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Robert R. Martin and Ioannis E.

USDA-ARS Horticultural Crops Research Laboratory, Corvallis, OR
and Oregon State University, Corvallis

Commercial strawberry (Fragaria symptoms in clones of F. vesca and F. berry latent C virus (SLCV). SCV,
ananassa Duchesne), which originated in virginiana plants induced when graft in- SMYEV, SMoV, and SVBV have been
Europe around 1750, is a hybrid between oculated with various viruses (18). Since considered the four most economically
F. virginiana Duchesne from North Amer- the last review on strawberry viruses (81), important viruses of strawberry in the ma-
ica and F. chiloensis (L.) Duchesne from significant progress has been made in the jority of production areas (8,81). These
South America. Today F. ananassa is molecular characterization of the aphid- viruses are generally less important in
grown worldwide for the red fruit that is borne viruses, the identification and char- annual cropping systems, because the
consumed fresh or used in jam, yogurt, ice acterization of several whitefly-borne vi- plants are not grown in the field as long
cream, and baked goods (12). White and ruses, and the molecular characterization and there is less opportunity to get multi-
red-fruited F. chiloensis, known for its of viruses associated with several of the ple infections, which are required for
intense fragrance and flavor, is cultivated graft transmissible virus-like diseases of symptom expression in most cultivars of F.
in parts of South America; whereas another strawberry. Prior to 1998, molecular data ananassa. Nevertheless, it is important,
species, F. vesca L. Alpine strawberry, is existed only for Strawberry mild yellow even in annual production systems, to con-
grown on small farms in parts of Europe. edge virus (SMYEV) (9,35). Currently, trol the aphid vectors (primarily Chaetosi-
Strawberries are propagated vegetatively molecular-based reverse transcription phon fragaefolii) in order to reduce virus
and are subject to infection by viruses polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) de- infections. With the increase in whitefly-
during plant propagation and fruit produc- tection methods are available for most of transmitted viruses in Mediterranean and
tion stages. Reports of initial detections, the viruses known to infect strawberry. The subtropical climates, aphid control be-
symptoms, severities, and/or vectors for goals of this paper are to review symptoms comes more critical, as mixed infections of
more than 30 viruses, virus-like diseases, induced by the viruses, describe advances the aphid- and whitefly-transmitted viruses
and phytoplasmas affecting Fragaria spp. in the detection of strawberry viruses, and may lead to significant yield losses. It is
have been reviewed (8,81). Photographs of demonstrate the application of these tests also critical to keep plants virus-free dur-
the symptoms caused by strawberry vi- for characterizing the cause of recent out- ing the propagation phase, where plants
ruses have been published in those reports breaks of a decline disorder in strawberry are grown for increase in the field for sev-
and will not be duplicated here. Only vi- in the western United States and Canada. eral years. Breeders have been effective at
ruses will be considered in this article, This disorder, in which plants develop a developing tolerance, and most strawberry
because excellent work has been published reddish coloration of the leaves, the roots cultivars grown today do not exhibit symp-
on phytoplasmas in strawberry (1,29, appear to stop growing, the plants get pro- toms when infected with a single aphid- or
37,115). The names, acronyms, vectors, gressively weaker and in some cases die whitefly-transmitted virus. However, under
classification, and laboratory-based meth- (Fig. 1), has been observed in a number of field conditions, these viruses often occur
ods available for detection of the viruses cultivars in California. A similar decline in complexes that may result in foliar
discussed below are summarized in Table 1. also has been observed in Oregon, Wash- symptoms and plant decline. These four
Initially, many of the virus diseases of ington, and British Columbia in cultivars major aphid-transmitted viruses have been
strawberry were described based upon such as Totem, Rainier, Puget Reli- studied in greatest detail and can be sepa-
ance, and Puget Beauty (Fig. 2). rated in the laboratory using serial trans-
missions by the common strawberry aphid
Aphid-Transmitted Viruses (C. fragaefolii) onto indicator plants (81).
Corresponding author: Robert R. Martin
E-mail: Seven aphid-transmitted viruses are re- Precautions should be taken when carrying
ported in strawberry: Strawberry crinkle out these experiments, since there may be
virus (SCV), SMYEV, Strawberry mottle considerable differences in transmission
DOI: 10.1094 / PD-90-0384 virus (SMoV), Strawberry vein banding efficiency among virus isolates and a sin-
This article is in the public domain and not copy- virus (SVBV), Strawberry pseudo mild gle colony of C. fragaefolii or between
rightable. It may be freely reprinted with custom-
ary crediting of the source. The American Phyto-
yellow edge virus (SPMYEV), Strawberry several colonies of C. fragaefolii and a
pathological Society, 2006. chlorotic fleck virus (SCFV), and Straw- single virus isolate. Laboratory tests, either

384 Plant Disease / Vol. 90 No. 4

RT-PCR or ELISA, are available for each increased (42). Under cooler temperatures, Chile (31). Conflicting reports on the eco-
of these viruses, with the exception of transmission efficiency decreases (42). nomic impact of SMYEV probably result
SLCV. This longer latent period may explain the from differences in virus strains, cultivars
Strawberry crinkle virus (SCV). SCV lack of SCV in many cooler strawberry evaluated, the likelihood that mixed infec-
was first reported in Oregon in 1932 (113) production areas. tions often occur in the field resulting in
and in Great Britain in 1934 (62). In both The entire nucleotide sequence of SCV synergistic effects with SMYEV, and envi-
cases, mild and severe forms of the virus has been determined, and it shows signifi- ronmental conditions in the different stud-
were reported, suggesting that there were cant homology to the cytorhabdoviruses ies. Reported yield losses have ranged
probably mixed infections. SCV occurs in Northern cereal mosaic virus and Lettuce from 0 to 30%. SMYEV is vectored effi-
strawberry in areas where the strawberry necrotic yellows virus (74). It has a single- ciently in a persistent manner by aphids in
aphid is found, and is one of the most stranded minus-sense RNA genome of the genus Chaetosiphon. Therefore, in
damaging viruses of strawberry. All spe- 14,547 nucleotides that contains seven areas where these aphids do not occur, the
cies of Fragaria are susceptible to SCV. open reading frames in the complementary use of virus-free planting material will be
Great losses result from mixed infections RNA. RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR de- an effective management strategy. There is
of SCV with pallidosis virus and/or one or tection assays for SCV have been reported no known resistance to SMYEV in the
more of the other aphid-borne viruses. by several groups (57,65,89). Using RT- genus Fragaria, but most cultivars grown
However, severe strains of SCV can cause PCR assays, it was found that all Totem today are tolerant to infection with this
disease symptoms on infected cultivars and plants with decline symptoms in British virus by itself. Sensitive cultivars such as
reduce yield and fruit size. Sensitive F. Columbia (B.C.), Canada, and Washing- Hood, Puget Beauty, and Marshall
vesca clones are reliable indicators for ton, USA, were infected with SCV as well develop dwarfing, marginal chlorosis, leaf
SCV infection, and symptoms include: as with SMoV and SMYEV. Many of the distortion, and small fruit, whereas tolerant
deformed leaves and distorted petioles, asymptomatic plants in the same fields cultivars such as Totem and Sumas do
leaflets with chlorotic spots that are often were infected with SMoV and SMYEV. not show symptoms if infected doubly by
uneven in size, distorted, and crinkled, Previously, only the latter two viruses and SMYEV and SMoV or SVBV. However,
distorted petioles, and size reduction of SVBV had been detected in B.C. (81). The infection by severe strains of three or more
leaves. In addition, necrotic lesions on occurrence of SCV in B.C. may be due to of these viruses leads to a decline of these
runners, petioles, and petals often appear the existence of new strains of SCV, new cultivars.
on indicators. SCV can be transmitted biotypes of the aphid vector, warmer tem- Symptoms of SMYEV are similar on F.
mechanically from strawberry to Nicotiana peratures that allow a shorter latent period vesca UC-4, UC-5, and Alpine seed-
occidentalis P1 and then to Physalis pu- and thus more efficient transmission of the lings, while UC-6 is usually symptom-
bescens (41). SCV caused local lesions virus, resistance to chemicals used for less. Symptoms first appear 8 to 10 days
and systemic symptoms on N. occidentalis aphid control, or a combination of these after inoculation with severe strains;
P1 and systemic symptoms on P. pubes- factors. whereas mild strains may induce delayed
cens, which was used for purification and Strawberry mild yellow edge virus or no symptoms. The use of F. vesca
characterization of the virus. (SMYEV). Strawberry mild yellow edge EMC, which is infected with the latent A
The virus is transmitted in a replicative disease (SMYED) was first reported in strain of SCV, may increase sensitivity to
persistent manner by aphids in the genus California in 1922 (33) and in Europe in very mild strains of SMYEV. Initial symp-
Chaetosiphon. In C. fragaefolii, the major 1933 (27), and it is one of the most wide- toms on standard, healthy indicators in-
aphid vector, SCV has a latent period of 10 spread virus diseases of cultivated straw- clude epinasty of the newly emerging
to 19 days under optimal conditions; at berry. It also occurs in F. chiloensis in leaves together with small chlorotic flecks.
cooler temperatures the latent period is areas remote from cultivated strawberry in As the symptoms develop, the chlorosis

