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Chapter 1 NLP in literature
Chapter 1.1 Definitions - WHAT IS NEURO-LINGUISTIC

NLP, or Neuro-Linguistic Programming, is the art and science that can be described in a
nutshell, as an attitude and a methodology that leaves behind a trail of techniques.
Some basic concepts in Neuro-Linguistic Programming
Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) is about noticing patterns. Therefore, in NLP, we
are not so much interested in content as we are in process. Often this is an interesting
transition for us to make. The first step is to pay attention to the process of your interaction
with others listen to the form, watch the form, feel the form and not get involved in the
"First, the attitude of NLP is one of curiosity and experimentation. Next, the methodology
is modeling, which is the process of duplicating excellent behavior. Another person's
behavior can be duplicated by studying what that person does inside their head (language,
filters, programs etc.) to produce results. NLP was initially created in 1975 by Richard
Bandler and John Grinder, who began modeling and duplicating the "magical results" of a
few top communicators and therapists. Some of the first people to be studied included
hypnosis therapist Milton Erickson, Gestalt therapist Fritz Perls and family therapist
Virginia Satir. Since then, many others have contributed to the growth and development of
the field. And finally, the trail of techniques created through this type of modeling is what
is commonly known as NLP. Today, NLP is widely used in business to improve
management, sales and achievement/performance, inter-personal skills; in education to
better understand learning styles, develop rapport with students and parents and to help in
motivation; and of course, NLP is a profound set of tools for personal development. . (Bob
G& co, 2002, p277)
NLP techniques and processes help us understand ourselves and the others, and produce
new and more effective ways to (Renne de Lassus, 2004, p77):
attract the right person for you;
create ideal relationships;

advance your career and make more money;
increase motivation and energy;
create your desired self-image;
Communicate to produce the kind of results you want.
Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) is a behavioral technology, which simply means
that it is a set of guiding principles, attitudes, and techniques about real-life behavior, and
not a removed, scientific theorem. It allows you to change, adopt or eliminate behaviors, as
you desire, and gives you the ability to choose your mental, emotional, and physical states
of well being. (Bob G& co, 2002, p7). With NLP, you learn how to grow from every single
life experience, thus increasing your ability to create a better quality of life. NLP is a very
pragmatic technology based on an ability to produce your desired results, thus allowing
you to become proficient at creating your future. In the end it is not a lot different from
understanding how to program a computer your own bio-computer. (Renne de Lassus,
2004, p62)


"NLP cannot be dismissed as just another hustle. Its theoretical underpinnings represent
an ambitious attempt to codify and synthesize the insights of linguistics, body language,
and the study of communication systems." Psychology Today
"(NLP) does offer the potential for making changes without the usual agony that
accompanies these phenomena Thus it affords the opportunity to gain flexibility,
creativity, and greater freedom of action than most of us now know" Training and
Development Journal
. real estate brokers and salespeople use Neuro-Linguistics to enhance their
communication skills and provide them with more choices when working in a difficult
situation. . . it shows how we make sense of the world around us and communicate." Real
Estate Today

Chapter 1.2 NLPs sources in psychology
At the end of the 19th century and throughout the 20th, psychology played a great part in
understanding human nature and the way people interact; therefore, Neuro-Linguistic
Programming, closely linked with behavior, was very much influenced by this science.
(Renne de Lassus, 2004, p44): Of all psychologists, Freud and Pavlov had a great
contribution to the further development of NLP.
Freud has the great merit of having observed and, first of all, of having dared to state
that, for the most part, a person is not aware of what it is that determines his actions.
Suggesting the term unconscious and various methods of investigation through which to
know it, he opened an extraordinary path towards the unraveling of the way the human
mind works.
Like all recent schools of psychology, NLP owes a lot to Sigmund Freud.
On a practical level, NLP recommends considering the existence of the unconscious
reality, rather than trying to interpret what, after all, does not concern others than one
particular person.
In other words, NLP recommends: Lets work with what our consciousness does offer us,
knowing that an unconscious part of our being is beyond our reach.(Steve Andreas, 2001,
For several decades, Pavlov suggested a series of concepts that would answer the question
What is it that makes the human being take action?. Starting with behaviorism and its
concept of stimulus-response, scientists believe theyve identified an essential dimension
of human reality.
A part of this concept is still very much of present interest, being the one that contributed
to the elaboration of NLP.(Sue Knight, 2004, p21)

Psychology Freud and psychoanalysis
Pavlov and the stimulus-response relation
Miller, Galanter, Pribram T.O.T.E.
Maslow and the theory of human needs
C. Rodgers and the congruence, the empathy
F. Perls and the Gestalt therapy
V. Satir and the family therapies
M. Erickson and his models, including the Ericksonian hypnosis
E. Berne and the states of I
The movement of the human potential
The School of Palo Alto
Neurology Systems of perception
Systems of representation
Linguistics N. Chomsky and the profound and surface structures
A. Korzybsky and the general semantics (The Map of the World)
Mathematics Cybernetics, informatics, notions of models and of feed-back
Contributions The Kepner-Tregoe techniques of solving problems
Others The Cou method
Creativity techniques
Philosophy Classical and oriental

As early as the late 60's and early 70's communication studies indicated that nonverbal
behavior played an important role in communication: (Mehrabian, A. and Ferris, R. (1967),

According to Sue Knights definition (2004, p.232), NLP studies the structure of subjective
experience. We all experience external events, but what we do with them depend on our

Chapter 1.4 Books

In Europe and America are many literatures about related field focused by general NLP
theory, NLP roots, hypnosis, therapeutic change, education, business management and
business sales. There are a few of them, the referential ones.
General NLP
Introducing NLP by Joseph O'Connor and John Seymour, 1991
Frogs Into Princes by Richard Bandler and John Grinder, 1979
The Structure of Magic, Volume I, by Richard Bandler and John Grinder, 1975
The Structure of Magic, Volume II, by John Grinder and Richard Bandler, 1976
ReFraming, Neuro-Linguistic Programming and the Transformation of
Meaning by Richard Bandler and John Grinder, 1982

NLP Background Theory and Roots

NLP Volume I by Robert Dilts, et al, 1980
Roots of NLP by Robert Dilts, 1983
Science and Sanity by Alfred Korzybski, 1933
The Gestalt Approach: Eyewitness to Therapy, by Fritz Perls, 1973
Conjoint Family Therapy, Virginia Satir, 1964
Advanced Techniques of Hypnosis and Therapy: Selected Papers of Milton H.
Erickson, M.D. edited by Jay Haley, 1967
Syntactic Structures by Noam Chomsky, 1957
Language and Mind, by Noam Chomsky, 1968
Steps to an Ecology of Mind by Gregory Bateson, 1972
The Silent Language by Edward T Hall, 1959
Change by Paul Watzlawick et al, 1974
Pragmatics of Human Communication by Paul Watzlawick et al, 1967
The Doors of Perception by Aldous Huxley, 1954
Plans and the Structure of Behavior by G.A. Miller et al, 1960
``Gramatic Categories'' in Language, Thought and Reality by Benjamin Whorf,
Trance-Formations by John Grinder and Richard Bandler, 1981
Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. Erickson, M.D. Volume I by
Richard Bandler and John Grinder, 1975
Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. Erickson, M.D. Volume II by
John Grinder, Judith Delozier, and Richard Bandler, 1977
Therapeutic Metaphors by David Gordon, 1978
Therapeutic Change
Heart of the Mind by Connirae and Steve Andreas, 1989
Change Your Mind and Keep the Change by Steve and Connirae Andreas, 1987
Using Your Brain for a Change by Richard Bandler, 1985
Solutions by Leslie Cameron-Bandler, 1985
The Emotional Hostage by Leslie Cameron-Bandler and Michael Lebeau, 1986
Changing Belief Systems by Robert Dilts, 1990
Maps Models and the Structure of Reality by Kim Kostere and Linda Malatesta,
Time-Line Therapy and the Basis of Personality by Tad James and Wyatt
Woodsmall, 1988
Core Transformation by Connirae Andreas, 1994
Righting the Educational Conveyor Belt by Michael Grinder, 1989
Super Teaching by Erick Jenson, 1988
Metacation by Sid Jacobson, 1983
Not Pulling Strings by Joseph O'Connor, 1987
Business Management
Influencing With Integrity by Genie Laborde, 1983
Instant Rapport by Michael Brooks, 1989
Precision by John Grinder and Michael McMaster, 1980
Performance Management by Michael McMaster, 1986
Skills for the Future, Managing Creativity by Robert Dilts, 1993
Business Sales
Green Light Selling by Don Asperomonte and Diane Austin, 1989
The Phone Book by Richard Zarro and Peter Blum, 1992
Beyond Selling by Ed Reese, 1989
Self Development
Unlimited Power by Anthony Robbins, 1986
Awaken the Giant Within by Anthony Robbins, 1991
The Secret of Creating Your Future by Tad James, 1989
Feeling Good About Feeling Bad by Pat Christopherson, 1987
Know How- Guided Programs for Inventing Your Own Best Future by Leslie
Cameron-Bandler, David Gordon, and Michael Lebeau
Chapter 2 Aspects of NLP useful to businessmen

