri ri ri 1 ri

2

T = mi q j qk + mi q j + mi

j ,k

2 i q j q k

j

i q j t i 2 t

or T = a jk q j qk + a j q j + a . . . (2)

j ,k j

1 r r

where a jk = mi i i ,

i 2 q j qk

r r

a j = mi i i , ... (3)

i q j t

2

1 r

a = mi i

i 2 t

are definite functions of r and t and hence functions of q ' s and t. From equation (2)

we observe that the kinetic energy is a quadratic function of the generalized

velocities.

Case 1 : If the constraints are scleronomic. This implies equivalently that the

transformation equations do not contain time t explicitly, and then we have

ri

=0,

t

and consequently a and a j vanish. Therefore equation (2) reduces to

T = a jk q j qk . . . . (4)

j ,k

generalized velocities. Now applying Eulers theorem for the homogeneous quadratic

function of generalized velocities we have

T

q

j

j

q j

= 2T . . . (5)

Case 2 : If the constraints are rheonomic then we write equation (2) in the form

T = T2 + T1 + T0 , . . . (6)

where

T2 = a jk q j qk ,

j ,k

. . . (7)

T1 = a j q j ,

j

2

1 r

and T0 = a = mi i

i 2 t

are homogeneous function of generalized velocities of degree two, one and zero

respectively.

Classical Mechanics Page No. 47

Now we consider

T T T T

q

j

j

q j

= q j 2 + q j 1 + q j 0

j q j j q j j q j

On applying Eulers theorem for the homogeneous function to each term on the right

hand side we readily get

T

q

j

j

q j

= 2T2 + T1 . . . . (8)

Note : However, the result (8) can also be obtained by direct differentiating equation

(2) w. r. t. q j . Thus

T

= 2 a jk qk + a j .

q j k

T

q

j

j

q j

= 2 a jk q j qk + a j q j

j ,k j

T

q

j

j

q j

= 2T2 + T1 .

The result (5) can similarly be derived by direct differentiating equation (4).

Another way of proving conservation theorem for energy :

Theorem (7): If the Lagrangian does not contain time t explicitly, the total energy of

the conservative system is conserved.

Proof : Consider a conservative system, in which the forces are derivable from a

potential V which is dependent on position only. The Lagrangian of the system is

defined as

L = T V , . . . (1)

where

L = L ( q j , q j , t ) . . . (2)

d L L

= 0. . . . (3)

dt q j q j

Differentiating equation (2) we obtain

dL L L L

= q j + qj + .

dt q j

j q j t

L

Since L does not contain time t explicitly implies = 0.

t

dL L L

= q j + qj .

dt j

q j q j

On using equation (3) we write

dL d L L

= q j + q .

dt

j dt q j j

j q

j

dL d L

= q j ,

dt dt j q j

.

d L

L q j =0

dt j q j

L

L q j = const. . . . . (4)

j q j

Since the potential energy V for the conservative system depends upon the position

co-ordinates only and does not involve generalized velocities. Hence we have

L T

= .

q j q j

T

pj = .

q j

p q

j

j j L = const ( H ) . . . . (5)

L does not contain time t means neither the kinetic energy nor the potential energy of

the particle involves time t. In this case the transformation equations do not contain

time t. consequently the constraints are scleronomic. Hence the kinetic energy T is a

homogeneous quadratic function of generalized velocities.

T = a jk q j qk . . . (6)

j ,k

where

1 r r

a jk = mi i i ,

i 2 q j qk

T

q

j

j

q j

= 2T . . . (7)

2T L = H

2T T + V = H

T +V = H ,

E = H (Const )

This proves the total energy E is conserved for conservative system.

Theorem (8): Show that non-conservation of total energy is directly associated with

the existence of non-conservative forces even if the transformation equation does not

contain time t.

Proof: We know the Lagranges equations of motion for a system in which

conservative forces Fi and non-conservative forces Fi ( d ) are present are given by

Classical Mechanics Page No. 50

d L L

= Q (j ) ,

d

j=1, 2, 3, , n. . . . (1)

dt q j q j

where the Lagrangian L contains the potential of the conservative forces and the

forces which are not arising from potential V are represented by Q(j d ) .

Since L = L ( q j , q j , t )

dL L L L

= q j + qj + . . . . (2)

dt q j

j q j t

L d L (d )

From equation (1) we have = Q j ,

q j dt q j

Therefore

dL d L L L

= q j + qj Q (j ) q j + ,

d

dt

j dt q j q

j t

j j

d L L

= q j Q(j ) q j +

d

,

j dt q j j t

dL d L L

q j Q (j ) q j +

d

= . . . (3)

dt dt j q j j t

L T

This implies that =

q j q j

dL d T L

= q j Q(j ) q j +

d

. . . . (4)

dt dt j q j j t

where T here is a quadratic function of generalized velocities and hence in this case

we have

T

q

j

j

q j

= 2T . . . . (5)

Classical Mechanics Page No. 51

dL dT L

Q (j ) q j +

d

=2 .

dt dt j t

Hence

dE L

= Q (j ) q j .

d

. . . (6)

dt j t

If the transformation equations do not contain time t explicitly, then the kinetic

T

energy does not contain time t. This implies that = 0 . Also Lagrangian contains

t

the potential of conservative forces, we have therefore V=V ( q j ) and hence

V

= 0.

t

L

Consequently, we have = 0. Hence equation (6) becomes

t

dE

= Q (j ) q j .

d

...(7)

dt j

This shows that the non-conservation of total energy is directly associated with the

existence of non-conservative forces Q(j d ) . However, if the system is conservative

and the transformation equations do not contain time t then the total energy is

conserved.

df ( q j , t )

L = L + , j = 1, 2,..., n

dt

satisfies Lagranges equation of motion, where f is an arbitrary differentiable

functions of q j and t , and L is a Lagrangian for a system of n degrees of freedom.

df ( q j , t )

L = L + , . . . (1)

dt

Classical Mechanics Page No. 52

where L satisfies

d L L

= 0, . . . (2)

dt q j q j

d L L

We prove that = 0.

dt q j q j

Since f = f (q j ,t ) ,

Therefore we have

df f f

= qk + . . . . (3)

dt k qk t

df 2 f 2 f

= q

k + . . . . (4)

q j dt k qk q j t q j

df f

= .

q j dt q j

Differentiating this w. r. t. t we get

d df 2 f 2 f

= qk + . . . . (5)

dt q j dt k qk q j t q j

d df df

= 0,

dt q j dt q j dt

.

d L L

i.e., =0

dt q j q j

Example 14 : Deduce the principle of energy from the Lagranges equation of

motion.

Solution : We know the Lagranges equations of motion are given by

d L L

= 0, . . . (1)

dt q j q j

d T T V

= , . . . (2)

dt q j q j q j

We also know

T

q

j

j

q j

= 2T . . . . (3)

Also we obtain

dT T T

dt

= q q + q q .

j

j

j

j . . . (4)

j j

d T T T V

q j qj q j = q j . . . . (5)

dt j q j j q j j q j j q j

d (2T ) dT dV

= ,

dt dt dt

d

(T + V ) = 0,

dt

T + V = const.

This implies that total energy is conserved.

Unit 3: Lagranges Equations for Non-holonomic Constraints:

Introduction:

We have seen that the constraints, which are not expressible in the form of

equations are called non-holonomic constraints. We have also seen that this is not the

only way to describe the non-holonomic system. A system is also said to be non-

holonomic, if it corresponds to non-integrable differential equations of constraints.

Such constraints can not be expressed in the form of equation of the type

f l ( q j , t ) = 0, l = 1, 2, 3,..., m. . . . (1)

system has integrable differential equations of constraints expressible in the form of

equation.

Consider non-integrable differential constraints of the type

n

a

k =1

lk dqk + alt dt = 0 , . . . (2)

where alk and alt are functions of q j and t . Constraints of this type will be

holonomic only if, an integrating factor can be found that turns it in to an exact

differential, and hence the constraints can be reduced to the form of equations.

However, neither equations (2) can be integrated nor one can find an

integrating factor that will turn either of the equations in to perfect differentials.

Hence the constraints cannot be reduced to the form (1). Hence the constraints of the

type (2) are therefore non-holonomic.

Note also that non-integrable differential constraints of the type (2) are not

the only type of non-holonomic constraints. The non-holonomic constraint

conditions may involve higher order derivatives or may appear in the form of

inequalities.

There is no general way of attacking non-holonomic problems. However, the

constraints are not integrable, the differential equations of the constraint can be

introduced in to the problem along with the differential equations of motion and the

Classical Mechanics Page No. 55

dependent equations are eliminated by the method of Lagranges multipliers. The

method is illustrated in the following theorem.

equations of motion of the system with non-holonomic constraints.

Proof: Consider a conservative non-holonomic system, where the equations of the

non-holonomic constraints are given by

n

a

k =1

lk dqk + alt dt = 0 , . . . (1)

functions of q j and t .

Since the constraints are non-holonomic, hence the equations expressing the

constraints (1) cannot be used to eliminate the dependent co-ordinates and hence all

the generalized co-ordinates are not independent, but are related by constraint

relations.

In the variational (Hamiltons) principle, the time for each path is held fixed

( t = 0 ). Hence the virtual displacement qk must satisfy the following equations of

constraints.

n

a q

k =1

lk k = 0, l = 1, 2, 3,..., m . . . (2)

displacement and reduce the number of virtual displacement to n-m independent one

by the method of Lagranges multipliers. Hence we multiply equations (2) by

1 , 2 , 3 , , m respectively and summing over l and integrating it between the

limits t0 to t1 we get

t1 m n

a q dt = 0

t0 l =1 k =1

l lk k . . . (3)

Hamiltons principle is assumed to hold for non-holonomic system, (see chapter 3)

we therefore have

t1

Ldt = 0 .

t0

t1 n L d L

q qk dt = 0 .

dt qk

. . . (4)

t0 k =1 k

t1

n L d L m

+

k =1 qk dt qk l =1 l alk qk dt = 0 . . . (5)

t0

Note all the virtual displacement qk , k = 1, 2,..., n are not independent but connected

by m equations (2). Now to eliminate the extra dependent virtual displacements we

choose the multipliers 1 , 2 , 3 , , m such that the coefficients of m-dependent

virtual displacements, in equation (5) are zero. i.e.,

L d L m

+ l alk = 0, for k = n ( m 1) ,..., ( n 1) , n . . . . (6)

qk dt qk l =1

Hence from equation (6) we have

t1

n m L d L m

t0

q

dt qk

l lk k dt = 0 ,

+

l =1

a q

. . . (7)

k = 1 k

where q1 , q2 , q3 ,..., qn m are all independent. Hence it follows that

L d L m

+ l alk = 0, for k = 1, 2,..., n m. . . . (8)

qk dt qk l =1

Combining equations (6) and (8) we have finally the complete set of Lagranges

equations of motion for non-holonomic system

d L L m

dt qk qk l =1

Remarks:

1. The n-equations in (9) together with m-equations of constraints (1) are

sufficient to determine (n + m) unknowns viz., the n-generalized co-ordinates

q j and m Lagranges multipliers l .

when it is inconvenient to reduce all the q ' s to independent co-ordinates, and

then obtain the forces of constraints.

Worked Examples

motion of simple pendulum and obtain the force of constraint.

Solution : Consider a simple pendulum of mass m and of constant length l . Let

P (x, y) be the position co-ordinates of the pendulum. Then the equation of the

constraint is

x2 + y2 = l 2 . . . . (1)

O x This shows that x, y are not the generalized co-

l

the pendulum, then the equation of constraint is

P(x, y) (say)

f1 r l = 0 . . . . (2)

y

are the generalized co-ordinates. Hence the kinetic energy and potential energy of the

pendulum are respectively given by

1

T= m ( r 2 + r 2 2 ) ,

2

V = mgr cos .

Classical Mechanics Page No. 58

The Lagrangian of the pendulum L = T V becomes

1

L=

2

( )

m r 2 + r 2 2 + mgr cos . . . . (3)

dr = 0 .

Comparing this with the standard equation

a1r dr + a1 d = 0, (viz., alk dqk = 0 l = 1, k = 1, 2 )

k

we get

a1r = 1, a1 = 0 . . . . (4)

The Lagranges equations of motion viz.,

d L L m

= l alk , k = 1, 2,..., n

dt qk qk l =1

d L L

become = 1a1 ,

dt

d L L

and = 1a1r .

dt r r

These equations after solving become

g

+ sin = 0 , . . . (5)

r

ml + mg cos = 1 , . . . (6)

where 1 is the force of constraint, in this case it is the tension in the string. Equation

(5) determines the motion of the pendulum under the constraint force given in (6).

Example 16 : Use Lagranges undetermined multipliers to construct the equations of

motion of spherical pendulum.

Solution : Let a particle of mass m move on a frictionless surface of radius r under

the action of gravity. Let P (x, y, z) be the position co-ordinates of the pendulum. If

( r , , ) are the spherical polar co-ordinates of the pendulum, then we have the

relations

x = r sin cos ,

y

y = r sin sin , . . . (1)

z = r cos ,

P(x, y, z) = (r, , )

r where x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = r 2 .

z = r cos

This shows that x, y, z are not the generalized

of the spherical pendulum are given by

respectively

z 1

T=

2

( )

m r 2 + r 22 + r 2 sin 2 2 , . . . (2)

Hence the Lagrangian of the system becomes

1

L=

2

( )

m r 2 + r 2 2 + r 2 sin 2 2 mgr cos . . . . (4)

The equation of the constraint on the motion of the particle moving on the sphere is

f1 r l = 0 . . . . (5)

If this constraint is not used to eliminate the dependent variable r, then the

generalized co-ordinates are ( r , , ) . Differentiating equation (5) we get

dr = 0

Comparing this with the standard equation

a1r dr + a1 d = 0, (viz., alk dqk = 0 l = 1, k = 1, 2 ,3).

k

we get

a1r = 1, a1 = 0, a1 = 0 . . . . (6)

d L L m

dt qk

= l alk , k = 1, 2,..., n

qk l =1

d L L

become = 1a1r , . . . (7)

dt r r

d L L

= 1a1 , . . . (8)

dt

d L L

and = 1a1 . . . . (9)

dt

Consequently, these equations reduce to

g

ml 2 + sin 2 2 cos = 1 . . . . (10)

l

This equation determines the constraint force. Similarly, from equations (8) and (9)

we obtain

g

sin cos 2 sin = 0 , . . . (11)

l

and sin 2 2 = p (const.) . . . (12)

p 2 g

3 cos sin = 0 . . . . (13)

sin l

Equations (10) and (13) determine the motion of the spherical pendulum.

Example 17 : A particle is constrained to move on the plane curve xy = c , where c

is a constant, under gravity. Obtain the Lagrangian and hence the equation of motion.

Solution : Given that a particle is constrained to move on the plane curve

xy = c , . . . (1)

The kinetic energy of the particle is given by

1

T= m ( x 2 + y 2 ) . . . (2)

2

The potential energy is given by

V = mgy, y is vertical . . . (3)

We see that x and y are not linearly independent as they are related by the equation

of constraint (1) and hence they are not the generalized co-ordinates. However, we

c c

eliminate the variable y by putting y = and hence y = 2 x in equations (2) and

x x

(3), we get

1 c2

T= m x 2 1 + 4 ,

2 x

c

V = mg

x

Here x is the generalized co-ordinate. Hence the Lagrangian of the particle becomes

1 2 c 2 mgc

L = m x 1 + 4 . . . . (4)

2 x x

d L L

=0 ,

dt x x

becomes

c2 c 2 m 2 mgc

mx 1 + 4 2 5 x 2 = 0 .

. . . (5)

x x x

radius. Obtain the Lagranges equation of motion.

Solution : The surface of the cylinder is characterized by the parametric equations

given by

x = r cos , y = r sin , z = z . . . (1)

However, x, y, z are not the generalized co-ordinates as x and y are related by the

equation of constraint x 2 + y 2 = r 2 , r is a constant radius of the circle. Hence the

generalized co-ordinates are and z. In terms of these generalized co-ordinates the

kinetic and potential energies become

1

(

T = m r 2 2 + z 2 ,

2

)

V = mgz.

Hence the Lagrangian is given by

1

L=

2

( )

m r 2 2 + z 2 mgz . . . . (2)

d L L

Therefore the Lagranges equation =0

dt

d

yields

dt

( )

mr 2 = 0 mr 2 = const (l )

Integrating we get

l

= t + 0 , . . . (3)

mr 2

where 0 is a constant of integration. Similarly, z- Lagranges equation of motion

d L L

= 0,

dt z z

1 2

gives z = ut gt , . . . (4)

2

where z = u at t = 0 .

Example 19 : A particle of mass m is projected with initial velocity u at an angle

with the horizontal. Use Lagranges equation to describe the motion of the projectile.

Solution : Let a particle of mass m be projected from O with an initial velocity u unit

making an angle with the horizontal line referred as x-axis. Let P (x, y) be the

position of the particle at any instant t. Since x and y are independent and hence the

generalized co-ordinates. The kinetic of the projectile is given by

y

1

T= m ( x 2 + y 2 ) ,

2 .

y = u sin .

u y = u sin - gt

and the potential energy is V = mgy

.

x = u cos

mg

x

Thus the Lagrangian function of the O .

x = u cos

projectile is

1

L= m ( x 2 + y 2 ) mgy . . . . (1)

2

The x- Lagranges equation of motion and y-Lagranges equation of motion

respectively give

x = 0 and

y+g =0

. . . (2)

To find the velocity of the projectile and its path at any instant we integrate equations

(2) and using boundary conditions we readily obtain

x = u cos , y = u sin gt . . . (3)

These equations determine velocity at any time t. Integrating (3) once again and

using boundary conditions we get

1 2

x = u cos .t and y = u sin .t gt . . . (4)

2

Eliminating t between equations (4) we get

1 x2

y = x tan g 2 .. . (5)

2 u cos 2

This represents the path of the projectile and it is a parabola.

Atwoods Machine :

Solution : Atwood machine consists of two masses m1 and m2 suspended over a

frictionless pulley of radius a. Both the ends of the string

l- x only one degrees of freedom and x is the only generalized

x

co-ordinate. Hence the kinetic energy of the system is given

m2 Q by

1

m2g

T= ( m1 + m2 ) x 2 . . . . (1)

2

P m1 Considering the reference level as a horizontal plane

passing through A, the potential energy of both masses is

given by

m1g V = m1 gx m2 g ( l x ) . . . . (2)

1

L= ( m1 + m2 ) x 2 + ( m1 m2 ) gx + m2 gl . . . . (3)

2

The corresponding Lagranges equation of motion gives

x=

( m1 m2 ) g . . . (4)

m1 + m2

The solution of this equation gives

1 ( m1 m2 ) 2

x= gt + x0t + y0 , . . . (5)

2 m1 + m2

Example 21: A particle of mass m moves in one dimension such that it has the

Lagrangian

m 2 x 4

L= + mx 2V ( x ) V 2 ( x ) ,

12

where V is some differentiable function of x. Find equation of motion for x (t).

Solution : Here the Lagrangian of the system is

m 2 x 4

L= + mx 2V ( x ) V 2 ( x ) , . . . (1)

12

We see from equation (1) that x is the only generalized co-ordinate. Therefore the

corresponding Lagranges equation of motion becomes

V

mx + = 0. . . . (2)

x

This equation of motion shows that the particle moves in a straight line under the

V

action of a force F = .

x

Example 22 : Let a particle be moving in a field of force given by

1 r 2 2rr

F= 1 .

r2 c2

Solution: One can check that F 0 , hence the force is non-conservative;

consequently, the corresponding potential is generalized potential or velocity

dependent potential. We know the component of generalized force corresponding to

the generalized coordinate r is given by

1 r2 2rr

Qr = F = 2 1 .

r c 2

1 r2 r

2

Qr = 2 2 2 + 2 ,

r cr cr

2

1 r r 2r2

2

Qr = 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 2 ,

r cr cr cr

1 r 2 d 1 r 2

Qr = + + + ,

r r c 2 r dt r r c 2 r

U d U

Qr = + ,

r dt r

1 r 2

U = 1 + 2 . (1)

r c

We notice that the potential energy U is the velocity dependent potential. The

kinetic energy of the particle is given by

1 2

T= mr . ... (2)

2

Hence the Lagrangian of the particle becomes

1 2 1 r 2

L = mr 1+ 2 . ...(3)

2 r c

Lagranges equation yields the equation of motion in the form

2 r 2 1

r m 2 + 2 2 2 = 0.

(4)

rc r c r

Example 23 : Derive the equation of motion of a particle falling vertically under the

influence of gravity, when frictional forces obtainable from dissipation function

1 2

Kv are present. Integrate the equation to obtain the velocity as a function of time.

2

mg

Show also that the maximum possible velocity for fall from rest is v = .

K

Solution : Let a particle of mass m be falling vertically under the influence of

gravity. Let z be the height of the particle at any instant t. Therefore the only

generalized co-ordinate is z. Thus the Kinetic energy and the potential energy of the

particle are given by

1 2

T= mz . . . (1)

2

and V = mgz . . . (2)

Hence the Lagrangian function becomes

1 2

L= mz + mgz . . . . (3)

2

We know the Lagranges equation of motion for a system containing the frictional

1 2

forces obtainable from a dissipation function R = Kv is given by

2

d L L R

+ = 0. . . . (4)

dt z z z

Solving this equation we get

mz + Kz mg = 0 . . . . (5)

On integrating equation (5) we get

mz + Kz mgt + c1 = 0 , . . . (6)

t = 0, z = v = 0, z = 0 c1 = 0 .

We have therefore

K

z + z = gt . . . . (7)

m

This is a linear differential equation of first order whose solution is given by

2 Kt

mg m

z= t

g + c2 e m

.

K K

2

m

As t = 0 z = 0 c2 = g ,

K

Hence

2 2 Kt

mg m m

z= t g + g e .

m

. . . (8)

K K

K

Classical Mechanics Page No. 68

Differentiating equation (8) we obtain

Kt

mg m m

z =

g e . . . . (9)

K K

This shows that the velocity z is the function of time only. For maximum velocity

we have

dz

=0.

dt

z = 0 and is given by

Hence the maximum velocity is obtained from (5) by putting

mg

z = .

K

Example 24: Two mass points of mass m1 and m2 are connected by a string passing

through a hole in a smooth table so that m1 rests on the table surface and m2 hangs

suspended. Assuming m2 moves only in a vertical line, what are the generalized co-

ordinates for the system? Write down the Lagrangian for the system. Reduce the

problem to a single second order differential equation and obtain a first integral of

the equation.

Solution: Let the two mass points m1 and m2 be connected by a string passing

through a hole in a smooth table so that m1 rests on the table surface and m2 hangs

suspended. We assume that m2 moves only in a vertical line. The system is shown in

the fig.

Let l be the length of a string. Consider OX as an initial line. Let ( r , ) be

Om2 = l r .

y

P(r, )

m1

r

O x

l- r

m2

kinetic energy of the system is the sum of the kinetic energies of the two masses and

is given by

1 1

T=

2

( )

m1 r 2 + r 2 2 + m2 r 2 .

2

. . . (1)

1 1

L=

2

( 2

)

m1 r 2 + r 2 2 + m2 r 2 + m2 g ( l r ) . . . . (2)

respectively reduce to

( m1 + m2 ) r m1r2 + m2 g = 0 . . . (3)

These are the required equations of motion. Now eliminating between (3) and (4)

we obtain

h2

( m1 + m2 ) r 3 + m2 g = 0 . . . . (5)

m1r

This is the required single second order differential equation of motion. Now to find

the first integral of (5), multiply equation (5) by 2r and integrating it w. r. t. time t,

we get

h 2 r

( m1 + m2 ) 2rrdt

m1 r 3

dt + 2m2 g rdt

= const.

2h 2 1

( m1 + m2 ) d ( r 2 ) d 2 + 2m2 g dr = const.

m1 2r

h2

( m1 + m2 ) r2 + + 2m2 gr = const. . . . (6)

m1r 2

This is required first integral of motion which represents total energy of the particle.

horizontally with a constant velocity v. Use Lagrangian equation to find the locus of

the position of the body at any time t after the motion sets in.

Solution: Let AB be an inclined plane moving horizontally with constant velocity v .

y Therefore at some instant t the distance moved

by the plane AB is given by

OA = v t . . . (1)

B

v Let at t = 0 a body of mass m be thrown up an

m inclined plane AB. Let P be the position of the

P(x, y)

r particle at that instant t, where AP = r. If

x

O A C ( x, y ) are the co-ordinates of the particle at P,

then we have

x = OA + AP cos ,

x = vt + r cos . . . (2)

and y = r sin , (note is a fixed angle ) . . . (3)

The kinetic energy of the particle is given by

1

T= m ( x 2 + y 2 ) .

2

We notice that x and y are related by equations (2) and (3) and hence will not be the

generalized co-ordinates. The only generalized co-ordinate is r. Hence using

equations (2) and (3) we write the expression for the kinetic energy in terms of

generalized co-ordinate r as

1

T= m ( v 2 + r 2 + 2rv

cos ) . . . . (4)

2

The potential energy of the particle is given by

V = mgr sin . . . . (5)

Hence the Lagrangian of the system is

1

L= m ( v 2 + r 2 + 2rv

cos ) mgr sin . . . . (6)

2

Hence the corresponding r- Lagranges equation reduces to the form

r = g sin .

. . . (7)

Integrating we get

r = g sin t + c1 .

At t = 0 let r = u be the initial velocity of the particle with which it is projected.

This gives c1 = u , hence

r = u g sin t . . . . (8)

Integrating once again we get

1 2

r = u.t gt sin + c2 .

2

At t = 0, r = 0 c2 = 0.

1 2

r = ut gt sin .

2

Classical Mechanics Page No. 72

Hence the locus of the position of the particle is given by

2

1 2

r = ut gt 2 sin = ( x vt ) + y 2 .

2

. . . (9)

2

Example 26 : Set up the Lagrangian and the Lagranges equation of motion for

simple pendulum.

O x

Solution : Consider a simple pendulum of point

mass m attached to one end of an inextensible light

l

string of length l and other end is fixed at point O.

The system is shown in fig. If B ( x, y ) are the C

B(x, y)

position co-ordinates of the pendulum at any instant

t, then the equation of the constraint is given by

x2 + y2 = l 2 , . . . (1)

where x = l sin , y = l cos , is the angle made by the pendulum with the

vertical. This shows that x and y are not the generalized co-ordinates. We see that

the angle determines the position of pendulum at any given time; hence it is a

generalized co-ordinate. Hence the kinetic and potential energies of the pendulum

become

1 2

T=

2

( )

m l , V = mgl (1 cos ) . . . . (2)

1 2

L=

2

( )

m l mgl (1 cos ) . . . . (3)

g

+ sin = 0 . . . . (4)

l

This is the second order differential equation that determines the motion of the

simple pendulum.

Example 27 : A pendulum of mass is attached to a block of mass M. The block

slides on a horizontal frictional less surface. Find the Lagrangian and equation of

motion of the pendulum. For small amplitude oscillations derive an expression for

periodic time.

y

Solution : Let a pendulum of point mass m be x1

O M x

attached to one end of the light and inextensible

string of length l and other end is attached to a l

block of mass M. The system is shown in fig. Let at

x2

any instant t the position co-ordinates of the block P(x 2 , y2)

and ( x2 , y2 ) respectively,

where x2 = x1 + l sin ,

y2 = l cos .

We see that the position co-ordinates of the pendulum are related by the constraint

equation; hence these are not the generalized co-ordinates. The generalized co-

ordinates in this case are x1 and . The kinetic energy of the system is the sum of the

kinetic energy of the pendulum and the kinetic energy of the block. It is given by

1 1

T=

2 2

( )

Mx12 + m x12 + l 2 2 + 2lx1 cos .

V = mgl cos .

