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ESc201 : Introduction to Electronics

Diodes

Shilpi Gupta
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
IIT Kanpur

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Diode
Anode
Cathode

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PN Junction Diode

Inside a PN junction at equilibrium (zero applied voltage), there


is built-in voltage with N region being positive and P-region
negative.

- - + +
P - - + + N

- - + +
The built-in voltage (also called potential barrier) prevents
electrons and holes to give rise to current. 3
Simplified Picture

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Extrinsic Semiconductors

Adding small amounts of suitable impurity atom can drastically alter number of
electrons and holes in a semiconductor !

Addition of a group V element impurity to Silicon should increase electrons


while addition of group III element impurity should increase number of
holes
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Doping

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B

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N and P-type Semiconductors

N-type : n>p

A Semiconductor such as Silicon doped with a donor impurity such as


Phosphorous or Arsenic from group V of periodic table. The donor impurity
donates an electron to conduction band thereby increasing their concentration

P-type : p>n

A Semiconductor such as Silicon doped with a Acceptor impurity such as Boron


from group III of periodic table. The acceptor impurity increases number of
holes in valence band.

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No. of silicon atoms per unit volume ~

Impurity concentration :

1 in 400,000 Silicon atoms is replaced by Boron

Very small amounts of impurity atoms can cause a drastic change


in electrical property of a semiconductor.

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PN Junction Diode

Inside a PN junction at equilibrium (zero applied voltage), there


is built-in voltage with N region being positive and P-region
negative.

- - + +
P - - + + N

- - + +
The built-in voltage (also called potential barrier) prevents
electrons and holes to give rise to current. 10
Forward and Reverse Bias

Forward Bias: P is biased at a higher voltage compared to N.


It lowers the built-in potential and allows current to flow.

Reverse Bias: N is biased at a higher voltage compared to P.


This increases built-in potential and very little current flows. 11
0.20
Diode : 1N4001
0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00

-0.05
Reverse Bias Forward Bias
-0.10

-0.15

-0.20
-2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Voltage (V)

The p-n junction only conducts significant current in the


forward-bias region. 12
Breakdown

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Diode : I-V Characteristics

Is : Reverse Saturation Current


id:diode current; vd: applied voltage

n is called ideality factor and is equal to 1 for ideal diodes 14


Forward Bias

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Reverse Bias

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Analysis using non-linear diode model is not easy

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Iterative Method:

Assume

Calculate

Re-calculate

Convergence:

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VO = 0.5 VO = 0.711 VO = 0.707

I = 1.5 x 10-3 I = 1.289 x 10-3 I = 1.293 x 10-3

VO = 0.711 VO = 0.707 VO = 0.707

VO nVT ln(I IS 1)
CONVERGENCE 21
VO = 1.0 VO = 0.7 VO = 0.707

I = 1.0 x 10-3 I = 1.3 x 10-3 I = 1.293 x 10-3

VO = 0.7 VO = 0.707 VO = 0.707


VO nVT ln(I IS 1)

CONVERGENCE to the same Result 22


Graphical Method: Method of Load Line

VS/R
solution

VS VO

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How about something that is

simple & easy to work with

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Analysis using a non-linear diode model is relatively difficult and
time consuming.

It also does not give a symbolic expression that can provide


insight and help in the design of the circuit.

Need SIMPLER and LINEAR Device Models

V rf
V>V

V<V
open circuit 25
I Piece-Wise Linear Model

Slope = 1/rf

V V

V is called cut-in or turn-on voltage and depends on nature of


diode and range of current considered
For most of our analysis, we will take V = 0.7V and rf ~10 26
Even Simpler Diode Models

V V

Constant voltage drop model


V
I
V>V

V<V
open circuit V 27
V
Even Simpler Diode Models

Ideal diode model

V
V
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Diode Models

Simplicity
Accuracy

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Analysis using ideal diode model

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Analysis with a constant voltage diode model

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Analysis with a constant voltage plus resistor
diode model

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Example

Find the current


through the diode
using ideal diode
model

Is the diode forward biased? Not Sure!!

Assume that it is forward biased

Carry out analysis and then check if current through the diode is in
appropriate direction.

If not, diode is reverse biased and we carry out the analysis


again!! 33
Example

Assume forward bias

10V

iD
2mA 5K

Current is positive, so our


assumption is correct 34
Example Find the current through the 5K resistor using ideal
diode model

Assume forward bias

5K

5K

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5K
iD

This is not possible.

Therefore, our assumption


is incorrect 5K

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5K

Assume reverse bias


V1 V1 10
2mA 0
5k 5k
V1 V2
V1 0
5K
V2 10V
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Announcements

1. Assignment-5 uploaded on course website.

2. Major Quiz-2 on Feb 14, 2017 (Tue) during tutorial slot.

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DC Power Supply

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Half wave Rectifier circuit

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vO

vS

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Transformer

Vin

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Half Wave Rectifier

Vin

VO
0.7V
VIN R

For VO to be 12V, the input VIN should be


~12.7V 43
V0=VIN - 0.7

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Zoomed view

V0=VIN - 0.7

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N1 N2
VO
D
VS R

Want to hold that voltage


during negative half cycle

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