Table 1. Strawberry viruses, names, acronyms, natural modes of transmission, genera, and means of laboratory detectiona
Mode of Laboratory
Virus name Acronym transmission Genus detectionb
Apple mosaic ApMV Pollen, seed Ilarvirus ELISA, RT-PCR
Arabis mosaic ArMV Nematode, seed Nepovirus ELISA, RT-PCR
Beet pseudo-yellows BPYV Whitefly Crinivirus RT-PCR
Fragaria chiloensis cryptic FClCV Unknown Unknown RT-PCR
Fragaria chiloensis latent FClLV Pollen, seed Ilarvirus ELISA, RT-PCR
Raspberry ringspot RpRSV Nematode, seed Nepovirus ELISA, RT-PCR
Strawberry chlorotic fleck StCFV Aphid Closterovirus RT-PCR
Strawberry crinkle SCV Aphid Cytorhabdovirus RT-PCR
Strawberry feather leaf NA Unknown Unknown NA
Strawberry latent StLV Unknown Cripavirus RT-PCR
Strawberry latent C SLCV Aphid Nucleorhabdovirus NA
Strawberry latent ringspot SLRSV Nematode, seed Sadwavirus ELISA, RT-PCR
Strawberry mild yellow edge SMYEV Aphid Potexvirus ELISA, RT-PCR
Strawberry mottle SMoV Aphid Sadwavirus RT-PCR
Strawberry necrotic shock SNSV Thrips, pollen, seed Ilarvirus ELISA, RT-PCR
Strawberry pallidosis associated SPaV Whitefly Crinivirus RT-PCR
Strawberry pseudo mild yellow edge SPMYEV Aphid Carlavirus ELISA
Strawberry vein banding SVBV Aphid Caulimovirus PCR
Tobacco necrosis TNV Oomycete Necrovirus ELISA, RT-PCR
Tomato black ring TBRV Nematode, seed Nepovirus ELISA, RT-PCR
Tomato ringspot ToRSV Nematode, seed Nepovirus ELISA, RT-PCR
a NA = not available, indicates the virus disease has been described in the literature but that the authors are unaware of a known isolate of the virus
currently maintained in a collection.
b Detection methods listed do not include sap inoculation, graft transmission, or vector transmission to indicator plants.

Plant Disease / April 2006 385

Fig. 1. Decline symptoms in strawberry plants near Watsonville, CA, U.S.A.: A, production field showing reddening, uneven
growth, and decline associated with infection by multiple strawberry viruses in Ventana; B, several plants of Ventana at various
stages of decline; C, close-up of Camarosa strawberry plant that exhibits reddening, stunted and distorted leaves, and small

Fig. 2. Symptoms of decline in Totem strawberry in British Columbia, Canada showing: A, vein reddening; B, leaf distortion, vein
reddening, and lesions on petioles all associated with multiple virus infection.