Chapter 2.1 NLP in the general face to face communication

Face to face communication is art to give and to received feedback ((Michaela Gulea,
2003, p131). Face to face communication would be made better applying some strategies,
like: using meta-messages, prepared messages, focused feed-back, focused on NOW and
HERE, to aply description, not judgment, active listening and to provoke listening and
feed-back. According with Michaela Gulea (2003, p133) receptor have problem to
understand what he listen. that are provoked by precognition and preconception. Level and
Gale named this attitude IDCWYT (I dont care what you think). Michaela Gulea conclude
that perception, active listening, non verbal communication and also paralanguage are
implied in a good face to face communication.
Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) began as a model of how we communicate
with ourselves and others which was developed by Richard Bandler and John Grinder. This
model explains how we process the information that comes to us from the outside. The
belief is that "The map is not the territory." And therefore the internal representations that
we make about an outside event are not necessarily the event itself. Researchers
determined that just 7% of what we communicate is the result of the words we say, or the
content of our communication. 38% of our communication to others is a result of our
verbal behavior, which includes tone of voice, timbre, tempo, and volume. 55% of our
communication to others is a result of our nonverbal communication, our body posture,
breathing, skin color and our movement. The match between our verbal and non-verbal
communication indicates the level of congruency.

Chapter 2.1.1 MODELS

As Prutianu (2000, pag. 190) there are a memo technical model from about five languages
critics aspects and corresponding key questions.


I have to! And if not?
Precisely, who?
They, People
Better than To do
Everything what?
Better Precisely, how?


According with Delacour (2001, pag.106) the brain would be represented as an
associations of three systems, the systems are interconnected and are implicated in all

Sensory information,
perceived by the five We are aware of only
senses, simultaneously one sensory information
and unconsciously

Dominant system of sensory representation

visual auditory kinesthetic

The acknowledgement of the dominant system of sensory representation

The messages to observe

face expression
visual access keys
NLP senzorial
voice quality
word choosing

reprezentation model

Bandler, Grinder, Dilts and others, in Neuro-Linguistic Programming, refer to a model
of strategies called T.O.T.E. The T.O.T.E. model was designed to represent how people
process information. T.O.T.E. stands for test, operate, test, and exit. The notion of
strategies actually comes from George Miller, Galanter and Pribram in a book called
Plans and the Structure of Behavior. They're the ones who originally developed the
concept of the T.O.T.E. model. As the theory goes, a strategy or T.O.T.E. begins with a
certain test. It's a test that actually starts or fires off the strategy, according with Sue Knight
(2004, 229). It's the starting point. Typically, what happens is that there is an external
event and we run that event through our internal processing. We make an Internal
Representation (I.R.) of that event. That I.R. of the event combines with a physiology and
creates a state. "State" refers to the internal emotional state of the individual a happy
state, a sad state, a motivated state, and so on. Our I.R. includes our internal pictures,
sounds and dialogue, and our feelings (for example, whether we feel motivated,
challenged, pleased, excited, and so on). (Renne de Lassus, 2004, p72) A given state is the
result of the combination of an internal representation and a physiology.

According with Antoine et Daniell Pina (1998, p48), reality is an mental construction
So what happens is that an event comes in through our sensory input channels which are:
Including the sights we see or the way someone looks at us;
Including sounds, the words we hear and the way people say those words to us (unless you
specifically want variety in form);
Or external feelings which include the touch of someone or something, the pressure, and
Which is smell; and

Which is taste.
The external event comes in through our sensory input channels and it is filtered we
process the event. As we process the event, we delete, distort, and generalize the
information that comes in, according to any number of several elements that filter our

Deletion occurs when we selectively pay attention to certain aspects of our experience and
not others. We then overlook or omit others. Without deletion, we would be faced with far
too much information to handle with our conscious mind.
Distortion occurs when we make shifts in our experience of sensory data by making
misrepresentations of reality. In Eastern philosophy there is a well-known story of
distortion in the rope versus snake analogy. A man walking along the road sees what he

believes to be a snake and yells "SNAKE". However, upon arriving at that place he is
relieved as he discovers that what he sees is really only a piece of rope.
Distortion also helps us in the process of motivating ourselves. The process of motivation
occurs when we actually distort the material that has come to us, by changing it through
one of our filtering systems.
The third process is generalization, where we draw global conclusions based on one or two
experiences. At its best, generalization is one of the ways we learn, by taking the
information we have and drawing broad conclusions about the meaning or the effect of
those conclusions.
Normally, the conscious mind can only handle seven (plus or minus two) items of
information at any given time. Most people will be able to name two, maybe three products
in a category of low interest and usually no more than nine in a category of high interest.
There is a reason for this. If we didn't actively delete information all the time, we'd end up
with far too much information coming in. In fact, you may have even heard that
psychologists say that if we were simultaneously aware of all of the sensory information
that was coming in, we'd go crazy. That's why we filter the information.
So, the question is, when two people have the same stimulus, why don't they have the same
response? The answer is, because we delete, distort, and generalize the information from
the outside.
We delete, distort and generalize the information that comes in from our senses based on
one of five filters. The filters are Meta-Programs, belief systems, values, decisions, and
memories. Also believes is implied in this comportment (as Antoine et Daniell Pina, 1998,
The first of these filters is Meta-Programs. Knowing someone's Meta-Programs can
actually help you clearly and closely predict people's states, and therefore predict their
actions. One important thing about Meta-Programs: they are not good or bad, they are just
the way someone handles information.

The next filter is values. They are essentially an evaluation filter. Theyre about how we
decide whether our actions are good or bad, or right or wrong. And theyre about how we
decide upon how we feel about our actions(Renne de Lassus, 2004, p73). Values are
arranged in a hierarchy with the most important one typically being at the top and lesser
ones below that. We all have different models of the world (an internal model about the
world), and our values are the result of our model of the world. When we communicate
with ourselves or with someone else, if our model of the world conflicts with our values or
their values, then there's going to be a conflict. Richard Bandler says, "Values are those
things we don't live up to."
Values are what people typically move toward or away from (see Meta-Programs). They
are our attractions or repulsion in life. They are essentially a deep, unconscious belief
system about what's important and what's good or bad to us. Values change with context,
too. That is, you probably have certain values about what you want in a relationship and
what you want in business. Your values about what you want in one and in the other may
be quite differentBeliefs:
The next filter is beliefs. Beliefs are generalizations about how the world is. One of the
important elements in modeling is to find a person's beliefs about a particular behavior that
we are trying to model. Richard Bandler says, "Beliefs are those things we can't get
around." Beliefs are the presuppositions that we have about the way the world is that either
create or deny personal power to us. So, beliefs are essentially our on/off switch for our
ability to do anything in the world. In the process of working with someone's beliefs, it's
important to elicit or find out what their beliefs are, that cause them to do what they do. We
also want to find out the disabling beliefs, the ones that do not allow them to do what they
want to do.
The fourth element is our memories. In fact, some psychologists believe that as we get
older, our reactions in the present are reactions to gestalts (collections of memories which
are organized in a certain way) of past memories, and that the present plays a very small
part in our behavior.