Hence the Lagrangian of the system becomes

1 1

L=

2 2

( )

( M + m ) x12 + m l 22 + 2lx1 cos + mgl cos . . . . (1)

Since and x1 are the generalized co-ordinates, hence the corresponding

Lagranges equations of motion viz.,

d L L d L L

= 0 and =0,

dt dt x1 x1

respectively reduces to

ml 2 + ml cos

x1 + mgl sin = 0 , . . . (2)

(2) becomes

x1 g

+ + =0 . . . (4)

l l

Eliminating x1 between equations (3) and (4) we get

=

( M + m) g . . . . (5)

Ml

This is the required equation of simple harmonic motion. The periodic time T is

given by

2

T=

accel n . per unit displacement

Ml

T = 2 .

( M + m) g

Spherical Pendulum: A point mass constrained to move on the surface of a

sphere is called spherical pendulum.

Example 28 : In a spherical pendulum a particle of mass m moves on the surface of

a sphere of radius r in a gravitational field. Show that the equation of motion of the

particle may be written as

p2 cos g

2 4 3

sin = 0,

m r sin r

where p is the constant of angular momentum.

Classical Mechanics Page No. 75

Solution : Let P (x, y, z) be the position co-ordinates of the particle moving on the

surface of a sphere of radius r. If ( r , , ) are its spherical co-ordinates, then we have

z x = r sin cos ,

y = r sin sin , . . . (1)

P(r, , ) z = r cos

It clearly shows that x, y, z are not the generalized

r

z = r cos co-ordinates, as they are related by the constraint

equations (1). The generalized co-ordinates are

y

( , ) . Hence the kinetic and potential energies of

L

particle are respectively given by

x

1 2 2

T=

2

( )

mr + sin 2 2 ,

V = mgr cos

Hence the Lagrangian function becomes

1 2 2

L=

2

(

mr + sin 2 2 mgr cos . ) . . . (2)

ordinates and reduce to

p2 cos g

2 4 3

sin = 0, . . . (5)

m r sin r

where p is a constant of angular momentum.

Compound Pendulum :

A rigid body capable of oscillating in a vertical plane about a fixed horizontal

axis under the action of gravity is called a compound pendulum.

Example 29 : Set up the Lagrangian and the Lagranges equation of motion for the

compound pendulum.

Solution : Let O be a fixed point of a rigid body through which axis of rotation

passes. Let C be the center of mass, and OC = l .Let m be the mass of the pendulum

and I the moment of inertia about the axis of rotation. If is the angle of deflection

of the body then the rotational kinetic energy of the pendulum is given by

y

1 2

T= I . . . (1)

2

O

l The potential energy relative to the horizontal plane

C through O is

V = mgl cos . . . (2)

Hence the Lagrangian of compound pendulum becomes

mg

1 2

O x L= I + mgl cos . . . (3)

2

Thus the Lagranges equation of motion corresponding to the generalized co-

ordinate becomes

mgl

+ sin = 0 . . . . (4)

I

The periodic time of oscillation is given by

I

T = 2 . . . . (5)

mgl

pendulum vibrating in a vertical plane.

Solution : A double pendulum moving in a plane consists of two particles of masses

m1 and m2 connected by an inextensible string. The system is suspended by another

inextensible and weightless string fastened to one of the masses as shown in the fig.

Let 1 and 2 be the deflections of the pendulum from vertical. These are the

generalized co-ordinates of the system. Let l1 and l2 be O x

1 l1

the lengths of the strings and ( x1 , y1 ) , ( x2 , y2 ) be the

(x 1, y 1)

rectangular position co-ordinates of the masses m1 and l2

2

m2 respectively at any instant t. From the fig. we have (x 2, y 2)

y

x1 = l1 sin 1 , y1 = l1 cos 1 ;

x2 = l1 sin 1 + l2 sin 2 , . . (1)

y2 = l1 cos 1 + l2 cos 2

The total kinetic energy of the system is given by

1 1

T= m1 ( x12 + y12 ) + m 2 ( x22 + y 22 ) . . . . (2)

2 2

Using equation (1) we obtain

1 1

T= m1l1212 + m2 l1212 + l2 222 + 2l1l212 cos (1 2 ) . . . . (3)

2 2

Taking the reference level as a horizontal plane through the point of suspension O,

the total potential energy of the system is given by

V = m1 gl1 cos 1 m2 g ( l1 cos 1 + l2 cos 2 ) . . . . (4)

1 1

L= ( m1 + m2 ) l1212 + m2l2222 + m2l1l2 cos (1 2 )12 +

2 2

+ m1 gl1 cos 1 + m2 g ( l1 cos 1 + l2 cos 2 ) . . . . (5)

ordinates 1 and 2 we obtain

( m1 + m2 ) l121 + m2l1l2 cos (1 2 ) 2 + m2l1l2 sin (1 2 ) 212 + ( m1 + m2 ) gl1 sin 1 = 0 , . . (6)

and

m2l222 + m2l1l2 cos (1 2 ) 1 m2l1l2 sin (1 2 )112 + m2 gl2 sin 2 = 0 . . . . (7)

Equations (6) and (7) describe the motion of the double pendulum.

Classical Mechanics Page No. 78

Note : If in particular, two masses are equal, the lengths of the pendula are also

equal and 1 2 is very small, then for small angle we have sin = , cos = 1

and hence neglecting the terms involving 2 we get from equations (6) and (7) that

2l1 + l2 + 2 g1 = 0,

. . . (8)

l + l + g = 0.

2 1 2

gravity. Obtain the Lagrangian and Lagranges equation of motion.

Solution : A particle is moving on a cycloid under the action of gravity whose

intrinsic equation is given by

s = 4a sin . . . (1)

From equation (1) we find

ds = 4a cos d ,

ds 2 = 16a 2 cos 2 d 2 . . . . (2)

Hence the kinetic energy of the particle is given by

2

1 ds

T = m

2 dt . . . (3)

T = 8a 2 m cos 2 2 .

To find the potential energy of the particle, let P (x, y) be the position of the particle

at any instant, where the Cartesian equations of the cycloid are given by

x = a ( 2 + sin 2 ) ,

. . . (4)

y = a (1 cos 2 ) .

V = mgy ,

L = 8a 2 m cos 2 2 mga (1 cos 2 ) . . . (6)

We see that the system has one degree of freedom and is the only generalized co-

ordinate. Hence the Lagranges equation of motion is obtained as

g

tan 2 + tan = 0 . . . . (7)

4a

Example 32: Obtain the expression for kinetic energy of a particle constrained to

move on a horizontal xy plane which is rotating about the vertical z-axis with

angular velocity . Show that

T T

x + y = 2T2 + T1 ,

x y

1

where T2 = m ( x 2 + y 2 ) ,

2

T1 = m ( xy yx )

1

m ( x y ) + ( y + x ) V ( x, y ) .

2 2

L=

2

Solution : A particle is moving on the xy -plane and the plane itself is rotating with

particle with respect to the fixed co-ordinate system and ( x, y, z ) the co-ordinates of

the particle with respect to rotating axes. The co-ordinates with respect to the rotating

axes are taken as the generalized co-ordinates. The transformation equations for

rotation are given by

x1 = x cos t y sin t ,

. . . (1)

y1 = x sin t + y cos t ,

z1 = z . . . (2)

Since z fixed is the constraint, therefore, the system has only two degrees of freedom

and hence only two generalized co-ordinates and that are x and y. We note here that

the transformation equations (1) are not independent of time, though the constraint

equation (2) is. Thus the kinetic energy of the particle is given by

1

T= m ( x12 + y12 ) . . . (3)

2

Differentiating equations (1) with respect to t and putting in (3) we obtain

1

T= m ( x 2 + y 2 ) + 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) + 2 ( xy yx ) ,

2

1

m ( x y ) + ( y + x ) .

2 2

T= . . . (4)

2

We can also write this equation as

T = T2 + T1 + T0 ,

where

1

T2 = m ( x 2 + y 2 ) ,

2

T1 = m ( xy yx ) ,

1

T0 = m 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) .

2

Differentiating (4) w. r. t. x, y we get

T

= mx my,

x

T

= my + mx.

y

This gives on solving

T T

x + y = 2T2 + T1 ,

x y

Now if V is the potential energy of the particle which is function of the generalized

co-ordinates x, y then the Lagrangian of the particle is given by

L = T V ,

1

m ( x y ) + ( y + x ) V ( x, y ) .

2 2

L= . . . (5)

2

Classical Mechanics Page No. 81

Example 33 : The Lagrangian of a system is

m k

L=

2

( + cy 2 ) ( ax 2 + 2bxy + cy 2 ) , a, b, c

ax 2 + 2bxy

2

are arbitrary constants such that b 2 4ac 0 . Write down the equation of motion.

Examine the two cases a = 0, c = 0 and b = 0, c = a and interpret physically.

Solution: Given that

m k

L=

2

( + cy 2 ) ( ax 2 + 2bxy + cy 2 ) ,

ax 2 + 2bxy

2

. . . (1)

a, b, c are arbitrary constants. We notice that x and y are the generalized co-ordinates.

Hence the corresponding Lagranges equations of motion are

m ( ax + by) + k ( ax + by ) = 0 , . . . (2)

Case (i) If a = 0, c = 0 .

Equations (2) and (3) reduce to

k

y + y = 0,

. . . (4)

m

k

and x+ x = 0.

. . . (5)

m

Case (ii) b = 0, c = a . Putting this in equations (2) and (3) we get

k

x+ x = 0,

. . . (6)

m

k

and y + y = 0.

. . . (7)

m

We see from the equations (4), (5) and (6), (7) that in both the cases we get the same

set of equations of motion. These are the differential equations of particle performing

a linear S. H. M. The solution of these equations gives the displacement of the

k

particle with the frequency of oscillation = .

m

Introduction: We have proved some conservation theorems in the Unit 1. In this

unit we will prove that the conservation theorems are continued to be true for cyclic

generalized coordinates.

Definitions: In Newtonian mechanics the components of momentum (linear) are

defined as the derivative of kinetic energy with respect to the corresponding

components of velocity. i.e., If

1

T= m ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )

2

is the kinetic energy of a particle, then the components of momentum of the particle

are defined as

T T T

px = = mx , p y = = my , pz = = mz . . . . (1)

x y z

Generalized Momentum :

Consider a conservative system in which the forces are derivable from a potential

function V which is dependent on position only. In this case we have

L T

= .

q j q j

L

pj = . . . . (2)

q j

Note 1 : The definition of generalized momentum (2) is exactly analogous to the

usual definition of momentum (1).

Note 2 : The word generalized momentum subsumes linear momentum and

angular momentum of the particle.

e.g. To illustrate, let a particle be moving in plane polar co-ordinates ( r , ) . Then we

1

T=

2

( )

m r 2 + r 2 2 .

are respectively given by

T

pr = = mr ,

r

T

p = = mr .

We notice that pr and p represent respectively the linear momentum and angular

momentum of the particle.

Co-ordinates which are absent in the Lagrangian are called cyclic or

ignorable co-ordinates, although the Lagrangian may contain the corresponding

generalized velocity q j of the particle.

Theorem 10 : Show that the generalized momentum corresponding to a cyclic co-

ordinate is conserved.

Proof : The Lagranges equations of motion are given by

d L L

= 0, . . . (1)

dt q j q j

where L = L ( q j , q j , t ) is the Lagrangian function. If the generalized co-ordinate q j is

L

=0. . . . (2)

q j

d L

= 0 . . . (3)

dt q j

L

But we have pj = .

q j

d

dt

( p j ) = 0,

p j = const.

This proves that the generalized momentum corresponding to the cyclic co-ordinate

is conserved.

Conservation Theorem for Linear momentum :

We will show that the conservation Theorems are continued to be true for

cyclic generalized co-ordinates.

Theorem 12 : If the cyclic generalized co-ordinate q j is such that dq j represents

the translation of the system, then prove that the total linear momentum is conserved.

Proof : Consider a conservative system so that the potential y

energy V is a function of generalized co-ordinates only.

P

i.e. V = V ( q j ) .

>

dqj n

ri(q j)

Hence we have Q

V ri (q j + dq j)

=0. . . . (1)

q j O x

Let P = ri ( q j ) be the initial position of the system and let it be translated to a point

Q = ri ( q j + dq j ) , so that

PQ = dq j n, ...(2)

where n is the unit vector along the direction of translation and dq j represents the

We know by the first principle that

ri ri ( q j + dq j ) ri ( q j )

= lim as dq j 0,

q j dq j

ri PQ

= lim as dq j 0,

q j dq j

ri dq

= lim j n as dq j 0.

q j dq j

ri

= n. . . . (3)

q j

ri

Q j = Fi .

i q j

Q j = Fi n Q j = Fn, . . . (4)

i

where F is the total force acting on the system. Equation (4) implies that Q j are the

Now the generalized momentum p j is defined by

T

pj = , . . . (5)

q j

Classical Mechanics Page No. 86

1

T = mi ri 2 .

i 2

Thus we have

1

pj =

q j

2m r ,

i

i i

2

ri

p j = mi ri ,

i q j

ri ri r

p j = mi ri , as = i .

i q j q j q j

p j = mi ri n ,

i

p j = pi n,

i

p j = p n,

where p is the total linear momentum of the system. This equation shows that p j are

the components of total linear momentum of the system along the displacement dq j .

Since in the translation of the system, velocity is not affected and hence the kinetic

energy of the system. This means that q j will not appear in kinetic energy

expression. That is, change in the kinetic energy due to change in q j is zero.

Consequently, we have

T

=0. . . . (6)

q j

Thus from the Lagranges equation of motion on using equations (1) and (6) we

have,

d T V

+ =0

dt q j q j

V

p j = = Qj . . . . (7)

q j

L

=0

q j

V

=0

q j

p j = 0 p j = const. . . . (8)

This shows that corresponding to the cyclic co-ordinate q j the total linear

momentum is conserved.

Note : This can also be stated from equation (7) that if the components of total force

Q j are zero, then the total linear momentum is conserved.

the rotation of the system of particles around some axis n , then prove that the total

angular momentum is conserved along n .

>

M

dqj

V = V (q j ) . Q

P

dr i

ri(qj)

Hence we have

ri (q j + dqj)

V

=0. . . . (1)

q j dqj

O

vector n . This gives the rotation of the vector

OP = ri ( q j ) to OQ = ri ( q j + dq j )

dri = MPdq j ,

= OP sin dq j ,

dri = ri ( q j ) sin dq j

dri

= ri sin . . . . (2)

dq j

ri

= n ri . . . . (3)

q j

ri

This shows that is perpendicular to both n and ri .

q j

ri

Q j = Fi .

i q j

Q j = Fi ( n ri )

i

Q j = n ( ri Fi ) . . . (4)

i

= n N i ,

i

i

acting on the system, then equation (4) shows that Q j are the components of the total

torque along the axis of rotation. Now the generalized momentum p j is defined by

T

pj = . . . . (5)

q j

1

T = mi ri 2 ,

i 2

Thus we have

1

pj =

q j

2m r ,

i

i i

2

ri

p j = mi ri ,

i q j

ri ri r

p j = mi ri , as = i .

i q j q j q j

p j = mi ri ( n ri ) ,

i

p j = pi ( n ri ) ,

i

p j = n ( ri pi ),

i

p j = n ( ri pi )

i

p j = n Li

i

i

Thus we have

p j = nL

. . . . (6)

This equation shows that p j are the components of total angular momentum of the

system along the axis of rotation. Since the rotation of the system does not change

the magnitude of the velocity and hence the kinetic energy of the system. This means

that T does not depend on positions q j . That is, change in the kinetic energy due to

T

=0. . . . (7)

q j

Thus from the Lagranges equation of motion on using equations (1) and (7) we

have,

d T V

+ =0

dt q j q j

V

p j = = Qj . . . . (8)

q j

L

=0.

q j

V

=0.

q j

p j = 0 p j = const. . . . (9)

This shows that corresponding to the cyclic co-ordinate q j the total angular

momentum is conserved.

Note : From equation (8) the Theorem can also be stated as, if the applied torque is

zero then the total angular momentum is conserved.

Exercise:

1. Show that

d T

i) L = p j q j , ii) 2 = q j , iii) T + V = 0

dt j p j

2. Derive the Newtons equation of motion from the Lagranges equation of

motion for a particle moving under the action of the force F.

Hint : The force is explicitly given, use Lagranges equation of motion

d T T

= Qj ,

dt q j q j

where T is the kinetic energy of the particle and is given by

1

T= m ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) .

2

3. A particle is moving on a cycloid s = 4a sin under the action of gravity.

2

Obtain the Lagrangian and the equation of motion.

L = 2a 2 m cos 2 2 mga (1 cos ) ,

2

Ans:

1 g

tan 2 + tan = 0

2 2 2a 2

4. Show that the force F defined by

F = ( y 2 z 3 6 xz 2 ) i + 2 xyz 3 j + ( 3 xy 2 z 2 6 x 2 z ) k

Ans : For conservative force

1

F = 0, E = m ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) + 3 x 2 z 2 xy 2 z 3 .

2

5. Show that Newtons equation of motion is the necessary condition for the

action to have the stationary value.

Show that the two Lagrangians L1 = ( q + q ) , L2 = ( q 2 + q 2 ) are equivalent.

2

6.

Ans : Both the Lagrangians produce the same equation of motion q q = 0 .

7. For a mechanical system the generalized co-ordinates appear separately in the

kinetic energy and the potential energy such that

T = f i ( qi ) qi2 , V = Vi ( qi ) .

2 f i qi + f i qi2 + Vi = 0, i = 1, 2,..., n .

where a and b are constants. Find the Lagrangian and the equation of motion.

Ans : Equation of motion ( a + bt ) + 2b + g sin = 0.

moving on the surface characterized by

x = r cos , y = r sin , z = r cot .

1

Ans : L=

2

( )

m r 2 cos ec 2 + r 22 mgr cot .

And equation of motion is

10. Find the Lagrangian and the equation of motion of a particle moving on the

surface obtained by revolving the line x = z about z - axis.

Hint : Surface of revolution is a cone x 2 + y 2 = z 2

1

Ans : Lagrangian of the particle L =

2

( )

m 2r 2 + r 22 mgr .

1 1

r r2 + g = 0 .

Equation of motion

2 2

11. Describe the motion of a particle of mass m moving near the surface of the

earth under the earths gravitational field by Lagranges procedure.

1

Ans.: L = m ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) mgz ,

2

x = 0,

and equations of motion are y = 0,

z = g .

12. A particle of mass m can move in a frictionless thin circular wire of radius r.

If the wire rotates with an angular velocity about a vertical diameter,

deduce the differential equation of motion of the particle.

g

Ans : Equation of motion of the particle : 2 sin cos sin = 0.

r

CHAPTER - II

VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES

Introduction:

We have seen that co-ordinates are the tools in the hands of a mathematician.

With the help of these co-ordinates the motion of a particle and also the path

followed by the particle can be discussed. The piece wise information of the

path y = f ( x ) , whether it is minimum or maximum at a point can be obtained from

the point depends upon the value of second derivative of the function at that point.

The function is maximum at a point if its second derivative is negative at the point,

and is minimum at the point if its second derivative is positive at that point.

However, if we want to know the information about the whole path, we use

integral calculus. i.e., the techniques of calculus of variation and are called

variational principles. Thus the calculus of variation has its origin in the

generalization of the elementary theory of maxima and minima of function of a

single variable or more variables. The history of calculus of variations can be traced

back to the year 1696, when John Bernoulli advanced the problem of the

brachistochrone. In this problem one has to find the curve connecting two given

points A and B that do not lie on a vertical line, such that a particle sliding down this

curve under gravity from A reaches point B in the shortest time.

Apart from the problem of brachistochrone, there are three other problems

exerted great influence on the development of the subject and are:

1. the problem of geodesic,

2. the problem of minimum surface of revolution and

Classical Mechanics Page No. 95

3. the isoperimetric problem.

Thus in calculus of variation we consider the motion of a particle or system

of particles along a curve y = f(x) joining two points P ( x1 , y1 ) and Q ( x2 , y2 ) . The

1

P(x2 , y2 )

ds = ( dx 2 + dy 2 ) 2 .

Q(x2 , y 2) ds along the curve is given by

x2 1

dy

I ( y ( x)) = (1 + y ) dx,

2 2

y =

x1

dx

dependent variable y and its derivative y . Thus the most general form of the integral

is given by

x2

I ( y ( x)) = f ( x, y, y)dx.

x1

. . . (1)

This integral may represents the total path between two given points, the surface

area of revolution of a curve, the time for quickest decent etc. depending upon the

situation of the problem. The functional I in general depends upon the starting point

( x1 , y1 ) , the end point ( x2 , y2 ) and the curve between two points. The question is

this chapter we first find the condition to be satisfied by y(x) such that the functional

I ( y ( x ) ) defined in (1) must have extremum value. The fascinating principle in

calculus of variation paves the way to find the curve of extreme distance between

two points. Its object is to extremize the values of the functional. This is one of the

most fundamental and beautiful principles in applied mathematics. Because from this

principle one can determine the

Classical Mechanics Page No. 96

(a) Newtons equations of motion,

(b) Lagranges equations of motion,

(c) Hamiltons equations of motion,

(d) Schrdingers equations of motion,

(e) Einsteins field equations for gravitation,

(f) Hoyle-Narlikars equations for gravitation and so on and so forth by

slightly modifying the integrand.

Note : A functional means a quantity whose values are determined by one or several

functions. i.e., domain of a functional is a set of all admissible functions.

e.g. The length of the path l between two points is a function of curves y(x),

which it self is a function of x. Such functions are called functional.

Basic Lemma :

If x1 and x2 ( > x1 ) are fixed constants and G ( x ) is a particular continuous

x2

x1

for every choice of continuous

in x1 x x2 .

Proof : Let the lemma be not true. Let us assume that there is a particular value x of

x in the interval such that G ( x ) 0 . Let us assume that G ( x ) > 0.

x

[ ( ) ]

x1 x1 x2 x2

x1 x x2 in which G ( x ) > 0 everywhere.

x2

x1

permissible choice

of ( x ) .

( x) = 0 for x1 x x1

2 2

= ( x x1 ) ( x x2 ) for x1 x x2 . . . (1)

= 0 for x2 x x2

( x1 ) = ( x2 ) = 0 ,

x2

x1

x2 x1 x2 x2

G ( x ) ( x ) dx = G ( x ) ( x ) dx + G ( x ) ( x ) dx + G ( x ) ( x ) dx

x1 x1 x1 x2

x2 x2

G ( x ) ( x ) dx = ( x x ) ( x x ) G ( x ) dx

2 2

1 2 . . . (2)

x1 x1

Since

G ( x ) > 0 in x1 x x2 ,

x2

( x )G ( x ) dx > 0,

x1

x2

G ( x ) ( x ) dx = 0 .

x1

If G ( x ) < 0 ,

we obtain the similar contradiction. This contradiction arises because of our

assumption that G ( x ) 0 for x in x1 x x2 .

Theorem 1 : Find the Euler- Lagrange differential equation satisfied by twice

differentiable function y(x) which extremizes the functional

x2

I ( y ( x )) = f ( x, y, y)dx

x1

Proof: Let P ( x1 , y1 ) and Q ( x2 , y2 ) be two fixed y (

x)

0 )+

y (x,

points in xy plane. The points P and Q can be joined )= Q(x 2, y 2)

y ( x, 0 )

c: x,

by infinitely many curves. Accordingly the value of y(

y=

c:

the integral I will be different for different paths. We

P(x1 , y 1)

shall look for a curve along which the functional I x

O

has an extremum value. Let c be a curve between P

and Q whose equation is given by y = y ( x,0 ) .

Let also the value of the functional along the curve c be extremum and is given by

x2

I ( y ( x )) = f ( x, y, y)dx

x1

. . . (1)

We can label all possible paths starting from P and ending at Q by the family of

equations

y ( x, ) = y ( x, 0 ) + ( x ) , . . . (2)

For different values of we get different curves. Accordingly the value of the

integral I will be different for different paths. Since y is prescribed at the end points,

this implies that there is no variation in y at the end points. i.e., all the curves of the

family must be identical at fixed points P and Q.

( x1 ) = 0 = ( x2 ) . . . (3)

Conversely, the condition (3) ensures us that the curves of the family that all pass

through the points P and Q. Let the value of the functional along the neighboring

curve be given by

x2

I ( y ( x, ) ) = f ( x, y ( x, ) , y ( x, ) ) dx

x1

. . . (4)

I

From differential calculus, we know the integral I is extremum if = 0,

= 0

since for = 0 the neighboring curve coincides with the curve which gives

extremum values of I .

x2

I f f

Thus = 0,

= 0

x1

( x ) + ( x ) dx = 0 .

y y

Integrating the second integration by parts, we get

x2 x2 x

f f 2

d f

x y ( x ) dx +

y

( x ) ( x ) dx = 0

x1 x1 dx y

. . . (5)

x2

f d f

y dx y ( x ) dx = 0 .

x1

f d f

= 0. . . . (6)

y dx y

This is required Euler- Lagrange differential equation to be satisfied by y(x) for

which the functional I has extremum value.

Classical Mechanics Page No. 100

Important Note :

If however, y is not prescribed at the end points then there is a difference in y

x2

even at the end points and hence ( ( x ) ) x 0 . As the value of the functional I is

1

taken only on the extremal between two points and hence we must have the Euler-

Lagrange equation is true. Consequently, in this case we must have from equation (5)

that

x2

f f f

= 0 = 0 and = 0. . . . (7)

y x1 y x1 y x2

We will prove this result a little latter in Theorem No. 2.

Aliter : (Proof of the above Theorem (1)):

Let P ( x1 , y1 ) and Q ( x2 , y2 ) be two fixed points in xy plane. Let c be the

curve between P and Q whose equation is given by y = y(x).Let the extremum value

of the functional along the curve c be given by

x2

I ( y ( x ) ) = f ( x, y, y )dx . . . . (1)

x1

y

the curve c be slightly deformed from the original

position such that any point y on the curve c is y

y+

y Q(x2 , y2)

displaced to y + y , where y is the variation in 0)

= y(x,

c : y

the path for an arbitrary choice of , at any point

P(x1 , y1 )

except at the end points, as y prescribed there.

x

O

Mathematically this means that

y ( x1 ) = y1 , y ( x2 ) = y2

x2

( y ) x =0. . . . (2)

1

Thus the value of the functional along the varied path is given by

x2

I = f ( x, y + y, y + y)dx .

x1

. . . (3)

Hence the change in the value of the functional due to change in the path is given by

x2

I I = f ( x, y + y, y + y ) f ( x, y, y ) dx ,

x1

x2

Let I I = I = f ( x, y + y, y + y ) f ( x, y, y ) dx . . . . (4)

x1

We recall the Taylors series expansion for the function of two variables

f f

f ( x, y + y , y + y ) = f ( x , y , y ) + y + y + ...

y y

Since y is very small, therefore by neglecting the higher order terms in y and

y we have

f f

f ( x, y + y , y + y ) f ( x, y , y ) = y + y .

y y

Substituting this in the equation (4) we get

x2

f f

I = y + y dx

x

y1

y

dy d

We know = y,

dx dx

hence we have

x2

f f d

I = y+ ( y ) dx .

x1

y y dx

Integrating the second integral by parts we get

x2 x2 x

f f 2

d f

I = y dx + y y dx .

x1

y y x1 x1 dx y

On using equation (2) we get

x2

f d f

I = y dx . . . . (5)

x1

y dx y

differential calculus.

x2

f d f

y dx y y dx = 0 .

x1

f d f

= 0.

y dx y

This is the Euler-Lagranges differential equation to be satisfied by y(x) for the

extremum of the functional between two points.

Generalization of Theorem (1) : Euler-Lagranges equations for several

dependent variables.

Theorem 1a : Derive the Euler-Lagranges equations that are to be satisfied by twice

differential functions y1 , y2 ,..., yn that extremize the integral

x2

x1

1 2 n 1 2 n

with respect to those functions y1 , y2 ,..., yn which achieve prescribed values at the

fixed points x1 , x2 .

Proof: The functional which is to be extremized can be written as

x2

I= f ( x, y , y )dx,

x1

i i i = 1, 2,..., n .

yi ( x, ) = yi ( x, 0 ) + i ( x )

and repeating the procedure delineated either in the Theorem (1) or in the alternate

proof we arrive the following set of Euler-Lagranges equations

f d f

= 0, i = 1, 2,..., n .

yi dx yi

two points.