386 Plant Disease / Vol. 90 No. 4

increases and gradually becomes necrotic. and the presence of other viruses, only low incidence in strawberry fields, but
Interveinal necrosis follows, and eventu- tolerant cultivars can be grown without under extreme aphid pressure, the inci-
ally the entire leaf collapses. New leaves extensive use of insecticides for vector dence can approach 100% in third-year
continue to emerge and go through the control. Because SMoV is transmitted by fields (92). SVBV is vectored primarily by
same cycle of symptom development. A. gossypii, this virus can be common in Chaetosiphon spp. in a semipersistent
Eight to 12 weeks after infection with areas where the strawberry aphid does not manner. It also can be transmitted by
severe strains of SMYEV, leaves that de- occur, although it should not be a problem aphids in five other genera, but their effi-
veloped prior to infection appear healthy, a because most cultivars are tolerant to in- ciency of transmission is low. It is likely
ring of dead leaves exists and the younger fection by SMoV alone. that Chaetosiphon spp. are the most impor-
leaves exhibit the range of symptoms de- Both F. vesca and F. virginiana clones tant vectors of SVBV in the field; however,
scribed above. The lack of symptoms on are sensitive indicators for SMoV and in situations where other less efficient
grafted UC-6 plants is helpful in identify- produce a range of symptoms following vectors reach high populations, they could
ing SMYEV. inoculation by leaflet grafting or aphid have an important impact on the epidemi-
SMYEV was the first strawberry virus transmission. F. vesca Alpine and clone ology of the disease. In areas where Chae-
cloned and sequenced (31). It is a member UC-5 are the most frequently used indi- tosiphon spp. are not found, control with
of the genus Potexvirus in the family Flex- cator plants for SMoV. Symptoms usually virus-free planting stock usually provides
iviridae, and has a single-stranded posi- appear on F. vesca plants 7 to 10 days excellent control of this virus. SVBV was
tive-sense RNA containing 5,966 nucleo- following inoculation, but may take longer reported to reduce runner production,
tides excluding the 3 poly A-tail, that has for mild isolates. Symptoms on indicator yield, and fruit quality in the United States
five open reading frames. Using a full- clones range from barely discernible, to in commercial fields of Marshall, Ti-
length infectious clone of SMYEV, it was mild leaf mottle, to severe stunting and oga, and more recently in Carlsbad.
shown that this potexvirus was capable of distortion, to plant death. The use of serial Symptoms also developed in SVBV-
causing SMYED in indicator plants (43) transmissions by aphid vectors has shown infected Gaviota, Cuesta, Pacifica,
(Fig. 3). This was surprising, because it that individual plants from the field often and Selva. However, in most cultivars
has long been known that field isolates of carry a range of SMoV isolates, probably grown currently, SVBV is symptomless.
the causal agent of SMYED are transmit- an indication of mixed infections with Mixed infections of SVBV with SCV or
ted in a persistent manner by the straw- SMYEV or SVBV. Strawberry latent C virus led to more se-
berry aphid, and it was anticipated that the The complete nucleotide sequence of vere losses; whereas interactions with
causal agent would be a luteovirus. The SMoV has been determined (88), and the SMoV, SMYEV, or Strawberry pallidosis
potexvirus is not aphid-transmissible from sequence suggests SMoV is a member of associated virus(es) result in a mild disease
symptomatic plants inoculated with the the Sadwavirus genus in the family Se- (46).
infectious clone, which suggests that there quiviridae. It has a bipartite genome with F. vesca and F. virginiana indicator
may be a helper virus that provides aphid single-stranded positive-sense RNAs of clones all develop symptoms when in-
transmission in the field. Some evidence of 7,036 and 5,619 nucleotides, respectively, fected with SVBV; UC-6 and UC-12
a luteovirus associated with SMYED ex- excluding the poly-A tail. Nucleotide se- are the most sensitive of the two indicator
ists, including the presence of isometric quence identity in a 327-base region of the species. The intensity of symptom devel-
particles (47) and size and pattern of large coat protein gene varied by as much opment varies depending on the virus iso-
dsRNA (80). However, attempts to identify as 25% among 16 geographically diverse late and the indicator used. Three types of
a luteovirus or other helper virus in plants isolates of SMoV (87). Based on con- symptoms are known to be caused by dif-
infected with SMYEV have not been suc- served nucleotide sequence in the 3 non- ferent strains of SVBV: (i) vein banding,
cessful. SMYEV has been purified and coding region, primers have been devel- (ii) leaf curl, and (iii) necrosis. Vein band-
used to produce monoclonal antibodies oped that allowed detection of these same ing symptoms, seen as chlorotic banding
that can be used to detect a range of iso- 16 isolates with a single primer pair, a along the primary and secondary veins, are
lates from geographically diverse areas good tool for general detection (87). most intense in the first few leaves that
(69). SMYEV can be detected readily by Strawberry vein banding virus (SVBV). develop after grafting. Leaves that develop
RT-PCR or ELISA (69,89) and has been SVBV is the least common of the four later may show discontinuous streaks
detected in all sources of SMYED charac- major aphid-transmitted viruses of straw- along the veins, mild chlorosis along the
terized by symptoms on indicator plants. berry and was first described in 1955 (16). veins, or no symptoms. The vein banding
Strawberry mottle virus (SMoV). SVBV usually occurs sporadically and at a symptoms tend to be more severe with
SMoV was first recognized as a distinct
virus in 1946 when it was separated from
mild yellow edge based on the differ-
ence in aphid transmission properties (67).
It is the most common virus of strawberry
and occurs naturally in the genus Fragaria
wherever strawberries are grown. Numer-
ous strains of SMoV exist, and most are
symptomless in strawberry cultivars, but
severe strains may reduce vigor and yield
by up to 30% (22). In nature, SMoV is
vectored in a semi-persistent manner by
the aphids Chaetosiphon sp. and Aphis
gossypii. The virus can be acquired and
transmitted with feeding times of a few
minutes. In areas where Chaetosiphon spp.
are the major vectors, the potential for
simultaneous transmission of the other
aphid-borne viruses of strawberry may Fig. 3. Fragaria vesca inoculated with full-length clone of Strawberry mild yellow edge
result in a greater impact on yield. In areas virus (SMYEV) (left) and uninoculated (right), demonstrating that the strawberry mild
with high populations of the aphid vectors yellow edge potexvirus is capable of causing typical symptoms of the disease.

Plant Disease / April 2006 387

isolates from the western United States open reading frame (46,56,89). A second and an antiserum developed (110).
compared with those from the eastern virus may be associated with vein banding SPMYEV can be detected by ELISA or
United States. Symptoms of necrosis may in Europe, because some isolates do not immuno-dot blots directly from strawberry
develop on mature leaves. The net veins hybridize with a cDNA clone of SVBV of tissue (109). Sequence information is not
may become necrotic, followed by necro- a North American isolate (56). available for this virus or for Strawberry
sis of the interveinal tissues. During Strawberry pseudo mild yellow edge vi- latent C (see below); therefore, these vi-
chronic infections, premature discoloration rus (SPMYEV). SPMYEV was first re- ruses cannot be detected by RT-PCR or
often appears on older leaves. In the ported in 1966 from the eastern United other nucleic acid based tests at this time.
United States, the necrosis symptom is States and also has been reported from Strawberry chlorotic fleck virus
more common with eastern than with Japan (17,112). It is not clear how wide- (StCFV). Strawberry chlorotic fleck dis-
western strains. The vein banding symp- spread it is in Japan, where it was isolated ease was identified in the 1960s in Louisi-
tom is diagnostic; whereas leaf curl and from commercial strawberry plantings ana (32), and was named for the symptoms
necrosis may be induced by other disease (111). There is only one report from the observed on F. vesca and F. virginiana
agents. Symptoms may be more severe in United States, in which it was isolated in indicators. The disease had a significant
combination with SCV or be masked in Minnesota from the indicator clone M-1 impact on plant growth and fruit yield in
combination with SMoV or by high levels of F. virginiana. SPMYEV is transmitted Headliner in Louisiana (32). The causal
of nitrogen in the potting medium. in a semi-persistent manner by Chaetosi- agent of the disease was transmitted by
Natural infections of SVBV are known phon sp. and A. gossypii. The disease is of Aphis gossypii, the cotton aphid (32). The
only in species of Fragaria, but it has been no known economic significance in the National Clonal Germplasm Repository
transmitted to Sanguisorba minor experi- United States, and its importance in Japan (NCGR) in Corvallis, OR, maintains the
mentally. No symptoms have been de- is unknown. only known isolate of strawberry chlorotic
tected in infected clones of F. chiloensis Infected strawberry cultivars are symp- fleck. Using standard procedures for
infected singly with SVBV. In mixed in- tomless. Graft-inoculated F. vesca indica- dsRNA extraction, cloning, and sequenc-
fections with SCV, SMYEV, and SMoV, tor clones as well as F. virginiana UC-12 ing, this plant was found to be infected
some clones of F. chiloensis show decline develop symptoms of SPMYEV; whereas with a new virus in the genus Closterovi-
symptoms (Fig. 4). inoculated F. virginiana UC-10 and UC- rus in the family Closteroviridae and the
SVBV is a member of the Caulimovirus 11 remain symptomless. F. virginiana two criniviruses associated with strawberry
genus in the family Caulimoviridae. Parti- clone UC-12 develops yellow to reddish pallidosis disease (described in more detail
cles 40 to 50 nm in diameter have been coloration with necrotic areas in older in the whitefly transmitted viruses section).
isolated, and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies leaves. All F. vesca clones show mottled This new closterovirus has similarities in
typical of caulimoviruses have been ob- discoloration (yellow to red) followed by genome organization and sequence to Cit-
served in leaf tissues of infected plants. premature necrosis. The symptoms of rus tristeza virus (I. E. Tzanetakis and R.
The genome of SVBV is a double-stranded SPMYEV can be confused with mild R. Martin, unpublished results) and other
circular molecule of DNA about 7,800 bp strains of SMYEV. In such cases, leaflet aphid-transmitted members of the Clos-
in size, and it has been cloned (86) and grafting onto F. vesca UC-6 can be used terovirus genus. Studies are underway in
sequenced (63). SVBV has recently been to differentiate the two viruses. our laboratory to separate these three vi-
verified as the causal agent of the typical SPMYEV is a member of the Carlavirus ruses and verify aphid transmission of this
North American vein banding disease (45). genus in the family Flexiviridae and is closterovirus with strawberry and cotton
The coat protein of the virus is highly con- serologically related to Carnation latent aphids, respectively, and determine if this
served, and SVBV can be detected readily virus, the type member of the genus. The new virus is associated with the symptoms
by PCR using primers in the coat protein virus has been purified from strawberry observed in chlorotic fleck infected F.
vesca plants. An RT-PCR has been devel-
oped in our laboratory for this new clos-
terovirus, and the incidence of the virus in
commercial fields and its role in strawberry
decline are currently under investigation.
Strawberry latent C virus (SLCV).
Strawberry latent C (SLC) is a poorly de-
scribed disease, first reported in 1942 (28).
Electron microscopy studies on infected
material have identified a nucleorhabdovi-
rus associated with the disease (111),
which was designated as Strawberry latent
C virus (SLCV). The disease has been
reported from eastern North America, and
studies have verified that the causal agent
can be transmitted by grafting and several
aphid species (8). A wide range of symp-
toms has been attributed to SLCV, al-
though it is difficult to rule out the possi-
bility that some isolates may be due to
mixed infections with other viruses. The
importance of the virus is mainly due to
synergism with other strawberry viruses.
Grafting and aphid transmission to indica-
tor plants are the only available methods
today to detect SLC disease. Sensitive F.
Fig. 4. Fragaria vesca exhibiting peacock pattern symptoms and downward curling of vesca clones such as EMC and UC-5
leaves. The leaves shown are from a plant infected with Apple mosaic, Beet pseudo develop symptoms that include epinasty
yellows, and Strawberry pallidosis associated viruses. and dwarfing; however, verification of