The fifth element, and related to memories, is decisions that we've made in the past.
Decisions may create beliefs, or may just affect our perceptions through time. These filters
will determine our internal representation of an event that is occurring right now. It is our
internal representation that puts us in a certain state, and creates a certain physiology. The
state in which we find ourselves will determine our behavior.
Our every experience is something that we literally make up inside our heads. We do not
experience reality directly, since we are always deleting, distorting, and generalizing.
Essentially, what we do experience is our experience of the territory and not the territory


Of course, the next question is how specifically do you "listen to the form, watch the form,
feel the form, and not get involved in the content?" The modalities are one way of
categorizing exactly what a person does inside their head as they think.(Stefan Prutianu,
2000, p.194) They are a way or a model for what a person does in their head as they make
up an Internal Representation (I.R.). In the process of creating NLP, Bandler and Grinder
discovered that by looking at someone's eyes, you could tell HOW they think. Not what
they think, but HOW they think. You can tell what they're doing inside.


(This is how they look when you're facing them.)
Based on Bandler and Grinders observations, when people look up, they're visualizing.
When they look horizontally to the left and right, they're either remembering or
constructing sounds. When they look downward and to our left, they're accessing their
feelings. And when they look downward and to our right, they're talking to themselves
(Auditory Digital). The chart above is for a "normal" right handed person. Many left-
handed people and some ambidextrous people will have eye movements that are reversed.
Typically, every time we access our brain, we move our eyes in that particular direction
which facilitates our using that part of our neurology. The mind and body are absolutely
interconnected, so each time we access our Visual Memory, for example, we move our
eyes upward and to our left. If you're watching someone access Visual Memory, you will
see them move their eyes upward and to your right. (Renne de Lassus, 2004, p133):
Based on this model of communication, and how we make an internal representation, you'll
remember that people rely on their five senses to make I.R.-s about the world around them
(Alain Cayrol, 1991, p73). Internally, we also generally come to depend on one
representational system or modality more than another as we access information, and also
use that information to create I.R.-s. So, some people are using their Visual
representational system more, some people use their auditory representational system
more, and some people use their Kinesthetic more than others.
Usually an individual will use a certain modality as their primary representational system.
Let's go through the three major modes of operation so you can notice what mode people
are operating in, and begin to identify them. You can then begin to match the modes by
using the predicates and physiology that match their representational system. . (Yves
Lellouche, 1994, p97).
If you're making note of the syntax of the elements in a person's strategy, we've developed
a shorthand notation process for strategies(Renne de Lassus, 2004, p135):. And they're
shown below:
V = Visual
A = Auditory
K = Kinesthetic (feelings)
O = Olfactory
G = Gustatory
In addition we can say certain things about those Representational System elements:
e = External
i = Internal
t = Tonal (At)
d = Digital
c = Constructed
r = Recalled
The strategy notation that we use corresponds directly to the eye pattern chart below.
As you listen and watch the person you're eliciting the strategy from, note first the
major modalities [V], [At], [K], [O], [G], [Ad]. Also make note of whether they are
internal or external. For example, seeing a picture in your head is Visual Internal (or
Vi), looking at a car to see if you like it is Visual External (or Ve), and may include a
comparison to a remembered or created car (Vr or Vc). Talking to the salesperson, and
gathering information about the purchase to find if it meets your criteria is Auditory
digital (or Ad), and External. Or feeling a rug to discover if you like the feel is
Kinesthetic external (or Ke), while feeling good about the purchase is Kinesthetic
internal (or Ki).(Alain Cayrol, 1991, p55).

Typically, people who are in a visual mode stand or sit with their heads and/or bodies erect
with their eyes up, and will be breathing from the top of their lungs. They often sit forward
in the chair or on the edge of the chair. They tend to be more organized, neat, well
groomed, and orderly; more deliberate; more appearance oriented, and sometimes quieter;
good spellers. They memorize by seeing pictures, and are less distracted by noise. They
often have trouble remembering verbal instructions, and are bored by long verbal
explanations because their minds tend to wander. They would rather read than be read to. A
visual person will be interested in how someone looks at them, and will respond to being
taken places, and being bought things. They will tend to use expressions like See ya
later, I want to look at it, Focus on it, Watch it, Be clear, foggy, Picture that,
notice, appears. (Antoine et Daniell Pina, 1998, p 231)

Someone who is auditory will move their eyes sideways and also down to the right. They
breathe from the middle of the chest. They typically talk to themselves, and are easily
distracted by noise. They often move their lips when they say words. They can repeat
things back to you easily. They may find math and writing more difficult and spoken
language easier. They like music and learn by listening. They memorize by steps,
procedures, and sequence. An auditory person is often interested in being told how they're
doing, and responds to a certain set of words or tone of voice. They tend to use words and
phrases like listen, talk to, said, speak, hear" or "Good to talk to you."
They will typically be breathing from the bottom of their lungs, so you'll see their stomach
go in and out as they breathe. Their posture is often more slumped over, and they often
move and talk very slowly. They will typically access their feelings and emotions to "get a
feel" for what they're doing. They respond to physical rewards, and touching. They also
stand close to people and touch them. They are often physically oriented people (athletes).
They may move a lot, and they memorize by doing, or walking through something. They
use words like feelings, get in touch, hold, grasp, and handle. Those are the
characteristics of the three major modes of operation. . (Bob G& co, 2002, p17)

Chapter 2.1.3 RAPPORT

Rapport is ability to develop and maintain communication with a large number of people
of varying backgrounds will allow you to get what you want. Having rapport with someone
will allow you to do anything. So, rapport is probably the most important skill on the
planet. Establishing and maintaining a rapport that is an interaction systematic model
(Antoine et Daniell Pina, 1998, p 218)
The basis of rapport is that when people are like each other, they like each other. When
people are not like each other, they don't like each other. When you like someone, you are
willing to assist them in having whatever they want. Remember that 38% of all
communication is tone of voice, and 55% is physiology.( Mehrabian, 1967, p 248)So, most
communication is outside of our conscious awareness. A tremendous opportunity exists for
communication outside of normal channels, and that's what rapport is all about. To be a
master communicator, you will also need to keep in mind that you will communicate best
with people when you employ their primary modality. Alain Cayrol, 1991, p67).
Too often, however, communication takes place in a system where people are
unconsciously mismatching modalities. So the first major element of rapport is to match
the modality the person is in.
The second element of rapport is physical mirroring of the individual's physiology.
Actually physically copying their posture, facial expressions, hand gestures and
movements, and their eye blinking will cause their body to say unconsciously to their
mind, "Hey, (s)he's like me!". It's undeniable to the nervous system.
The third element is to match their voice: the tone, tempo, timbre (quality of the voice),
and the volume. You can also match their key words. Perhaps they often say, "Actually."
You can use it in a sentence several times. Say it back to them.
The fourth element is to match their breathing. You can actually pace someone's
breathing by breathing at exactly the same time as they do (matching the in and out
breath). By matching their breathing, by pacing their breathing you can then begin to lead
them out of the representational system they're in, into another one.
The fifth element is to match the size of the pieces of information (chunk size or level of
abstraction) they deal with. If someone usually deals in the big picture, they will probably
be bored with the details. On the other hand someone who is into details will find that
there's not enough information to deal with, if you only give them the big picture. So make
sure that you are matching the content chunks that the person deals with.
The sixth element is to match their common experiences. This is what's usually called
rapport. When people first meet, often their early relationship is about matching common
experiences, common interests, background, beliefs and values, their ideologies and
common associations.
Those are the critical elements of rapport. To establish rapport, the process is to match and
mirror completely what the other person is doing.