Worked Examples

Example 1 : Show that the geodesic (shortest distance between two points) in a

Euclidian plane is a straight line.

Solution: Take P ( x1 , y1 ) and Q ( x2 , y2 ) be two fixed points in a Euclidean plane.

Let y = f ( x ) be the curve between P and Q. Then the element of distance between

ds 2 = dx 2 + dy 2

Hence the total distance between the point P and Q along the curve is given by

Q

I = ds

P

x2 1

dy

(1 + y ) dx,

2 2

I= y = . . . (1)

x1

dx

1

f = (1 + y2 ) 2 . . . (2)

f d f

=0 . . . (3)

y dx y

Now from equation (2) we find that

f f y

= 0 and =

y y 1 + y 2

d y

= 0.

dx 1 + y2

Integrating we get

y = c 1 + y 2 .

Squaring we get

c

y = c1 , where c1 = .

1+ c2

Integrating we get

y = c1 x + c2 . . . . (4)

This is the required straight line. Thus the shortest distance between two points in a

Euclidean plane is a straight line.

Example 2 : Show that the shortest distance between two polar points in a plane is a

straight line.

Solution: Define a curve in a plane. If A ( x, y ) and B ( x + dx, y + dy ) are

given by

ds 2 = dx 2 + dy 2 . . . . (1)

x = r cos ,

y = r sin .

Hence equation (1) becomes

ds 2 = dr 2 + r 2 d 2 . . . . (2)

Thus the total distance between the points P and Q becomes

r2 1

d

I = (1 + r 2 2 ) 2 dr , = . . . . (3)

r1

dr

1

f = (1 + r 2 2 ) 2 . . . (4)

f d f

= 0, (5)

dr

d r 2

=0,

dr 1 + r 2 2

r 2 = h 1 + r 2 2 .

Squaring and solving for we get

d h

= 1

.

dr

r (r h

2

)

2 2

On integrating we get

h

= cos 1 + 0 ,

r

where 0 is a constant of integration. We write this as

h = r cos( 0 ) . . . . (6)

This is the polar form of the equation of straight line. Hence the shortest distance

between two polar points is a straight line.

Note : If r = r ( ) is the polar equation of the curve, then the length of the curve is

given by

1 2

dr

I=

0

r2 + d .

d

Classical Mechanics Page No. 106

f

f r =h.

r

Solving this equation we readily obtain the same polar equation of straight line as the

geodesic.

Example 3 : Show that the geodesic = ( ) on the surface of a sphere is an arc of

Solution : Consider a sphere of radius r described by the equations

x = r sin cos ,

y = r sin sin , . . . (1)

z = r cos .

If A ( x, y, z ) and B ( x + dx, y + dy, z + dz ) be two neighboring points on the curve

joining the points P and Q. Then the infinitesimal distance between A and B along

the curve is given by

ds 2 = dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2 , . . . (2)

where from equation (1) we find

dx = r cos cos d r sin sin d ,

dy = r cos sin d + r sin cos d , . . . (3)

dz = r sin d .

Squaring and adding these equations we readily obtain

ds 2 = r 2 d 2 + r 2 sin 2 d 2 . . . . (4)

Hence the total distance between the points P and Q along the curve = ( ) is

given by

2 1

d

I = r (1 + sin 2 2 ) 2 d , = . . . (5)

1 d

where

1

f = r (1 + sin 2 2 ) 2 . . . . (6)

The curve is geodesic if the functional I is stationary. This is true if the function f

must satisfy the Euler-Lagranges equations.

f d f

=0 . . . (7)

d

d r sin 2

= 0.

d 1 + sin 2 2

Integrating we get

sin 2 2

= c,

1 + sin 2 2

c cos ec 2

= 1

.

(1 c 2

cos ec )

2 2

On simplifying we get

d k cos ec 2

= 1

. . . . (8)

d

(1 k 2

cot ) 2 2

Therefore we have

dt

d = .

1 t2

Integrating we get

= sin 1 t ,

or = sin 1 ( k cot ) ,

k cot = sin ( ) ,

k cos = sin sin cos cos sin sin ,

kz = x sin y cos . . . . (9)

This is the first-degree equation in x, y, z, which represents a plane. This plane

passes through the origin, hence cutting the sphere in a great circle. Hence the

geodesic on the surface of a sphere is an arc of a great circle.

Example 4 : Show that the curve is a catenary for which the area of surface of

revolution is minimum when revolved about y-axis.

Solution: Consider a curve between two points ( x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 ) in the xy plane

y

whose equation is y = y ( x ) . We form a surface

x

A ds to find the nature of the curve for which the

surface area is minimum. Consider a small strip

at a point A formed by revolving the arc length

x

O ds about y axis. If the distance of the point A

on the curve from y-axis is x, then the surface

z

area of the strip is equal to 2 x ds .

But we know the element of arc ds is given by

ds = 1 + y2 dx .

2 x 1 + y2 dx .

Hence the total area of the surface of revolution of the curve y = y ( x ) about y- axis

is given by

x2

I = 2 x 1 + y2 dx . . . . (1)

x1

f = 2 x 1 + y2 . . . (2)

must satisfy Euler-Lagranges equation

f d f

= 0, . . . (3)

y dx y

d 2 x y

= 0,

dx 1 + y2

d x y

= 0.

dx 1 + y2

Integrating we get

xy = a 1 + y2 .

dy a

= .

dx x2 a2

Integrating we get

x

y = a cosh 1 + b .

a

y b

Or x = a cosh . . . . (4)

a

This shows that the curve is the catenary.

The Brachistochrone Problem :

The Brachistochrone is the curve joining two points not lie on the vertical

line, such that the particle falling from rest under the influence of gravity from higher

point to the lower point in minimum time. The curve is called the cycloid.

Example 5: Find the curve of quickest decent.

Or

A particle slides down a curve in the vertical plane under gravity. Find the curve

such that it reaches the lowest point in shortest time.

Solution: Let A and B be two points on the curve not lie on the vertical line. Let

ds

v= be the speed of the particle along the curve. Then the time required to fall an

dt

arc length ds is given by

ds

A

dt =

y v

v 1 + y 2

dt = dx.

v

B Therefore the total time required for the particle to go

x from A to B is given by

B

1 + y 2

t AB = dx . . . (1)

A

v

Since the particle falls freely under gravity, therefore its potential energy goes on

decreasing and is given by

V = mgx ,

and the kinetic energy is given by

1 2

T= mv .

2

Now from the principle of conservation of energy we have

T + V = constant.

Initially at point A, we have x = 0 and v = 0 . Hence the constant is zero.

1 2

mv = mgx ,

2

v = 2 gx . . . . (2)

Hence equation (1) becomes

x2

1 + y 2

t AB =

x1 2 gx

dx . . . . (3)

Classical Mechanics Page No. 111

1 + y 2

f = , . . . (4)

2 gx

must satisfy Euler-Lagranges equation

f d f

=0 . . . (5)

y dx y

d y

=0

dx 2 gx(1 + y2 )

d y

=0

dx x(1 + y2 )

Integrating we get

y = c x(1 + y2 ) .

dy x

=

dx ax

Integrating we get

x

y= dx + b . . . (6)

ax

Put

x = a sin 2 ( / 2)

. . . . (7)

dx = 2a sin( / 2) cos( / 2)d

Hence

y = a sin 2 ( / 2)d + b .

a

y= ( sin ) + b ,

2

If y = 0, = 0 b = 0 ,

hence

a

y= ( sin ) . . . . (8)

2

Thus from equations (7) and (8) we have

x = b (1 cos ) ,

a

y = b ( sin ) , for b =

2

This is a cycloid. Thus the curve is a cycloid for which the time of decent is

minimum.

2

( y y 2 + 2 xy )dx

2

y ( 0 ) = 0, y = 0 .

2

Solution: Let the functional be denoted by

2

I = ( y2 y 2 + 2 xy )dx . . . . (1)

0

f = y2 y 2 + 2 xy . . . (2)

must satisfy the Euler-Lagranges equation

f d f

= 0, . . . (3)

y dx y

d

2( x y) ( 2 y ) = 0 ,

dx

y + y = x . . . . (4)

This is second order differential equation, whose complementary function (C.F.) is

given by

y = c1 cos x + c2 sin x . . . (5)

The particular integral (P.I.) is

1

y = (1 + D 2 ) x

y = x.

Hence the general solution is given by

y = c1 cos x + c2 sin x + x . . . . (6)

This shows that the extremals of the functional are the two-parameter family of

curves. On using the boundary conditions we obtain

y ( 0 ) = 0 c1 = 0,

y = 0 c2 = .

2 2

Hence the required extremal is

y = x sin x. . . . (7)

2

2

x3

1 y2 dx

subject to the conditions that

y (1) = 0, y ( 2) = 3 .

x3

2

I = 2 dx . . . (1)

1

y

Classical Mechanics Page No. 114

x3

f = . . . (2)

y 2

must satisfy the Euler-Lagranges equation

f d f

= 0. (3)

y dx y

d x3

= 0.

dx y3

Integrating we get

x3 = cy3

or y = ax .

Integrating we get

a 2

y= x +b. . . . (4)

2

Now using the boundary conditions we get

a

y (1) = 0 + b = 0,

2

y ( 2 ) = 3 2a + b = 3.

a = 2, b = 1 .

Hence the required functional becomes

y = x2 1 . . . . (5)

Example 8 : Show that the time taken by a particle moving along a curve y = y ( x )

ds

with velocity = x, from the point (0,0) to the point (1,1) is minimum if the curve

dt

is a circle having its center on the x-axis.

Solution: Let a particle be moving along a curve y = y(x) from the point (0, 0) to the

point (1, 1) with velocity

ds

x=

dt

ds

dt = .

x

Therefore the total time required for the particle to move from the point (0, 0) to the

point (1, 1) is given by

1

ds

t= . . . (1)

0

x

where the infinitesimal distance between two points on the path is given by

dy

ds = 1 + y2 dx, y = .

dx

Hence the equation (1) becomes

1

1 + y 2

t= dx . . . (2)

0

x

1 + y 2

f = . . . (3)

x

must satisfy the Euler-Lagranges equation

f d f

= 0. . . . (4)

y dx y

d y

= 0,

dx x 1 + y2

y = cx 1 + y2 .

Solving for y we get

x 1

y = , for a= .

a 2 x2 c

Integrating we get

x

y= dx + b

a x2

2

Therefore,

y = a sin d + b ,

y = a cos + b . . . . (6)

Squaring and adding equations (5) and (6) we get

2

x2 + ( y b ) = a 2 ,

Solution: We know the right circular cylinder is characterized by the equations

x2 + y2 = a 2 , z = z . . . (1)

The parametric equations of the right circular cylinder are

x = a cos ,

y = a sin ,

z = z.

where a is a constant. The element of the distance (metric)

ds 2 = dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2

on the surface of the cylinder becomes

ds 2 = a 2 d 2 + dz 2 ,

Hence the total length of the curve on the surface of the cylinder is given by

dz

s=

a 2 + z 2 d , for z =

d

. . . . (2)

0

f = a 2 + z 2 . . . . (3)

must satisfy the Euler-Lagranges equation

f d f

= 0. . . . (4)

z d z

d z

=0.

d f

Integrating the equation and solving for z we get

z = a (constant).

Integrating we get

z = a + b, a 0 , . . . (5)

where a, b are constants. Equation (5) gives the required equation of helix. Thus the

geodesic on the surface of a cylinder is a helix.

inverted cone with semi-vertical angle .

Solution: The surface of the cone is characterized by the equation

x 2 + y 2 = z 2 tan 2 , = const. . . . (1)

The parametric equations of the cone are given by

x = ar cos ,

y = ar sin , . . . (2)

z = br.

where for a = sin , b = cos are constant.

on the surface of the cone becomes

ds 2 = dr 2 + a 2 r 2 d 2 . . . (3)

Hence the total length of the curve = ( r ) on the surface of the cone is given by

d

s = 1 + a 2 r 2 2 dr , = . . . (4)

dr

The length s is stationary if the integrand

f = 1 + a 2 r 2 2 . . . (5)

must satisfy the Euler-Lagranges equation

f d f

= 0. . . . (6)

dr

d a 2 r 2

= 0,

dr f

d c1

= , . . . (7)

dr ar a 2 r 2 c12

where c1 = constant.

This is the required differential equation of geodesic, and the geodesic on the surface

of the cone is obtained by integrating equation (7). This gives

c1

= dr + .

ar a r c12

2 2

1 ar

= sec 1 + ,

a c1

c1

r= sec a ( ) .

a

Example 11 : Find the curve for which the functional

4

I y ( x ) = ( y 2 y2 )dx

0

can have extrema, given that y(0)=0, while the right hand end point can vary along

the line x = .

4

Solution: To find the extremal curve of the functional

4

I y ( x ) = ( y 2 y2 )dx , . . . (1)

0

f d f

= 0, . . . (2)

y dx y

where f = y 2 y2 . . . (3)

y + y = 0 . . . . (4)

This is the second order differential equation, whose solution is given by

y = a cos x + b sin x . . . . (5)

y = b sin x . . . . (6)

The second boundary point moves along the line x = .

4

f

=0

y x =

4

( y) = 0,

x=

4

where from equation (6) we have y = b cos x . Thus y at x = gives

4

b= 0. This implies the extremal is attained on the line y = 0.

Example 12 : If f satisfies Euler-Lagranges equation

f d f

= 0.

y dx y

dg

Then show that f is the total derivative of some function of x and y and

dx

conversely.

Solution: Given that f satisfies Euler-Lagranges equation

f d f

= 0. . . . (1)

y dx y

dg

We claim that f = ,

dx

where g = g ( x, y ) .

As f = f ( x, y , y ) ,

f 2 f 2 f 2 f

y 2 2 y = 0 . . . . (2)

y xy yy y

We see from equation (2) that the first three terms on the l. h. s. of (2) contain at the

highest the first derivative of y. Therefore equation (2) is satisfied identically if the

coefficient of y vanishes identically.

2 f

= 0.

y2

Integrating w. r. t. y we get

f

= q ( x, y ) .

y

Integrating once again we get

f = q ( x, y ) y + p ( x, y ) , . . . (3)

y only. Then the function f so determined must satisfy the Euler Lagranges

equation (1). From equation (3) we find

f q p

= y + ,

y y y

f

and = q ( x, y ) .

y

Classical Mechanics Page No. 121

Therefore equation (1) becomes

q p d

y + ( q ( x, y ) ) = 0 .

y y dx

q p q q

y + y = 0 .

y y x y

p q

= . .(4)

y x

This is the condition that the equation pdx + qdy is an exact differential

equation dg .

dg = pdx + qdy,

dg

= p + qy = f by (3)

dx

Therefore,

dg

f = . . . . (5)

dx

This proves the necessary part.

dg

Conversely, assume that f = . We prove that f satisfies the Euler-Lagranges

dx

equation

f d f

= 0.

y dx y

dg g g

Since f = = + y ,

dx x y

Therefore, we find

f 2 g 2 g

= + y,

y xy y 2

g g

= .

y y

Consider now

f d f 2 g 2 g d g

= + 2 y .

y dx y xy y dx y

f d f 2 g 2 g 2 g 2 g

= + y y .

y dx y xy y 2 xy y 2

f d f

=0

y dx y

dg

f =

dx

satisfies Euler-Lagranges equation.

x2

I ( y ( x )) = f ( x, y, y)dx

x1

f

has the first integral f y = const , if the integrand does not depend on x.

y

Solution: The Euler-Lagranges equation of the functional

x2

I ( y ( x )) = f ( x, y, y)dx

x1

to be extremum is given by

f d f

= 0. . . . (1)

y dx y

f 2 f 2 f 2 f

y 2 2 y = 0

y xy yy y

f

If f does not involve x explicitly, then = 0.

x

Therefore, we have

f 2 f 2 f

y 2 2 y = 0 . . . . (2)

y yy y

Multiply equation (2) by y we get

f 2 f 2 f

y y2 2 2 yy = 0 . . . (3)

y yy y

But we know that

d f f f f 2

2 f 2 f

f y = y + y y y y y ,

dx y y y y yy y2

d f f 2

2 f 2 f

f y = y y y y . . . . (4)

dx y y yy y2

From equations (3) and (4) we see that

d f

f y = 0 ,

dx y

f

f y = const. . . . (5)

y

This is the first integral of Euler-Lagranges equation, when the functional

f = f ( y, y ) .

Worked Examples

1

1

I ( y ( x) ) = y2 + yy + y + y dx

0

2

Solution: For the minimum of the functional

1

1

I ( y ( x) ) = y2 + yy + y + y dx . . . (1)

0

2

the integrand

Classical Mechanics Page No. 124

1 2

f = y + yy + y + y . . . (2)

2

must satisfy the Euler-Lagranges equation

f d f

= 0. . . . (3)

y dx y

d

y + 1 ( y + y + 1) = 0 ,

dx

y = 1 . . . . (4)

Integrating we get

y = x + c1 , . . . (5)

Further integrating we get

x2

y= + c1 x + c2 , . . . (6)

2

where c1 , c2 are constants of integration and are to be determined.

However, note that the values of y at the end points are not prescribed. In this case

the constants are determined from the conditions.

f f

= 0, and = 0. . . . (7)

y x = 0 y x =1

These two conditions will determine the values of the constants.

( y + y + 1) x =0 = 0, and ( y + y + 1) x=1 = 0 , . . . (8)

y ( 0 ) = c1 and y ( 0 ) = c2 ,

1

similarly, y (1) = 1 + c1 and y (1) = + c1 + c2 .

2

Thus the equations (8) become

5

c1 + c2 + 1 = 0, 2c1 + c2 + = 0.

2

3 1

Solving these equations for c1 and c2 we obtain c1 = and c2 =

2 2

Hence the required curve for which the functional given in (1) becomes minimum is

1 2

y=

2

( x 3x + 1) . . . . (9)

Theorem 3 : Find the Euler- Lagrange differential equation satisfied by four times

differentiable function y(x) which extremizes the functional

x2

I ( y ( x )) = f ( x, y, y, y)dx

x1

under the conditions that both y and y are prescribed at the end points.

and Q can be joined by infinitely many curves. Accordingly the value of the integral

I will be different for different paths. We shall look for a curve along which the

functional I has an extremum value. Let c be a curve between P and Q whose

equation is given by y = y(x, 0). Let also the value of the functional along the curve c

be extremum and is given by

x2

I ( y ( x )) = f ( x, y, y, y)dx

x1

. . . (1)

We can label all possible paths starting from P and ending at Q by the family of

equations

y ( x, ) = y ( x, 0 ) + ( x ) , . . . (2)

the integral I will be different for different paths. Since y and y are prescribed at

the end points, this implies that there is no variation in y and y at the end points.

i.e., all the curves of the family and their derivative must be identical at fixed points

P and Q.

This implies that

y ( x1 , ) = y ( x1 , 0 ) = y1 ,

y ( x2 , ) = y ( x2 , 0 ) = y2 ,

and also

y ( x1 , ) = y ( x1 , 0 ) = y1,

y ( x2 , ) = y ( x2 , 0 ) = y2

( x1 ) = 0 = ( x2 ) , . . . (3a)

and ( x1 ) = 0 = ( x2 ) . . . . (3b)

Conversely, the conditions (3) ensure us that the curves of the family that all pass

through the points P and Q. Let the value of the functional along the neighboring

curve be given by

x2

I ( y ( x, ) ) = f ( x, y ( x, ) , y ( x, ) , y ( x, ) ) dx .

x1

. . . (4)

I

From differential calculus, we know the integral I is extremum if = 0,

= 0

because for = 0 the neighboring curve coincides with the curve which gives

extremum values of I . Thus

I

= 0,

= 0

x2

f f f

x1

( x ) + ( x ) + ( x )

y y y

dx = 0 .

Integrating the second and the third integrations by parts, we get

x2 x2 x x2

f f 2

d f f

x y ( x ) dx +

y

( x ) ( x ) dx + ( x )

x1 x1 dx y y x1

1

x2

. . . (5)

d f x2

d 2 f

( x ) + 2 ( x )dx = 0,

dx y x1 x1 dx y

x2

x2

f f d f x2

d f

x y ( ) y dx y ( ) x dx y ( x ) dx +

x dx + x

1 1 x1

. . . (6)

x2 x2

f d f 2

+ ( x) + 2 ( x ) dx = 0.

y x1 x1 dx y

As y and y are both prescribed at the end points, hence on using equations (3) we

obtain

x2

f d f d 2 f

y dx y + dx 2 y ( x ) dx = 0 .

x1

. . . (7)

f d f d 2 f

+ = 0. . . . (8)

y dx y dx 2 y

This is required Euler- Lagrange differential equation to be satisfied by y(x) for

which the functional I has extremum value.

Note : If the functions y and y are not prescribed at the end points then we must

have unlike the fixed end point problem, ( x ) and ( x ) need no longer vanish at

the points x1 and x2 . In order that the curve y =y(x) to be a solution of the variable

end point problem, y must be an extremal. i.e., y must be a solution of Eulers

equation (8). Thus for the extremal we have from equation (6)

x =b x =b

f f d f

y = 0, y dx y = 0. . . . (9)

x =a x =a

Thus to solve the variable end point problem, we must first solve Eulers equation (8)

and then use the conditions (9) to determine the values of the arbitrary constants.

The above result can be summarized in the following theorem (3a).

Theorem (3a) : Derive the differential equation satisfied by four times differentiable

function y ( x ) , which extremizes the integral

x1

I= f ( x, y, y, y)dx

x0

under the condition that both y, y are prescribed at both the ends. Show that if

neither y nor y is prescribed at either end points then

f f

= =0

y x = x0 y x = x1

x = x1

f d f

=0

y dx y x = x0

Remark: (General case of Theorem (3)) If the integrand in equation (1) of the

Theorem (3) is of the form f = f ( x, y, y, y,..., y n ) with the boundary conditions

y ( x1 ) = y1 , y ( x1 ) = y1,....., y n 1 ( x1 ) = y1n 1 ,

y ( x2 ) = y2 , y ( x2 ) = y2 ,....., y n 1 ( x2 ) = y2n 1 ,

f d f d 2 f n d

n

f

+ 2 + ..... + ( 1) n = 0.

y dx y dx y dx y n

Worked Examples

4

I ( y ( x ) ) = ( y2 y 2 + x 2 )dx

0

under the conditions that

y ( 0 ) = 0, y ( 0 ) = 1,

1

y = y =

4 4 2

Solution : For the extremization of the functional

4

I ( y ( x ) ) = ( y2 y 2 + x 2 )dx . . . (1)

0

the integrand

f = y2 y 2 + x 2 . . . (2)

must satisfy the Euler-Lagranges equation

f d f d 2 f

+ = 0. . . . (3)

y dx y dx 2 y

d2

2y + ( 2 y ) = 0 ,

dx 2

d4y

i.e., y = 0. . . . (4)

dx 4

The solution of equation (4) is given by

y = ae x + be x + c cos x + d sin x . . . (5)

where a, b, c, d are constants of integration and are to be determined.

Thus

y ( 0 ) = 0 a + b + c = 0,

1 1 1 1

y = ae 4 + be 4 + c+ d= ,

4 2 2 2 2

y ( 0 ) = 1 a b + d = 1,

1 1 1 1

y = ae 4 be 4 c+ d=

4 2 2 2 2

Solving these equations we get a = b = c = 0 and d = 1 .

Hence the required curve is y = sin x .

2

1

2

I= ( x ) dt ,

20

satisfies

x ( 0 ) = 1, x ( 0 ) = 1, x ( 2 ) = 1, x ( 2 ) = 0 .

2

1

I = (

2

x ) dt , . . . (1)

20

the integral

1 2

f = x

. . . (2)

2

must satisfy the Euler-Lagranges equation

f d f d 2 f

+ = 0. . . . (3)

x dt x dt 2

x

d4x

This implies = 0. . . . (4)

dt 4

Integrating we get

t3 t2

x = c1 + c2 + c3t + c4 . . . . (5)

6 2

where x given in (5) must satisfy the conditions

x ( 0 ) = 1 c4 = 1,

x ( 0 ) = 1 c3 = 1,

x ( 2 ) = 1 4c1 + 6c2 = 3,

x ( 2 ) = 0 2c1 + 2c2 = 1.

Solving for c1 and c2 we get the required functional is

t2

x= + t +1.

4

Example 17 : Find the function on which the functional

1

I ( y ( x ) ) = ( y2 2 xy )dx ,

0

1

y ( 0 ) = y ( 0 ) = 0, y (1) =

120

and y (1) is not prescribed.

1

I ( y ( x ) ) = ( y2 2 xy )dx . . . (1)

0

the integrand

f = y2 2 xy . . . (2)

must satisfy the Euler-Lagranges equation

f d f d 2 f

+ = 0. . . . (3)

y dx y dx 2 y

d2

2x + ( 2 y ) = 0,

dx 2

d4y

= x.

dx 4

Integrating we obtain

x2

y = +a,

2

x3

y = + ax + b ,

6

4

x a

y = + x 2 + bx + c ,

24 2

x5 a 3 b 2

y= + x + x + cx + d , . . . (4)

120 6 2

where a, b, c, d are constants to be determined. Given that

y ( 0 ) = 0 d = 0,

y ( 0 ) = 0 c = 0,

1

y (1) = a + 3b = 0.

120

Since y (1) is not prescribed. i.e., y at x= 1 is not given, then we have the

condition that

f

= 0 y (1) = 0 .

y x =1

This gives from above equation that

6a + 6b = 1 .

Solving the equations for a and b we get

1 1

a = , and b = .

4 12

Substituting these values in equation (4) we get

x5 1

y= + ( x 2 x3 ) . . . . (5)

120 24

This is the required curve.

Example 18: Prove that the shortest distance between two points in a Euclidean 3-

space is a straight line.

Solution: Define the curve y = y ( x ) , z = z ( x ) in the 3-dimentional Euclidean

Classical Mechanics Page No. 133

curve joining the points A ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) and B ( x2 , y2 , z2 ) .Thus the infinitesimal

ds 2 = dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2 .

Hence the total distance between the points A and B along the curve is given by

x2 1

dy

(1 + y ) dx,

2 2 2

I= + z y = . . . (1)

x1

dx

1

Let f = (1 + y 2 + z 2 ) 2 . . . . (2)

We know the functional I is shortest if the function f must satisfy the Euler-

Lagranges equations.

f d f

= 0, . . . (3)

y dx y

f d f

and = 0. . . . (4)

z dx z

d y

=o y = af , a = constant

dx f

and

y 2 (1 a 2 ) a 2 z 2 = a 2 . . . . (5)

z 2 (1 b 2 ) b 2 y 2 = b 2 . . . . (6)

a a

y = , and z = ,

1 a2 b2 1 a 2 b2

1

2 2

i.e., y = c1 , for c1 = a (1 a b 2

) . . . (7)

1

2 2

and z = c2 for c2 = b (1 a b 2

) . . . . (8)

Integrating equations (7) and (8) we get

y = c1 x + ( z ) , . . . (9)

z = c2 x + ( y ) , . . . (10)

respectively. Thus the required curve is given by equations (9) and (10). But these

equations represent a pair of planes. The common point of intersection of these

planes is the straight line. Hence the shortest distance between two points in

Euclidean 3-space is a straight line.

Example 19 : Show that the geodesic defined in the 3-dimentional Euclidean space

by the equations x = x ( t ) , y = y ( t ) , z = z ( t ) is a straight line.

Solution : Let

x = x (t ) , y = y (t ) , z = z (t ) . . . (1)

infinitesimal distance between two neighboring points on the curve (1) is given by

ds 2 = dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2 ,

where from equation (1) we have

dx = xdt

, dy = ydt

, dz = zdt

.

Thus

ds 2 = ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) dt 2 .

Hence the total length of the curve between the points P ( t0 ) and P ( t1 ) is given by

1

t1 2

I = ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) dt . . . (2)

t0

The curve is geodesic if the length of the curve I is extremum. This is true if the

integrand

f = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 . . . (3)

must satisfy the Euler-Lagranges equations.

f d f

= 0 i = 1, 2,3 with xi = ( x, y, z ) , . . . (4)

xi dt xi

where

f f x

= 0 and = i i = 1, 2,3 .

xi xi f

x = af , y = bf , z = cf .