388 Plant Disease / Vol. 90 No. 4

SLC disease also requires grafting on UC- Strawberry pallidosis associated virus the widest host range of all criniviruses
4, which shows no symptoms when graft- (SPaV). SPaV is latent in most commer- (109), and new hosts continue to be identi-
inoculated with SLCV; whereas it develops cial cultivars grown today and in the F. fied (97,108). The virus is vectored by the
symptoms when inoculated with nine other vesca indicator clones. Infected F. virgin- greenhouse whitefly and has been an
viruses that infect strawberry. To our iana UC-10 and UC-11 develop small emerging problem in temperate regions
knowledge, there is not a reference isolate chlorotic leaves; runners may be short- worldwide because of the expanding range
of SLCV available in North America to use ened; and it has been reported that severe of the vector (107). The increased range
for further characterization. strains can be lethal. In our studies with and high fecundity of the greenhouse
pallidosis, we never encountered strains whitefly suggest that the incidence of
Whitefly-Transmitted Viruses that were lethal to indicator plants. It is BPYV and SPaV in strawberry production
Whitefly-transmitted viruses are an possible that these strains reported in the may increase in the future.
emerging problem in world agriculture, past were actually mixed infections of Two isolates of BPYV have been se-
due to migration and naturalization of the pallidosis and one or more other straw- quenced completely, one from cucumber
whitefly vectors and movement of plant berry viruses. (then referred to as Cucumber yellows
germ plasm. Members of the Crinivirus Sap transmission to 24 plant species was virus) (30) and the other from strawberry
genus of the Closteroviridae family com- unsuccessful in our laboratory. Studies (96). The genome organization of the
prise one of the predominant groups of with the whitefly vectors of criniviruses BPYV isolate from cucumber is similar to
whitefly-transmitted viruses that have indicated that Trialeurodes vaporariorum, that of SPaV, but there are significant dif-
emerged in the last decade (72,107,109). the greenhouse whitefly, is a vector of the ferences between the two BPYV isolates.
Closteroviruses have long filamentous virus (94). The host range of SPaV, as in The differences include the presence of an
particles of 7002,000 1112 nm and the case of most criniviruses, is narrow, additional open reading frame in the 3 end
comprise the group of plant viruses with including members of Fragaria and related of RNA 1 of the strawberry isolate as well
the largest positive-sense single-stranded genera and a few weed species (91). The as an insertion in the middle of the replica-
RNA genomes. Criniviruses have bipartite virus has been found in the major straw- tion-related polyprotein. The differences
or tripartite genomes and are transmitted in berry production areas of the United may be host- or geography-dependent, but
a semi-persistent manner by whiteflies States, and studies are currently in pro- additional data is needed to determine the
belonging to the Trialeurodes or Bemisia gress in our laboratory to determine if the origin of the diversity. Both molecular and
genera. Until recently, there were no virus occurs in other states in the United immunological tests have been developed
criniviruses identified in strawberry or any States and in other countries. for BPYV, but as in the case of SPaV, the
of the other small fruit crops. Modern mo- Anecdotal reports suggested that the low titer of the virus makes immunological
lecular techniques have allowed identifica- pallidosis agent may be pollen-borne (10). tests for BPYV less suitable for routine
tion of new criniviruses in crops not However, more than 400 and 170 plants detection.
known to be infected by members of the were tested for seed and pollen transmis-
group (50,76), because the inefficient sap sion, respectively, and all the plants tested Nematode-Transmitted Viruses
transmission of all the known members of negative for SPaV, suggesting that the Five nematode-transmitted viruses are
the genus did not allow their identification virus either is not pollen- or seed-borne, or known to infect strawberry. Four belong to
with the limited tools of the past. Two if it is, that transmission occurs at very low the genus Nepovirus, in the family Co-
closely related criniviruses have now been levels (91). Alternatively, the pallidosis moviridae; whereas one, Strawberry latent
associated with pallidosis disease of isolates used in the previous transmission ringspot virus (SLRSV), is a possible
strawberry: the newly identified Straw- studies may have been infected with member of the genus Sadwavirus in the
berry pallidosis associated crinivirus BPYV, the second virus associated with family Sequiviridae. Nepoviruses and
(SPaV) (93) and Beet pseudo-yellows virus pallidosis disease, or the plants used for SLRSV have spherical (icosahedral) parti-
(BPYV) (104). these studies may have been contaminated cles of ~28 to 30 nm in diameter and are
Strawberry pallidosis disease. Straw- by the greenhouse whitefly, which was not efficiently transmitted by members of the
berry pallidosis was identified in the 1950s known as a virus vector at the time. nematode genera Xiphinema and Longi-
in both Australia and the United States SPaV is considered to be the major dorus as well as via pollen and seed. The
(20). The disease was thought to be in- agent associated with pallidosis in United strawberry nematode-transmitted viruses
digenous to North America because the States because more than 97% of the have wide host ranges and can cause sig-
plants in Australia originated in the United plants identified as pallidosis positive by nificant losses in the crop (6,21,44,54,83),
States (20). Pallidosis (pale or pallid ap- grafting were infected with the virus (93). especially when present in mixed infec-
pearance) is a disease caused by graft- The complete sequence of the virus has tions with other viruses. Many of these
transmittable agent(s), causing symptoms been determined (103). SPaV has a bipar- viruses are quite diverse at the nucleotide
that include marginal leaf chlorosis and tite genome, similar to that of other level, possibly a result of their adaptation
stunting on F. virginiana clones (UC-10 criniviruses. Both molecular and immu- to a diversity of hosts (38). This genetic
and UC-11); whereas F. vesca plants nological detection tests for SPaV have diversity makes detection based on RT-
remain asymptomatic. Pallidosis may also been developed, but the low titer of the PCR a challenging task, as oligonucleotide
cause root and runner reduction (10). An- virus, especially during summer, makes primers may not detect all strains. Antisera
ecdotally, the major effect on strawberry antibody-based detection unreliable. Labo- are available for each of these viruses, and
production is due to the synergistic effects ratory detection by RT-PCR correlates well detection by ELISA is possible, but again
of the pallidosis agent(s) with other straw- with symptom development in indicator strain diversity can be a problem with this
berry viruses. Symptoms are masked dur- plants. assay.
ing the summer months unless plants are Beet pseudo-yellows virus (BPYV). The use of methyl bromide and other
heavily shaded. Tzanetakis et al. (93) tested 38 strawberry soil fumigants in most strawberry produc-
Pallidosis was considered a rarity until a plants that were pallidosis positive by ing areas has reduced the importance of
survey in Maryland, USA, demonstrated grafting for the identification of the the nematode-borne viruses in strawberry.
that the disease was the most widespread agent(s). All but one of these plants tested However, the restrictions on methyl bro-
of the graft-transmittable strawberry dis- positive for SPaV by RT-PCR. DsRNA mide and pressure to reduce use of other
eases in that state, with more than 70% of cloned from this single plant negative for chemical fumigants may result in a re-
the plants tested being infected with the SPaV revealed that it was infected with emergence of these diseases in the future.
causal agent(s) (48). BPYV. BPYV, a crinivirus like SPaV, has Because the vectors of these viruses have