Chapter 2.1.4 CALIBRATION

Calibration is one way of testing whether you're in rapport with someone. (Antoine et
Daniell Pina, 1998, p 237)
Simply, that means you need to develop your sensory acuity to such an extent that you can
begin to see peoples reactions to your communication. Watch their eyes, the muscles
around the eyes, the lower lip, the color of the face and hands, the breathing. These are all
indicators of rapport.
In addition there are some indicators that happen in your own body that you can notice. As
you begin to go into rapport, there's a certain, specific physiological feeling that begins to
occur in the body. It happens in the area of the legs, and chest, and could almost be
described as a feeling of nervousness or anticipation. The next thing that happens is that
you can feel the color in your own face begin to change. It's a feeling of warmth in the face
that rises up from the neck. As you notice this, you can also notice, within about one
minute, that the color in the other person's face increases. The change in color usually
happens one minute after you notice the internal feelings. Usually within another minute or
so, the person you're talking to will say something like, "...and (your name), my good
friend here..." or "I feel like I've known you for years..." They may even use the word
"rapport" or "trust" to describe what they're experiencing.

Chapter 2.1.5 ANCHORING

So, when you have access to a state, the next step is to anchor it. And remember that a
spontaneous state is usually more powerful than one that is induced. Whenever you find a
state that you can use (whether it's in you or in someone else), you can anchor it.
What is an anchor? The concept of anchoring comes from Pavlov. What Pavlov did with
his dogs, was that he rang a bell, and showed the dogs a steak. Then he rang the bell, and
the dogs salivated just as if they'd just seen a steak. Pavlov deduced his theory of stimulus-
response from this experiment. The bell was actually an anchor. What he had done is set up
an anchor for the dogs. An anchor occurs any time a person is in an intense state, and, at
the peak of that intense state or experience, a specific stimulus is consistently applied; the
state and the specific stimulus become neurologically linked, so that the state can be
continually produced by setting off the stimulus.

As Sue Knight (2005, p.249) there are four steps in anchoring:
The first step is to put the person in state. You can use a spontaneous state, or an induced
state ("Can you remember a time..."). It's important that the state be fully associated. This
means that the person is in their body, looking through their own eyes (as opposed to
looking at their body from outside it). It's also important that the state be intense and
congruent. Here is some specific language to get the person in an intense and congruent
state: "Can you recall a time when you were totally X'd? Can you remember a specific
time? As you go back to that time, can you step into your body and see what you saw
through your own eyes, hear what you heard, and feel the feelings that you felt when you
were totally X'd?". (Steve Andreas, 2001, p99) People go into states at different rates, so
it's important that you calibrate the state, or you can ask them to tell you when they are
fully into the state, at the peak of the experience. You can have them nod, move their head,
or finger, or foot or whatever. The second step, when they're at the peak, is to provide a
specific stimulus. Provide a specific stimulus and apply it consistently. When they are at
the peak of that experience, the anchor should actually be ending.(according with Renne de
Lassus, 2004, p160)
Making the most out of interior potential
Anchoring (Sue Knight, 2004, p242) is the process through which we learn how to master
certain states, crucial for obtaining success. Its a way of choosing the emotional state we
want and of finding a way to access it. The anchor is a stimulus: it could be a sound, an
image, a touch, a smell or a taste that produces a conscious response within us or within
the others.


Can you imagine how different the estimations of performance could be if managers were
evaluated according to the state they leave their subordinates in at the end of a
The examples of anchoring used earlier in this section, for example, the touch, are not at
hand in a business context. A culture doesnt always accept the touch of others. Its
necessary for us to be a little more creative with the anchors we use to help the others
access inspired states.
Notice that as the state begins to peak, the anchor should be applied. It should start slightly
before, and end right at the peak or slightly before. As Sue Knight (2002, p152) an anchor
should be applied for from 5 to 15 seconds. In order to get a very intense (positive) state,
the sentences would be:
a. "Can you recall a time when you were totally capable?"
b. "Can you recall a time when you were totally loved?"
c. "Can you recall a time when you were totally powerful?"
d. "Can you recall a time when you laughed hysterically?"
The next step is to change the person's state. Have them get out of the state they were in.
Perhaps have them walk around. At least have them take a deep breath
There are four keys to successful anchoring (Renne de Lassus, 2004, p162):
1. The first is the intensity of the response, or the congruence of the state. In
anchoring, we're looking for a fully associated intense state. You may ask, "Are you
seeing yourself or are you in your own body?" We want them to be in their own
body (associated).
2. The second element is the timing of the anchor. The anchor should be applied just
before the peak. If you hold it too long, then you may find that the person has gone
beyond the first experience into a second, into another state, and the two states may
be linked.
3. The stimulus should also be unique. The uniqueness of the stimulus is important: if
you set up an anchor on an area of the body (assuming a kinesthetic anchor) that is
touched a lot, such as a handshake, then the anchor will become weakened with
time (diluted) because it will be set off by other people. So you will want to provide
an anchor that is in a unique area of the body. Often an NLP professional will use
an ear to set up an anchor or ask you to put a series of positive anchors in a fist.
How long an anchor lasts depends specifically upon how unique the location is. If
it's not an intense state that you're anchoring, or if you haven't stacked it, then the
anchor will wear off or dilute itself more quickly. If the location is not unique it can
be fired off so many times that it won't work again, because it won't be linked to the
specific state.
4. The last key is the replication of the stimulus. The way that you apply the anchor
in setting it and in firing it off to test, needs to be exactly the same every time. So if
you're snapping your fingers or giving them a certain look, you need to do it the
same way every time. That anchor needs to be fed back to the person in exactly the
same way it was set.


Now, a strategy is any internal and external set (order, syntax) of experiences which
consistently produces a specific outcome.
We use internal processing strategies for everything we do.(Steve Andreas, 2001, p160)
All of our apparent external behaviors are controlled by internal processing strategies. All
of our overt behaviors!
We first develop a particular strategy when we are young.. Then, at some point when you
knew it worked, you generalized the process that you used before in making the decision
and said, either consciously or unconsciously, "OK, this is a good way to make a decision",
and you then probably used it over and over and over again (Steve Andreas, 2001, p2005).
Since NLP deals with form and not content, we're not so much interested in the content of
the thought, just the form. You might say, "Well, I thought of this", or "I thought about
that" or "I thought of flowers" or whatever you did. Rather than the content, what did you
do, did you make a picture in your mind, did you have a certain set of words that you said
to yourself? Did you think of somebody else's voice, or did you have a certain feeling or
emotion? Our interest is in the context, form, and process instead of the content. (David
Molden, 1996, p59)

Chapter 2.2.2 PROGRAMMING

Programmin is The process of codifying competence is known as modeling. (according
to Sue Knight, 2004, p198). In business, the purpose of modeling is reproducing
In the context of business, we have to examine the resources that havent been used before
(Sue Knight, 2004. p201). We have to learn what each individual has to offer. If we do
what weve always done, we will get what weve always got a recipe for the suicide of
business. Therefore, modeling represents a whole new world where potential is concerned,
the way we recognize it and, more important, free it for everyones well-being.
NLP was created as a result of Modeling.
Bandler and Grinder's system for Modeling was essentially to discover somebody's belief
systems, physiology, and mental strategies. In the process of modeling, they would elicit a
person's internal program, which they called "mental syntax" or "strategy." In terms of
modeling, then, one important element is the internal syntax or what they do inside their
head when they do what they do.
Modeling mental strategies in NLP allows us to take a strategy from one place and move it
to another place. Now, if I'm dealing with content, then it's hard to move content from one
place to another. But if I'm dealing with process, if I'm dealing with the "how to" regarding
processing information then I can discover somebody's internal program and I can install it
in someone else.
Another purpose for discovering strategies is that you might want to change someone's
strategy. Most strategies that people have can be easily learned or modified, according to
whatever our outcome is. And that's why in NLP one of the presuppositions is that people
have all the resources they need. For example, if someone is very decisive at home and
they have trouble making decisions at work, one of the things we can do is move their
decision-making strategy from home to work. (Bob G& co, 2002, p237)

A Strategy is a specific syntax of external and internal experience which consistently
produces a specific behavioral outcome or, in other words, a strategy is something that
somebody does in their brain and nervous system that produces a specific result. It's what
somebody does in their head when they do what they do. An analogy that seems to work
really well in describing strategies is the analogy of baking a cake.(Sue Knight, 2004, p
204). A strategy is a specific order and sequence of internal and external processes or
internal and external experiences that consistently produce a specific outcome. If you
reverse the strategy, that is, if you reverse the order and sequence of the strategy, the
outcome that you get may be substantially different. Are six element into a strategies. And
these are pictures, sounds, feelings, tastes, smells, and you can talk to yourself.
Chapter 3 USING NLP


