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Yield Line Analysis of Column Webs with Welded Beam Connections FRANK W, STOCKWELL, JR. In welded construction the connections, for the most part, are easily designed and fabricated, However, one of the more dificult connections occurs when a beam must be welded to a column web, This is s0 for two 1) analyzing the columo web's capacity is arduous and (2) making the actual connection in ac- cordance with the design i& no simple task because of the space restrictions imposed on the welder by the colunn flanges. This paper will deal only with the firs consideration—analyzing the column web strength— using Yield Line Analysis. “The Yield Line approach has been utilized previously by Abolitz and Warner! for brackets welded to column webs, and by Blodget for welding rolled sections to box columns. The assumptions used here differ somewhat from those of the above authors. The final result is a series of curves covering a very high percentage of re- strained beam to column web connections involving hot rolled shapes. The curves relate beam moments to column web thickness for a series of beam sizes and for W14 columns with yield strengths of 36 and 50 ksi. For special eases not covered by these curves, but for which the yield line pattern assumed is valid, direct solutions may be developed by use of the formulas used to con- suet these curves ASSUMPTIONS 1. Nominal sizes are assumed for beam groupings. 2. The assumed yield pattern is as shown in Fig: 1, and all lines are stressed to F of the column, 3. The lengti of lines @ plus @ is assumed to equal the length of line @, and their angles are assumed to be the same. 4. The web surface enclosed by li mains plane. 5. The effect of the web angles (designed for shear only) is negligible 5 @ and @ re- Frank 1. Stokely Jr. Assistant Chief Enginer—Teshnical Projcs, American Inttute of Stel Construction, New York, N. ¥. YIELD LINE ANALYSIS ‘The extemal work done in bending the beam end nist equal the internal work required to form the yield Tines. External work = MO w Internal work = 36, 2) where M = Beam end moment Beam end rotation Yield line hinge rotation for line i Plastic moment along line i FZ, where Z; is the plastic modulus along i Fy(wa/4) where w is the length of line i ‘Therefore, @ Considering tine @ (see Fig. 1); the internal work be- comes Fu/4 times its angle of rotation 6; times the length of ine @ times 2 (since line @ occurs at each flange). Substituting, this becomes (Fyt/4) X @ + 4/121) X # X 2, oF Fyp[(We/2) + (bat/28)}, Similarly, lines @ thru © ean be calculated. INTERNAL WORK SUMMARY Line ® ro(¥ +3) ® Line ® re (+B) © Lines @,@,@: F8 é +) o Summing the above and equating to external work will yield abode | (bbe | Ga) (Se +See, SZ] © ENGINEERING JOURNAL/AMERIGAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION a DESIGN CURVES 1 = web thickness, Chart I, Tl, and TIT were cleveloped using the above J ee anaes Se © 1. Curves are based on plastic yielding of the column | web. In elastic design, the beam moments must be |e example, sep a2, load factor = 1.7 was use. a 3, Ate is decreased, the sheat atthe colun web Bllets (5/4 for ental for che eam acs covered, this seat (ee) | | | Sheck has been performed in use design example in Le te) scx sxe Note that this formula is bated on the assumption ANLAS6 material ‘a bending mode along the assumed yield line pattern. eine shen oe ete gro Ye Chock @) ena wb ent dicate that the capacity of the column web to resist (b) shear at column fillets possible. The correct conclusion, however, is that as @ approaches zero, the mode changes from bending to combined bending and shear, and finally to primarily localized shear in the column web at the beam flange tips. Localized shear yielding induces strain hardening uncer small distortions; therefore, calculated shear stresses in this region equal to shear yield are considered acceptable Once a column size and bear grouping has been selected, a, and d are known. For example, for group WI6XS8 through WI6X78 (nominal size = 16 x 834): bas (11.25 — 8.8)/2 = 1375 d= 16 Equation (7) becomes M = FyN3A67¢ + 97.3410 + 69.82] (8) F, is constant; thus, a relationship has been established between the columa web thickness ¢ and the beam end ‘moment, and the curve for the 16 x 824 group can casily bbe generated. 8 (a) Column web strength: 1. Determine the eritical moment acting on the web. Figure 2 shows moment directions. The worst possible condition would be where Moy is minimum and Mux is a maximum, y May, FIRST QUARTER/1974 Say Mop © Mo/2 = S0kip-ft and Mug = 100 kip-t Total moment Mf = 2(90) + (50) = 230 kip-ft =2760 kip-in 2. Adjust moment for clastic design and for the 14 ‘stress increase for wind (4.79(2760)(0.75) = 3520 kip-in M 3, Determine minimum web from Fig. 6 (18 x 724 beam; Fy = 36 column) $= 0.79 < 0.84 in. ok, () Shear ar column fillets: 1. Determine force to be distributed from bem Bange 0 the fillet. The stress distribution across the Aange is not a constant, but its maximum is Fy, AS sume the force (F) to consider is as shown in Fig. 5. F = (36 bsi)(0.63 X 1) 2.67 kips 2. Determine shear along 2a + f, caused by Fi 2267 9842 X 1.875 + 0.63) = 616 < 208 ksi ok. where 20.8 ks is the shear yield, #,/V3. Ww By sie 3 ¢ 5 Be 3 = a “ io 8 # é a Poe 3 nunenssces Abolits, A. Ls and ME. Wamer Bending Under Seated Con- Speetions AISC Engieoring Journal, Val. 2, No. 1, Jacwary 7205. Blodgt, 0. W. Desiga of Welded Scructares James F. ican ‘Ave Welding Paundetien, Cleland, Ohio p. 36-4. ENGINEERING JOURNAL/AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION a 13,000 18,000 12,000 4 16,000 11,000} [BEAMS wis, W2I AND _w24 10,000 ={!4,000 = w 2 9000 = © 12,000 & ” w 8000 2 < = 7000 10,000 § 3 24 & 2 6000 eg Le 6 sooo * 1 on 0 EB 8000 2 \ Ww = e000 = S 4000 S g = 3000 4000 i 2000, 2000 ‘ 1000 \ | 04 05 06 O7 08 09 10 WEB THICKNESS — WI4 COLUMNS (in.) Chart £ WIS, 27, ad W24 beams 8 FIRST QUARTER/L974 6500 19000 WEB THICKNESS — WI4 COLUMNS (in.) (Chart IE, W14 and 16 beome | {8500 6000 | BEAMS Wi4 18000 | 5500 7500 5000} 7000 6500 : ~ 4500F = i 3 lscooo i © ° i 4000 5500 : > ir | © 5000 ‘C E . 3500 g. Es | 27 4500 5! SF 3000 e¢ ~ 4000 e g Z 2500 3500 Z 3 g g 3000 = | = 2000 2500 '500 2000 1000 !500 1000 500 s00 : oF 05 06 07 08 03 10 6 ENGINEERING JOURNAL/AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION 4000 5500 5000 3500 BEAMS WIO AND WI2 +4500 3000) +4000 2 /. 3 8 2500 3500 & ” ry & wo ° J © Ee & 3000 £ « 35 2000 3 3 a os: ® es vs * 2500 g e G 1500 & g 2000 = 3 S = = * i500 1000) NEAL ot 71900 500 {500 t 0405 06 O7 0809 1.0 WEB THICKNESS — WI4 COLUMNS (in.) (Chart 11, W10 and W12 Beams a FURST QUARTER/I974