Thus the Euler-Lagranges equations become

(a 2

1) x 2 + a 2 y 2 + a 2 z 2 = 0,

b 2 x 2 + ( b 2 1) y 2 + b 2 z 2 = 0, . . . (5)

c 2 x 2 + c 2 y 2 + ( c 2 1) z 2 = 0.

a2 1 a2 a2

b2 b2 1 b2 = 0

c2 c2 c2 1

a2 + b2 + c2 = 1 .

Solving equations (5) we obtain

a

x = z, . . . (6)

1 a2 b2

b

y = z, z 0 . . . . (7)

1 a 2 b2

Integrating equations (6) and (7) we obtain

a

x = c1 z + ( y ) , c1 = , . . . (8)

1 a 2 b2

b

y = c2 z + ( x ) , c2 = . . . . (9)

1 a2 b2

Classical Mechanics Page No. 136

where ( x ) and ( y ) are constants of integration and may be functions of x and y

respectively. Equations (8) and (9) represent planes. The locus of the common points

of these planes is the straight line. Hence the geodesic in 3-dimentional Euclidean

space is the straight line.

The problems in which the function which is eligible for the extremization of

a given definite integral is required to confirm with certain restrictions that are given

as the boundary conditions. Such problems are called isoperimetric problems. The

method is exactly analogous to the method of finding stationary value of a function

under certain conditions by Lagranges multipliers method.

Theorem 4 : Obtain the differential equation, which is satisfied by the functional

f ( x, y, y ) which extremizes the integral

x2

I ( y ( x)) = f ( x, y, y)dx

x1

x2

J = g ( x, y, y )dx = constant.

x1

by

x2

I ( y ( x)) = f ( x, y, y)dx

x1

. . . (1)

y ( x1 ) = y1 , y ( x2 ) = y2 , . . . (2)

x2

x1

y

2

2(

+

x) many curves.

1

1(

+ Q(x 2, y 2)

x)

y( Accordingly the value of the integral I will be

Y= y ( x)

y=

different for different paths. Let all possible paths

P(x1 , y 1) starting from P and ending at Q be given by two

x

O parameters family of curves

Y ( x ) = y ( x ) + 11 ( x ) + 22 ( x ) . . . (4)

x such that

1 ( x1 ) = 0 = 1 ( x2 ) ,

. . . (5)

2 ( x1 ) = 0 = 2 ( x2 )

These conditions ensure us that the curves of the family that all pass through the

points P and Q.

Note that, we can not however, express Y(x) as merely a one parameter family of

curves, because any change in the value of the single parameter would in general

alter the value of J, whose constancy must be maintained as prescribed. For this

reason we introduce two parameter families of curves. We shall look for a curve

along which the functional I has an extremum value under the condition (3). Let c

be such a curve between P and Q whose equation is given by y = y (x) such that the

functional (1) along the curve c has extremum value. The values of the integrals (1)

and (3) along the neighboring curve (4) are obtained by replacing y by Y in both the

equations (1) and (3). Thus we have

x2

I ( 1 , 2 ) = f ( x, Y , Y ) dx

x1

. . . (6)

x2

x1

Equation (7) shows that 1 and 2 is not independent, but they are related by

J ( 1 , 2 ) = const. . . . (8)

Thus the changes in the value of the parameters are such that the constancy of (7) is

maintained. Thus our new problem is to extremizes (6) under the restriction (7). To

solve the problem we use the method of Lagranges multipliers.

Multiply equation (7) by and adding it to equation (6) we get

x2

I ( 1 , 2 ) = I + J = f ( x, Y , Y )dx ,

* *

. . . (9)

x1

f * = f + g . . . (10)

Thus extremization of (1) subject to the condition (3) is equivalent to the

extremization of (9). Thus from differential calculus, the integral I * is extremum if

I *

= 0.

j 1 = 0, 2 =0

Thus from equation (9) we have

I * x2

f * f *

=0 j ( x ) +

y

j ( x ) dx = 0 . J=1, 2 . . . (11)

j 1 = 0, 2 =0 x1 y

Integrating the second integration by parts, we get

x2 x2 x

f * f * 2

d f *

x y j ( ) y j ( ) x dx y j ( x ) dx = 0 .

x dx + x . . . (12)

1 x 1 1

As any curve is prescribed at the end points, hence on using conditions (5) we obtain

x2

f * d f *

y dx y j ( x ) dx = 0, j = 1, 2 .

x1

f * d f *

= 0. . . . (13)

y dx y

which the functional I has extremum value under the condition (3).

Remark : If y is not prescribed at either end point then from equation (12) we have

f *

= 0 at that end point.

y

dependent variables :

Theorem 4a : Obtain the differential equations which must be satisfied by the

function which extremize the integral

x2

x1

1 2 n 1 2 n

x2

x1

Proof : The functional which is to be extremized can be written as

x2

I= f ( x, y , y )dx,

x1

i i i = 1, 2,..., n

x2

x1

Repeating the procedure described in the Theorem (4) we arrive the following set of

Euler-Lagranges equations

f * d f *

= 0, i = 1, 2,..., n

yi dx yi

where f * = f + g .

Theorem 5 : Obtain the differential equation, which is satisfied by four times

differential function y (x) which extremizes the functional

x2

I ( y ( x)) = f ( x, y, y, y)dx

x1

x2

J = g ( x, y, y, y )dx = constant.

x1

Proof: Proof of the Theorem 5 runs exactly in the same manner as that of the proof

of Theorem 3 and Theorem 4. The required Euler-Lagranges differential equation in

this case is given by

f * d f * d 2 f *

+ = 0,

y dx y dx 2 y

where f * = f + g .

Remarks :

1. If y is not prescribed at either end point, then we have the condition

f * d f *

= 0 at that end point.

y dx y

f *

2. If y is not prescribed at either end point then we have = 0 at that point.

y

3. In general if

f = f ( x, y, y, y,..., y n )

g = g ( x, y, y, y,..., y n )

with the boundary conditions that y, y, y,..., y n 1 are prescribed at both the

ends, then in this case the Euler-Lagranges equation is

f * d f * d 2 f * n d

n

f *

+ + ... + ( ) n n =0.

1

y dx y dx 2 y dx y

Worked Examples

Example 20 : Find the plane curve of fixed perimeter that encloses maximum area.

(The problem is supposed to have arisen from the gift of a king who was

happy with a person and promised to give him all the land that he could enclose by

running round in a day. The perimeter of his path was fixed.)

Solution: Let c : y = y (x) be a plane curve of fixed perimeter l .

x2

l = ds , . . . (1)

x1

where the infinitesimal distance between two points on the curve is given by

dy

ds = 1 + y2 dx, y = .

dx

Hence the total length of the curve between two points P and Q becomes

x2

x1

1 + y2 dx = l . . . . (2)

x2

A ( y ( x )) = ydx .

x1

. . . (3)

Thus we maximize (3) subject to the condition (2). Hence the required Euler-

Lagranges equation to be satisfied is

f * d f *

= 0, . . . (4)

y dx y

where

f * = f + g,

. . . (5)

f * = y + 1 + y 2 .

d y

1 = 0,

dx 1 + y2

y

x =a.

1 + y 2

2 2 y 2

( x a) = ,

(1 + y )

2

xa

or y = . . . . (6)

2

2 ( x a)

Integrating we get

y=

( x a) dx + b . . . (7)

1

( x a )

2 2 2

Put

x a = sin t ,

. . . (8)

dx = cos tdt

y = sin tdt + b,

y = cos t + b . . . (9)

Squaring and adding equations (8) and (9) we get

2 2

( x a) + ( y b) = 2 . . . . (10)

l

determine , we know that the circumference of the circle is 2 = l = .

2

Example 21 : Find the shape of the plane curve of fixed length l whose end points

lie on the x-axis and area enclosed by it and the x-axis is maximum.

Solution: Let c: y = y(x) be a plane curve of fixed length l whose end points lie on

the x-axis and the curve lies in the upper half

y

plane. The area bounded by the curve c and

the x-axis is given by

y = y(x) x2

A ( y ( x )) = ydx

x1

. . . (1)

O (x1, 0) (x 2, 0)

is given by

x2 x2

J = ds = 1 + y2 dx = l . . . (2)

x1 x1

The area given in equation (1) is maximum under the condition (2), if

f * d f *

= 0, . . . (3)

y dx y

where

f * = f + g,

. . . (4)

f * = y + 1 + y 2

d y

1 = 0,

dx 1 + y2

y

x =a

1 + y 2

2 2 y 2

( x a) = ,

(1 + y )

2

xa

or y = . . . . (5)

2

2 ( x a)

Integrating we get

y=

( x a) dx . . . . (6)

1

2 ( x a ) 2 2

Put

x a = sin t ,

. . . (7)

dx = cos tdt

y = sin tdt + b,

y = cos t + b . . . . (8)

Squaring and adding equations (7) and (8) we get

2 2

( x a) + ( y b) = 2 . . . . (9)

Thus the curve is a semi circle centered at (a, b) and of radius , and is to be

determined.

l

Since from the condition (2) the perimeter of the semi-circle is = l = .

This is the radius of the curve of fixed length l which encloses maximum area.

1

I ( y ( x ) ) = ( y2 + x 2 ) dx

0

1

y dx = 2, y ( 0 ) = 0, y (1) = 0 .

2

1

I ( y ( x ) ) = ( y2 + x 2 ) dx . . . (1)

0

such that

1

y dx = 2

2

. . . (2)

0

and

y ( 0 ) = 0, y (1) = 0 . . . (3)

Thus for the extremizes of (1) under (2), we know the condition to be satisfied is

f * d f *

= 0, . . . (4)

y dx y

where

f * = f + g,

. . . (5)

f * = y 2 + x 2 + y 2 ,

where is Lagranges multiplier.

Solving equation (4) we get

y y = 0 . . . . (6)

Case 1 : Let > 0 .

The solution of equation (6) is

x

y = ae x

+ be , . . . (7)

Conditions (3) give

y ( 0 ) = 0 a + b = 0,

y (1) = 0 ae

+ be

= 0.

b 0, e 2 =1

e2 + 2 in

=1

2 + 2in = 0,

= in .

This is contradictory to is positive, hence b = 0 and consequently a = 0 proving

that the equation has only trivial solution.

Case 2 : Let < 0 .

The solution of equation (6) is

y = a cos x + b sin x . . . . (8)

Boundary conditions (3) give

y ( 0) = 0 a = 0

y (1) = 0 b sin x = 0,

= n , for 0.

Hence the required solution becomes we get

y = b sin n x . . . . (9)

Condition (2) gives

b = 2 .

Therefore the required solution is y = 2sin n x .

Example 23 : Find the extremals for an isoperimetric problem

I ( y ( x ) ) = ( y2 y 2 ) dx

0

ydx = 1,

0

y ( 0 ) = 0, y ( ) = 1 .

I ( y ( x ) ) = ( y2 y 2 ) dx . . . (1)

0

ydx = 1,

0

. . . (2)

and y ( 0 ) = 0, y ( ) = 1 . . . (3)

f * d f *

= 0, . . . (4)

y dx y

where

f * = f + g,

. . . (5)

f * = y 2 y 2 + y

Hence the equation (4) becomes

y + y = . . . . (6)

2

The C.F. of equation (6) is given by

y = a cos x + b sin x ,

where as the P.I. is given by

y= .

2

Hence the general solution becomes

y = a cos x + b sin x + . . . (7)

2

To determine the arbitrary constants of integration we use the boundary

conditions (3)

y ( 0) = 0 a = ,

2

1

y ( ) = 1 = 1, a =

2

To determine other constant of integration we use

ydx = 1,

0

1 1

cos xdx +b sin xdx + dx = 1.

20 0

20

2

b= .

4

Hence the required curve is

1 1

y= (1 cos x ) + ( 2 ) sin x . . . . (8)

2 4

4

I = y2 dx, y (1) = 3, y ( 4 ) = 24 ,

1

4

ydx = 36

1

is a parabola.

Solution: Here f * = y2 + y .

The corresponding Euler-Lagranges differential equation is

2 y = 0 . . . . (1)

Integrating two times we get

y= x 2 + ax + b , . . . (2)

4

where the constants of integration are to be determined. Now the boundary

conditions

y (1) = 3 + 4a + 4b = 12,

. . . (3)

y ( 4 ) = 24 4 + 4a + b = 24.

4

ydx = 36 ,

1

gives

4

4 x

2

+ ax + b dx = 36 ,

1

21 + 30a + 12b = 144 . . . . (4)

Solving equations (3) and (4) we obtain

a = 2, b = 0, = 4.

Thus the required curve is obtain by putting these values in equation (2) and is

y = x2 + 2 x .

2

We write this as ( x + 1) = y +1

Or equivalently for X=(x+1), Y=(y+1), we have

X2 =Y .

Hence the curve is a parabola.

t

12

I = ( xy yx )dt . . . (1)

2 t1

t2

J = x 2 + y 2 dt = l , . . . (2)

t1

x ( t1 ) = x ( t2 ) = x0 ,

. . . (3)

y ( t1 ) = y ( t2 ) = y0 .

Solution : We wand to find the function for which equation (1) is extremum w. r. t.

the functions x(t), y(t) satisfying the conditions (2) and (3). We know the conditions

that the integral (1) is extremum under (2) if the following Euler Lagranges

equations are satisfied.

f * d f *

= 0, . . . (4)

x dt x

f * d f *

= 0, . . . (5)

y dt y

where

f * = f + g,

1

f* = ( xy yx ) + x 2 + y 2 . . . . (6)

2

Hence the equations (4) and (5) reduce to

y d y x

+ =0

2 dt 2 x 2 + y 2

Classical Mechanics Page No. 151

x d x y

+ = 0.

2 dt 2 x 2 + y 2

Integrating these equations w. r. t. t we get

y y x

+ =a

2 2 x 2 + y 2

x

ya =

x + y 2

2

x x y

+ + = b,

2 2 x

2

+ y

2

and

y

xb = .

x 2 + y 2

2 2

( x b) + ( y a) = 2 . . . . (7)

This is a circle of radius and centered at (b, a). Thus the closed curve for which

the enclosed area is maximum is a circle. The length of the circle is

l

2 = l = . This gives the radius of the curve.

2

Exercise:

1. Show that the shortest distance between two points along the curve

x = x (t ) , y = y ( t ) in a Euclidean plane is a straight line.

line.

3. Show that the stationary (extremum) distance between two points along the

curve = (t ) , = (t ) on the sphere

4. Find the geodesic on the surface obtained by generating the parabola

y 2 = 4ax about x-axis.

representation is

x = au 2 , y = 2au sin v, z = 2au cos v

The geodesic on this surface is obtain by solving the integral

1+ u2

v = c1 du + c2 .

u u 2 c12

5. Derive the Euler-Lagranges equations that are to be satisfied by twice

differential functions x ( t ) , y ( t ) ,..., z ( t ) , that extremize the integral

t2

dx

I = f ( x, y,..., z , x, y ,..., z, t )dt , x =

t1

dt

f d f f d f f d f

Ans : = 0, = 0,..., = 0,

x dt x y dt y z dt z

6. Find the curve which generates a surface of revolution of minimum area

when it is revolved about x axis.

Ans : Area of revolution of a curve about x-axis is

x1

I= y

x0

1 + y2 dx .

xb

The curve is a catenary given by y = c sec , or y = a cosh .

a

7. Find the function on which the functional can be extremized

1

1

I y ( x ) = ( y2 2 xy )dx, y ( 0 ) = 0, y (1) = ,

0

120

x5 x 3 x

Ans: y = + .

120 36 36

4

2

8. Find the stationary function of the

0

boundary conditions y ( 0 ) = 0, y ( 4 ) = 3.

x2 x

Ans : y = .

4 4

2

x3

9. Find the extremum of I y ( x ) = 2 dx, y (1) = 1, y ( 2 ) = 4.

1

y

Ans: y = x 2 .

x1

y2

10. Find the extremal of I y ( x ) =

x0

x3

dx.

x4

Ans: y = c1 + c2 .

4

( y y 2 + 4 y cos x )dx, y ( 0 ) = 0, y ( ) = 0.

2

11. Find the extremal of

0

Ans: y = ( c2 + x sin x ) .

1

( y 12 xy )dx, y ( 0 ) = 1, y (1) = 2.

2

Ans: y = x 3 + 2 x + 1 .

2

I = ( z 2 2 xz )dx, z (1) = 0, z ( 2 ) = 1 is extremal.

1

x3 x

Ans: z = + .

3 6

14. Determine the curve z = z ( x ) for which the functional

2

I = ( z 2 z 2 )dx, z ( 0 ) = 0, z = 1

0 2

is extremal.

Ans: z = sin x .

15. Find the extremal of the functional

2

I y ( x ) = ( y2 y 2 + x 2 )dx, y ( 0 ) = 1, y = 0, y ( 0 ) = 0, y = 1.

0 2 2

Ans : y = cos x. .

16. Obtain the differential equation in which the extremizing function makes the

integral

x2

I ( y ( x)) = f ( x, y, y)dx

x1

x2

x1

x2

f ( x, y, y)dx ,

* *

I =

x1

n n

where I * = I + k J k and f * = f + k g k .

k =1 k =1

f * d f *

The required differential equation is = 0.

y dx y

17. Find the extremals of the isoperimetric problem

x1 x1

I=

x0

y2 dx, s.t. ydx = c.

x0

x2

Ans: y = + ax + b .

4

18. Find the extremal of the functional

1

I y ( x ) = (1 + y2 )dx, y ( 0 ) = 0, y (1) = 1, y ( 0 ) = 1, y (1) .

0

Ans: y = x .

19. Find the extremal of the functional

x1

I y ( x ) , z ( x ) = ( 2 yz 2 y + y2 z 2 )dx.

2

x0

x1

I y ( x ) = (y + y2 + 2 ye x )dx.

2

x0

xe x

Ans: y = + c1e x + c2 e x .

2

CHAPTER - III

FORMULATION

Introduction :

In the Chapter II we have used the techniques of variational principles of

Calculus of Variation to find the stationary path between two points. Hamiltons

principle is one of the variational principles in mechanics. All the laws of mechanics

can be derived by using the Hamiltons principle. Hence it is one of the most

fundamental and important principles of mechanics and mathematical physics.

In this unit we define Hamiltons principle for conservative and non-

conservative systems and derive Hamiltons canonical equations of motion. We also

derive Lagranges equations of motion.

Hamiltons Principle (for non-conservative system) :

Hamiltons principle for non-conservative systems states that The motion of

a dynamical system between two points at time intervals t0 to t1 is such that the line

integral

t1

I = (T + W )dt

t0

is extremum for the actual path followed by the system , where T is the kinetic

energy and W is the work done by the particle.

It is equivalent to say that variation in the actual path followed by the

system is zero. Mathematically, it means that

t1

I = (T + W )dt = 0

t0

Hamiltons Principle (for conservative system) :

Of all possible paths between two points along which a dynamical system

may move from one point to another within a given time interval from t0 to t1 , the

actual path followed by the system is the one which minimizes the line integral of

Lagrangian.

This means that the motion of a dynamical system from t0 to t1 is such that

t1

t0

is extremum for actual path. This implies that small

t1

t0

Note : We will show bellow in the Theorem (2) that the Hamiltons principle

t1

t0

Action in Mechanics :

Let L = L ( q j , q j , t ) be the Lagrangian for the conservative system. Then the

integral

t1

I = Ldt

t0

Hence we can also define the Hamiltons principle as Out of all possible

paths of a dynamical system between the time instants t0 and t1 , the actual path

followed by the system is one for which the action has a stationary value

t1

I = Ldt = 0

t0

Theorem 1 : Derive Hamiltons principle for non-conservative system from

DAlemberts principle and hence deduce from it the Hamiltons principle for

conservative system.

Proof: We start with DAlemberts principle which states that

( F p ) r = 0 .

i

i i i . . . (1)

Note that in this principle the knowledge of force whether it is conservative or non-

conservative and also the requirement of holonomic or non-holonomic constraints

does not arise. We write the principle in the form

F r = p r .

i

i i

i

i i

W = p i ri . . . . (2)

i

i

Now consider

p r = m r r ,

i

i i

i

i i i

d d

= ( mi ri ri ) mi ri ( ri ) .

i dt i dt

d

Since we have ri = ri , therefore, we write

dt

d 1

p r = dt m r r 2 m r

i

i i

i

i i i

i

i i

2

.

d

p r = dt m r r T ,

i

i i

i

i i i

1

where T = mi ri 2

i 2

is the kinetic energy of the system. Substituting this in equation (2) we get

d

W =

dt i

mi ri ri T

d

(W + T ) =

dt i

mi ri ri .

Integrating the above equation with respect to t between t0 to t1 we get

t1 t1

(W + T )dt = mi ri ri .

t0 i t0

Since, there is no variation in co-ordinates along any paths at the end points. i.e.,

t1

( ri )t

0

= 0 . Hence from above equation we have

t1

(W + T )dt = 0 . . . . (3)

t0

If however, the system is conservative, then the forces are derivable from potential.

In this case the expression for virtual work becomes

V

W = Fi ri = ri = V .

i i ri

Hence equation (3) becomes

t1

(T V )dt = 0,

t0

t1

Ldt = 0. . . . (4)

t0

t1

Theorem 2 : Show that the Hamiltons principle Ldt = 0 also holds for the

t0

Proof : We know the Hamiltons principle for non-conservative system is given by

t1

(T + W )dt = 0 . . . (1)

t0

for actual path. The expression for the virtual work is given by

ri

W = Fi ri = Fi q j

i i j q j

.

r

W = Fi i q j

i

j q j

W = Q j q j , . . . (2)

j

ri

where Q j = Fi

i q j

are the components of generalized forces. In the case of non-conservative system the

potential energy is dependent on velocity called the velocity dependent potential. In

this case the generalized force is given by

U d U

Qj = + .

q j dt q j

Substituting this in equation (2) and integrating it between the limits t0 to t1 we find

t1 t1 t1 U d U

Wdt = Q j q j dt = q + q j dt ,

dt q j

t0 t0 j t0 j j

Substituting this in equation (1) we get

t1

t1 t1

U d U

Tdt = q j

q j dt j dt q q j dt .

t0 t0 j

t0 j

Integrating the second integral by parts we obtain

t

t1 t1

U U

1 t1

U d

t Tdt =

q j q j dt

j q

q j

+ q ( q j ) dt .

0 t0 j j t0 t0 j j dt

t1

Since change in co-ordinates at the end point is zero. ( q j )t = 0

0

d

and also

dt

( q j ) = q j ,

then we have

t1 t1

U U

Tdt = j q j q j dt .

q

+ q

t0 t0

j j

Since time t is fixed along any path hence, there is no variation in time along any

path therefore change in time along any path is zero. i.e., t = 0

Hence we write above equation as

t1 t1

U U U

Tdt = j q j q j + t t dt .

q

+ q

t0 t0

j j

t1 t1

Tdt = Udt .

t0 t0

t1

(T U ) dt = 0,

t0

t1

Ldt = 0.

t0

This proves that the Hamilton's principle holds good even for non-conservative

systems.

derive Lagranges equations of motion for non-conservative holonomic systems.

Proof: Let us consider a non-conservative holonomic dynamical system whose

configuration at any instant t is specified by n generalized co-ordinates

q1 , q2 , q3 ,..., qn . Hamiltons principle for non-conservative system states that

t1

t0

ri

W = Fi ri = Fi q j

i i j q j

.

r

W = Fi i q j

j

i q j

W = Q j q j , . . . (2)

j

ri

where Q j = Fi

i q j

t1 t1

Wdt = Q j q j dt .

t0 t0 j

. . . (3)

T T T

T = q j + q j + t . . . . (4)

j q j j q

j t

This implies that

T T

T = q j + q j . . . (5)

j q j j q

j

t1 t1 t

T 1

T

Tdt =

t0 t0 j q j

q j dt +

t0 j q j

q j dt

Since we have

d

q j = q j .

dt

Therefore we write the above integral as

t1 t1 t

T 1

T d

Tdt =

t0 t0 j q j

q j dt +

t0 j

q j dt

( q j ) dt .

Integrating the second integral by parts, we obtain

t1

t1 t1

T T t1

d T

Tdt = q dt + q

q j j j q j j t j dt q j

q j dt .

t0 t0 j 0 t0

t1

( q )

j t

0

= 0 . Hence

t1 t1

T d T

Tdt = q j

dt q j

q j dt . . . . (6)

t0 t0 j

Using equations (3) and (5) in equation (1) we get

t1

T d T

q

dt q j

+ Q j q j dt = 0 . . . . (7)

t0 j

j

If the constraints are holonomic then q j are independent. (Note that if the

constraints are non-holonomic, then q j are not all independent. In this case

vanishing of the integral (7) does not imply the coefficient vanish separately) Hence

the integral (7) vanishes if and only if the coefficient must vanish separately.

d T T

= Qj . . . . (8)

dt q j q j

These are the Lagranges equations of motion for non-conservative holonomic

system.

Theorem 4 : Deduce Hamiltons principle for conservative system from

DAlemberts principle.

Proof: We start with DAlemberts principle which states that

( F p ) r = 0 .

i

i i i . . . (1)

F r = p r ,

i

i i

i

i i . . . (2)

change in time t along any path is zero.

Now consider

p r = m r r ,

i

i i

i

i i i

d d .

= ( i i i) i i ( i)

m r r m r

r

i dt i dt

d

Since we have ri = ri ,

dt

therefore we write

d 1

p r = dt m r r 2 m r

i

i i

i

i i i

i

i i

2

.

d

p r = dt m r r T

i

i

i

i i i . . . (3)

where

1

T = mi ri 2

i 2

is the kinetic energy of the system. Substituting equation (3) in equation (2) we get

d

F r = dt m r r T

i

i i

i

i i i . . . (4)

V

Since the force is conservative Fi = .

ri

d V

dt i

mi ri ri = T

i ri

ri

.

= T V

t1 t

1

i i i

m r

r = Ldt .

i t0 t0

Since, there is no variation in co-ordinates along any paths at the end points.

t

i.e. ( ri )t1 = 0 . Hence from above equation we have

0

t1

Ldt = 0 . . . . (5)

t0

Derivation of Lagranges equations of motion from Hamiltons Principle :

Theorem 5 : Show that the Lagranges equations are necessary conditions for the

action to have a stationary value.

Proof: We know the action of a particle is defined by

t1

I = Ldt . . . (1)

t0

t1

I = Ldt ,

t0

t1

L L

= qj + q j dt

j q j

t0 j q

j

As there is no variation in time along any path, hence t = 0 .

t1 t1 t

L 1

L

Ldt = q j dt + q j dt.

t0 t0 j q j t0 j q j

dq j d

Since

dt

=

dt

( q j ) ,

therefore, we write

t1 t1 t

L 1

L d

Ldt = q j dt + ( q j )dt . . . (2)

t0 t0 j

q j t0 j

q j dt

t1

t1 t1

L L t1

d L

Ldt = q j dt + qj q j dt.

q j

t0 t0 j j q j t0 j dt q j t0

Since there is no variation in the co-ordinates along any path at the end points, hence

change in the co-ordinates at the end points is zero. i.e.,

t1

( q ) j t

0

= 0.

Thus we have

t1 t1

L d L

Ldt = q j dt. . . . (3)

t0 t0 j q j dt q j

If the system is holonomic, then all the generalized co-ordinates are linearly

independent and hence we have

t1 t1

L d L

Ldt = 0 q j dt = 0

t0 t0 j

q j dt q j

L d L

t1

Ldt = 0 = 0. . . . (4)

t0

q j dt q j

These are the required Lagranges equations of motion derived from the Hamiltons

principle. The equation (4) also shows that the Lagranges equations of motion for

holonomic system are necessary and sufficient conditions for action to have a

stationary value.

Classical Mechanics Page No. 167

Worked Examples

unit mass moving on a plane in a conservative force field.