Modeling in business has led to significant progress in the way abilities are learned. (as
Sue Knight, 2004, p207). Traditionally, companies have used standard training programs
for the achievement of standard abilities. Very few times, though, the students were
allowed to adapt these abilities to their unique environment, using their own means. There
are unique patterns that work in a company, a department or a market section patterns
that dont work in other fields. Modeling allows us to emphasize these patterns, specific to
a context, to reproduce excellence in a chosen domain. (David Molden, 1996, p66)


Meetings can be time consuming, frustrating and if you take in account the cost of your
time and travel, expensive. On the other hand meetings can generate ideas, commitment,
resources and build valuable relationships.( Alain Cayrol, 1991, p213).
If all the participants have a positive attitude and are genuinely interested in their own and
in others success, then it is likely that an atmosphere is created that will lead to successful
outcomes and give the space for a structure to develop.( Helena Cornelius& Sttoshana
Faire, 1996, p47). Its worth considering individually what would be the best attitude for
you to achieve the outcomes you want.
If all the participants know that if the meeting goes well they will achieve an outcome
thats important to them; they will naturally be motivated to move the various discussions
forward. On an individual basis its always worth considering what would have to happen
at a meeting to make it worth your while.
If a meeting has an agenda where every participant knows they will have a chance to be
heard; that the agenda items are allocated time slots relative to their importance; with the
important, contentious issues first, attendees are likely to become more positive and
outcomes are likely to be further clarified and achieved.
NLP focused on three things (according with Steve Andreas, 2001, p134)

Common reasons why meetings go wrong:

No control, structure or summaries
Too many people / the wrong people / too long meetings
Implied and/or vague objectives
Hidden agendas
Egos getting in the way of outcomes
Instant solutions are sought without being given the time to think through the
Some ideas of how these can be tackled and managed:
Elect a chairman and timekeeper to manage the meeting on an ongoing basis
Plot the objectives, structure and likely timeline of the meeting beforehand so that the
right people can be invited for the appropriate length of time
Possible hidden agendas can be confronted; you can choose to leave the meeting or end
it there and then
Egos can be acknowledged and if this doesnt work, confronted
Options can be brainstormed with participants being asked to report back later on the
implications of various courses of actions.



Making the right decisions is an essential business skill. Professionals would learn how to
stay focused under pressure and move from stuck or indecisive to aligned and decisive
action. In negotiation to make a right chosen on the final is it essential. .( Helena
Cornelius& Sttoshana Faire, 1996, p212).
NLP techniques learn people, in an accelerated format, the secrets of outstanding decision-
makers. Strategies are largely drawn from the unique NLP modeling of the worlds greatest
money managers. NLP practitioners discover exactly how to re-strategize thoughts and
feelings to make the best decisions and move with confidence to successful action.
Often real-world business issues are complex and multi-leveled. NLP has conceptual
models for identifying complex problems and relating it to systemic, feedback-driven,
solution oriented tools and approaches and all in a practical and user-friendly way
(Steve Andreas, 2001, p112) . People are learning how to resource and resolve work-based
issues for long term exponential gain in business results
There are many ways to use anchors.(Sue Knight, 2004, p135). An easy way is using the
technique called collapsing anchors. This is a way of harmonizing two states for
example, an inspired state with an uninspired one.


All human changes are nothing more than an integration of resources or a collapsing of
realities, one into the other. The particular process of collapsing anchors involves taking a
negative state, and integrating or collapsing it into a positive state. Doing this gives the
person we're dealing with more neurological choice. One of the major premises of NLP is
to increase the choices a person has. So, if we find for example that every time a certain
salesperson goes out to make a sale, they become negative, it may be because they're
recalling all the times they've failed. (Yves Lellouche, 1994, p83). If the two are linked,
we can collapse the association of sales and failure, with a winning attitude, and give the
salesperson the choice of feeling good about selling, too. (Steve Andreas, 2001, p200)
The process of collapsing anchors will free the salesperson from the necessity of having to
access the negative state every time they go out and make a sales call.
The process of collapsing anchors is extremely powerful, one of the most powerful
processes in NLP, and this next technique for collapsing anchors is one of the most
powerful, and it's also easy to use. (as Sue Knight 2004, p254)
1. Ask the person to recall a series of positive experiences, and anchor each one. Stack
the anchors. For example, when they couldn't lose, when they felt powerful, when
they knew they could have it all, when they knew they could have whatever they
2. Have them put all the experiences, one at a time, into their right hand, while you
are firing off the original anchor that you have set, with each experience.
3. Have them look at the right hand, and describe what those experiences look like.
What do they say, or what do they sound like? What do they feel like? What is the
shape, color, size, sound, and smell. Make a fist, now, and hold on to all those
positive experiences.
4. Now have them put the negative experience into the left hand. (If the negative
experience is particularly strong, you can have the person put the negative
experience into the left hand quickly without looking at it. If it's not very strong,
have them describe it as they did with the positive.) You don't have to set an anchor
for the negative experience other than the hand.
5. Go back to the right hand. Have them notice those experiences again. Ask them
again about some of the Sub-Modalities, the smell, the sound, the color, the
brightness, and shape.
6. Now, holding the right hand over the left hand, have them pour the positive
experiences from the right hand, including the feelings and the sounds, into the left
hand. Have them make a "sshhhh" (or any) noise as they do it. And have them
continue pouring until the contents of both hands are the same. When both hands
look, sound, and feel the same, then they can stop.
7. Next, have them clap their hands together once, and then rub them together
8. Finally, have them look again and make sure that both hands are the same. If not,
go back to #1.
The negative experience in the left hand and the positive experience in the right hand will
be linked in the neurology, so that the person will have more choice.( Helena Cornelius&
Sttoshana Faire, 1996, 162). The person can feel negative about the negative experience or
they can feel positive about them. The negative will not have the hold over them that it had
before. It's a very powerful process, and one that to reduce the effect of negative
experiences and to create new neurological choices. (Yves Lellouche, 1994, p113).
One important caution in this process is that the person doing NLP should be sure that the
positive anchors are stronger than the negative anchors. It's a neurological dilution of the
negative experience. However, if the negative experience is stronger than the positive, then
the positive experiences will be diluted into the negative, which is not what you want.
Typically, an NLP professional will set a number of positive anchors before beginning this
process, so that the negative experiences will be weaker than the positive ones. (Renne de
Lassus, 2004, p163)

Chapter 3.4 NLP in leadership

Leadership, in a nutshell, is about creating a compelling vision and motivating people to

achieve it. Businesses that dont have this capability, cant hope to survive in todays
turbulent economy. For this reason more and more businesses are focusing on developing
their leaders. But leadership is the key for everyone from individuals in terms of how
they lead their own lives, to political leaders rallying support for radical, global
change.NLP has a lot to offer to individuals who wish to develop their leadership skills.
Certainly there are mountains of theories and tactics about how to lead. And many of these
can be learned from books and in business schools. Many leaders share characteristics, but
no characteristic is true for all leaders, except the fact that they all have followers.( Adrian
Neculau, 1989, p167). What attracts people to follow others is how they make them feel,
and this is where NLP can help people develop true leadership potential.
Leading yourself the heart of the matter in NLP
Fundamental to leading yourself is learning to live at cause rather than at effect. This
means taking responsibility for the results you get from what you do, and recognizing that
if you want different results, you need to do something different - only you can change!
Others can be influenced, but not changed directly.
Part of learning to live at cause is choosing to be in a resourceful state when you need to
be. State Management is core to NLP and there are many techniques which allow you to
access states that were useful to you in the past so that you can use them in the
present. One of the key tools is anchoring and its hugely beneficial to leaders, so that
they will be able to draw on positive experiences to help them handle difficult situations in
the present.
To get an idea of this, think about an experience that represents your personal best as a
leader.. (Adrian Neculau, 1989, p171).
In a company, in business are important to find new ways and to help people to follow9
Richard Bandler&co, 1979, p138). Learning to live at cause and being able to select
resource states when you need them will help you achieve many things. However, to
satisfy yourself, you need to select courses of action that are in line with your values.
Goals that are well-formed are much more likely to be achieved than those that arent.
POWER model (David Molden, 1996, p110)

