Anda di halaman 1dari 63

ESc201 : Introduction to Electronics

Sinusoidal Steady state Analysis

Shilpi Gupta
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
IIT Kanpur

Jan 25, 2017


1
2
Communication

20 Hz -20KHz

3
4
So as a sinusoidal signal goes through a circuit, it remains a
sinusoid

This makes analysis easier

5
VIN

VC

VL
6
VIN

VC

VL

Voltage everywhere in the circuit is sinusoidal 7


Transient and Forced Response

8
Transient and Forced Response

9
10
Canonical Form

11
VM

Canonical Form

12
Example-1

What is the amplitude, phase, angular frequency, time period,


frequency?

Amplitude = 5 ; Phase = -150o


Phase in radians:
360o = 2

13
Example-2 Find the phase difference between the two currents

Canonical Form

Which signal leads and by how


much?
14
15
Voltage leads current by 90o or lags current by 270o ?
Phase difference is usually considered between -180 to 180o
Add or subtract 360o to bring the phase between -180 to 18016o
Does i2 lead i1 ?

i1 leads i2 by 155o

17
Power dissipation with sinusoidal Voltage

18
Power dissipation with sinusoidal Voltage

19
Average
X: x1, x2, x3 N

If X is continuous, its average over a time t1

For periodic signals

20
Average Power

We would like to express it like the dc power dissipated in a resistor

21
This is true for any periodic waveform
RMS Value of a Sinusoid

22
Power dissipation with sinusoidal Voltage

23
Example-3

Solving such circuits requires us to add/subtract sinusoids !

24
Performing algebra on sinusoids by representing them as
complex numbers

Strategy

Sinusoidal Complex Perform Algebra on


variables variables Complex variables

Transform complex variable


Back to sinusoid
25
26
27
28
|z|

Polar form:
29
Rectangular Polar form

30
Rectangular Polar form:

Be careful while determining


the phase angle

31
?

32
33
To add or subtract two complex numbers, convert
them first into rectangular form and then perform
the operation

34
35
Phasor
36
37
38
Complex Impedances
For the purpose of sinusoidal steady state analysis, inductors
and capacitors can be represented as Complex Impedances

39
40
This is like ohms law relationship between phasor
41
voltage and current
Example-4
i(t)

V rad/s

A
42
Experiment 3
Time Response of RC and RL Circuits
(Jan 30-Feb 3, 2017)
Circuits that can do Mathematics
Quick Quiz
What is the difference between
AC mode and DC mode of DSO?
RC Integrator
T >>
Vmax

vc(tB)

vc(tA) vc(tC)
Vmin
tA tB tC
t tA
vc (t ) Vmax vc (t A ) Vmax e

tA tB tC
Determining:
1 kHz

5 kHz
25 kHz

50 kHz
RC Differentiator
Higher frequencies pass through
Freq: 25 kHz
Frequency = 500 Hz
0 to 10 V input signal
2.7 V 7.3 V

Any observations?
RL Integrator
Determine
RL Differentiator
RL Differentiator

Freq: 10 kHz
RL Differentiator
Freq: 100 kHz
Skip Section C (Frequency Response) of Expt.
3, mentioned in the handout, next week
Have a good time