Solution: Let the force F be conservative and under the action of which the particle

of unit mass be moving on the xy plane. Let P (x, y) be the position of the particle.

We write the force

F = iFx + jFy .

V V

Fx = , Fy = .

x y

The kinetic energy of the particle is given by

1 2

T=

2

( x + y 2 ) .

1 2

L=

2

( x + y 2 ) V ( x, y ) . . . . (1)

t1

Ldt = 0, . . . (2)

t0

t1

L L L L

x x + y y + x x + y y dt = 0 ,

t0

t1

V V

( x x + y y ) x x y y dt = 0 .

t0

. . . (3)

Consider

t1 t1

d

x xdt

t0

= x

t0

dt

( x )dt

Integrating by parts we get

t1 t1

x xdt

= ( x x )t1

t

x ( x )dt .

0

t0 t0

t1 t1

x xdt

t0

=

x ( x )dt .

t0

. . . (4)

Similarly, we have

t1 t1

y ydt

t0

=

y ( y )dt .

t0

. . . (5)

t1

V V

t x + x x +

y+

y

y dt = 0 .

0

V V

x+

= 0, y+

= 0.

x y

V

x=

= Fx ,

x

. . . (6)

V

y=

= Fy .

y

These are the equations of motion of a particle of unit mass moving under the action

of the conservative force field.

Example 2: Use Hamiltons principle to find the equation of motion of a simple

pendulum.

Solution: In case of a simple pendulum, the only generalized co-ordinate is , and

the Lagrangian is given by (Refer Ex. 26 of Chapter I)

1 2 2

L= ml mgl (1 cos ) . . . . (1)

2

The Hamiltons Principle states that the path followed by the pendulum is one along

which the line integral of Lagrangian is extremum. i.e.,

t1

Ldt = 0 ,

t0

t1

1

2 ml mgl (1 cos ) dt = 0 ,

2 2

t0

t1

ml

mgl sin dt = 0 .

2

t0

d d

Since, we have = .

dt dt

Therefore

t1

d

ml dt ( ) mgl sin dt = 0 .

2

t0

t1

t1

ml 2 ( ) t0

m l 2 + gl sin dt = 0 .

t0

t

Since ( )t1 = 0 , we have therefore,

0

t1

m l + gl sin dt = 0 .

2

t0

As is arbitrary, we have

l 2 + gl sin = 0

g

+ sin = 0 .

l

This is the required equation of motion of the simple pendulum.

Spherical Pendulum :

Example 3 : A particle of mass m is moving on the surface of the sphere of radius r

in the gravitational field. Use Hamiltons principle to show the equation of motion is

given by

p2 cos g

2 4 3

sin = 0 ,

m r sin r

where p is the constant of angular momentum.

The particle has two degrees of freedom and hence two generalized co-ordinates

, . The Lagrangian of the motion is (Refer Ex. 28 of Chapter I) given by

1 2 2

L=

2

( )

mr + sin 2 2 mgr cos . . . . (1)

The Hamiltons Principle states that the path followed by the particle between two

time instants t0 and t1 is one along which the line integral of Lagrangian is

extremum. i.e.,

t1

Ldt = 0 ,

t0

t1

1

2 mr ( )

+ sin 2 2 mgr cos dt = 0,

2 2

t0

t1

mr (

+ sin + sin cos 2 ) + mgr sin dt = 0.

2 2

t0

d d

Since, we have = .

dt dt

Therefore,

t1

d d

mr

2

dt

2

2

(

( ) + sin ( ) + mr sin cos + mgr sin dt = 0.

2 )

t0

dt

Integrating the first two integrals by parts we get

t1

) mr 2 g

t1 t1

2

mr ( ) 2

+ mr sin 2

( 2

sin cos sin dt

t0 t0

t0

r

t1

d

mr 2

dt

( )

sin 2 dt = 0.

t0

t1 t

Since ( )t 0

= 0 = ( )t1 ,

0

we have therefore,

t1 t

2 g

1

2 d

(

t mr sin cos r sin dt + t mr dt sin dt = 0

2 2

)

0 0

g

sin cos 2 sin = 0,

r

d

mr 2

dt

( )

sin 2 = 0 mr 2 sin 2 = p ( const.)

Eliminating we obtain

p2 cos g

2 4 3

sin = 0 . . . . (2)

m r sin r

as the required differential equation of motion for spherical pendulum.

Unit 2:

Hamiltonian Formulation :

Introduction:

We have developed Lagrangian formulation as a description of mechanics in

terms of the generalized co-ordinates and generalized velocities with time t as a

parameter in Chapter I and the equations of motion were used to solve some

problems. We now introduce another powerful formulation in which the independent

variables are the generalized co-ordinates and the generalized momenta known as

Hamiltons formulation. This formulation is an alternative to the Lagrangian

formulation but proved to be more convenient and useful, particularly in dealing with

problems of modern physics. Hence all the examples solved in the Chapter I can also

be solved by the Hamiltonian procedure. As an illustration few of them are solved in

this Chapter by Hamiltons procedure.

The Hamiltonian Function:

The quantity p q

j

j j L when expressed in terms of

Thus H = H ( q j , p j , t ) = p j q j L .

j

Theorem 6 : Define the Hamiltonian and hence derive the Hamiltons canonical

equations of motion.

Proof : We know the Hamiltonian H is defined as

H = H ( q j , p j , t ) = p j q j L . . . . (1)

j

H H H

dH = dp j + dq j + dt . . . . (3)

j p j j q j t

Now consider H = p j q j L .

j

Similarly we find

dH = q j dp j + dq j p j dL,

j j

L L L

dH = q j dp j + dq j p j dq j dq j dt . . . . (4)

j j j q j j q

j t

L

pj = .

q j

L L

dH = q j dp j dq j dt . . . (5)

j j q j t

Now comparing the coefficients of dp j , dq j and dt in equations (3) and (5) we get

H L H L H

q j = , = , = . . . . (6)

p j q j q j t t

L

p j =

q j

H H

q j = , p j = . . . . (7)

p j q j

These are the required Hamiltons canonical equations of motion. These are the set of

2n first order differential equations of motion and replace the n Lagranges second

order equations of motion.

Derivation of Hamiltons equations of motion from Hamiltons Principle :

Theorem 7 : Obtain Hamiltons equations of motion from the Hamiltons principle.

Proof: We know the action of a particle is defined by

t1

I = Ldt . . . (1)

t0

H = p j q j L . . . . (2)

j

Replacing L in equation (1) by using (2) we have the action in mechanics as

t1 t1

I = Ldt = p j q j H dt . . . . (3)

t0 t0 j

Now by Hamiltons principle, we have

t1 t1

Ldt = 0 p j q j H dt = 0 . . . . (4)

t0 t0 j

This is known as the modified Hamiltons principle. Thus we have

t1 t1

Ldt = p j q j H dt ,

t0 t0 j

t1 t1

H H H

Ldt = p j q j + p j q j qj pj t dt.

t0 t0 j j j q j j p j t

Since time is fixed along any path, hence change in time along any path is zero. i.e.,

t = 0 along any path. Hence above equation becomes

t1 t1

H H

Ldt = q j p j + p j q j q j dt . . . (5)

p j j q j

t0 t0 j j

t1 t1

d

p q dt = p

t0 j

j j

t0 j

j

dt

( q j ) dt .

Integrating the integral on the r. h. s. by parts we get

t1

t1

t1

t j j j j j j t j p j q j dt .

p q

dt = p q

0 t0 0

t1

Since ( q j )t = 0 . We have therefore

0

t1 t1

p j q j dt = p j q j dt .

t0 j t0 j

Substituting this in equation (5) we get

t1 t1

H H

Ldt = q j p j + p j + q j dt .

p j q j

t0 t0 j j

Now we see that

t1 t1

H H

Ldt = 0 q j p j + p j + q j dt = 0 .

p j q j

t0 t0 j j

For holonomic system we have q j , p j are independent, hence

t1

H H

Ldt = 0 q j = 0, p j + = 0.

t0

p j q j

t1

H H

Ldt = 0 q j = , p j = . . . . (6)

t0

p j q j

Remark :

We see from equation (6) that the Hamiltons canonical equations of motion

are the necessary and sufficient conditions for the action to have stationary value.

Example 4 : Show that addition of the total time derivative of any function of the

form f ( q j , t ) to the Lagrangian of a holonomic system, the generalized momentum

f f

pi + and H .

qi t

Does the new Lagrangian L unchanged the Hamiltons principle? Justify your

claim.

Solution: Let the new Lagrangian function after addition of the time derivative of

any function of the form f ( q j , t ) to the Lagrangian L be denoted by L . Thus we

have

df

L = L + . . . . (1)

dt

Thus the generalized momentum corresponding to the new Lagrangian L is defined

by

L

pj = . . . . (2)

q j

L df

Thus pj = + ,

q j q j dt

f f

pj = p j + qk + ,

q j k qk t

f

pj = p j + . . . . (3)

q j

Similarly, the Jacobi integral for new function L is given by

H = pj q j L,

j

L df

H = q j L + .

j q j dt

On using equation (3) we get

f df

H = pj + q j L + ,

j q j dt

f

H = ( p j q j L ) ,

j t

f

H = H . . . . (4)

t

This is a required Jacobi integral for the new Lagrangian L .

Now we show that the new Lagrangian L also satisfies the Hamiltons principle.

Therefore, consider

2 2 2

df

Ldt = Ldt + dt ,

1 1 1

dt

2 2 2

Ldt = Ldt + df ,

1 1 1

2 2

Ldt = Ldt + ( f )1 ,

2

1 1

2

2 2

f f

Ldt = Ldt + qj + t .

1 1 j q j t

1

But in variation time is held fixed along any path and hence t = 0 along any

path.

Further, co-ordinates at the end points are held fixed.

2

( q )

j 1 = 0.

2 2

Ldt = Ldt .

1 1

2 2

Ldt = 0 Ldt = 0 .

1 1

This shows that the new Lagrangian L satisfies the Hamiltons principle.

Lagrangian from Hamiltonian and conversely :

Example 5: Obtain Lagrangian L from Hamiltonian H and show that it satisfies

Lagranges equations of motion.

Solution: The Hamiltonian H is defined by

H = p j q j L . . . . (1)

j

H H

q j = , p j = . . . . (2)

p j q j

Classical Mechanics Page No. 178

Now from equation (1) we find the Lagrangian

L = p j q j H . . . . (3)

j

and show that it satisfies Lagranges equations of motion. Thus from equation (3) we

have

L H L

= , and = pj .

q j q j q j

Now consider

L d L H d

= ( pj ),

q j dt q j q j dt

L d L

= p j p j ,

q j dt q j

L d L

= 0.

q j dt q j

This shows that the equation (3) gives the required Lagrangian which satisfies the

Lagranges equations of motion.

Example 6 : Obtain the Hamiltonian H from the Lagrangian and show that it

satisfies the Hamiltons canonical equations of motion.

Solution: The Hamiltonian H in terms of Lagrangian L is defined as

H = p j q j L . . . . (1)

j

L d L

= 0 , . . . (2)

q j dt q j

L d L

= ,

q j dt q j

d

= ( p j ).

dt

L

= p j . . . . (3)

q j

H L

= . . . . (4)

q j q j

H

= p j . . . . (5)

q j

H

= q j . . . . (6)

p j

Equations (5) and (6) are the required Hamiltons equations of motion.

Theorem 8 :

1. For conservative scleronomic system the Hamiltonian H represents both a

constant of motion and total energy.

2. For conservative rheonomic system the Hamiltonian H may represent a

constant of motion but does not represent the total energy.

Proof : The Hamiltonian H is defined by

H = p j q j L . . . . (1)

j

L

pj = . . . (2)

q j

is the generalized momentum. This implies from Lagranges equation of motion that

d L L

p j = = . . . (3)

dt q j q j

Differentiating equation (1) w. r. t. time t, we get

dH L L L

= p j q j + p j qj q j qj . . . (4)

dt j j j q j j q

j t

dH L

= . . . (5)

dt t

Now if L does not contain time t explicitly, then from equation (5), we have

dH

=0

dt

This shows that H represents a constant of motion.

However, the condition L does not contain time t explicitly will be satisfied by

neither the kinetic energy nor the potential energy involves time t explicitly.

Now there are two cases that the kinetic energy T does not involve time t explicitly.

1. For the conservative and scleronomic system :

In the case of conservative system when the constraints are scleronomic, the

kinetic energy T is independent of time t and the potential energy V is only function

of co-ordinates. Consequently, the Lagrangian L does not involve time t explicitly

and hence from equation (5) the Hamiltonian H represents a constant of motion.

Further, for scleronomic system, we know the kinetic energy is a homogeneous

quadratic function of generalized velocities.

T = a jk q j qk . . . . (6)

j ,k

generalized velocities we have

T

q

j

j

q j

= 2T . . . . (7)

For conservative system we have

L T

pj = = . . . . (8)

q j q j

H = 2T (T V ) ,

H = T +V = E . . . . (9)

where E is the total energy of the system. Equation (9) shows that for conservative

scleronomic system the Hamiltonian H represents the total energy of the system.

In the case of conservative rheonomic system, the transformation equations

do involve time t explicitly, though some times the kinetic energy may not involve

time t explicitly. Consequently, neither T nor V involves t, and hence L does not

involve t. Hence in such cases the Hamiltonian may represent the constant of motion.

However, in general if the system is conservative and rheonomic, the kinetic energy

is a quadratic function of generalized velocities and is given by

T = a jk q j qk + a j q j + a . . . (10)

j ,k j

where

1 r r

a jk = mi i i ,

i 2 q j qk

. . . (11)

r r

a j = mi i i ,

i q j t

2

1 r

a = mi i .

i 2 t

We see from equation (10) that each term is a homogeneous function of generalized

velocities of degree two, one and zero respectively. On applying Eulers theorem for

the homogeneous function to each term on the right hand side, we readily get

T

q

j

j

q j

= 2T2 + T1 . . . . (12)

where

T2 = a jk q j qk ,

j ,k

T1 = a j q j ,

j

T0 = a

are homogeneous function of generalized velocities of degree two, one and zero

respectively. Substituting equation (12) in the Hamiltonian (1) we obtain

H = T2 T0 + V

showing that the Hamiltonian H does not represent total energy. Thus for the

conservative rheonomic systems H may represent the constant of motion but does not

represent total energy.

Cyclic Co-ordinates In Hamiltonian :

Theorem 9 : Prove that a co-ordinate which is cyclic in the Lagrangian is also cyclic

in the Hamiltonian.

Solution: We know the co-ordinate which is absent in the Lagrangian is called cyclic

L

co-ordinate. Thus if q j is cyclic in L =0.

q j

d L

= 0 p j = 0 , . . . (1)

dt q j

L

where p j = is the generalized momentum. However, from Hamiltons

q j

H

p j = . . . . (2)

q j

Equations (1) and (2) gives

H

=0. . . . (3)

q j

This shows that the co-ordinate q j is also absent in the Hamiltonian, and

Lagrangian is also cyclic in the Hamiltonian.

Worked Examples

Example 7 : Describe the motion of a particle of mass m moving near the surface of

the Earth under the Earths constant gravitational field by Hamiltons procedure.

Solution: Consider a particle of mass m moving near the surface of the Earth under

the Earths constant gravitational field. Let (x, y, z) be the Cartesian co-ordinates of

the projectile, z being vertical. Then the Lagrangian of the projectile is given by

1

L= m ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) mgz . . . . (1)

2

We see that the generalized co-ordinates x and y are absent in the Lagrangian,

hence they are the cyclic co-ordinates. This implies that any change in these co-

ordinates can not affect the Lagrangian. This implies that the corresponding

generalized momentum is conserved. In this case the generalized momentum is the

linear momentum and is conserved.

px = mx = const.

i.e., . . . (2)

p y = my = const.

pz = mz .

This shows that the horizontal components of momentum are conserved.

The Hamiltonian of the particle is defined by

H = p j q j L,

j

1

H = px x + p y y + pz z m ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) + mgz . . . . (3)

2

Eliminating x, y , z between equations (2) and (3) we get

1

H=

2m

( px2 + p y2 + pz2 ) + mgz . . . . (4)

H H H

p x = = 0, p y = = 0, p z = = mg . . . . (5)

x y z

H px H p y H pz

and x = = , y = = , z = = . . . . (6)

px m p y m pz m

x = 0,

y = 0,

z = g . . . (7)

These are the required equations of motion of the projectile near the surface of the

Earth.

Example 8 : Obtain the Hamiltonian H and the Hamiltons equations of motion of a

simple pendulum. Prove or disprove that H represents the constant of motion and

total energy.

Solution: The Example is solved earlier by various methods. The Lagrangian of the

pendulum is given by

1 2 2

L= ml mgl (1 cos ) , . . . (1)

2

where the generalized momentum is given by

L p

p = = ml 2 = 2 . . . . (2)

ml

The Hamiltonian of the system is given by

H = p L,

1

H = p ml 2 2 + mgl (1 cos ) .

2

Eliminating we obtain

p2

H= + mgl (1 cos ) . . . . (3)

2ml 2

Hamiltons canonical equations of motion are

H H

q j = , p j = .

p j q j

p

= , p = mgl sin . . . . (4)

ml 2

Now eliminating p from these equations we get

g

+ sin = 0. . . . (5)

l

Now we claim that H represents the constant of motion.

Thus differentiating equation (3) with respect to t we get

dH p p

= + mgl sin ,

dt ml 2

+ mgl sin ,

= ml 2

g

= ml 2 + sin ,

l

dH

=0.

dt

This proves that H is a constant of motion. Now to see whether H represents total

energy or not, we consider

1 2 2

T +V = ml + mgl (1 cos ) .

2

Using equation (4) we eliminate from the above equation, we obtain

p2

T +V = + mgl (1 cos ) . . . . (6)

2ml 2

This is as same as the Hamiltonian H from equation (3). Thus Hamiltonian H

represents the total energy of the pendulum.

Example 9: The Lagrangian for a particle moving on a surface of a sphere of radius r

is given by

1 2 2

L=

2

( )

mr + sin 2 2 mgr cos .

Find the Hamiltonian H and show that it is constant of motion. Prove or disprove that

H represents the total energy. Is the energy of the particle constant? Justify your

claim.

Solution: We are given the Lagrangian of a particle moving on the surface of a

sphere (Spherical Pendulum) in the form

1 2 2

L=

2

( )

mr + sin 2 2 mgr cos . . . . (1)

momentum is conserved. i.e.

L

p = = mr 2 sin 2 = const. . . . (2)

L

Similarly, p = = mr 2. . . . (3)

The Hamiltonian of the particle is defined as

1

( )

H = p + p mr 2 2 + sin 2 2 + mgr cos .

2

. . . (4)

1 p2 p2

H= 2+ 2 2 + mgr cos . . . . (5)

2 mr mr sin

The Hamiltons canonical equations of motion give

cos p2

p = + mgr sin ,

mr 2 sin 3

p = 0,

p . . . (6)

= ,

mr 2

p

= .

mr 2 sin 2

Eliminating p from equation (6) we get the equation of motion of spherical

pendulum as

2

cos p2

mr 2 3 mgr sin = 0 . . . . (7)

mr sin

(i) Now we claim that H is a constant of motion, differentiate equation (5) with

respect to t, we get

dH p p p p p2 cos

= 2

+ 2 2

2 3

mgr sin ,

dt mr mr sin mr sin

Putting the values of p , p from equation (6) we get

p cos p p cos p 2

2

dH p

= 2 2 3 + mgr sin 2 4 3 2 mgr sin

dt mr mr sin m r sin mr

dH

= 0,

dt

showing that H is a constant of motion.

(ii) Now consider the sum of the kinetic and potential energy of the spherical

pendulum, where

1 2 2

T=

2

(

mr + sin 2 2 , )

V = mgr cos

Thus

1 2 2

T +V =

2

( )

mr + sin 2 2 + mgr cos . . . . (8)

1 p2 p2

T + V = 2 + 2 2 + mgr cos . . . . (9)

2 mr mr sin

We see from equations (5) and (9) that the total energy of the spherical pendulum is

the Hamiltonian of motion. Now to see it is constant or not, multiply equation (7) by

we get

p2 cos

mr 2 mgr sin = 0

mr 2 sin 3

d 1 2 2 d p2 d

mr + 2 2 + ( mgr cos ) = 0.

dt 2 dt 2mr sin dt

Integrating we get

1 2 2 p2

mr

+ 2 2 + ( mgr cos ) = const.

2 2mr sin

Eliminating on using equation (6) we get

1 p2 p2

+ + mgr cos = const. . . . . (10)

2 mr 2 mr 2 sin 2

We see from equations (5), (9) and (10) that the Hamiltonian H represents the total

energy and the energy of the particle is conserved.

Example 10: Two mass points of mass m1 and m2 are connected by a string passing

through a hole in a smooth table so that m1 rests on the table surface and m2 hangs

suspended. Assuming m2 moves only in a vertical line, write down the Hamiltonian

for the system and hence the equations of motion. Prove or disprove that

i) Hamiltonian H represents the constant of motion.

ii) H represents total energy of the system.

Classical Mechanics Page No. 189

Solution: The example is solved in Chapter I. (please refer to Example 24). The

Lagrangian of the system is given by

1 1

L=

2

( )

m1 r 2 + r 2 2 + m2 r 2 + m2 g ( l r )

2

. . . (1)

We see that the co-ordinate is cyclic in the Lagrangian L and hence the

corresponding generalized momentum is conserved.

L

p = = m1r 2 = const. . . . (2)

Similarly, we find

L

pr = = ( m1 + m2 ) r = const. . . . (3)

r

Now the Hamiltonian function is defined as

L L

H = r + L,

r

1 1

H= ( m1 + m2 ) r2 + m1r 22 m2 g ( l r ) .

2 2

Eliminating r and we obtain

pr2 p2

H= + 2 m2 g ( l r ) . . . . (4)

2 ( m1 + m2 ) 2m1r

H H

p j = , q j =

q j p j

give

H p2 H

p r = = 3 m2 g , p = = 0. . . . (5)

r m1r

H pr H p

r = = , = = 2 . . . . (6)

pr ( m1 + m2 ) p m1r

p2

( m1 + m2 ) r + m2 g = 0 . . . . (7)

m1r 3

This is the required equation of motion.

i) To prove H represents a constant of motion, we differentiate equation (4)

with respect to t. Thus we have

dH pr p r p p p 2 r

= + 2 3 + m2 gr

dt ( m1 + m2 ) m1r m1r

dH pr p2 pr m2 g p2 pr m2 gpr

= + ,

dt ( m1 + m2 ) m1r m1 + m2 ( m1 + m2 ) m1r ( m1 + m2 ) r

3 3

dH

= 0.

dt

This shows that The Hamiltonian H represents a constant of motion.

ii) We have the kinetic and potential energies of the system are respectively

given by

1 1

T=

2

( 2

)

m1 r 2 + r 2 2 + m2 r 2 ,

V = m2 g ( l r ) .

Now consider

1 1

T +V =

2

( )

m1 r 2 + r 2 2 + m2 r 2 m2 g ( l r ) .

2

. . . (8)

pr2 p2

T +V = + 2 m2 g ( l r ) . . . (9)

2 ( m1 + m2 ) 2m1r

From equations (4) and (9) we see that the total energy is equal to the

Hamiltonian function. Thus Hamiltonian H represents total energy of the system. To

prove that the total energy is conserved, multiply the equation of motion (7) by r ,

we get

p2 r

( m1 + m2 )

rr + m2 gr = 0 .

m1r 3

This we write as

d r 2 d p2 d

( m + m ) + + ( m2 gr ) = 0 .

dt 2 dt 2m1r 2 dt

1 2

pr2 p2

+ 2 + m2 gr = const. . . . . (10)

2 ( m1 + m2 ) 2m1r

Equations (9) and (10) show that the total energy of the system is conserved.

Note : Equation (10) is the first integral of equation of motion. Its physical

significance is that the Hamiltonian H represents the constant of total energy.

Example 11: A particle of mass m is moving on a xy plane which is rotating about z

axis with angular velocity . The Lagrangian is given by

1

m ( x y ) + ( y + x ) V ( x, y ) .

2 2

L=

2

Show that the Hamiltonian H is given by

1

H=

2m

( px2 + p 2y ) + px y p y x + V .

Find the equations of motion and hence prove or disprove that

i) H represents a constant of motion and

ii) H represents the total energy.

Solution: The Lagrangian of the particle is given by

1

m ( x y ) + ( y + x ) V ( x, y ) .

2 2

L= . . . (1)

2

L p

px = = m ( x y ) x = x + y , . . . (2)

x m

L py

py = = m ( y x ) y = x . . . . (3)

y m

The Hamiltonian H is defined by H = xp

x + yp

y L

1

H = px x + p y y m ( x y ) + ( y + x ) + V ( x, y ) .

2 2

2

Using equations (2) and (3) we eliminate x and y from the above equation to get

the Hamiltonian of the system

1

H=

2m

( px2 + p 2y ) + ( px y p y x ) + V . . . . (4)

H V H V

p x = = p y , p y = = p x ,

x x y y

. . . (5)

H px H p y

x = = + y, y = = x.

px m px m

Solving these equations we obtain the equations which describe the motion

V

m (

x 2 y 2 x ) = ,

x

. . . (6)

V

m (

y + 2 x 2 y ) =

y

Now to prove whether H is a constant of motion or not, differentiate equation (4)

w. r. t. t to get

dH 1 V V

= ( px p x + p y p y ) + ( p x y + px y p y x p y yx ) + x + y .

dt m x y

Using (5) we have

dH

=0.

dt

This shows that H represents the constant of motion. Now to show whether H

represents total energy or not, we have the total energy of the system

E = T +V ,

1

E=

2m

( px2 + p y2 ) + V ( x, y ) . . . . (7)

We see from equations (4) and (7) that the Hamiltonian H does not represent total

energy.

Example 12 : A bead slides on a wire in the shape of a cycloid described by

equations

x = a ( sin ) , y = a (1 + cos ) , 0 2 .

Find the Hamiltonian H, hence the equations of motion. Also prove or disprove that

i) H represents a constant of motion

ii) H represents a total energy.

Solution: A particle describes a cycloid whose equations are

x = a ( sin ) , y = a (1 + cos ) , 0 2 . . . . (1)

1

T= m ( x 2 + y 2 ) ,

2

where

x = a (1 cos ) ,

y = a sin .

Hence the kinetic energy of the particle becomes

T = ma 2 2 (1 cos ) ,

V = mga (1 + cos ) .

L = ma 2 2 (1 cos ) mga (1 + cos ) . . . . (2)

L

H = L, . . . (3)

Classical Mechanics Page No. 194

where from equation (2) we have

L

= p = 2ma 2 (1 cos ) . . . . (4)

Using equations (2) and (4) in (3) we obtain the expression for Hamiltonian as

H = ma 2 2 (1 cos ) + mga (1 + cos ) . . . . (5)

Using equation (4) we eliminate from equation (5) to get the required Hamiltonian

H as

p2

H= + mga (1 + cos ) . . . . (6)

4ma 2 (1 cos )

H p2 sin

p = = + mga sin , . . . (7)

4ma (1 cos ) 2

2

H p

= = . . . . (8)

p 2ma (1 cos )

2

From equations (7) and (8) we obtain the equation of motion of the particle

p2 sin g

(1 cos ) + 2 4 3

sin = 0 . . . (9)

8m a (1 cos ) 2a

Eliminating p from equation (9) we obtain the equation which describes the motion

of the particle in the form

2ma 2 (1 cos ) + ma 2 sin 2 mga sin = 0 . . . . (10)

Now to prove

i) H is a constant of motion, differentiate equation (6) with respect to time t we

get

dH 2 p p p2 sin

= mga sin .

dt 4ma 2 (1 cos ) 4ma 2 (1 cos )2

dH

=0.

dt

This shows that the Hamiltonian H is a constant of motion.

ii) H represents the total energy

We find from the expressions for kinetic energy and potential energy that

T + V = ma 2 2 (1 cos ) + mga (1 + cos ) . . . . (11)

Eliminating from equation (11) we get equation (6) that gives the required

expression for the Hamiltonian. Now multiply equation (10) by we get

2ma 2 (1 cos )

+ ma 2 sin 3 mga sin = 0 .

d

ma 2 (1 cos ) 2 + mga (1 + cos ) = 0 .

dt

Integrating we get

H = T + V = ma 2 2 (1 cos ) + mga (1 + cos ) = const.