Plant Disease / April 2006 389

been controlled, the diseases they cause recently, SLRSV was thought to be primar- the former USSR (58). Most cultivars do
have been very rare since 1975. As a re- ily a European virus. However, it was iden- not exhibit symptoms when infected only
sult, the reaction of strawberry cultivars tified recently in strawberry in California with ArMV; however, in some cultivars
grown today to these viruses is largely in the United States and in British Colum- ArMV infection can cause a chlorotic leaf
unknown. This brief review will focus on bia, Canada, and in mint samples from mottle and mild to severe stunting or death
the data obtained recently on nematode Nebraska, Ohio, and Maryland in the of plants in the field. In the United King-
transmitted viruses. Extended reviews of United States (49,66). Strawberry plants in dom, ArMV and SLRSV are commonly
the biological properties of the viruses in the United States that were infected with found in mixed infections where they oc-
strawberry can be found elsewhere (8). SLRSV were either symptomless, or when cur due to their common vector, although
Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV). symptomatic, were infected with at least ArMV has not been observed in strawberry
ToRSV was first identified in F. chiloensis one additional virus. SLRSV has been plants infected with SLRSV in the United
along the California coast in 1961 (21). reported in North America previously, but States (I. E. Tzanetakis and R. R. Martin,
The virus has a host range that includes there was no evidence that it had estab- unpublished data). Most F. vesca indicator
plants in 35 families of both dicotyledo- lished or become widespread (2). clones are symptomless when infected
nous and monocotyledonous plants (83). It SLRSV has a host range that exceeds with ArMV.
can be a serious problem in raspberry pro- 125 plant species belonging to 27 families ArMV is a member of subgroup A of the
duction in the Pacific Northwest of the of both monocots and dicots, and it is Nepovirus genus and is transmitted in na-
United States, but has not been a serious transmitted by nematodes of the genus ture mainly by Xiphinema diversicauda-
problem in strawberry, although it has Xiphinema (60). SLRSV is listed as a tum, although there are reports of other
been reported in strawberry (7). This may member of the genus Sadwavirus (51); Xiphinema species that can transmit the
be due to several factors, such as the short however, the taxonomic status of this virus virus (90). The efficiency of transmission
period of time that strawberry plants are in is in flux and may change in the near fu- by the vectors is highly strain-dependent
the field combined with the use of soil ture now that the complete sequence has (4). The complete nucleotide sequence of
fumigants (68). In some cultivars, such as been determined (102). Phylogenetic ArMV (105,106) confirmed the close rela-
Olympus or Puget Beauty, ToRSV in- analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA po- tionship of ArMV with Grapevine fanleaf
fection can have a dramatic effect on plant lymerase and helicase motifs indicate that virus (GFLV), another member of sub-
growth and yield, although this is not SLRSV is closely related to Apple spheri- group A.
common. ToRSV causes severe necrosis in cal latent virus and Cherry rasp leaf virus, Raspberry ringspot virus (RpRSV).
F. virginiana clones UC-10 or UC-11 members of the Cheravirus genus; RpRSV was first identified in the 1950s as
that can result in death of the plant. In F. whereas analysis of the coat protein se- the putative causal agent of the raspberry
vesca, the symptoms are generally a mild quence shows it is also related to the Sad- leaf curl disease (6). The virus has been
mosaic and sometimes a reddish discolora- wavirus genus and the Comoviridae fam- found throughout Europe but in strawberry
tion of the young petioles and leaves, al- ily. Unlike the nepoviruses, which encode has been found only in the United King-
though symptoms are not distinctive and a single coat protein, SLRSV has two coat dom and the former USSR (61). The F.
fluctuate depending on environmental proteins, a feature found in the Sadwavirus vesca indicator clones initially show a
conditions. genus. It is likely that the status of the yellow blotching, but the symptoms fade.
The genome of ToRSV is typical of viruses in the Sequiviridae family will In some strawberry cultivars, leaves de-
nepoviruses and picorna-like plant viruses. change as more sequence information velop yellow blotching, ring spots, crin-
The genome is divided between two becomes available. kling, stunting, and eventually plants may
monocistronic genomic RNA molecules Because of the previous quarantine die. The symptoms on susceptible cultivars
that encode polyproteins that are processed status of SLRSV, detection of the virus include chlorosis, blotches, and crinkling,
to mature proteins by a cysteine protease was not included in virus surveys until while in the second season, plant recovery
encoded by RNA 1 (70). As in the case of recently. The wide host range of the virus may be observed.
all nepoviruses, the 5 ends have a ge- and its wide geographical distribution in RpRSV also belongs to subgroup A of
nome-linked virus protein (VPg), while mint in the United States suggest it should the Nepovirus genus and is transmitted by
ToRSV has a very long untranslated region be included in strawberry certification members of the genus Longidorus,
at the 3 terminus of the genomic mole- programs and possibly in other vegeta- whereas there is a report of RpRSV trans-
cules ending with a poly adenosine tail. tively propagated crop certification pro- mission by members of the genera
RNA 2 encodes the movement and coat grams. On the other hand, the ornamental Paratrichodorus and Xiphinema (90).
proteins of the virus (71). The virus be- mint that was found infected with SLRSV RpRSV infects dicotyledonous and mono-
longs to subgroup C of the Nepovirus ge- is widely distributed and probably has cotyledonous plants belonging to 14 fami-
nus and is transmitted by Xiphinema spp. been in the ornamental trade in the United lies (61). The virus sequence (13) reveals
ToRSV can be detected serologically with States for many years. Alternate vectors for shared characteristics with members of the
ELISA and by RT-PCR; however, there are SLRSV should be further investigated, subgroup GFLV and Tobacco ringspot
significant strain differences, and one must based on its unusual sequence compared virus as well as the comovirus Cowpea
take care to ensure that an appropriate test with the nepoviruses. SLRSV also can be severe mosaic virus; this indicates the
is used. The virus can also be easily de- pollen and seed-borne, thus care should be uniqueness of the virus and a possible
tected by mechanical transmission to taken by strawberry breeders that the virus insight into the evolution of the Comoviri-
Chenopodium quinoa and Nicotiana cleve- is not introduced into their programs via dae.
landii, which avoids the potential problem germ plasm. Tomato black ring virus (TBRV).
of strain variation in detection. Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV). ArMV TBRV was identified in 1946 (59) and is
Strawberry latent ringspot virus was first described in the 1940s (79). It widespread in Europe. In Europe, the virus
(SLRSV). SLRSV often is found in asso- infects almost 100 plant species belonging is often found together with RpRSV be-
ciation with Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) to more than 28 families, causing signifi- cause they are both vectored by the nema-
in Europe, where both viruses are transmit- cant losses in many crops (58). The virus tode Longidorus elongatus, although
ted by the same nematode vector, Xiphi- was reported to be widespread in straw- TBRV tends to spread more slowly in the
nema diversicaudatum (5). The symptoms berry prior to the introduction of chemical field than RpRSV, possibly reflecting dif-
on strawberry plants are unknown because control of the nematode vector. It has also ferences in efficiency of transmission.
plants showing symptoms in field situa- been reported to occur in strawberry in Symptoms in F. vesca indicator clones
tions also were infected with ArMV. Until Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Poland, and may vary from being asymptomatic to leaf