Positive: what you do want rather than what you dont

Own it: What can you do to influence or initiate this?
What will it look like, sound like, feel like, taste like and smell like make it sensory
Ecology: What are the wider consequences of achieving this goal? Are there any
downsides? If so, how can you refine the goal to eliminate the disadvantages?
Route: What is the first step? Whats the next step? What will the last step be?
If you can master these skills you are well on your way to creating the personal
foundations which will enable you to lead others.
Leading your team
When leaders are at their best, they Challenge, Inspire, Enable others to act, Model the
way, and Encourage the heart. This model, developed by Kouzes and Posner following
extensive research, is built on useful NLP tools.
Challenge the process: Sometimes leading means initiating change and sometimes it
means accepting a challenge that others might have overlooked or ignored. Either way,
people who lead need to take risks and innovate. This either means creating new ideas or
recognizing and supporting new ideas and challenging the system to turn these ideas into
action. The most important technological breakthroughs were not initially recognized as
good ideas (e.g. personal computers) remember this the next time someone comes to you
with a crazy idea!
Inspire: Creating a picture of a positive future is essential if people are going to join
together in achieving a collective goal. Often people think this comes down to inspirational
speeches, but leaders find all interactions moments inspiring whether they are one on one
or with large groups. Some useful ideas about how to do this come from looking at
inspirational language used by great leaders however. And there are many examples that
have led to major changes in mass behavior. One of the best examples is Martin Luther
Kings I have a dream speech. Unpicking the constituents of his speech reveals why his
speech was so influential:
It was vivid he used lots of images and word pictures and people could see the examples.
People could relate to the examples - they were familiar.
He appealed to peoples values and common beliefs.
He used repetition and was positive and hopeful.
He started using the term I and changed to we halfway through.
He spoke with passion and emotion and his words felt highly congruent he was
personally convinced.
Enable Others To Act; ROME model.
A simple model which builds on NLP tools is the ROME model.
R=Rapport. Until you have built effective rapport your coaching efforts will probably be
O=Outcome: About what their outcome is for the coaching
M=Method: What is the best method for coaching them? What resources will you need?
E=Evaluation: How will you review their progress against the outcomes?
As well as setting up the direction for people it is important how you delegate
them. Challenge turns work from a chore into an adventure, but too much challenge creates
stress. Instead of relying on carrots and sticks to motivate people, we can think about how
we can provide team with unique opportunities to discover, learn and grow opportunities
where they can work in a flow state: not bored and not overstretched. All the above things
are easier if are good relationships in team. But good relationships arent necessarily about
liking people, they are about two-way communication. If NLP is about anything, its
about helping people communicate more effectively. The meaning of what I said is what
is understood. These presuppositions of NLP help people take responsibility for their
experiences and, we believe, make them more effective. . (Bob G& co, 2002, p140)
Modelling the way:
Leaders who say one thing and do another have little credibility and rarely generate
willing followership. Take some time to evaluate how consistent your behavior is with
what youve identified as your values. Pay particular attention to your diary and time
management how well does what you are scheduled to do over the next month reflect
what you say you believe is important? If it doesnt match, how can you change whats on
your agenda? You can even ask your team what they think is important to you if they
cant tell you, they wont know how to please you!
Encourage the Heart:
There is a whole host of ways to recognize individual contributions to the success of every
project. And one of the most simple ones is to say thank you and provide feedback. Its
also well known that the thing most people want from their bosses is to understand how
well they are doing, which means providing constructive feedback as well as
acknowledging what people do well.
Leading organizations creating mass followership
Leading larger groups of people requires all the skills covered in the first two layers of
leadership leading yourself and your team. To succeed in todays business environment,
leaders also need to make sure that their vision for their group includes becoming more
flexible and faster when reacting to the market. In addition, leaders need to understand how
to relate to stakeholders and build partnerships in new ways. In todays business
environment, clients are sometimes also competitors, and the people who contribute to the
success of the firm are not always directly employed by the business. We believe that if
you are skilled in the foundations of NLP, lead your own life according to a set of
principles and can motivate a team, you are probably equipped to select and motivate a
group of people who have the diversity of skills to complement yours. (Richard
Bandler&co, 1997, p189). By inspiring a team who collectively have the skills to succeed
in todays economy, and sharing that vision with the wider set of stakeholders, you will
have set yourself up for success as an inspirational leader.


Coaching benefits for business and companies

It is increasingly acknowledged that individuals and groups perform better with coaching
and this performance translates into business results. According with Antoine & Daniell
Pina (1998, p 261-263) are many ways to training abilities, more than that, to assist person
to change their believes.
Some Benefits (listed by Zeus and Skiffington, 2002, p23):
Some of the specific ways in which coaching is beneficial include the following:
Coaching for leadership impacts companies by increased productivity, improved
communications and negociations skills.(Helena Cornelius& Shoshana Faire, 1996,
p63). increased staff commitment and loyalty and decreased levels of stress and
Coaching assists individuals to remain loyal and committed to the company when
confronted with demand of global business hours, language barriers, differing work
ethics and economic fluctuations.
Coaching can help prevent executive derailment; which, as some studies suggest, can
be as high as thirty-three per cent for senior executives.
Coaching helps managers develop better interpersonal skills. Some common reasons
for interpersonal conflict include executives being too abrasive, too controlling and too
isolated. Coaches work with executives to explore these behaviors, to recognize and
regulate their self-defeating beliefs, assumptions and actions.
Coaching helps leaders think and plan more strategically, manage risk more effectively,
and create and communicate vision and mission.
Coaching helps developing a culture of trust, commitment and personal responsibility,
both internally and with the external world of clients and customers.
Coaching enables the executive or manager to leverage his or her personal power more
Coaching can develop those leadership qualities that have been empirically proven to
be associated with success. These include: cognitive capacity, social capacities,
personality style, motivation, knowledge and expertise.
When is NLP coaching used
The breadth of executive coaching makes it impossible to nominate all areas the coach and
coached can explore. The following is a list of some of the major intervention areas of
executive coaching ( according with Richard Bandler& co, 1979, p190):
When there is a change in structure and an individual executive needs new skills for a
new position.
The high potential manager being groomed for promotion.
High performing executives whose personality style impacts negatively on his or her
relationship with peers, staff and clients.
Executives wishing to develop their career paths and prospects.
Increasing the individuals' capacity to manage an organization - planning, organizing,
controlling, visioning, developing others etc.
Increasing the executive's psychological and social mastery skills, such as self-
awareness, recognition of "blind spots" and defenses, limiting thoughts and emotional
Leadership, management and team building skills.
Working more effectively within a changing organizational structure.
Working with a leader to coach others in transition.

Now, more than at any time in human history, many approaches, old and new, are pointing
toward improvinghuman potential and increasing possibilities. We wanted to produce
results consistently, we wanted to know the difference that made the difference between an
occasional or temporary relief and a deep, lasting change. We wanted to be able to
deliberately facilitate transformational change.
That is the motive why we choose the nest case study. We wanted to teach others to do it
for themselves as well like in theory.

NLP in the employment interview

NLP Trainers S.R.L used NLP model and techniques for training and coaching
General information about the company
The name of the company: D. Consulting Company
Domain of activity: Consultancy and market research
Number of full-time employees: 60
Number of collaborators:150
Headquarters: Bucharest
Zonal centers: Timisoara, Iasi, Constanta, Cluj, Oradea

D. Consulting Company uses a large number of interviewing operators (IO-s) for collecting
primary data. In most cases they are external collaborators, paid according to their work
amount and their performance. The accuracy of the collected data is also an important
criterion. Sometimes difficulties may appear in selecting and maintaining the IO teams.
These fluctuations lead to problems in planning researches and in allocating human
resources. The most important task for the IO-s is to fill in interviewing forms.