This shows that the Hamiltonian H represents the constant of total energy.

Example 13 : Obtain the Hamiltons equation of motion for a one dimensional

harmonic oscillator.

Solution: The one dimensional harmonic oscillator consists of

a mass attached to one end of a spring and other end of the

spring is fixed. If the spring is pressed and released then on

account of the elastic property of the spring, the spring exerts a

force F on the body in the opposite direction. This is called F M

x

restoring force. It is found that this force is proportional

to the displacement of the body from its equilibrium position.

Fx

F = kx

where k is the spring constant and negative sign indicates the force is opposite to the

displacement. Hence the potential energy of the particle is given by

Classical Mechanics Page No. 196

V = Fdx,

V = kxdx + c,

kx 2

V= + c,

2

where c is the constant of integration. By choosing the horizontal plane passing

through the position of equilibrium as the reference level, then V=0 at x=0. This

gives c=0. Hence potential energy of the particle is

1 2

V= kx . . . . (1)

2

The kinetic energy of the one dimensional harmonic oscillator is

1 2

T= mx . . . . (2)

2

Hence the Lagrangian of the system is

1 2 1 2

L= mx kx . . . . (3)

2 2

The Lagranges equation motion gives

k

x + 2 x = 0, 2 =

. . . . (4)

m

This is the equation of motion. is the frequency of oscillation.

The Hamiltonian H of the oscillator is defined as

H = xp

x L,

1 1

x mx 2 + kx 2 ,

H = xp

2 2

where

L p

px = = mx x = x .

x m

Substituting this in the above equation we get the Hamiltonian

px2 1 2

H= + kx . . . . (5)

2m 2

Solving the Hamiltons canonical equations of motion we readily get the equation (4)

as the equation of motion.

Example 14: For a particle the kinetic energy and potential energy is given by

respectively,

1 2 1 r 2

T= mr , U = 1 + 2 .

2 r c

1. whether H = T + V

dH

2. whether =0.

dt

Solution: The kinetic and potential energies of a particle are given by

1 2 1 r 2

T= mr , U = 1 + 2

2 r c

1 2 1 r 2

L= mr 1 + 2 . . . . (1)

2 r c

We see that the particle has only one degree of freedom and hence it has only one

generalized co-ordinate. The generalized momentum is defined by

L 2r

pr = = mr 2 ,

r rc

pr r c 2

r = . . . . (2)

( mrc2 2 )

Thus the corresponding Hamiltonian function is defined by

H = pr r L,

1 1 r 2 . . . (3)

H = pr r mr 2 + 1 + 2 .

2 r c

1 pr2 r c 2 1

H= + . . . . (4)

2 ( mrc 2 ) r

2

1 2 1 r 2

T +U = mr + 1 + 2 . . . . (5)

2 r c

1 pr r c ( mrc + 2 ) 1

2 2 2

T +U = + . . . . (6)

2 ( mrc 2 2 )2 r

We see from equations (4) and (6) that the Hamiltonian H does not represent the total

energy.

T +U H .

2. Now differentiating equation (4) w. r. t. time t we get

dH p p rc 2 pr2 rc

2 r

= r 2r , . . . (7)

dt ( mrc 2 ) ( mrc 2 2 )2 r2

where

2 2r 2

p r =

r m 2 + 2 2 .

rc r c

Substituting this in equation (7) and simplifying we get

dH r3 r

= pr r + 2 2 2 .

dt r c r

dH

0.

dt

This shows that the Hamiltonian H is not a constant of motion.

Example 15 : A particle is thrown horizontally from the top of a building of height h

with an initial velocity u. Write down the Hamiltonian of the problem. Show that H

represents both a constant of motion and the total energy.

Solution: Let the particle be thrown horizontally from the top of a building of

y

height h with an initial velocity u. The motion

of the particle is in a plane. If P (x, y) are the

position co-ordinates of the particle at any

P(x, y) instant, then its kinetic energy and the potential

y

x

O

1

T= m ( x 2 + y 2 ) , . . . (1)

2

V = mg ( h y ) . . . . (2)

1

L= m ( x 2 + y 2 ) + mg ( h y ) . . . . (3)

2

The particle has two degrees of freedom and hence two generalized co-ordinates. We

see that the generalized co-ordinate x is cyclic in L, hence the corresponding

generalized momentum is conserved.

L

px = = mx = const.

x

. . . (4)

L

py = = my.

y

The Hamiltonian function H is defined as

H = p j q j L

j

1

H = px x + p y y m ( x 2 + y 2 ) mh ( h y ) . . . (5)

2

Eliminating the velocities from equations (4) and (5) we obtain the Hamiltonian of

motion as

1

H=

2m

( px2 + p 2y ) mg ( h y ) . . . . (6)

H px H p y

x = = , y = = ,

px m p y m

H H

and p x = = 0, p y = = mg.

x y

Solving these equations we get the equations of motion as

x = 0,

y = g . . . . (7)

Now differentiating equation (6) with respect to t we get

dH 1

= ( px p x + p y p y ) + mgy

dt m

dH

= 0,

dt

This proves that H is a constant of motion.

Now to see whether H represents total energy or not, we consider

1

T +V = m ( x 2 + y 2 ) mg ( h y )

2

Putting the values of x and y we obtain the expression for the Hamiltonian as

1

T +V =

2m

( px2 + p y2 ) mg ( h y ) . . . . (8)

This represents the Hamiltonian H, proving that H represents the total energy of the

particle.

under the action of gravity. Show that the Hamiltonian of the system is

2a 2 px2 mg 2

H= + x .

m ( 4a + x ) 4 a

2 2

Is the Hamiltonian of the particle representing total energy? Is it a constant of

motion?

Solution: Given that a particle is constrained to move on the arc of the parabola

x 2 = 4ay . . . (1)

where y is vertical axis, under the action of gravity. The kinetic energy of the particle

is given by

1

T= m ( x 2 + y 2 ) . . . (2)

2

and the potential energy is given by

V = mgy . . . . (3)

However, x and y are not the generalized co-ordinates, because they are related by

the constraint equation (1). Eliminating y from equations (2) and (3) on using (1) we

obtain

1 2 x2 x2

T= mx 1 + 2 , V = mg .

2 4a 4a

1 2 x2 x2

L= mx 1 + 2 mg . . . . (4)

2 4a 4a

Now we see that the system has one degree of freedom and only one generalized co-

ordinate x.

L x2

px = = mx 1 + 2 ,

x 4a

4a 2 px

x = . . . . (5)

m ( 4a 2 + x 2 )

H = xp

x L

1 2 x2 x2

H = xp

x - mx 1 + 2 + mg . . . . (6)

2 4a 4a

On using (5) we write equation (6) as

2a 2 px2 mgx 2

H= + . . . . (7)

m ( 4a 2 + x 2 ) 4a

This is the required Hamiltonian function. Now to see whether this H represents total

energy or not, we consider

1 2 x2 x2

T+V = mx 1 + 2 +

mg . . . . (8)

2 4 a 4a

Using equation (5) we obtain

2a 2 px2 mgx 2

T +V = + . . . . (9)

m ( 4a 2 + x 2 ) 4a

Which is the Hamiltonian of the motion, showing that it represent the total energy of

the particle. Now to show that the Hamiltonian H represents constant of motion, we

first find the equation of motion. From equation (4) we have

L m mgx

= 2 xx 2 ,

x 4a 2a

L x2

= 1 + 2 mx.

x 4a

d L L d x2 m mgx

=0 2

1 + 2 mx 2 xx + = 0,

dt x x dt 4a 4a 2a

( 4a 2

+ x 2 )

x + xx 2 + 2agx = 0 . . . . (10)

x2

dH 4a 2 px p x xxp + mg xx .

=

dt m ( 4 a + x ) ( 4a 2 + x 2 ) 2 a

2 2 2

Eliminating px , p x we obtain

dH m

= 2 ( 4a 2 + x 2 )

x + xx 2 + 2agx x .

dt 4a

dH

This implies from equation (10) that =0.

dt

This shows that the Hamiltonian H is a constant of motion.

Example 17 : Set up the Hamiltonian for the Lagrangian

m 2 2

L ( q, q , t ) = q sin t + qq sin 2t + q 2 2 .

2

Derive the Hamiltons equations of motion. Reduce the equations in to a single

second order differential equation.

Solution: The Lagrangian of the system is given by

m 2 2

L ( q, q , t ) = q sin t + qq sin 2t + q 2 2 . . . (1)

2

The system has only one degree of freedom and hence only one generalized co-

ordinate q. The generalized momentum is given by

L m

p= = ( 2q sin 2 t + q sin 2t ) . . . (2)

q 2

1 p q

q = 2 sin 2t . . . . (3)

sin t m 2

Now the Hamiltonian function H is defined as

m 2 2

H = pq

2

( q sin t + qq sin 2t + q 2 2 ) . . . . (4)

Substituting the value of q from equation (3) in (4) and simplifying we get

p2 q 2 m 2 m

H= 2

pq cot t + cos 2 t q 2 2 . . . . (5)

2m sin t 2 2

This is the Hamiltonian of the system. The Hamiltons canonical equations of motion

give

H p

q = = q cot t . . . . (6)

p m sin 2 t

From equation (6) we find

m

p= 2q sin 2 t + q sin 2t . . . (8)

2

Differentiating equation (8) w. r. t. t we get

m

p = 2q sin 2 t + 4q sin t cos t + q sin 2t + 2q 2 cos 2t . . . (9)

2

Equating equations (7) and (9) we get

q + 2 q cot t 2q 2 = 0 . . . . (10)

This equation determines the motion of the particle.

Example 18 : A Lagrangian of a system is given by

m k

L ( x, y, x, y ) =

2

( + cy 2 ) ( ax 2 + 2bxy + cy 2 ) ,

ax 2 + 2bxy

2

where a, b, c, k , m are constants and b 2 ac 0 . Find the Hamiltonian and

equations of motion. Examine the particular cases a = 0, c = 0 and b = 0, c = a .

Solution: Given that

m k

L ( x, y, x, y ) =

2

( + cy 2 ) ( ax 2 + 2bxy + cy 2 ) ,

ax 2 + 2bxy

2

. . . (1)

where a, b, c, k , m are constants and b 2 ac 0 . We see that the system has two

generalized co-ordinates x and y. Hence the corresponding generalized momenta are

L

px = = m ( ax + by ) , . . . (2)

x

L

and py = = m ( bx + cy ) . . . . (3)

y

Solving these equations for x and y we get

cpx bp y bpx ap y

x = , y = . . . . (4)

m ( b ac )

2

m ( b 2 ac )

H = p j q j L,

j

m k

H = px x + p y y

2

( + cy 2 ) + ( ax 2 + 2bxy + cy 2 ) . ...(5)

ax 2 + 2bxy

2

Using equations (4) in (5) we obtain after simplifying

1 a c k

H= bpx p y p y2 px2 + ( ax + 2bxy + cy 2 ) .. . . (6)

m ( b ac )

2

2 2 2

This is the required Hamiltonian of the system. The Hamiltons equations of motion

corresponding to two generalized co-ordinates x, y are

H

p x = = k ( ax + by ) ,

x

. . . (7)

H

p y = = k ( bx + cy ) .

y

and

H 1

x = =

px m ( b ac )

2 ( bp y cpx )

. . . (8)

H 1

y = =

p y m ( b ac )

2 ( bpx cp y )

From equations (2), (3) and (7) we have

m ( ax + by) + k ( ax + by ) = 0,

. . . (9)

m ( bx + cy) + k ( bx + cy ) = 0.

These are the required equations of motion. Solving these equations for x and y we

obtain respectively

mx + kx = 0. . . . (10)

my + ky = 0. . . . (11)

The solutions of these equations are

k k

x = c1 cos t + c2 sin t , . . . (12)

m m

k k

and y = d1 cos t + d 2 sin t. . . . (13)

m m

Now the cases a = 0, c = 0 and b = 0, c = a yield from equations (9) the same set

of equations (10) and (11).

Example 19 : The Lagrangian for a system can be written as

y

L = ax 2 + b + fy 2 xz

+ czy + gy k x 2 + y 2 ,

x

where a, b, c, f, g and k are constants. What is Hamiltonian? What quantities are

conserved ?

Solution: The Lagrangian of the system is

y

L = ax 2 + b + fy 2 xz

+ czy + gy k x 2 + y 2 , . . . (1)

x

where a, b, c, f, g and k are constants. The system has three degrees of freedom and

has three generalized co-ordinates (x, y, z), of which z is cyclic. This implies the

corresponding generalized momentum pz is conserved.

L

pz = = cy + fy 2 x = const. . . . (2)

z

Similarly, we find

L

px = = 2ax + fy 2 z , . . . (3)

x

L b

and py = = + cz + g . . . . (4)

y x

Solving these equations for x, y , z we get

1 fy 2 b

x = p x py g ,

2a c x

1 fy 2 fy 2 b

y = pz x

p py g ,

c 2a c x

1 b

z = p y g . . . . (5)

c x

The Hamiltonian of the system is defined as

H = px x + p y y + pz z L

y

H = px x+ z z ax 2 b

p y y+p fy 2 xz

cxy gy + k x 2 + y 2 . . . . (6)

x

The required Hamiltonian is obtained by eliminating x, y , z from equation (6).

Introduction:

The presence of cyclic co-ordinates in the Lagrangian L is not much

profitable because even if the co-ordinate q j does not appear in L, the corresponding

generalized momentum q j generally does, so that one has to deal the problem with all

variables and the system has n degrees of freedom. However, if q j is cyclic in the

Hamiltonian then p j is constant and then one has to deal with the problem involving

only 2n-2 variables, i.e., only n-1 degrees of freedom. Hence Hamiltonian procedure

is especially adapted to the problems involving cyclic co-ordinates. The advantage of

Hamiltonian formulation in handling with cyclic co-ordinates is utilized by Routh

and devised a method by combining with the Lagrangian procedure and the method

is known as Rouths Procedure. The Method is described in the following theorem.

Theorem 10: Describe the Rouths procedure to solve the problem involving cyclic

and non-cyclic co-ordinates.

Proof: Consider a system of particles involving both cyclic and non-cyclic co-

ordinates. Let q1 , q2 , q3 ,..., qs of q1 , q2 , q3 ,..., qn are cyclic co-ordinates, then a new

function R, known as the Routhian is defined as

s

R ( q1 , q2 ,..., qn ; p1 , p2 ,..., ps ; qs +1 , qs + 2 ,..., qn , t ) = p j q j L ( q j , q j , t ) . . . (1)

j =1

function of the generalized velocities corresponding to the cyclic co-ordinates, but

instead involves only its conjugate momentum. The advantage in doing so is that p j

can then be considered one of the constants of integration and the remaining

integrations involve only the non-cyclic co-ordinates.

Now we take R = R ( q1 , q2 ,..., qn ; p1 , p2 ,..., ps ; qs +1 , qs + 2 ,..., qn , t ) , and find the total

differential dR as

n s n

R R R R

dR = dq j + dp j + q dq j + dt . . . . (2)

j =1 q j j =1 p j j = s +1 j t

Now we consider

s

R = p j q j L ( q j , q j , t )

j =1

s s

dR = p j dq j + q j dp j dL,

j =1 j =1

s s n n

L L L

dR = p j dq j + q j dp j dq j dq j dt.

j =1 j =1 j =1 q j j =1 q

j t

s s s L n

L

dR = p j dq j + q j dp j dq j + q dq

j =1 q j

j =1 j =1 j j = s +1 j

s L n

L L

dq j + q dq dt.

j =1 q j

t

j j = s +1 j

s s n

L L

dR = q j dp j dq j dq j

j =1 j =1 q j j = s +1 q j

n

L L

q dq

j = s +1

j

t

dt. . . . (3)

j

Now equating the corresponding coefficients on both the sides of equations (2) and

(3) we obtain

R

= q j , j = 1, 2,..., s . . . (4)

p j

R L

= = p j , j = 1, 2,..., s . . . (5)

q j q j

R L

= = p j , j = s + 1, s + 2,..., n . . . (6)

q j q j

R L

and = = pj, j = s + 1, s + 2,..., n . . . (7)

q j q j

We see that for cyclic co-ordinates q1 , q2 ,..., qs equations (4) and (5) represent

Hamiltons equations of motion with R as the Hamiltonian, while equations (6) and

(7) for the non-cyclic co-ordinates q j ( j = s + 1, s + 2,..., n ) represent Lagranges

equations of motion with R as the Lagrangian function. i.e., from equations (6) and

(7) we obtain

d R R

= 0, j = s + 1, s + 2,..., n . . . (8)

dt q j q j

Thus by Routhian procedure a problem involving cyclic and non-cyclic co-ordinates

can be solved by solving Lagranges equations for non-cyclic co-ordinates with

Routhian R as the Lagrangian function and solving Hamiltonian equations for the

given cyclic co-ordinates with R as the Hamiltonian function. In this way The

Routhian has a dual character Hamiltonian H and the Lagrangian L.

Worked Examples

polar co-ordinates for a particle moving in space under the action of conservative

force.

Solution: Let a particle be moving in a space. If (x, y, z) are the Cartesian co-

ordinates and ( r , , ) are the spherical co-ordinates of the particle, then we have the

x = r sin cos ,

y = r sin sin , . . . (1)

z = r cos .

1

The kinetic energy T = m ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) of the particle, in spherical polar co-

2

ordinates becomes

1

T=

2

( )

m r 2 + r 2 2 + r 2 sin 2 2 . . . . (2)

Since the force is conservative, hence the potential energy of the particle is the

function of position only.

V = V ( r , , ) . . . . (3)

1

L=

2

( )

m r 2 + r 2 2 + r 2 sin 2 2 V ( r , , ) . . . . (4)

conserved. i.e.,

L

p = = mr 2 sin 2 = const. . . . (5)

Similarly we find

L

pr = = mr,

r

. . . (6)

L

p = = mr 2.

Now the Hamiltonian function is defined as

H = p j q j L,

j

. . . (7)

1

( )

H = pr r + p + p m r 2 + r 2 2 + r 2 sin 2 2 + V .

2

Eliminating the generalized velocities r,, between equations (5), (6) and (7) we

get

1 2 1 2 1 2

H= pr + 2 p + 2 2 p + V . . . . (8)

2m r r sin

Now the Routhian R is defined by

R = p L, . . . (9)

This becomes after eliminating r,, between (5), (6) and (9) we get

p2 1

( )

R r , , , r, , t = 2 ( )

m r 2 + r 2 2 + V .

2mr sin 2 2

. . . (10)

Example 21 : A planet moves under the inverse square law of attractive force, Find

Lagrangian L, Hamiltonian H, and the Routhian R for the planet.

Solution: A motion of a planet is a motion in the plane. If ( r , ) are the generalized

co-ordinates of the planet then its kinetic and potential energies are respectively

given by

1 K

T=

2

( )

m r 2 + r 2 2 , V = .

r

Classical Mechanics Page No. 212

Hence the Lagrangian function is defined by

1 K

L=

2

(

m r 2 + r 2 2 + .

r

) . . . (1)

We see that is the cyclic co-ordinate in L. This implies that the corresponding

angular momentum of the planet is conserved.

L p

p = = mr 2 = const. = 2 . . . . (2)

mr

L p

Also pr = = mr r = r . . . (3)

r m

Now the Hamiltonian function is defined as

H = p j q j L,

j

1 K

(

H = pr r + p m r 2 + r 2 2

2 r

)

On using equations (2) and (3) we obtain

1 2 p2 K

H= pr + 2 . . . . (4)

2m r r

Now the Routhian is defined as

R ( r , , p , r, t ) = p L

1 K

( )

R ( r , , p , r, t ) = p m r 2 + r 2 2 .

2 r

Eliminating we get

p2 1 K

R ( r , , p , r, t ) = 2

mr 2 . . . . (5)

2mr 2 r

This can also be written as

p2 pr2 K

R ( r , , p , r, t ) = . . . . (6)

2mr 2 2m r

Principle of Least Action :

Action in Mechanics :

In Mechanics the time integral of twice the kinetic energy is called the action.

Thus

t1

A = 2Tdt

t0

t1

i.e. A = p j q j dt

t0 j

There is another variational principle associated with the Hamiltonian

formulation and is known as the principle of least action. It involves a new type of

variation which we call the - variation.

In - variation the co-ordinates of the end points remain fixed while the time is

allowed to vary. The varied paths may terminate at different points, but still position

co-ordinates are held fixed.

Mathematically, we have

I dI

I = d , I = d .

d

Thus for the family of paths represented by the equation

q j = q j ( , t ) , t = t ( )

We have

dq j q dt

q j = d = j + q j d .

d d

q j dt

q j = d + q j d

d .

q j = q j + q j t

This shows that the total variation is the sum of two variations.

Worked Examples

df

f = f + t .

dt

Solution: Consider a system of particles moving from one point to another. Let the

family of paths between these two points be given by

q j = q j ( t , ) . . . . (1)

In variation time is not held fixed, it depends on the path. This implies that

t = t ( ) . . . (2)

Since f = f ( q j , q j , t ) . . . (3)

f f f

f = q j + q j + t . . . . (4)

j q j q j t

However, we have q j = q j + q j t . . . (5)

Similarly we find

q j = q j + qj t , . . . (6)

f f f

f = ( q j + q j t ) + ( q j + qj t ) + t .

j q j q j t

f f f f f f

f = qj + q j + t + q j + qj + t

j q j q j t j q j q j t

Note here that the term t added because it is zero, since in variation time t is

held fixed and consequently change in time t is zero. This can be written as

df

f = f + t . . . . (7)

dt

Since f is arbitrary, we can write it as

d

= + t . . . . (8)

dt

the principle of least action states that

t1

p j q j dt = 0 .

t0 j

Let AB be the actual path and CD be the varied path. In - variation the end points

of the two paths are not terminated at the same point. The end points A and B after

t take the positions C and D such that the position co-ordinates of A, C and B, D

are held fixed. Now we know the action is given by

y t1

A = p j q j dt

t0 j

B D

t1

A = ( L + H )dt

t0

t1

A = Ldt + H ( t )t1 ,

t

0

A C t0

t0 t0 + t0 x

O t1 t1 + t1

t1

A = Ldt + H ( t1 t0 ) . . . . (1)

t0

Thus

t1

A = Ldt + H ( t )t1 .

t

. . . (2)

0

t0

Since time limits are also subject to change in -variation, therefore cant be

taken inside the integral. Let

t1

Ldt = I

t0

I = L .

Therefore

I = I + It .

Thus we have

t1 t1

t

0

t0 t0

t1 t1

L L L

Ldt =

t

qj + q j + t dt + L ( t )t1 .

j q j

t0

q j t

0

t0

Since in variation, time is held fixed along any path, hence there is no variation in

time, therefore change in time is zero. Thus we have

t1

L

t1

L

Ldt =

t

qj + q j dt + L ( t )t1 .

q j q j

t0 j

0

t0

t1 t1

t

0

t0 t0 j

Since

dq j d

= qj .

dt dt

Hence we have

t t

1 1

d

Ldt = p j q j + p j q j dt + L ( t )t1 .

t

t0 j

t0

dt 0

d

t1 t1

Ldt = ( p j q j ) dt + L ( t )t0 .

t1

t0 t0

dt j

Since

d

= + t

dt

Hence above integral becomes

t1 t1

d

Ldt = d p j t q j dt + L ( t )t1 .

t

t0 t0 j dt 0

t1 t1

t1

Ldt = p j q j p j q j t + L ( t )t1

t

j t0 j t0

0

t0

t1

( q ) j t

0

= 0.

t1

t1

Ldt = ( p j q j L ) t

t0 j t0

t1

Ldt = ( H t )t1

t

0

t0

A = 0,

t1

.

i.e., p j q j dt = 0

t0 j

Thus the system moves in space such that -variation of the line integral of twice

the kinetic energy is zero. This proves the principle of least action.

Example 23 : A system of two degrees of freedom is described by the Hamiltonian

H = q1 p1 q2 p2 aq12 + bq22 , a, b are const.

p1 aq1 p2 bq2

Show that i) , ii ) , iii ) q1q2 iv) H are constant of motion.

q2 q1

Solution: The Hamiltonian of a dynamical system is given by

H = q1 p1 q2 p2 aq12 + bq22 , a, b are const. . . . (1)

where we see that q1 , q2 are the generalized co-ordinates. The Hamiltons canonical

equations of motion are

H

p j = p1 = 2aq1 p1 ,

q j . . . (2)

p 2 = p2 2bq2 ,

and

H

q j = q1 = q1

p j . . . (3)

q2 = q2 .

Now to show

p1 aq1

1) is a constant of motion, consider

q2

= .

dt q2 q22

d p1 aq1 p1 aq1

=0 = const.

dt q2 q2

p1 aq1 p2 bq2

= const., = const., q1q2 = const.

q2 q1

Now to prove the Hamiltonian H is also constant, we differentiate equation (1) with

respect to t to get

dH

= q1 p1 + q1 p1 q2 p2 q2 p 2 2aq1q1 + 2bq2 q2 .

dt

Using equations (2) and (3) we see that

dH

= 0 H = const. .

dt

This shows that H is a constant of motion.

Example 24 : A Lagrangian for a particle of charge q moving in the electromagnetic

field of force is given by

1 2

L= mv + q ( v A ) q .

2

Find the Hamiltonian H, the generalized momenta.

Solution: The Lagrangian of a particle moving in the electromagnetic field is given

by

1 2

L= mv + q ( v A ) q . . . . (1)

2

We write this expression as

1

L= m ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) + q ( xA

x + yA z ) q .

y + zA . . . (2)

2

where is a scalar potential function of co-ordinates only. We see that x, y, z are

the generalized co-ordinates. Hence the corresponding generalized momenta become

L

pj = px = mx + qAx ,

q j

p y = my + qAy ,

pz = mz + qAz .

Solving these equations for velocity components we get

1

x = ( px qAx ) ,

m

1

y = ( p y qAy ) , . . . (3)

m

1

z = ( pz qAz ) .

m

The Hamiltonian of the particle is given by

H = p j q j L,

j

1

H = xp

x + yp z m ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) q ( xA

y + zp x + yA z ) + q . . . (4)

y + zA

2

Eliminating x, y , z from equation (4) by using equation (3) we get

1 q 1 2 2

H= ( px2 + p y2 + pz2 ) ( px Ax + p y Ay + pz Az ) + q ( Ax + Ay2 + Az2 ) + q . . (5)

2m m 2m

This can be written in vector notions as

1 2

H=

2m

( p qA ) + q . . . . (6)

This is the required Hamiltonian of the particle moving in the electromagnetic field.

H

The Hamiltons equation of motion q j = gives the same set of equations (3),

p j

H

while the equation p j = gives

q j

H q q2

p x = =

x m x

( p A

x x + p A

y y + p z z)

A

2m x

( Ax2 + Ay2 + Az2 ) q

x

.

p x = q

x

( v A) q

x

.

p y = q

y

( v A) q ,

y

p z = q ( v A ) q .

z z

All these three equations can be put in to the single equation as

p = q + q ( v A ) . . . . (7)

Exercise:

1. The Lagrangian of an anharmonic oscillator of unit mass is

1 2 1 2 2

L= x x x3 + xx , , are constants.

2 2

Find the Hamiltonian and the equation of motion. Show also that

(i) H is a constant of motion and

(ii) H T +V .

1 2 1

Ans : H = ( px x ) + 2 x 2 + x 3 .

2 2

x + 2 x + 3 x 2 = 0 .

Equation of motion

2. Find the Hamiltonian and the equations of motion for a particle constrained to

move on the surface obtained by revolving the line x = z about z axis. Does

it represent the constant of motion and the constant of total energy?

Hint: Surface of revolution is a cone x 2 + y 2 = z 2

pr2 p2

Ans.: H = + + mgr .

