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ESc201 : Introduction to Electronics

DC Power Supply

Shilpi Gupta
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
IIT Kanpur

1
Recap: Diode Models

Simplicity
Accuracy

2
2
Recap: Half wave Rectifier circuit

3
vO

vS

4
Transformer

Vin

5
Recap: Half Wave Rectifier

Vin

VO
0.7V
VIN R

For VO to be 12V, the input VIN should be


~12.7V 6
V0=VIN - 0.7

7
N1 N2
VO
D
VS R

Want to hold that voltage


during negative half cycle

8
Diode is forward biased Diode is reverse biased 9
Output has a ripple

VM

VL

10
What does ripple voltage depend on?

11
VM

VL

t=0 t=t1

Assuming that t1 << RL C 12


T
VM

VL

t=0 t=t1

13
Example

VM

VL

14
Example

Changing Capacitor Value from 100 uF to 500 uF


VM
VL

15
Design Example
Design a power supply that will supply 6V to a load of 100
with ripple voltage less than 0.1V.

+
50 Hz
Vin

For VO to be 6V, the input VIN should be ~6.7V

How do we choose a diode for this application?


16
How do we choose a diode for this application?

Peak diode current, average diode current and peak inverse voltage

17
Diode forward bias current

t=0 18
VM

VL

t=- t t=0

VM
iD max C 2VrVM
RL 19
Peak Diode Current

20
Average Diode Currents

t=- t t=0

21
Peak and Average Diode Currents

N1 N2
VO
D
VS 1K
500 F

Vr 0.438V
iD max 545mA
Peak diode current increases as ripple reduces22
Peak Inverse Voltage

-
Vm
+

V
23
Peak Inverse Voltage

-12.7 12

- +
Vm
+
-
12+12.7=24.7V

24
Full wave Rectifier

+- OFF
ON

-+ OFF ON

25
26
N1 N2
VO

D1 RL C
VS

t1
RL C
Vr VM VL VM (1 e )
D2

27
Comparison of Full and Half Wave Rectifier

28
Diode Currents in Full wave Rectifier

D2 D1

29
Peak Inverse Voltage

+
Vm +
- VM = Vm-V
-
+
Vm
-
OFF

Vm +VD +Vm-V = 0

30
Experiment 5
(Feb 13-17, 2017)
Diode Characteristics
and
DC Power Supplies
Concepts
Diode Characteristics
I-V characteristics
Knee voltage
Forward resistance
Zener breakdown voltage
DC Power Supplies
Half-wave and Full-wave Rectifiers
Capacitive Filter
Ripple voltage and Diode current
Plot the I-V characteristics
Change V1
Measure VD and ID
Plot on a graph sheet
How to measure VD?

CH1 of DSO
(X)
How to measure ID?

Q
Difference R
Amplifier
P

1 mA of current through R1
gives VR = 1 V at R
Difference Amplifier
Two inputs (P and Q) and one output (R)
+12 V 12 V

Q
R
DA

P
The complete Circuit

VA CH2

VD CH1
Record the results
DSO in XY mode; observe and sketch the I-V
characteristics
Estimate the knee voltage V
Choose 0.5V/div or 0.2V/div for CH2
Estimate the forward resistance by measuring
the slope of the I-V curve (choose a linear
region)
Zoom in to make accurate measurement
DC Power Supplies
The aim of this experiment is to familiarize you with various
parts of un-regulated DC power supplies and their
characteristics.

CAUTION:
The circuit under test can provide enough power to
heat some components and burn them, or blow the
fuse. So be extremely careful and doubly ensure that
your wiring is correct.
Do not
short circuit the outputs of
the transformer or the rectifier
Step-down Transformer
The transformer itself is hidden from your
view
Terminals A, B, and GND and the switches S1
and S2 are available on the front panel
Turn these switches off when the power supply is
not being used.
Half- and Full-wave Rectifiers
Half-wave rectifier with a filter
Observe and sketch output voltage and diode
current
Measure peak-to-peak ripple voltage and peak
diode current
Agree with theory?
Attention!!
Make sure that the polarity of the capacitor is
correct
Do not connect/remove a capacitor with the
power supply on
To CRO
D1
A

RL
+
Input
100 _C Output

GND RS
To CRO
1
Full-wave rectifier with a filter
Observe and sketch output voltage and diode
current
Measure peak-to-peak ripple voltage and peak
diode current
Effect of C?
Comparison with
half-wave rectifier?
Planning helps, does it?
Component Plots Calculate
Diode I-V V , Rf
Zener Diode I-V V , Rf, VZ, RZ
Half-wave Rectifier Vi, Vo -
Full-wave Rectifier Vi, Vo -
Half-wave Rectifier with C=330 F Vo, iD VR, iD,Max
Full-wave Rectifier with C=100 F Vo, iD VR, iD,Max Compare
Full-wave Rectifier with C=330 F Vo, iD VR, iD,Max
Full-wave Rectifier with C=1000 F Vo, iD VR, iD,Max
Let us generate clean power