390 Plant Disease / Vol. 90 No. 4

blotching. Symptoms often diminish after once the virus is established. detected in hundreds of samples tested in
the first season, as in the case of RpRSV. Strawberry necrotic shock virus 2004. This difference is unexplained at this
Symptoms in strawberry cultivars are simi- (SNSV). SNSV was first identified in the time. The complete nucleotide sequence of
lar to those caused by RpRSV. 1950s (19) and was named after the symp- FClLV has been determined (98), revealing
TBRV belongs to subgroup B of the toms observed on F. vesca clones when unique features in the genome organization
Nepovirus genus. The host range of the grafted with infected material. Grafted of the virus. Some ilarviruses encode a
virus is as wide as those of the other nema- plants develop symptoms 6 to 14 days after gene involved in suppression of RNA inter-
tode-transmitted viruses. The complete grafting, and some isolates cause a severe ference or gene silencing in RNA 2. FClLV
nucleotide sequence of the virus has been necrotic reaction in newly formed leaves. lacks the suppressor of gene silencing but
determined and confirms a close relation- After the initial severe reaction that devel- has an open reading frame in RNA 2 that
ship of TBRV with Grapevine chrome ops on 1 to 3 young leaves, the subsequent shares homology to eukaryotic receptors,
mosaic virus and Cycas necrotic stunt leaves appear normal, and no further whose function in this virus is unknown.
virus (39). symptoms develop. SNSV is seed- FClLV also has an open reading frame
transmitted up to 35%. The virus can have downstream from the coat protein gene in
Oomycete-Transmitted Virus a significant impact on strawberry produc- RNA 3 that is not present in any other
Tobacco necrosis virus (TNV). The tion, reducing yield by up to 15% and ilarviruses that have been sequenced. Phy-
symptoms of TNV that are usually ob- runner production by up to 75% (36). logenetic analysis places FClLV with
served on strawberry indicator plants are Early studies indicated that SNSV, which Prune dwarf virus in subgroup 4 of the
similar to those caused by SMYE and also infected Rubus species, was a strain of genus and also reveals a close relationship
SPMYE viruses. TNV has been associated Tobacco streak virus (TSV) (40), the type with Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, Apple
with dwarfing and leaf and root necrosis in member of the Ilarvirus genus (84). How- mosaic virus, and Alfalfa mosaic virus.
indicator clones and commercial cultivars ever, several lines of evidence indicated Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Straw-
(14). Frnov-Honetlegrov et al. (14,15) that strains from Fragaria and Rubus dif- berry leaf roll disease has been reported in
have verified that TNV strain D is able to fered from the type strain of TSV. In im- northeastern North America and Kazakh-
replicate in strawberry, while there is no munodiffusion tests, SNSV formed spurs stan (3). In F. virginiana, symptoms in-
information on the pathogenicity of TNV with antisera developed against other TSV clude a peacock pattern on the leaves,
strain A in strawberry. Information on the strains (24), an indication of differences in whereas a downward rolling is observed
incidence of the virus in commercial fields the epitopes between the strains. In addi- on some F. vesca indicators (Fig. 4). The
is limited (81), because detection is prob- tion, SNSV isolates failed to cross-protect only isolate of strawberry leaf roll cur-
lematic due to low titer of the virus in the plants from other strains of TSV (26), and rently known is maintained at the National
aboveground tissues (R. R. Martin, per- there was no cross-hybridization between Clonal Germplasm Repository in Corval-
sonal observation). strawberry and blackberry isolates and lis, OR, and it was used in an attempt to
TNV belongs to the genus Necrovirus of non-small-fruit strains of TSV in Northern characterize the strawberry leaf roll dis-
the family Tombusviridae, and is transmit- blot analysis (85). ease. This plant exhibited the peacock
ted by the oomycete Olpidium brassicae Several attempts to use RT-PCR for de- pattern on the leaves (Fig. 5). After cloning
(34). In the past, TNV was considered a tection of TSV in small fruit crops were and sequencing dsRNA extracted from this
single species with diverse isolates, but unsuccessful using primers developed source, it was found to be infected with
sequence data suggest that there are at against the type isolate of TSV. An isolate three viruses, one of which was ApMV.
least two individual TNV species from strawberry was cloned and se- This is the first report of this virus natu-
(53,55,114). TNV has icosahedral virions quenced, and analysis of RNA 3 and part rally infecting strawberry (99). The other
that are 26 nm in diameter and encapsidate of RNA 2 revealed about 70% nucleotide two viruses identified in this plant were the
the monopartite single-stranded positive- sequence identity with TSV (95). This criniviruses SPaV and BPYV. ApMV is a
sense genomic RNA. A satellite RNA often indicated that the strawberry ilarvirus be- typical Ilarvirus (77,78) and belongs to
is associated with the viruses and results in longed to a different species, distinct from subgroup 3 of the genus. The virus has a
a dramatic change in symptoms. TNV is TSV. The coat protein gene from 15 broad host range that exceeds 65 species in
persistent in the soil and has a wide host TSV isolates from Fragaria and Rubus 19 families (25) and has many diverse
range. The virus can be detected by ELISA were sequenced, and analysis indicated strains (11,64). ApMV is one of several
and RT-PCR, but due to strain variation, it that all clustered with the strawberry iso- viruses that have been transmitted experi-
is important to carry out sap transmission late that was sequenced, which was then mentally to strawberry from tree fruits (23).
tests to Chenopodium quinoa to avoid false given its original historic name, SNSV. The association of the virus with symp-
negatives with the laboratory-based assays. None of the strawberry and Rubus plants tom development is under examination
were found infected with TSV (95), an because the plant infected with leaf roll
Viruses with Unknown Vectors indication that TSV may not be a pathogen was also infected with the two criniviruses
Ilarviruses. Three ilarviruses are known of Fragaria or Rubus species. associated with pallidosis disease. The lack
to infect strawberry: Strawberry necrotic Fragaria chiloensis latent virus of testing for ApMV during virus surveys
shock virus, (SNSV), Fragaria chiloensis (FClLV). FClLV was identified in F. means the distribution and impact of this
latent virus (FClLV), and Apple mosaic chiloensis plants that originated in Chile virus in strawberry production areas are
virus (ApMV). Ilarviruses comprise the (82). F. chiloensis is found along the west unknown. Future testing for ApMV will be
largest genus of the Bromoviridae family coast of the Americas except for the trop- included in virus surveys of declining
and are positive-sense RNA viruses with ics. Graft indexing for detection of FClLV strawberry plants to determine its inci-
tripartite genomes (73). They can be is problematic because it remains symp- dence and impact.
transmitted via pollen to maternal tissue tomless in F. chiloensis and strawberry
(horizontal transmission, spread within a cultivars, and only causes mild symptoms Unclassified Viruses
field or within a generation) and through when grafted onto F. vesca UC-4. It can of Strawberry
seed (vertical transmission, spread from be sap transmitted to Chenopodium quinoa Fragaria chiloensis cryptic virus
one generation to the next). Thrips have and Cucumis sativus. (FClCV). During the molecular charac-
been reported to transmit some of the ilar- Molecular and immunological tests have terization of FClLV, several cDNA clones
viruses (75). Since these viruses can be been developed, and the presence of the corresponding to a novel virus with ho-
pollen-transmitted, there is not an effective virus was confirmed along the west coast mology to cryptic viruses and also to plant
way to prevent movement within a field of North America in 2003 (92) but was not dsRNA polymerases were identified (100).