4m 2mr 2

p2 g

r

2 3

+ = 0, p = mr 2 a const. of motion .

2m r 2

3. Let a particle be moving in a field of force given by

1 r 2 2rr

F = 2 1 .

r c2

Find the Hamiltonian H and show that it represents the constant of motion

and also total energy.

Ans. : Refer Example (25) of Chapter I; the potential energy of the particle is

given by

1 r 2

V = 1 + 2 .

r c

pr2 1

The Hamiltonian becomes H = + .

2 r

2 m 2

rc

4. A sphere of radius a and mass m rests on the top of a fixed trough sphere of

radius b. The first sphere is slightly displaced so that it rolls without

slipping. Obtain the Hamiltonian of the system and hence the equation of

motion. Also prove that H represents a constant of motion and also total

energy.

7 2

Ans. : H = m ( a + b ) 2 + mg ( a + b ) cos .

10

5. A particle is constrained to move on the plane curve xy = c , c is a constant,

under gravity. Obtain the Hamiltonian H and the equations of motion. Prove

that the Hamiltonian H represents the constant of motion and total energy.

Ans. : Refer Example (20) of Chapter I for the Lagrangian L and is given by

1 2 c 2 mgc

L= mx 1 + 4 .

2 x x

px2 mgc

The Hamiltonian H becomes H = + .

c 2

x

2m 1 + 4

x

6. A body of mass m is thrown up an inclined plane which is moving

horizontally with constant velocity v. Use Hamiltons procedure to find the

equations of motion. Prove that the Hamiltonian H represents the constant of

motion but does not represent the total energy.

Ans. : For the Lagrangian function, refer Example (28) of Chapter I. The

Hamiltonian of motion is

pr2 1

H= pr v cos + mgr sin mv 2 sin 2 .

2m 2

7. A particle moves on the surface characterized by

x = r cos , y = r sin , z = r cot .

Find the Hamiltonian H and prove that it represents the constant of motion

and also the constant of total energy.

2

p 2 sin 2 p

Ans. : H = r + 2 + mgr cot .

2m 2mr

r r sin 2 2 + g cos sin = 0 .

The equation of motion is

8. Find the Hamiltonian and the Hamiltons canonical equations of motion for

the Lagrangian given by

1 1

( ) 2

( ) 2

2

L r , r, , = m r 2 + r 2 2 + mgr cos k ( r r0 ) ,

pr2 p2 1 2

Ans : H = + 2 mgr cos + k ( r r0 )

2m 2mr 2

Equations of motion:

mr mr 2 mg cos + k ( r r0 ) = 0,

2 g

+ r + sin = 0.

r r

CHAPTER - IV

Introduction:

In this chapter we define a rigid body and describe how the number of

degrees of freedom of a rigid body with N particles is determined. There are two

types of motion involved in the case of rigid body viz.; the translation and the

rotation. Various sets of variables have been used to describe the orientation of rigid

body. We will discuss in this chapter how the Eulerian angles and the complex

Cayley-Klein parameters can be used for the description of rigid body with one point

fixed.

Geometrically, matrix represents rotation; we will find the matrix of

transformation in terms of Eulerian angles and Cayley-Klein parameters and

establish the relation between them. This unit is devoted to the study of orthogonal

transformations and its properties.

Rigid Body :

A rigid body is regarded as a system of many (at least three) non-collinear

particles whose positions relative to one another remain fixed. i.e., distance between

any two of them remains constant through out the motion. The internal forces

holding the particles at fixed distances from one another are known as forces of

constraint. These forces of constraint obey the Newtons third law of motion.

Worked Examples

particles reduce to six for its description.

Solution :

Generalized co-ordinates of rigid body :

A system of N particles free from constraints can have 3N degrees of freedom

and hence 3N generalized co-ordinates. But the constraints involved in rigid body

with N particles are holonomic and scleronomic and are given by

rij = aij , i j = 1, 2,...., N . . . (1)

where rij denotes the distance between the i th and j th particles, and aij are constants.

Equation (1) is symmetric in i and j and i j as the distance of the i th from itself is

zero, therefore, the possible number of constraints is

N N ( N 1)

C2 = . . . . (2)

2

N ( N 1)

We notice that for N > 7, > 3 N . Therefore the actual number of

2

degrees of freedom cannot be obtained simply by subtracting the number of

constraints from 3N. This is simply because all constraints in equation (1) are not

independent.

To show how the generalized co-ordinates of a rigid

C

body with N particles reduce to six for its

P

description, let a rigid body be regarded as a system

A of at least three non-collinear particles whose

positions relative to one another remain fixed. Thus a

B

system of 3 particles free from constraints has 9 degrees of freedom but there

involves 3 constraints. Hence the number of generalized co-ordinates reduces to six.

Thus the total number of degrees of freedom for three non-collinear particles A, B,

Classical Mechanics Page No. 226

and C of a rigid body is equal to six. This is because each particle has 3-degrees of

freedom and less three equations of constraints.

The position of each further particle say P requires three more co-ordinates

for its description, but there will be three equations of constraints for this particle,

because the distance of P from A, B, C is fixed. Thus three co-ordinates for P and

less three equations of constraints for P gives zero degrees of freedom. Thus any

other particle apart from A, B, C taken to specify the configuration of the rigid body

will not add any degrees of freedom. Once the positions of three of the particles of

the rigid body are determined the constraints fix the positions of all remaining

particles.

Thus the configuration of the rigid body would be completely specified by

only three particles i.e., by six degrees of freedom, no matter how many particles it

may contain.

Solution: A rigid body can have two types of motion

(i) a translational motion and

(ii) a rotational motion.

Thus a rigid body in motion can be completely specified if its position and

orientation are known.

However, if one of the points of a rigid body is fixed, the translation motion

of the body is absent and the body rotates about any line through the fixed point.

Again, if we fix up a second point, then the motion of the body is restricted to rotate

about the line joining the two fixed points. Further, if we also fix the third point of

the body non-collinear with other two, the position of the body is fixed and there is

no motion of any kind. The co-ordinates of the third point alone will be able to locate

the rigid body completely in space. It follows that the position of the rigid body is

determined by any three non-collinear points of it that is by six degrees of freedom.

Of the six generalized co-ordinates, 3 co-ordinates are used to describe translational

motion and other three co-ordinates are used to describe rotational motion. Since a

rigid body with one point fixed has no translational motion and hence it has 3-

degrees of freedom and three generalized co-ordinates-which are used to describe the

rotational motion.

Orthogonal Transformation :

Example 3 : Define orthogonal transformation. Show that finite rotation of a rigid

body about a fixed point of the body is not commutative.

Solution : Consider ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) and ( x1, x2 , x3 ) be two co-ordinate systems. The

the following set of equations

x1 = a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3 ,

x2 = a21 x1 + a22 x2 + a23 x3 , . . . (1)

x3 = a31 x1 + a32 x2 + a33 x3 ,

where a11 , a12 ,..., a33 are constants. These three equations can be combined in to a

single equation as

3

xi = aij x j , i = 1, 2,3. . . . (2)

j =1

of the vector must be the same in both the co-ordinate system, we must have

therefore

3 3

x = x

i =1

i

2

i =1

2

i . . . . (3)

Using equation (2) in equation (3) we get

3

3

3

3

a x a ij j ik xk = xi2 ,

i =1

i =1 j =1 k =1

3 3

3 3

ij ik j k xi .

j =1 k =1 i =1

a a

x x =

i =1

2

Equating the corresponding coefficients on both the sides of the above equation we

get

3

a a

i =1

ij ik = jk , . . . (4)

jk = 0 when j k,

. . . (5)

= 1 when j = k.

Thus any transformation (2) satisfying (4) is called as an orthogonal transformation.

Ex. 4. Show that two successive finite rotations of a rigid body about a fixed point of

the body are not commutative.

Solution: Consider two successive linear transformations described by the

matrices B and A corresponding to two successive displacements of the rigid body.

Let the first transformation from x to x be denoted by the matrix B and is defined

by

3

xk = bkj x j , k = 1, 2,3, . . . (6)

j =1

A = ( aik ) and is given by

3

xi = ai k xk , i = 1, 2, 3. . . . (7)

k =1

Now the transformation from x to x is obtained by combining the two equations

(6) and (7) as

3

xi = a

j , k =1

b x j , i = 1, 2,3.

i k kj

3

xi = cij x j , i = 1, 2,3. . . . (8)

j =1

where C = ( cij ) is the matrix of transformation from x to x and the elements of the

3

cij = aik bkj . . . . (9)

k =1

These elements are obtained by multiplying the two matrices A and B. Thus the two

successive linear transformations described by A and B is equivalent to a third linear

transformation described by the matrix C, defined by

C = AB. . . . (10)

Since the matrix multiplication is not commutative in general, hence the finite

rotations of a rigid body about a fixed point of the body are not commutative.

Example 5: Prove that the product of two orthogonal transformations is again

orthogonal transformation.

Solution: Consider two successive orthogonal linear transformations of a rigid body

with one point fixed corresponding to two successive displacement of the rigid body

and are described by the matrices B and A respectively. We know that the two

successive orthogonal transformations is equivalent to a third linear transformation

described by the matrix C, where C = AB, and its elements are defined by

cij = aik bkj . . . (1)

k

a a

i

ij ik = jk , . . . (2)

b b

i

ij ik = jk . . . . (3)

Consider now

c c

i

ij ik = aimbmj ail blk

i m l

= aimbmj ail blk ,

i , m ,l

= aim ail bmj blk ,

m ,l i

= ml bmj blk ,

m ,l

= blj blk ,

l

c c

i

ij ik = jk .

orthogonal transformation.

Note: Though the matrix multiplication is not commutative in general, but it is

associative when the product is defined.

i.e., ( AB ) C = A ( BC ) .

Example 6: Show that in the case of an orthogonal transformation the inverse matrix

is identified by the transpose of the matrix.

Solution: Consider an orthogonal transformation from xi to xi described by the

matrix A and is given by

Classical Mechanics Page No. 231

3

xi = aij x j , i = 1, 2,3. . . . (1)

j =1

a a

i

ij ik = jk . . . . (2)

matrix A1 = ( aij ) , aij are the elements of the inverse matrix of transformation

satisfying

a a

i

ij ik = jk . . . . (3)

Also we have

AA1 = I a i

a = kj .

ki ij . . . (4)

k ,i

kl aki aij which can be evaluated either by summing

a

k ,i

kl aki aij = akl aki aij ,

i k

= li aij ,

i

a

k ,i

kl aki aij = alj . . . . (5)

Now evaluating the double sum over i first and then over k , we obtain

a

k ,i

kl aki aij = aki aij akl ,

k i

= kj akl ,

k

a

k ,i

kl aki aij = a jl . . . . (6)

From equations (5) and (6) we have

aij = a ji , i, j ,

( aij ) = ( a ji ) ,

A1 = A . . . . (7)

This proves that the inverse matrix of an orthogonal transformation identifies the

transpose matrix.

Solution : Let A be the matrix of an orthogonal transformation and A1 be its

inverse matrix. Then we have

AA1 = I . . . (1)

However, we know that in the case of an orthogonal matrix, its inverse is identified

by its transpose.

A1 = A .

Hence equation (1) becomes

AA = I . . . (2)

Taking the determinant on both the sides of above equation we get

AA = 1

A A = 1,

2

A = 1 as A = A ,

A = 1.

Infinitesimal Rotation :

Example 8: Define infinitesimal rotation. Show that infinitesimal rotation of a rigid

body with one point fixed is commutative. Also find the inverse matrix of

infinitesimal rotation.

Solution: An infinitesimal rotation is an orthogonal transformation of co-ordinate

axes in which the components of a vector are almost the same in both the sets of

axes. The new co-ordinates differ from the old co-ordinates by an infinitesimal

amounts.

Mathematically, an infinitesimal transformation is defined as

x1 = x1 + 11 x1 + 12 x2 + 13 x3 ,

x2 = x2 + 21 x1 + 22 x2 + 23 x3 ,

x3 = x3 + 31 x1 + 32 x2 + 33 x3 ,

i.e., xi = xi + ij x j , . . . (1)

where summation is defined over the repeated index j and ij are the elements of the

matrix of infinitesimal transformation and are infinitesimal. i.e., second order terms

in ij can be neglected. Hence we write equations (1) as

xi = ij x j + ij x j ,

i.e., xi = ( ij + ij ) x j , . . . (2)

X = (I + ) X , . . . (3)

x1 x1

where X = x2 , X = x2 , I = ( ij ) , = ( ij )

x x

3 3

and I + is the matrix of infinitesimal transformation.

Now let I + 1 and I + 2 be two matrices of successive infinitesimal

transformations.

Consider

( I + 1 )( I + 2 ) = I .I + I 2 + 1I + 1 2

= I + 1 + 2 .

Similarly consider

( I + 2 )( I + 1 ) = I .I + I 1 + 2 I + 21

= I + 1 + 2 .

We see from above equations that

( I + 1 )( I + 2 ) = ( I + 2 )( I + 1 )

This shows that the product of the matrices of two successive infinitesimal

transformations is commutative. Now to find the inverse matrix of an infinitesimal

transformation, consider

( I + )( I ) = I I + I

( I + )( I ) = I

This shows that the inverse matrix of an infinitesimal transformation is I .

1

i.e., (I + ) = (I ) .

For orthogonal transformation we know that its transpose matrix identifies the

inverse matrix. Hence we have

1

(I + ) = ( I + ) = ( I ) ,

This shows that the matrix of infinite transformation is anti-symmetric.

particular co-ordinate system. Find the form of the vector with respect to co-ordinate

system obtained from the first by rotating it about the x-axis through an angle in

3

the anti-clock wise direction. Determine its magnitude and compare with X .

Solution: The matrix of rotation about x-axis through an angle in the anti clock

3

wise direction is given by

Classical Mechanics Page No. 235

1 0 0 1 0 0

sin = 0

1 3

A = 0 cos .

3 3 3 2 2

0 sin

cos 0 3 1

3 3 2 2

Hence the new vector with respect to the new co-ordinate axes obtained from the first

by rotating through an angle about x-axis is given by

3

1 0 0

1 1

X = 0

1 3

4 = 5

2 2 2 3 3

3 1

0

2 2

X = i + 5 j 3k

Eulers Theorem 1 : Show that the general displacement of a rigid body with one

point fixed is a rotation about some axis passing through the fixed point.

Proof : Consider a rigid body with one point fixed and be taken as the origin of the

body set of axes. Then the displacement of the rigid body involves no translation of

the body axes, the only change is in orientation. Hence the body set of axes at any

time t can always be obtained by a single rotation of the space set of axes.

Thus any vector lying along the axis of rotation must have the same

components in both the initial and final axes. Further, the orthogonality condition

implies that the magnitude of a vector parallel to the axis of rotation is unaffected. It

means that the vector R has same components in both the system.

R = AR = R . . . . (1)

This is the special case of more general equation

R = AR = R . . . . (2)

where is called as the eigen (characteristic) value. Equation (2) can be written as

( A I ) R = 0 . . . . (3)

A I = 0 . . . . (4)

This is known as characteristic equation, and the roots of the equation (4) are known

as characteristic values. Since the matrix of rotation A is orthogonal, and then we

have

A1 = A . . . (5)

where A is the transpose of A . This orthogonal matrix satisfies the equation

A = A = 1 . . . . (6)

Now to prove the Eulers Theorem, we just prove that eigen value = 1 . Thus

consider the expression

( A I ) A = AA IA

= AA1 A

( A I ) A = I A . . . . (7)

( A I ) A = I A

(A I) A = I A

A I = A I . . . (8)

A I = 0. . . . (9)

Comparing equations (4) and (9) we get = 1 . This proves the theorem.

Classical Mechanics Page No. 237

Unit 2: Eulerian Angles :

We have seen that a rigid body with one point fixed has three degrees of

freedom and hence three generalized co-ordinates. To describe the orientation of a

rigid body about a fixed point we use a matrix of rotation, whose elements are called

the direction cosines, which are not linearly independent, therefore they are not

suitable as generalized co-ordinates. So we cannot use them in the description of

Lagrangian of the system. Therefore three new independent parameters are necessary

for the description of a rigid body with one point fixed. A number of such sets of

parameters have been used in the literature but the most common and found to be

useful is the set of Eulerian angles.

Euler has designed three independent parameters called as Eulerian angles, to

describe the orientation of a rigid body with one point fixed. These can be used to

write Lagrangian and hence the Lagranges equations of motion. We shall define the

Eulerian angles and show how these angles can be used for the description of the

orientation of the rigid body.

Theorem 2 : Define Eulerian angles. Obtain the matrix of transformation from space

co-ordinates to body co-ordinates in terms of Eulerian angles. Prove further that this

matrix is orthogonal and hence deduce the matrix of inverse transformation from the

body set of axes to space set of axes.

z = z1

Proof : Eulerian angles , , are the three

successive angles of rotation about a specified

axes performed in specific sequence. These

y1

angles can be used as generalized co-ordinates to

fix the orientation of a rigid body with one point

y

O fixed. Thus the orientation of a rotating body

x

with one point fixed can be completely specified

To discuss the rotation of the rigid body, let one of the points of the body be

fixed. This implies that there is no translational motion but the body rotates about an

axis passing through the fixed point. Consider two co-ordinate systems, one of which

is (x, y, z) fixed in space (called an inertial frame) and the other ( x, y, z ) fixed in

the body called the body set of axes (also known as non-inertial frame). It has been

observed that the configuration of the rigid body is completely specified by locating

the body set of axes relative to the co-ordinate axes fixed in space. This is achieved

by finding the matrix of transformation from the space set of axes to the body set of

axes. Therefore we shall carry out the transformation from space set of axes to body

set of axes such that x, y, z coincides with x, y, z . This is achieved by three

successive rotations about specified axes.

The sequence will be started by rotating the initial system of axes x, y, z

through an angle anti-clock wise direction about z axis. Let the resulting co-

ordinate system be labeled as x1 , y1 , z1 axes as shown in the fig. In this case xy plane

equations.

x1 = x cos + y sin ,

y1 = x sin + y cos , . . . (1)

z1 = z.

These equations can be written in matrix form as

x1 x

y1 = D y or X 1 = DX

z

1 z

where

cox sin 0

D = sin cos 0 . . . (2)

0 0 1

is the matrix of transformation.

z = z1

z2 The second rotation is performed about the new

x1 axis. The axes x1 , y1 , z1 are rotated about x1

y1 Let the resultant set of co-ordinate

axes be relabeled as x2 , y2 , z2 . Here x2 axis

y

O

being the line of intersection of xy plane and

x x1 y1 plane is called the line of nodes. The

x1 = x2

transformation equations from x1 , y1 , z1 to new

x2 = x1 ,

y2 = y1 cos + z1 sin , . . . (3)

z1 = y1 sin + z1 cos ,

x2 x1

i.e., y2 = C y1 or X 2 = CX 1

z z

2 1

where

1 0 0

C = 0 cos sin . . . (4)

0 sin cos

is the matrix of transformation.

z = z1

z2 = z3= z

Finally, the third rotation is performed about

z2 axis. The x2 , y2 , z2 axes are rotated counter y3 = y

y2

clockwise direction by an angle about z2 axis to

y1

produce the third and the final set of axes x3 , y3 , z3 ,

y

O

which coincide, with body set of axes x, y, z . This

x

x1 = x2

x3 = x

Classical Mechanics Page No. 240

completes the transformation from space set of axes to body set of axes. This

transformation is represented by

x3 = x = x2 cos + y2 sin ,

y3 = y = x2 sin + y2 cos , . . . (5)

z3 = z = z 2

or

x x2

y = B y2

z z

2

or X = BX 2

where

cox sin 0

B = sin cos 0 . . . (6)

0 0 1

is the matrix of transformation.

Thus the space set of axes x, y, z coincides with body set of axes through

three successive rotations , , , which are described by matrices D, C and B. The

angles , , are called Eulerian angles. The Eulerian angles completely specify the

orientation of the x, y, z system relative to the x, y, z system. Now we can obtain

the complete matrix of transformation from x, y, z to x, y, z by writing the matrix

as the triple product of the separate rotations.

X = BX 2

= B ( CX 1 )

= BC ( X 1 )

X = BCDX

X = AX ,

x x

y = A y . . . (7)

z z

where A = BCD is the complete matrix of transformation from x, y, z to x, y, z and

is the product of the successive matrices. Using the equations (2), (4) and (6) the

matrix of transformation from space co-ordinates to the body co-ordinates is then

given by

cos sin 01 0 0 cos sin 0

A = sin cos 0 0 cos sin sin cos 0

0 0 1 0 sin cos 0 0 1

cos cos cos sin sin , cos sin + sin cos cos , sin sin

A = sin cos cos cos sin , sin sin + cos cos cos , cos sin .

sin sin , sin cos , cos

...(8)

This is the required matrix of transformation.

We will now show that this matrix A is orthogonal. Let the matrix A be

represented by

A = ( aij ) .

a a

i

ij ik = jk ,

2

a112 + a21

2

+ a312 = ( cos cos cos sin sin ) +

2 2

+ ( sin cos cos cos sin ) + ( sin sin )

a112 + a21

2 2

+ a31 = 1.

Similarly, we can show for all value of j = k.

Now for j k ,j, k=1, 2, 3 we consider the case

a11a12 + a21a22 + a31a32 =

= ( cos cos cos sin sin )( cos sin + cos sin cos ) +

+ ( sin cos cos cos sin )( sin sin + cos cos cos ) + ( sin sin )( sin cos )

a11a12 + a21a22 + a31a32 = 0 .

Similarly, we can show for all j k . that

a a

i

ij jk =0.

Hence the matrix A is orthogonal. To find the inverse of A, we know that in the case

of orthogonal matrix A1 is the same as the transpose of A. Thus we have

cos cos cos sin sin , cos sin cos cos sin , sin sin

1

A = sin cos + cos cos sin , sin sin + cos cos cos , cos sin

sin sin , sin cos , cos

The matrix A1 is the desired matrix, which gives the inverse transformation from

the body set of axes to the space set of axes.

This completes the answer.

Worked Examples

Example 10 : If the matrix of transformation from space set of axes to body set of

axes is equivalent to a rotation through an angle about some axis through the

origin then show that

+

cos = cos cos .

2 2 2

Solution : We know the matrix of complete rotation from space set of axes to body

set of axes in terms of Eulerian angles , , is given by

cos cos cos sin sin , cos sin + sin cos cos , sin sin

A = sin cos cos cos sin , sin sin + cos cos cos , cos sin .

sin sin , sin cos , cos

. . . (1)

It is given that this matrix of rotation is equivalent to the matrix of rotation of

co-ordinate axes through an angle about some axis with the same origin.

Equivalently, it means that it is always possible by means of some similar

transformation, to transform the matrix A to the matrix B obtained by rotating the co-

ordinate axes through an angle about some axis with the same origin. This matrix

of rotation is given by either

cos sin 0 1 0 0

B = sin cos 0 or B = 0 cos sin . . . . (2)

0 0 1 0 sin cos

It is well known that under similar transformation trace of the matrix is invariant.

Using this result we have

Trace of A = Trace of B

cos cos cos sin sin + cos cos cos sin sin + cos = 2 cos + 1

2 cos + 1 = ( cos cos sin sin ) + cos ( cos cos sin sin ) + cos

= [1 + cos ] cos ( + ) + cos

+ 2 2

2 cos + 1 = 2 cos 2 2 cos 2 1 + cos sin

2 2 2 2

+

2 cos + 1 = 4 cos 2 cos 2 1

2 2

+

2 ( cos + 1) = 4 cos 2 cos 2

2 2

+

cos 2 = cos 2 cos 2

2 2 2

+

cos = cos cos . . . . (3)

2 2 2

Moment of Inertia :

A uniformly rotating body possesses the tendency to oppose any change in its

state of rotation motion. This quantity is called the moment of inertia.

Theorem 3 : Obtain the angular momentum of a rigid body about a fixed point of the

body when the body rotates instantaneously with angular velocity in terms of

inertia tensor.

Proof: Consider a rigid body composed of N particles having masses mi and position

vectors ri with respect to the fixed point of the body. Since the translational motion

is absent and the body rotates about an axis passes through the fixed point. Let be

the instantaneous angular velocity of the body. If vi is the linear velocity of the

vi = ri . . . . (1)

If L is the total angular momentum then it is equal to the sum of the angular

momenta of an individual particle.

Therefore we have

N

L = I i = ri mi vi .

i i =1

N

L = ri mi ( ri ) ,

i =1

N

L = mi ri ( ri ) .

i =1

a ( b c ) = ( a .c ) b ( a .b ) c

we obtain

N

L = mi ri 2 mi ( ri . ) ri . . . . (2)

i =1 i

Let the components of the position vector ri , the angular velocity and the angular

momentum vector L be denoted by

ri = ixi + jyi + kzi ,

= i x + j y + k z , . . . (3)

L = iLx + jLy + kLz .

iLx + jLy + kLz =

m ( i

i

i x + j y + k z ) ri 2 ( xix + yi y + zi z ) ( ixi + jyi + kzi )

iLx + jLy + kLz = i x mi ( ri 2 xi2 ) y mi xi yi z mi xi zi +

i i i

i.e., + j x mi xi yi + y mi ( ri 2 yi2 ) z mi yi zi +

i i i

+ k x mi xi zi y mi yi zi + z mi ( ri 2 zi2 )

i i i

Equating the corresponding coefficients on both the sides of the equation we get

Lx = x mi ( ri 2 xi2 ) y mi xi yi z mi xi zi , . . . (4a)

i i i

Ly = x mi xi yi + y mi ( ri 2 yi2 ) z mi yi zi , . . . (4b)

i i i

Lz = x mi xi zi y mi yi zi + z mi ( ri 2 zi2 ) . . . . (4c)

i i i

Lx = I xx x + I xy y + I xz z ,

Ly = I yx x + I yy y + I yz z , . . . (5)

Lz = I zx x + I zy y + I zz z ,

i i

I yy = mi ( ri y

2 2

i ) = m (x i

2

i + zi2 ), . . . (6)

i i

i i

and are called the moment of inertia about x, y, and z axes respectively. Equations

(6) show that the moment of inertia is the sum over the particles in the system of the

product of masses and the square of its perpendicular distance from the axis of

rotation. Also the quantities I xy , I xz and I yz are called the product of inertia and are

defined by

I xy = mi xi yi = I yx ,

i

I xz = mi xi zi = I zx , . . . (7)

i

I yz = mi yi zi = I zy .

i

Lx I xx I xy I xz x

Ly = I yx I yy I yz y . . . (8)

L I I zy I zz z

z zx

or L = I . . . (9)

where I is called the moment of inertia tensor or inertia tensor. Note that moment

of inertia tensor is symmetric and hence it has only six independent components. The

moment of inertia tensor depends only on the mass distribution in the body. It is

I I xy I xz

xx

given by I = I yx I yy I yz . . . . (10)

I I zy I zz

zx

The diagonal elements are called the moments of inertia of the body about the

given point and the given set of body set of axes. The off diagonal components of

moment of inertia tensor are called the product of inertia of the body about the given

point and the given set of body axes.

Note that it is always possible to find a set of axes with respect to which all

the products of inertia tensor vanish leaving off diagonal terms and the axis is called

Principal axis of the body.

Theorem 4 : Find the kinetic energy of a rigid body rotating about a fixed point of

the body when the moments and products of inertia of the body relative to the set of

axes through fixed point are known.

Proof: Consider a rigid body composed of N particles having masses mi and rotating

with instantaneous angular velocity . If one of the points of the rigid body is fixed

then the translational motion is absent and the body rotates about an axis passes

through the fixed point. If vi is the linear velocity of the i th particle and position

vi = ri . . . . (1)

We know the kinetic energy of the body is given by

1

T= mi vi2 .

2 i

. . . (2)

Using equation (1) we write (2) as

1

T= mi vi ( ri ) .