The training program

NLP techniques were used at many levels in a complex talent-scouting program for the
most performing IO-s and also in rapid selection methods and training programs for new

NLP techniques used in this program:

The first model
The first model was used for recruiting.
Zonal managers that were responsible for recruiting and selecting the IO-s were trained to
identify in short time the preferential systems of the candidates. They observed that the
ones in an auditory mode communicated much better and, therefore, were preferred. The
interviewed persons were asked to talk about experiences of interpersonal communication.
The zonal managers were trained to observe predicates used in these stories, so that they
would learn about the preferential systems of the interviewed.
Another thing they have observed was the lateral movement of their eyeballs.

The second model

Training the IO-s
The training program was focused on efficient interaction with unknown persons. One
section in this program was The first 30 seconds!. This contains elements of nonverbal
communication, gestures, postures and attitudes related with NLP techniques.
The IO-s learned about the referential system and about using predicates for
identifying main VAK systems in the first 30 seconds they were face to face with the
persons they interviewed. They also learned how to use predicates of these persons
preferential systems the whole time they communicated with them and to ask for
information while they fill in the form.

Executive Summary
This report contains the results of a survey designed to understand participants views on
NLP, the program being provided by NLP Trainers. It is part of a broader exercise to
establish the value delivered.
Of the sample surveyed, all participants believe NLP to be very useful both personally and
professionally, and regard courses as enjoyable and effective methods for developing NLP
For many people, this program is the start of a process of acquiring NLP skills.
They are a catalyst for further development.
Some people identified small changes that could have improved their experience as
delegates, although these were highly personal and varied requests. However, a significant
proportion of attendees spontaneously requested some form of ongoing support mechanism
to help them continue to develop their skills and apply what theyve learned after the end
of the program.
With no exception, participants perceive there is value in courses for others in their
organizations. The range of roles identified as possible targets for the programmers is
broad, reflecting the general requirement for these skills in all professionals.

Results after one weeks training

The number of people giving up after two assignments dropped by 60%;
The precision of the interviews increased with an average 40%;
The number of professionals (IO-s who maintained contact with D. Consulting
Company for more than two years) also increased by 60%;
The time and effort that zonal Managers made for selecting / recruiting/ training
also decreased;
The company chose NLP techniques for their standard training methods in most of
their programs.

Key Findings: Perceived Value of Courses

With no exception, IO-s and zonal managers were highly positive about the course
experience. This suggests that the program is based on best practice training principles.
I found it very useful.
I enjoyed it and found it very interesting.
It was a worthwhile investment of time.


The range of positive comments about the program suggests that the participants found
NLP inspiring and they were encouraged to take their understanding further. Theres no
doubt that some form of practice community would increase the rate of application for
these tools. D. Consulting Company should decide what it wishes to do about this and
might use the existence of the group in marketing its program.
In terms of competencies, the improved results that participants say they are getting cover
every single competence. The courses are therefore great general skill builders. The
program is relatively intimate, and requires an open mind to get the best from them.
However, if the company can identify a particular group that is not getting the results they
should, (perhaps in customer service), a specialized course might be developed to solve the
problems. Such a course should be developed through NLP, modeling the strategies used
by people who are brilliant performers in the problem area.
Trainers should themselves develop a niche course to help others acquire these strategies.
In short, NLP programs appear to be highly fulfilling for participants and help people get
measurably different results in their professional lives.
Course handout designed for D. consulting Company
Excerpt from the zonal managers training handout

How to get into rapid rapport

Have you ever had the experience of meeting someone who you just click with? Those
situations where, even though you may be seeing them for the first time, this person feels
like an old friend? This is an example of what psychologists call rapport. Being able to get
into rapport with other people isnt just a key for successful influence; its also one of the
most fun, enjoyable & relaxing skills you can learn. People like to be around people who
can get into rapport with them. The researchers noticed that the people talking began
(unconsciously) to co-ordinate their movements (including finger movements, eye blinks
and head nods.) When they were monitored using electroencephalographs, it was found
that some of their brain waves were spiking at the same moment too. As the conversations
progressed, these people were getting into rapport with each other. Rapport has been
described as what happens when we get the attention of someones unconscious mind, and
meet them at their map of the world. It is more commonly understood as the sense of
ease and connection that develops when you are interacting with someone you trust and
feel comfortable with. Rapport emerges when people are in-sync with each other.
Any group of two or more people can be described as a system. Rapport is an emergent
property of the system, like a fit of the giggles or a pregnant pause. As such, its not
possible to cause or do rapport; you can however massively increase the likelihood of
rapport emerging when you are communicating with another person.
On a basic level, we like people who are like us. One way to help rapport to develop is to
mirror the micro-behaviors of those we wish to influence. Any observable behavior can be
mirrored, for example:
Body posture Facial expression
Hand gestures Breathing rate
Head tilt Energy level
Vocal qualities (pace, rhythm, tonality) Anything else that you can observe
Key phrases
Blink rate
To mirror another person, merely select the behavior or quality you wish to mirror, then do
that behavior. If you choose to mirror head tilt, when the person moves their head, wait a
few moments, then move yours to the same angle. The effect should be as though the other
person is looking in a mirror. When this is done elegantly, it is out of consciousness for the
other person. However, a few notes of caution are appropriate:
Mirroring is not the same as mimicry. It should be subtle and respectful.
Mirroring can lead to you sharing the other persons experience. Avoid mirroring
people who are in distress or who have severe mental issues.
Mirroring can build a deep sense of trust quickly. You have a responsibility to use it
Exercise 1
Practice mirroring the micro-behaviors of people on television (chat shows &
interviews are ideal.) You may be surprised at how quickly you can become
comfortable as you subtly mirror the behaviors of others.
Pacing and leading is one of the keys to influencing people. It refers to meeting them at
their map of the world (pacing) and then taking them where you want them to go
(leading.) Rapport is a basic, behavioral signal that you have met someone at their map of
the world. The simplest, most effective test for rapport is if you lead, they follow.
Exercise 2
Choose a safe situation to practice mirroring an element of someone elses
behavior. When you have mirrored them for a while, and think you are in rapport
with the person, scratch your nose. If they lift their hand to their face within the
next minute or so, congratulate yourself you have led their behavior!
Skilled communicators have a wide range of behaviors they can mirror to build rapport.
You can find a way to mirror virtually anything you can observe.
Exercise 3
Increase the range of behaviors that you can mirror, and introduce deliberate rapport-
building into situations where it will benefit you and others are familiar with rapport-
building techniques and are particularly aware of body posture mirroring. Cross-over
matching involves matching another persons behavior with a different behavior of your
own (e.g. matching their breathing rate to your head tilt, or their eye blinks to your foot-
taps.) This is a way of building rapport that is very difficult to detect, and still highly
Exercise 4
During a conversation with another person, choose one of their behaviors (eg.
breathing rate) to cross-over match with one of your behaviors (eg. speaking rate.)
Notice how quickly the sense of connection develops!
The fact that youve read this far means that you can see the benefits of increasing your
rapport skills. Reading is sadly not enough practice is the key to building skill, so do the
exercises. When you first start the practice of mirroring, you may have to pay some
conscious attention to what youre doing. After a while, however, you will start to catch
yourself doing it unconsciously. This is where you really begin to build rapport