Plant Disease / April 2006 391

only part of a crown or only on some
crowns in a plant with multiple crowns.
When grafted onto F. virginiana, symp-
toms typical of pallidosis were observed.
As far as we are aware, no known refer-
ence isolates of this disease are available
for development of laboratory tests or
characterization of the pathogen. The pos-
sibility of a mixed virus infection of sev-
eral of the viruses described above causing
the disease seems remote, due to the long
incubation time that may be required for
symptom development in indicator plants
and the unique combination of symptoms.
Strawberry decline. Since 2000, straw-
berry decline disease has been increasing
in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), including
British Columbia, Washington, and Ore-
gon, and also in California. All cultivars
can develop symptoms of the disease. Pre-
viously, cultivars in the PNW, such as To-
tem and Puget Reliance, did not develop
symptoms due to virus infections in the
field. Analysis of declining plants in this
area showed that SCV was present in the
Fig. 5. Fragaria chiloensis near Contulmo, Chile, naturally infected with Strawberry symptomatic plants in addition to SMYEV,
crinkle virus, Strawberry mottle virus, Strawberry mild yellow edge virus, and Straw- SMoV, and SVBV. In the past, only the
berry vein banding virus.
latter three viruses were observed in north-
ern Washington and British Columbia.
A large portion of the RNA polymerase of Clonal Germplasm Repository in Corval- Aphid populations were generally very
this novel virus, designated Fragaria lis, and dsRNA was extracted and cloned. high in this area either due to lack of con-
chiloensis cryptic virus (FClCV), has been The virus, now designated Strawberry trol efforts, or because aphid control had
sequenced, and an RT-PCR detection test latent virus (StLV), may be a link between become ineffective due to development of
has been developed. In order to minimize plant and insect viruses (101). The genome resistance to the aphicides that had been
the possibility that the dsRNA molecule is organization of StLV appears similar to used for many years. No whiteflies were
encoded by the plant genome, multiple members of the Cripavirus genus, Dicis- observed in the strawberry fields in PNW,
DNA extractions from plants that tested troviridae family. The members of the and the incidence of BPYV and SPaV was
positive for FClCV were carried out and family are devastating insect pathogens less than 5% (92).
tested by PCR without a reverse transcrip- with single-stranded, positive-sense RNA In California, where strawberries are
tion step. In all cases, no amplicons were genomes that consist of two open reading grown as an annual crop, symptoms of
obtain in PCR, while the cryptic virus was frames encoding the viral replicase and decline are generally rare. However, in
readily detectable after RT-PCR using coat proteins of the virus. 2002 and 2003, decline symptoms were
either total RNA or dsRNA preparations The virus can be purified from straw- common in strawberry fruit production
(100). A band of ~1.8 kbp was extracted berry, which proves that it replicates in the fields in California. Declining strawberry
from the dsRNA gels and was both cloned plant and that it is a plant virus rather than plants from California were almost always
and subjected to RT-PCR. Both tests con- an insect virus found in a plant. The com- infected with one of the whitefly-
firmed that this band belonged to this cryp- plete sequence of the virus will determine transmitted criniviruses plus one or more
tic virus. More than 20 FClLV-free F. if the virus encodes a movement protein or of the aphid-borne viruses. The prelimi-
chiloensis plants were tested for FClCV, if it is translocated in the plant in a manner nary testing done on strawberry plants
and several tested positive for the virus, similar to that of other cryptic viruses. A suggests that the whitefly-transmitted vi-
indicating that FClLV is not needed for detection protocol for the virus has been ruses are an important component in the
replication of this cryptic virus (100). developed, while future plans include stud- decline observed in California, in contrast
Strawberry latent virus (StLV). Be- ies on the effect of the virus when found in to the PNW where the aphid-borne viruses
fore the identification of SMEYV as the complexes with other strawberry viruses. are primarily responsible. The virus test
causal agent of the SMYE disease (43), a Strawberry feather-leaf disease. results are in agreement with observations
luteovirus was thought to be associated Strawberry feather-leaf disease was first on vector abundance in strawberry fields in
with the disease. Many attempts were reported in Arkansas in 1970, and has the two locations. In California, whiteflies
made to isolate and characterize that virus. since been detected in a few plants from were very common on strawberries in
Martin and Converse (47) purified a Maryland, Michigan, and Missouri (52). production fields in the south and central
spherical virus of 25 nm diameter from No information on the natural transmission coast areas, with several whiteflies com-
SMYE diseased plants, but they also iden- of the pathogen is available, but it was monly observed on each leaflet (Fig. 6).
tified this virus in SMYE-free plants, in- reported that 1 to 9 months were required Aphids also were present in these areas,
cluding several F. vesca seedlings. They for symptom development in indicator but at much lower numbers than observed
named the agent cryptic virus, because it plants. In F. vesca, symptoms include in the PNW.
caused no obvious symptoms on cultivars feather-leaf symptoms that include dwarf- In a visit to Chile in 2004, decline
or indicators. ing, narrowed strap-like and somewhat symptoms were observed on F. chiloensis
In the effort to develop detection proto- rugose leaf deformations with deeply ser- grown for commercial fruit production
cols for all strawberry viruses and graft- rated margins and leaflets that may be near Contulmo, Chile (Fig. 5). Upon test-
transmittable diseases, a plant used in the fused at the base. Symptoms may be obvi- ing for viruses, it was found that these
previous study was obtained from National ous to obscure and often are exhibited on plants were infected with SCV, SMoV,

392 Plant Disease / Vol. 90 No. 4

SMYEV, and SVBV, but not with SPaV or
BPYV. The symptoms were similar to
those observed in F. ananassa cultivars
in the PNW that were infected with these
four viruses (Fig. 2).