2 i

On using the vector identity

a.(b c ) = b .( c a ) ,

1

T= mi. ( ri vi ),

2 i

1

= ( ri mi vi ),

2 i

1

= ri pi

2 i

1

T = .L . . . (3)

2

where L = ri pi

i

is the total angular momentum. Now to express kinetic energy in terms of moment of

inertia and product of inertia, we know the angular momentum of the rigid body is

given by

L = I . . . (4)

where I is the moment of inertia tensor and is given by

I I xy I xz

xx

I = I yx I yy I yz . . . . (5)

I I zy I zz

zx

Hence equation (3) becomes

1

T = .I . . . . . (6)

2

If the components of the angular velocity and the angular momentum vector L are

= i x + j y + k z ,

. . . (7)

L = iLx + jLy + kLz ,

Lx I xx I xy I xz x

Ly = I yx I yy I yz y

L I I zy I zz z

z zx

+ k ( I zx x + I zy y + I zz z ) .

1

T=

2

( ix + j y + kz ) i ( I xxx + I xy y + I xzz ) + j ( I yxx + I yy y + I yzz ) +

+ k ( I zxx + I zy y + I zz z ) .

1

T=

2

( I xx x2 + I yy y2 + I zz z2 + 2 I xy x y + 2 I yz y z + 2 I zx z x ) . . . (8)

z = , x = y = 0 . In this case equation (8) becomes

1

T= I . 2 . . . (9)

2

where I is the moment of inertia of the body about z axis.

Worked Examples

vector r as seen by an observer in the body system of axes will differ from the

corresponding change as seen by an observer in the space system.

Solution: consider two co-ordinate systems S and S , where S is rotating

uniformly with angular velocity , with respect to the frame S with the same origin

O. Let S be the space set of axes and S the body set of axes. Let i, j, k be the unit

vectors associated with the co-ordinate axes of S frame and i, j , k be the unit

z z

vectors associated with x, y, z axes of the

S frame.

k k

P

Consider the position vector r of a particle

r y

j in a rigid body with respect to the body set of axes.

y

i O j It is represented by

x

i r = ix + j y + k z . . . (1)

x

Clearly such a vector appears constant when measured in the body set of

axes. However, to an observer fixed in space set of axes, the components of the

vector will vary in time. Let the components of the vector with respect to the space

set of axes be given by

r = ix + jy + kz . . . . (2)

The time derivatives of r however will be different in the two systems. For

the space (fixed) system S, we have

dr dx dy dz

=i + j +k . . . . (3)

dt fix dt dt dt

the body set of axes is given by

dr dx dy dz

= i + j + k . . . . (4)

dt body dt dt dt

However, as body rotates, the unit vectors of the body set of axes will be seen

changing relative to the observer in the space set of axes. Hence we find the time

derivative of the vector r in S with respect to the fixed co-ordinate system as

dr dx dy dz di dj dk

= i + j + k + x + y + z . . . . (5)

dt fix dt dt dt dt dt dt

The first three terms on the R. H. S. of equation (5) are the time derivative of the

vector in the rotating system, while the remaining three terms arise as a result of

rotation of the system.

Hence we write the equation (5) as

dr dr di dj dk

= + x + y + z . . . . (6)

dt fix dt body dt dt dt

We know the linear velocity of a particle having the position vector r and rotating

with angular is given by

dr

v= =r . . . . (7)

dt

This formula can be applied to the unit vectors as a special case. Thus we write

di dj dk

= i, = j , = k . . . . (8)

dt dt dt

Hence equation (6) reduces to

dr dr

= + x ( i x + j y + k z ) i + y ( i x + j y + k z ) j +

dt fix dt body .

+ z ( i x + j y + k z ) k

dr dr

= + i ( z y y z ) j ( z x x z ) + k ( y x x y ) . . . (9)

dt fix dt body

This is equivalent to

i j k

dr dr

= + x y z .

dt fix dt body

x y z

dr dr

= + r . . . .(10)

dt fix dt body

This is the required relation between the two time derivatives of a vector with respect

to two frames of references.

dr dr

= +r . . . .(11)

dt space dt rot

A set of equations governing the rotation of a rigid body referred to its own

axis are known as Eulers equations of motion of a rigid body with one point fixed.

Theorem 6 : Obtain the Eulers equations of motion of a rigid body when one point

of the body remains fixed.

Proof : Consider a rigid of which one point is fixed. Hence translational motion of

the body is absent and the body rotates about an axis passes through the fixed point.

The rotation of the body takes place under the action of torque acting on it. Thus the

equation of the rotational motion of the body in a fixed frame is given by

Torque = rate of change of angular momentum.

dL

N = .

dt fix

However, we know

dr dr

= + r .

dt fix dt body

Therefore the equation of motion of the rigid body becomes

dL dL

N = = + L . . . . (1)

dt fix dt body

where is the angular velocity of the body and L is the angular momentum and is

given by

L = I , . . . (2)

I is the moment of inertia tensor and is constant with respect to the body frame of

reference. We choose the principal axis of the body with respect to which the off

diagonal elements of the moment of inertia tensor vanish and only the diagonal

elements remain in the expression for I . If I1 , I 2 , I 3 are the principal moments of

inertia then we have

I 0 0

1

I =0 I2 0.

0 0 I 3

In this case the expression for angular momentum (2) becomes

L = I1 x i + I 2 y j + I 3 z k ,

dL

= I1 x i + I 2 y j + I 3 z k .

dt body

Also we find the value of

i j k

L = x y z

I1 x I 2 y I 3z

L = i ( I 3 I 2 ) y z j ( I 3 I1 ) x z + k ( I 2 I1 ) y x .

Hence the equation of rotational motion of the rigid body becomes

dL

N = + L = i I1 x + ( I 3 I 2 ) yz + j I 2 y + ( I1 I 3 ) x z +

dt body

+ k I 3 z + ( I 2 I1 ) x y

N = iN x + jN y + kN z

then on equating the corresponding components on both sides of the above equations

we obtain

N x = I1 x + ( I 3 I 2 ) yz ,

N y = I 2 y + ( I1 I 3 ) x z , . . . (3)

N z = I 3 z + ( I 2 I1 ) x y .

These are the required Eulers equations of motion of the rigid body with one point

fixed.

Note : In the case of torque free motion of a rigid body, equations (3) reduce to

I1 x = ( I 2 I 3 ) y z ,

I 2 y = ( I 3 I1 ) xz , . . . (4)

I 3 z = ( I1 I 2 ) x y .

Worked Examples

Example 12 : If the rigid body with one point fixed rotates about the principal axis

of the body, then show that

(1) kinetic energy of the body and

(2) the magnitude of the angular momentum are constants throughout the motion.

Solution : The kinetic energy of a rigid body with one point fixed is given by

1

T=

2

( I xx x2 + I yy y2 + I zz z2 + 2 I xy x y + 2 I yz y z + 2 I zx z x ) . . . (1)

where I xx , I yy , I zz and I xy , I yz , I zx are the moments of inertia and product of inertia

about the co-ordinate axes respectively. If the body rotates about the principal axis of

the body then the products of inertia tensors are zero and the moments of inertia

tensors are constants. In this case the kinetic energy becomes

1

T=

2

( I1 x2 + I 2 y2 + I 3 z2 ) . . . (2)

where I1 = I xx , I 2 = I yy , I 3 = I zz .

In the absence of torque the Eulers equations of motion of the rigid body are given

by

I1 x + ( I 3 I 2 ) y z = 0,

I 2 y + ( I1 I 3 ) x z = 0, . . . (3)

I 3 z + ( I 2 I1 ) x y = 0.

I1 x x + I 2 y y + I 3z z = 0 . . . (4)

We write this as

1 d

2 dt

( I1x2 + I 2 y2 + I3z2 ) = 0

dT

= 0,

dt

1

T = ( I1 x2 + I 2 y2 + I 3 z2 ) = const.

2

ii) Now we claim that the magnitude of the angular momentum is constant.

The moment of inertia tensor with respect to the principal axis of the body, is given

by

I 0 0

1

I =0 I2 0,

0 0 I 3

where I1 , I 2, I 3 are constant with respect to the principal axis of the body. Hence the

L = I1 x i + I 2 y j + I 3 z k ,

I12x x + I 22 y y + I 32 z z = 0 .

This we write as

1 d 2 2

2 dt

( I1 x + I 22 y2 + I32z2 ) = 0,

d 2

dt

( L ) = 0,

L2 = const.

This shows that the magnitude of the angular momentum of the rigid body is

constant.

Components of angular velocity vector along body set of axes :

Example 13 : Show that the components of angular velocity vector along the body

set of axes are given by

x = sin sin + cos ,

y = sin cos sin ,

z = cos + .

Solution : Let (x, y, z) and ( x, y, z ) be the space (fixed) set of axes and body

(rotating) set of axes respectively. Let a rigid body with one point fixed rotate

instantaneously with angular velocity . We shall obtain the components of

along the body set of axes. If , , are the Eulerian angles, then their time

derivatives ,, represent the angular speeds about the space z-axis, the line of

nodes and the body z-axis respectively. We denote these three angular speeds by

, , which are the three components of the angular velocity . Note that these

three components of are not all either along the space set of axes or the body set of

axes. Let = ( x , y , z ) be the components of with respect to the body set of

axes x, y, z .

components along the body set of axes are found by applying orthogonal

transformations C through an angle about new x -axis and B through an angle

about new z -axis, to come to the body axes, as two orthogonal transformations are

required to come to body axes. If ( ) , ( ) , ( )

x y z are the components of

( )

x 0

( ) = BC 0 ,

y

( )

z

cos sin 01 0 0 0

= sin cos 0 0 cos sin 0

0 0 1 0 sin cos

( )

x cos sin cos sin sin 0

( ) = sin cos cos

sin cos 0 ,

y

0 sin cos

( ) z

( )

x = sin sin ,

( )

y

= cos sin , . . . (1)

( )

z = cos .

( )

Similarly, if represents the angular speed along the line of nodes

body set of axes x, y, z , then to find these components, we apply orthogonal

transformation B-through an angle about new z -axis to come to the body axes;

after rotation has been performed. Thus we have

( )

x

( ) y = B 0 ,

0

( )

z

cos sin 0

= sin cos 0 0

0 0 1 0

( ) x = cos ,

( ) y = sin , . . . (2)

( ) z = 0.

Now ( ) is already parallel to z axis, no transformation is necessary.

( )

x

= 0,

( )

y

= 0, . . . (3)

( )

z

= .

Thus the components of angular velocity , ( x , y z ) about body set of axes are

defined by

x = ( ) x + ( ) x + ( ) x ,

y = ( ) y + ( ) y + ( ) y ,

z = ( ) z + ( ) z + ( ) z .

Using equations (1), (2) and (3), we readily obtain the components of angular

velocity about body set of axes in the form

x = sin sin + cos ,

y = sin cos sin , . . . (4)

z = cos + .

Example 14 : If a rectangular parallelepiped with its edges 2a, 2a, 2b rotates about

its center of gravity under no force, prove that, its angular velocity about one

principal axis is constant and about the other axis it is periodic.

Solution: It is given that the rigid body rotates under the action of no forces. Hence

the Eulers equation of motion, in the absence of no forces are given by

I1 x = ( I 2 I 3 ) y z ,

I 2 y = ( I 3 I1 ) xz , . . . (1)

I 3 z = ( I1 I 2 ) x y .

where I1 , I 2 , I 3 are called the principal moments of inertia about the center of gravity

of the body. Since the rigid body is parallelepiped with its edges 2a, 2a, 2b. Hence

the moments of inertia about the principal axes OX, OY, and OZ are given by

a2 + b2

I1 = I 2 = m

3 . . . (2)

2

I 3 = ma 2

3

where m is the mass of the parallelepiped. Substituting these values in equation (1)

we get

(a 2

+ b 2 ) x = ( b 2 a 2 ) y z ,

(a 2

+ b 2 ) y = ( a 2 b 2 ) x z , . . . (3)

z = 0 z = n = const.

The last equation in (3) shows that the angular velocity about one principal axis is

constant. Consequently, the other two equations give

(a 2

+ b 2 ) x = ( b 2 a 2 ) n y ,

. . . (4)

(a 2

+ b 2 ) y = ( a 2 b 2 ) nx .

2

a 2 b2

x = n 2 2 x . . . . (5)

a +b

This is a second order differential equation of simple harmonic motion. This shows

that x is periodic.

Introduction:

We have seen that the Eulerian angles are used to describe an orientation of a

rigid body. However, it is found that these angles are difficult to use in the numerical

computation, because of the large number of trigonometric functions involved.

Various other groups of variables have been used to describe the orientation of a

rigid body. Kliens set of four complex parameters is one of them. He introduced the

set of four parameters bearing his name to facilitate the integration of complicated

gyroscopic problems. These parameters are much better adapted for use on

computers. Furthermore these four parameters are of great theoretical interest in

modern branches of physics. Cayley-Klein parameters are the set of four complex

numbers used to describe the orientation of a rigid body in space.

We begin this unit with some basic definitions and see how these Cayley-

Klein parameters define the orientation of the rigid body.

Some Definitions:

1. Conjugate matrix: The matrix obtained from any given matrix A by

replacing its elements by the corresponding conjugate complex numbers is

called the conjugate of A and it is denoted by A* .

2. Trace of a matrix : Let A be a square matrix of order n. The sum of the

elements of A lying along the principal diagonal is called the trace of A.

3. Transposed conjugate of a matrix : The transpose of the conjugate of a

matrix Q is called transposed conjugate of Q and it is denoted by Q . It is

T *

also called as adjoint of Q. Thus Q = ( Q* ) = ( QT ) .

unitary if QQ = I = QQ . Unitary condition expect that Q = 1 Q is

5. Self adjoint : A linear operator which is identical with its adjoint operator is

called self-adjoint. If P is self- adjoint then P = adjP .

7. Similar matrices : Let A and B two square matrices of the same order. Then

A and B are said to be similar if there exists a non-singular matrix P such that

AP = PB. A = PBP 1 .

Property : Under similar transformation the self-adjoint (Hermitian) property of the

matrix and the trace of the matrix are invariant.

Worked Examples

reduced to only three independent quantities to describe the orientation of a rigid

body?

Solution: Consider a two dimensional complex space with u and v as complex

axis. A general linear transformation in such a space is given by

u = u + v,

. . . (1)

v = u + v ,

where

Q= . . . (2)

is the rotation matrix in 2-dimensional complex plane, and , , , are four

complex parameters are known as Cayley-Klein parameters. There are eight

quantities in four complex parameters. However, we know that the minimum number

of independent quantities needed to specify the orientation of a rigid body is three.

Thus to reduce eight quantities in equation (2) into three independent quantities, the

matrix Q is restricted by imposing an additional condition that it is unitary. The

unitary condition implies that

QQ = I = QQ . . . (3)

we have Q = 1 = 1 . . . . (4)

* *

=I

* *

* + * * + * 1 0

* * =

+ * + * 0 1

* + * = 1,

* + * = 1, . . . (5)

* + * = 0.

We notice that the first two equations of (5) are real while the third is complex.

Therefore equation (5) gives 4 conditions. These 4 conditions plus one condition

given in (4) are totally five conditions on eight quantities. Therefore we are left with

only 3 independent quantities, which are used to describe the orientation of the body.

To calculate those three independent quantities dividing equation (4) by we get

1

= . . . . (6)

Now from the last equation in (5) we have

*

= * . . . . (7)

Thus from (6) and (7) we have

* 1

*

=

( * + * ) 1

*

=

= * , = * . . . . (9)

As a result of (9), the matrix Q takes the form

Q= * *

. . . (10)

with the unitary condition

* + * = 1 . . . . (11)

Hence Q involves only 3 independent quantities, which are used to describe the

orientation of a rigid body.

Matrix of transformation in terms of Cayley-Klein Parameters :

Theorem 7 : Obtain the matrix of transformation in Cayley-Klein parameters, which

specify the orientation of a rigid body.

OR

Show that to each unitary matrix Q in the 2-dimensional complex space there

is associated some real orthogonal matrix of transformation in ordinary 3-

dimensional space.

Proof : To find the matrix of transformation in terms of Cayley-Klein parameter, let

P be a matrix operator in a specialized u, v complex co-ordinate system in a

particular form

z x iy

P= . . . (1)

x + iy z

We notice that the matrix P is trace free and is self -adjont. i.e., P = P , and x, y, z

are real quantities taken as co-ordinates of a point in space. Suppose the matrix P is

transformed to the matrix P by means of the unitary matrix Q in the following way

P = QPQ . . . (2)

where

Q= . . . (3)

*

transposed conjugate of Q. i.e., Q = ( QT ) . Since Q is unitary, from the unitary

property of Q, we have

QQ = I .

This implies that adjoint of Q is same as its inverse. i.e.,

Q 1 = Q = adj ( Q ) . . . . (4)

Therefore equation (2) becomes

P = QPQ 1 . . . . (5)

This shows that P is the similarity transformation of P. It is well known that the

self-adjoint and the trace free property of the matrix are invariant under similarity

transformation. As P is self-adjoint and trace-free, therefore P must be like wise

self-adjoint and trace free. Thus P can have the form

z x iy

P =

x + iy z

where x, y, z are to be determined.

Let us denote

x iy = x ,

x + iy = x+ .

Therefore equation (5) with the help of equations (3) and (4) becomes.

z x z x * *

= .

x+ z x+ z * *

We know that , , , are not independent but are related by the equations

* = , * = ,

Therefore we have

z x z x

P = =

x+ z x+

z

z x z x , z + x

P = =

x+ z x+ + z, x+ z

z x z ( + ) x + x+ , 2 x 2 z 2 x+

=

x+ z 2 z 2 x + 2 x+ , x ( + ) z x+

This is the matrix transformation equation in complex 2-plane. Obviously the matrix

on the r. h. s. is hermitean, proving that the hermitean property is invariant under any

unitary similar transformation.

Classical Mechanics Page No. 266

Solving these equations, we obtain

x+ = 2 x+ 2 x + 2 z ,

x = 2 x+ + 2 x 2 z , . . . (6)

z = x+ x + ( + ) z.

x+ x+

2

2 2

2 2

x = 2 x . . . . (7)

z + z

Explicitly, we write equations (6) as

x + iy = ( 2 2 ) x + i ( 2 + 2 ) y + 2 z ,

x iy = ( 2 2 ) x i ( 2 + 2 ) y 2 z ,

z = ( ) x + i ( + ) y + ( + ) z.

1 2 i

2 ( + ) ( 2 2 + 2 + 2 )

2 2 2

x 2

x

i 2

+ + + ) i ( + ) y . . . . (8)

1 2

y = 2 ( + ) (

2 2 2 2 2 2

2

z z

i ( + ) +

Thus we have

1 2 i

2 ( + ) , ( 2 2 + 2 + 2 ) ,

2 2 2

2

1 2

A = ( 2 2 2 + 2 ) , + + + ) , i ( + ) .

i

2 2

( 2 2 2

. . . (9)

, i ( + ) , +

This is the required matrix of transformation in terms of Cayley-Klein parameters.

This matrix specifies the orientation of a rigid body. Hence the Cayley-Klein

parameters specify the orientation of a rigid body.

Relation between the Cayley-Klein Parameters and Eulerian Angles :

Theorem 8 : Establish the relation between the Eulerian angles , , and the

Cayley-Klein parameters , , , .

OR

Obtain Q matrices Q , Q , Q in complex 2-plane corresponding to the separate

orthogonal matrix of complete rotation.

Proof : The Eulerian angles , , are the three successive angles of rotations about

the specified axes, such that the space set of co-ordinates (x, y, z) coincide with the

body set of co-ordinates ( x, y, z ) . These angles are used to describe the orientation

describe the orientation of rigid body. Now to find the relation between , , and

, , , , we first construct Q matrices say Q , Q , Q corresponding to the

separate successive rotations , , and then combine them to form the complete

matrix Q = Q Q Q of rotation.

First Rotation :

Let Q = be the matrix in 2-complex plane corresponding to the first

rotation through an angle in 3 3 real space. This rotation through an angle is

performed about z-axis. Hence the transformation equations are given by

x = x cos + y sin ,

y = x sin + y cos ,

z = z

We write these equations as

x+ = x + iy = xe i + iye i

x+ = e i x+ ,

. . . (1)

x = ei x ,

z = z.

But we know that

x+ = 2 x+ 2 x + 2 z ,

x = 2 x+ + 2 x 2 z , . . . (2)

z = x+ x + ( + ) z.

2 = ei , 2 = e i , = 0 = .

Therefore the Q matrix corresponding to the rotation through an angle becomes

i2

e 0

Q = i

. . . . (3)

0

e 2

Second Rotation :

Let Q = be the matrix in 2-complex plane corresponding to the

second rotation through an angle in 3 3 real space. This rotation through an angle

is performed about new x-axis. Hence the transformation equations are given by

x = x,

y = y cos + z sin , . . . (4)

z = y sin + z cos .

From equations (4) we obtain

x+ = x + iy = x cos 2 + sin 2 + iy cos + iz sin

2 2

x = x iy = x cos 2 + sin 2 iy cos iz sin

2 2

z = y sin + z cos .

Classical Mechanics Page No. 269

x+ = x cos 2 + sin 2 + iy cos 2 sin 2 + 2iz sin cos .

2 2 2 2 2 2

This can be written as

x+ = x+ cos 2 + x sin 2 + 2iz sin cos .

2 2 2 2

Similarly, we write

x = x+ sin 2 + x cos 2 2iz sin cos ,

2 2 2 2

. . . (5)

z = ix+ sin cos ix sin cos + z cos 2 sin 2 .

2 2 2 2 2 2

Comparing equations (5) with (2) we get

2 = 2 = cos 2 , 2 = 2 = sin 2 .

2

2

Hence Q matrix becomes

cos 2 , i sin 2

Q = . . . . (6)

i sin , cos

2 2

Third Rotation: Let Q = be the matrix in 2-complex plane corresponding

to the third rotation through an angle in 3 3 real space. This rotation through an

angle is performed about new z-axis. This rotation is affected by the

transformation equations

x = x cos + y sin ,

y = x sin + y cos ,

z = z

We write these equations in the form

x+ = e i x+ ,

x = ei x , . . . (7)

z = z.

Hence comparing equation (7) with (2) we obtain the matrix Q corresponding to

i2

e , 0

Q = i . . . . (8)

0, e 2

Hence the orthogonal matrix for the complete transformation from space set of axes

to the body set of axes is obtained by taking the product of separate Q matrices for

each of the three successive rotations , , . Thus we obtain

Q = Q Q Q ,

i2 cos , i sin i2

e , 0 2 2 e , 0

Q= ,

i sin , cos 0, e 2

i i

0, e 2

2 2

2i ( + )

i

( )

sin

2

e cos , ie

2 2

Q= = . . . . (9)

2i ( ) i

( + )

ie sin , e 2

cos

2 2

i

( + )

= e2 cos ,

2

i

( )

= ie 2 sin ,

2

i

( )

= ie 2 sin ,

2

i

. . . (10)

( + )

=e 2

cos .

2

These are the required relations between the Eulerian angles and the Cayley-Klein

parameters.

Note: Note from equations (3), (6) and (8) that the trace of any Q matrix through an

angle say about some axis is 2 cos .

2

Worked Examples

+

cos = cos cos .

2 2 2

Solution: This example is solved in Example (9). However, we will attempt this

problem by using the relation between Eulerian angles and Cayley-Klein parameters.

We know the Q matrix in terms of Eulerian angles is given by

2i ( + )

i

( )

sin

2

e cos , ie

2 2

Q= = . . . (1)

2i ( ) i

( + )

ie sin , e 2 cos

2 2

This is the matrix of rotation, which describes the orientation of the rigid

body with one point fixed. Let this matrix be equivalent to the matrix B obtained by

rotating the co-ordinate axes through an angle about any axis with the same

origin. Then the matrix B is given by

cos sin 0 1 0 0

B = sin cos 0 or B = 0 cos sin . . . . (2)

0 0 1 0 sin cos

Then the Q matrix in complex 2-dimensional plane corresponding to the matrix B is

similarly obtain in the form

i2 cos , i sin

0 2 2

Q =

e

i

or Q = . . . . (3)

0 e 2

i sin , cos

2 2

From equation (1) we have

i

( + )

= e0 + ie3 = e 2 cos ,

2

i

( + )

= e0 ie3 = e 2

cos ,

2

i

. . . (4)

( )

= e2 + ie1 = ie 2

sin ,

2

i

( )

= e2 + ie1 = ie 2

sin .

2

Solving these equations, we find

+ +

e0 = = cos cos ,

2 2 2

i

e1 = ( + ) = sin cos ,

2 2 2

. . . (5)

e2 = = sin sin ,

2 2 2

+

e3 = = cos sin .

2 2 2

We see that

+

trace of Q = + = 2 cos cos . . . . (6)

2 2

Similarly, from equation (3) we have

trace of Q = 2 cos . . . (7)

2

Since trace is invariant, therefore, from (6) and (7) we have

+

cos = cos cos .

2 2 2

space corresponding to the unitary matrix

cos 2 , i sin 2

Q=

i sin , cos

2 2

in two dimensional complex plane.

Solution: To find the matrix of orthogonal transformation in 3-dimensional space

corresponding to the matrix

cos 2 , i sin 2

Q= . . . (1)

i sin , cos

2 2

in 2-dimensional complex plane, let P be a required matrix operator in a specialized

u, v complex co-ordinate system in a particular form

z x iy

P= . . . (2)

x + iy z

We notice that the matrix P is trace free and is self -adjont. i.e., P = P , and x, y, z

are real quantities taken as co-ordinates of a point in space. Suppose the matrix P is

transformed to the matrix P by means of the unitary matrix Q in the following way

P = QPQ . . . (3)

*

where Q is a complex transposed conjugate of Q. i.e., Q = ( QT ) called adjoint of

This implies that adjoint of Q is same as its inverse. i.e.,

Q 1 = Q = adj ( Q ) . . . . (4)

P = QPQ 1 . . . . (5)

This is the similarity transformation of P. Under similar transformation, we know

that the trace-free and self-adjoint property of the matrix are invariant. Since P is

self-adjoint and trace-free, therefore P must be like wise self-adjoint and trace free.

Thus P can have the form

z x iy

P = . . . (6)

x + iy z

where x, y, z are to be determined.

Let us define

x iy = x ,

. . . (7)

x + iy = x+ .

Therefore equation (5) with the help of equations (1), (2), (6) and (7) becomes.

cos i sin cos i sin

z x 2 2 z x 2 2

= .

x+ z x+ z

i sin cos i sin cos

2 2 2 2

Therefore we have

z x

=

x+ z

2 2

zcos sin +ix+cos sin ixcos sin , x sin2 +x cos2 2izcos sin

2 2 2 2 2 2 + 2 2 2 2

= .

x cos2 +x sin2 +2izcos sin , zsin2 cos2 +ix cos sin ix cos sin

+ 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 + 2 2

x+ = x + iy = 2iz cos sin + ( x + iy ) cos 2 + ( x iy ) sin 2 ,

2 2 2 2

x = x iy = 2iz cos sin + ( x iy ) cos 2 + ( x + iy ) sin 2 ,

2 2 2 2

z = z cos 2 sin 2 i ( x iy ) cos sin + i ( x + iy ) cos sin .

2 2 2 2 2 2

x + iy = x + iy cos + iz sin ,

x iy = x iy cos iz sin ,

z = z cos y sin .

x = x

y = y cos + z sin ,

z = y sin + z cos .

x 1 0 0 x

i.e., y = 0 cos sin y

z 0 sin cos

z

This shows that corresponding to the matrix

cos 2 i sin 2

Q=

i sin cos

2 2

in 2-dimensional complex plane, there exits 3 3 real matrix

1 0 0

A = 0 cos sin

0 sin cos

in 3- dimensional real space.

Exercise:

1. Show that the components of angular velocity vector along the space set of

axes are given by

x = cos + sin sin ,

y = sin sin cos ,

z = cos + .

2. Find a real matrix of orthogonal transformation in the 3-dimensional space

corresponding to the unitary matrix

i2

e 0

Q= i

0 e 2

in 2- dimensional complex plane.

3. Find a real matrix of orthogonal transformation in the 3-dimensional space

corresponding to the unitary matrix

i2

e 0

Q= i

0 e 2

in 2- dimensional complex plane.

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