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ESc201 : Introduction to Electronics

Shilpi Gupta
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
IIT Kanpur

Jan 25, 2017

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Communication

20 Hz -20KHz

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So as a sinusoidal signal goes through a circuit, it remains a
sinusoid

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VIN

VC

VL
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VIN

VC

VL

Voltage everywhere in the circuit is sinusoidal 7

Transient and Forced Response

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Transient and Forced Response

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Canonical Form

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VM

Canonical Form

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Example-1

frequency?

Amplitude = 5 ; Phase = -150o

360o = 2

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Example-2 Find the phase difference between the two currents

Canonical Form

Which signal leads and by how

much?
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Voltage leads current by 90o or lags current by 270o ?
Phase difference is usually considered between -180 to 180o
Add or subtract 360o to bring the phase between -180 to 18016o

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Power dissipation with sinusoidal Voltage

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Power dissipation with sinusoidal Voltage

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Average
X: x1, x2, x3 N

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Average Power

We would like to express it like the dc power dissipated in a resistor

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This is true for any periodic waveform
RMS Value of a Sinusoid

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Power dissipation with sinusoidal Voltage

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Example-3

Solving such circuits requires us to add/subtract sinusoids !

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Performing algebra on sinusoids by representing them as
complex numbers

Strategy

Sinusoidal Complex Perform Algebra on

variables variables Complex variables

Transform complex variable

Back to sinusoid
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|z|

Polar form:
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Rectangular Polar form

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Rectangular Polar form:

Be careful while determining

the phase angle

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?

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To add or subtract two complex numbers, convert
them first into rectangular form and then perform
the operation

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Phasor
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Complex Impedances
For the purpose of sinusoidal steady state analysis, inductors
and capacitors can be represented as Complex Impedances

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This is like ohms law relationship between phasor
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voltage and current
Example-4
i(t)

A
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Experiment 3
Time Response of RC and RL Circuits
(Jan 30-Feb 3, 2017)
Circuits that can do Mathematics
Quick Quiz
What is the difference between
AC mode and DC mode of DSO?
RC Integrator
T >>
Vmax

vc(tB)

vc(tA) vc(tC)
Vmin
tA tB tC
t tA
vc (t ) Vmax vc (t A ) Vmax e

tA tB tC
Determining:
1 kHz

5 kHz
25 kHz

50 kHz
RC Differentiator
Higher frequencies pass through
Freq: 25 kHz
Frequency = 500 Hz
0 to 10 V input signal
2.7 V 7.3 V

Any observations?
RL Integrator
Determine
RL Differentiator
RL Differentiator

Freq: 10 kHz
RL Differentiator
Freq: 100 kHz
Skip Section C (Frequency Response) of Expt.
3, mentioned in the handout, next week
Have a good time