Over the past 50 years, breeders have
been effective at selecting for virus toler-
ance in commercial strawberry cultivars,
and as a result, very few cultivars grown
today exhibit symptoms when infected
with a single virus. Due to high aphid
numbers and virus spread, cultivars that
have become important in the PNW are
tolerant to infection with multiple aphid-
transmitted viruses. The only exception to
this is the cultivar Hood, which com-
mands a premium price for its use in the
high end ice cream market, and is grown
despite its sensitivity to virus infection and
requirement for stringent aphid control.
Selection for improved virus tolerance will
become a priority for breeders as virus
complexes become more common in the
future due to reduced pesticide use, in- Fig. 6. Strawberry near Watsonville, CA, with greenhouse whiteflies on the under sur-
creased resistance to insecticides by vec- face of a leaf. Whiteflies have only recently become important pests of strawberry in
tors, and increased demand for organically
grown fruit. Resistance to aphid- and
whitefly-transmitted viruses in strawberry the high infection rates with BPYV and sweet cherry growing in Ontario. Phytopa-
SPaV. thology 60:1262-1265.
has not been reported in the Fragaria germ
3. Berkeley, G. H., and Plakidas, A. G. 1942.
plasm used by breeders, which suggests With the recent advances in virus detec- Strawberry leaf roll, a new disease. Phytopa-
that breeding for resistance in not an im- tion, it is now possible to quickly identify thology 32:631-633.
mediate option. However, the use of ge- viruses in field plants, whether in single or 4. Brown, D. J. F. 1986. The transmission of
netic engineering to produce virus resistant multiple infections. These newly devel- two strains of Arabis mosaic virus by popula-
oped tests are being adopted in the certifi- tions of Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Nema-
strawberry cultivars should be quite
toda: Dorylaimoidea) from ten countries.
straightforward. cation programs in the United States. In Rev. Nematol. 9:83-87.
Strawberries are vegetatively propa- addition, these technologies are being used 5. Brown, D. J. F., and Trudgill, D. L. 1983.
gated, and in most cases, the increase from to monitor nurseries at each stage of mul- Differential transmissibility of arabis mosaic
nuclear stock to certified plants that are tiplication to determine if and when vi- and strains of strawberry latent ringspot vi-
ruses might be introduced into the plant ruses by three populations of Xiphinema di-
sold for fruit production takes place in the
versicaudatum (Nematoda: Dorylaimoidea)
field, where there is potential for reintro- production scheme. Visual inspection is from Scotland, Italy and France. Rev. Nema-
duction of viruses. In the past, efforts dur- very inefficient in nurseries since most of tol. 6:229-238.
ing plant production have concentrated on the strawberry viruses do not cause any 6. Cadman, C. H. 1956. Studies on the etiology
controlling nematode and aphid vectors. symptoms when they occur in single infec- and mode of spread of Scottish raspberry leaf
tions. Additionally, a coordinated effort is curl disease. J. Hortic. Sci. 31:111-118.
The nematodes have been controlled effi-
7. Converse, R. H. 1981. Infection of cultivated
ciently with methyl bromide and other soil underway to validate the molecular tests strawberries by Tomato ringspot virus. Phy-
fumigants, and aphids through the use of that are now available for the detection of topathology 71:1149-1152.
insecticides, although development of viruses in strawberries. The tests are being 8. Converse, R. H. 1987. Virus and viruslike
resistance to the chemical insecticides has used in several laboratories to determine if diseases of Fragaria (Strawberry). Pages 1-
they will detect a broad range of virus 100 in: Virus Diseases of Small Fruits. R. H.
been a problem. With the discovery of
Converse, ed. U.S. Dep. Agric. Agric. Res.
whitefly-transmitted viruses that infect isolates. The development of specific RT- Serv. Agric. Handb. No. 631.
strawberry, attention must now be directed PCR tests for almost all of the known 9. Converse, R. H. 1992. Modern approaches to
toward the control of whiteflies. The strawberry viruses allows for a re- strawberry virus research. Acta Hortic.
greenhouse whitefly has a very broad host evaluation of severe and mild strains re- 308:19-30.
ported in the literature for many of the 10. Converse, R. H., and Volk, E. 1990. Some
range and recently has become naturalized
effects of pallidosis disease on strawberry
in the strawberry growing areas of Califor- strawberry viruses, to determine whether growth under greenhouse conditions. Plant
nia and the southern United States (107). severe strains are actually mixed infections Dis. 74:814-816.
During the 2002 and 2003 growing sea- that were not separated by aphid transmis- 11. Crowle, D. R., Pethybridge, S. J., Leggett, G.
sons, incidences of plant infections with sion studies. W., Sherriff, L. J., and Wilson, C. R. 2003.
Diversity of the coat protein-coding region
SPaV and BPYV infection reached as high
among Ilarvirus isolates infecting hop in Aus-
as 90% in southern California strawberry Literature Cited tralia. Plant Pathol. 52:655-662.
fields, and over 70% in the Watsonville 12. Dale, A., and Luby, J. J., eds. 1990. The
area along the central coast of California. 1. Ahrens, U., and Seemller, E. 1992. Detec- Strawberry into the 21st Century. Timber
In mixed infections with several of the tion of DNA of plant pathogenic mycoplas- Press, Portland, OR.
malike organisms by a polymerase chain re- 13. Ebel, R., Schnabel, A., Reustle, G. M.,
aphid-borne viruses, whitefly-transmitted action that amplifies a sequence of the 16S Krczal, G., and Wetzel, T. 2003. Complete
viruses caused a serious decline (92) (Fig. rRNA gene. Phytopathology 82:828-832. nucleotide sequence of an isolate of the
1). In field visits in 2003, it was noted that 2. Allen, W. R., Davidson, T. R., and Briscoe, nepovirus raspberry ringspot virus from
whiteflies were present on most strawberry M. R. 1970. Properties of a strain of Straw- grapevine. Virus Res. 97:141-144.
leaflets (Fig. 6), and this is consistent with berry latent ringspot virus isolated from 14. Frnov-Honetlegrov, J., Erbenova, M., and

Plant Disease / April 2006 393

Martin, R. R. 1998. Isolation of tobacco ne- rRNA and ribosomal protein gene operon se- and European sources of Strawberry vein
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83:229-239. Dr. Martin is a research plant pa- Dr. Tzanetakis is postdoctorate fellow
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90. Trudgill, D. L., Brown, D. J. F., and McNa- and Ph.D. in plant pathology from the versity of Athens in Greece, he was a
mara, D. G. 1983. Methods and criteria for University of Wisconsin-Madison. Post- visiting scientist at the International
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91. Tzanetakis, I. E. 2004. Molecular characteri-
Corvallis. He then joined the staff at Dr. K. Makkouk. He received his Ph.D.
zation of criniviruses and ilarviruses infecting Agriculture Canada in Vancouver, in molecular and cellular biology from
strawberry. Ph.D. diss. Oregon State Univer- British Columbia, where he worked on Oregon State University, where he
sity, Corvallis. small fruit viruses and Potato leafroll studied the characterization of crini-
92. Tzanetakis, I. E., Bolda, M., and Martin, R. virus. He returned to the USDA-ARS viruses and ilarviruses in strawberry
R. 2004. Identification of viruses in declining laboratory in Corvallis in 1995 and in Dr. Martins laboratory. He contin-
strawberries along the west coast of North continues working on the characteri- ued working on viruses of small fruit
America. (Abstr.) Phytopathology 94:S104. zation, detection, and management of crops as a postdoctorate fellow until
93. Tzanetakis, I. E., Halgren, A. B., Keller, K. viruses of small fruit crops. He holds a leaving to complete a year of manda-
E., Hokanson, S. C., Maas, J. L., McCarthy, courtesy appointment in the Depart- tory military service in Greece.
P. L., and Martin, R. R. 2004. Identification ment of Botany and Plant Pathology,
and detection of a virus associated with
Oregon State University.
strawberry pallidosis disease. Plant Dis.
94. Tzanetakis, I. E., Halgren, A. B., Winter-
mantel, W. M., Keller, K. E., and Martin, R. R.
2004. Two criniviruses are associated with

Plant Disease / April 2006 395

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