Excerpt from the IO-s training handout

If there's anything that you want to get, or if there's anything you need, then you will
probably need someone's help in getting it. No matter what you do, the ability to develop
and maintain rapport with the large numbers of people of varying backgrounds will allow
you to get what you want. Having rapport with someone will allow you to do anything. So,
rapport is probably the most important skill on the planet.
The basis of rapport is that when people are like each other, they like each other. When
people are not like each other, they don't like each other. When you like someone, you are
willing to assist them in having whatever they want. Remember that 38% of all
communication is tone of voice, and 55% is physiology. So, most communication is
outside of our conscious awareness. A tremendous opportunity exists for communication
outside of normal channels, and that's what rapport is all about.
Too often, however, communication takes place in a system where people are
unconsciously mismatching modalities. So the first major element of rapport is to match
the modality the person is in. If you're meeting with someone, for example, who is in high
visual, and you're not quite there, sit up in your chair, breathe from the top of your lungs,
and be excited. Or at least act in a way that matches what they're doing. On the other hand,
if you're meeting with someone who is auditory, you want to slow down a bit, modulate
your voice more, and "listen, really listen." If you're meeting with someone who is
kinesthetic, slow waaay dooown. And talk to them about feelings. Actually change your
voice tone so that it matches theirs, and really "get a sense of it."
In each major representational system, people are using different words, different phrases
that actually reveal what's going on inside their heads.
The second element of rapport is physical mirroring of the individual's physiology.
Actually physically copying their posture, facial expressions, hand gestures and
movements, and their eye blinking will cause their body to say unconsciously to their
mind, "Hey, (s)he's like me!" It's undeniable to the nervous system.
The third element is to match their voice: The tone, tempo, timbre (quality of the voice),
and the volume. You can also match their key words. Perhaps they often say, "Actually."
You can use it in a sentence several times. Say it back to them.
The fourth element is to match their breathing. You can actually pace someone's
breathing by breathing at exactly the same time as they do (matching the in and out
breath). By matching their breathing, by pacing their breathing, you can then begin to lead
them out of the representational system they're in, into another one.
The fifth element is to match the size of the pieces of information (chunk size or level of
abstraction) they deal with. If someone usually deals in the big picture, they will probably
be bored with the details. On the other hand someone who is into details will find that
there's not enough information to deal with, if you only give them the big picture. So make
sure that you are matching the content chunks that the person deals with.
The sixth element is to match their common experiences. This is what's usually called
rapport. When people first meet, often their early relationship is about matching common
experiences, common interests, background, beliefs and values, their ideologies and
common associations.
Those are the critical elements of rapport. To establish rapport, the process is to match and
mirror completely, what the other person is doing. When I'm training people in rapport
skills they often ask, "Well how can I do that, they'll think I'm making fun of them." You
do need to be subtle when doing matching and mirroring, but typically most people are in a
trance when talking anyway. They're so caught up in what they're going to say next that
they are rarely fully aware of what you're doing. And if they do, you can have a good laugh
about it.
Calibration is one way of testing whether you're in rapport with someone. Simply, that
means you need to develop your sensory acuity to such an extent that you can begin to see
peoples reactions to your communication. Watch their eyes, the muscles around the eyes,
the lower lip, the color of the face and hands, the breathing. These are all indicators of
Rapport is an important process in both business and in interpersonal relationships.
1. Establish rapport with as many people as you can in the coming week. For
example, practice when you go into a restaurant: establish rapport with the maitre
d', and with your waiter or waitress.
2. Match and mirror someone near you in a restaurant, or wherever you are. Notice if
you're able to establish rapport.
3. When you're going up to a counter to purchase something, practice establishing
"instant" rapport (it's possible).
4. Watch people's physiology for a whole week. For example on Monday, watch
color; Tuesday, watch lower lips, etc.
To master the skill of rapport, it's important to learn the ability to gain instant rapport with
Glossary of NLP Terms
Accessing Cues:
Subtle behaviour that will both help to trigger and indicate which representational* system
a person is using to think with. Typical types of accessing cues include eye movements,
voice tone, tempo, body posture and breathing patterns.
The process of associating an internal response with an external trigger (similar to classical
conditioning). This means the response may be accessed quickly, and sometimes covertly.
Related to hearing or the sense of hearing. It is always worth ensuring that you develop
and use a vocabulary, which includes a full range of visual, auditory, kinesthetic, olfactory
and gustatory words youre likely to appeal to a wider audience.
as the specific physical actions and reactions through which we interact with people and
environment around us. Three NLP pre-suppositions (useful beliefs) specifically include
the word behaviour:
The positive worth of an individual is held constant, while the value and
appropriateness of internal or external behaviour is questioned
There is a positive intention motivating every behaviour, and a context in which every
behaviour has value
Feedback vs. Failure All results and behaviours are achievements, whether they are
desired outcomes for a given task/context or not.
Closely held generalisations about (1) cause, (2) meaning, (3) boundaries in a) the world
around us b) our behaviour c) our capabilities, and d) our identities. Beliefs function at a
different level to concrete reality and serve to guide and interpret our perceptions of reality.
The process of learning to read another person's unconscious, non-verbal responses in an
ongoing interaction by pairing observable cues with specific internal response.
Chunking and chunk size:
Organising or breaking down some experience into bigger or smaller pieces,
Chunking up involves moving to a larger more abstract level of information.
Chunking down involves moving to a more specific and concrete level of information
Chunking laterally involves finding other examples at the same level of information
When all of a persons internal beliefs, strategies and behaviors are fully in agreement and
orientated to securing a desired outcome. Many NLP techniques, for example - outcomes,
sub modalities and parts integration, can be used to help people become more congruent.
The context is the framework surrounding a particular event. This framework will often
determine how a particular experience or event is interpreted.
The values or standards a person uses to make decisions and judgments. It is usually
extremely useful to understand your own and other peoples criteria in both business and
personnel situations.
Deep structure:
The sensory maps (both conscious and unconscious) that people use to organise and guide
their behaviour. In NLP we use questions from the meta-model to check on distortions and
generalisations and recover some of the lost information from deletions.
Four Tuple (or 4-tuple):
A method used to notate the structure of any particular experience. The concept of the four
tuple maintains that any experience must be composed of some combination of the four
primary representational systems - A,V,K,O where A=auditory, V=visual, K=kinesthetic
and O=Olfactory and Gustatory.
Future Pacing:
The process of mentally rehearsing oneself through some future situation in order to
ensure that the desired behavior will occur naturally and automatically.
Relating to taste or the sense of taste. One of the (at least?) 5-senses which include visual,
auditory, kinesthetic, gustatory and smell. Gustatory words include sweet, bitter, salty and
The process of facilitating the acquisition of a new strategy or behavior. A new strategy
may be installed through some combination of NLP skills or techniques and/or any
combination thereof.
Relating to body sensations. In NLP the term kinesthetic is used to encompass all kinds of
feelings including tactile, visceral and emotional.
Meta Model:
The Meta model is a model developed by John Grinder and Richard Bandler that defines
syntactic environments by which one can detect and challenge deletions, generalizations
and distortions.
Meta Programs:
A process by which one sorts through multiple generalizations simultaneously. As such,
Meta programs control how and when a person will engage any set of strategies in a given
Stories, parables and analogies
The act of creating a calculus which describes a given system.
NLP came from modelling successful people. From our point of view a model doesn't need
to be 'true' it just needs to work!
Neuro-Linguistic Programming
The study of the structure of subjective experience and what can be calculated from that.
Olfactory - relating to the sense of smell
While we tend to concentrate on the visual, auditory and kinesthetic aspects of any
experience its worth remerging both the olfactory and gustatory senses, which when they
are present can be very powerful. Adding one or two olfactory and or gustatory words can
even add an enticing taste to a business presentation.
Outcomes - Goals or desired states that a person aspires to achieve
I find one of the most satisfying aspects of NLP is to help people (enjoyably) explore what
they really want.
Parts - A metaphorical way talking about independent programmes and strategies of
Transactional analysis talks about your 'parent, adult and child' parts.
Rapport - The presence of trust, harmony and cooperation in a relationship.
In NLP this is normally achieved by adjusting some aspect of your behaviour to be similar
to some aspects of another's behaviour. This may include your body posture, body
movement, voice quality or breathing rate.
Secondary Gain
Where some seemingly negative or problematic behavior carries out some positive
function at some level
The total ongoing mental and physical condition from which a person is acting.State is one
of the most important concepts in NLP
A set of explicit mental and behavioral steps used to achieve a specific
The special sensory qualities perceived by each of the five senses. For example, visual sub-
modalities include colour, shape, movement, brightness, depth etc., auditory sub-modalities
include volume, pitch, tempo etc., and kinesthetic sub-modalities include pressure,
temperature, texture, location etc.
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