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# 1

References

## 1. Sinnott, R.K., (1999), Coulson & Richardsons Chemical Engineering Design,

Vol. 6, Chapter 11.
2. Treybal, R.E., (1981), Mass Transfer Operations, McGraw-Hill, Chapters 6 & 8.
3. Peters, M.S., and Timmerhaus, K.D., (2003), Plant Design and Economics for
Chemical Engineers, McGraw-Hill, Chapter 15.
4. Walas, S.M., Chemical Process Equipment-Selection and Design, Butterworths,
Chapter 13.

## Packing height using transfer units:

V2, y2 L2, x2
For the case of solute A diffusing through stagnant and nondiffusing 2
solvent B, the packing height z in a packed column is given by the
following equation:
y
V * 1 (1 - y e ) lm z
KG aP y2 (1- y)(y - y e )
z = dy

## where V* = molar flow rate of gas per unit area, kmol/h.m2

KG = overall gas-phase mass transfer coefficient V1, y1 L1, x1 1
a = interfacial surface area per unit volume, m2/m3
P = total pressure, atm or bar
y1, y2 = mole fractions of the solute in the gas at the bottom and top of the
column, respectively
ye = concentration in the gas that would be in equilibrium with the liquid
concentration at any point

When the concentration of the solute is small (less than 10%) the above equation is
simplified as
y
V * 1 dy
KG aP y2 (y - y e )
z =

## Packing height in terms of overall liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient, KL:

x
L * 1 dx
KL aC t x2 (xe - x)
z =

where L* = molar liquid flow rate per unit cross-sectional area, kmol/h.m2
Ct = total molar concentration, kmol/m2 = L = molecular weight of solvent
2

## Packing height in terms of Transfer Units

The equation for packing height z in terms of overall gas-phase mass transfer
coefficient, KG may be viewed as a product of HOG and NOG:
y
V * 1 dy
K G aP y2 (y - y e )
z = H OG N OG =

HOG NOG
where HOG = height of an overall gas-phase transfer unit
NOG = number of overall gas-phase transfer units

Similarly, the equation for packing height z in terms of overall liquid-phase mass
transfer coefficient, KL may be viewed as a product of HOL and NOL
x
V * 1 dx
K LaC t x2 (xe - x )
z = H OL N OL =

HOL NOL

## where HOL = height of an overall liquid-phase transfer unit

NOL = number of overall liquid-phase transfer units

## Estimation of the number of the transfer units, NOG

1. Graphical method
2. Algebraic equation
3. Using NOG vs. y1/y2 chart

1. Graphical method
y1
dy
The integral (y - y
y2 e )
is integrated graphically between the limits y1 and y2.

2. Algebraic calculations
If the operating and equilibrium lines are straight and the system involves dilute
mixtures
y - y2
N OG = 1
y lm
y 1 y 2
where y lm = where y 1 = y 1 - y e1 and y 2 = y 2 - y e2
y 1
ln
y2

3. Estimation of NOG
If the equilibrium and operating lines are straight and the solvent feed is free of
solute, NOG can be estimated using the following relationship:
3

1 mV * y1 mV *
N OG = ln 1- + where m is the slope of the equilibrium line
mV * L * y2 L *
1-
L*
Figure 11.39 (Sinnott) is a plot of the above equation. This chart is used for quick
estimate of NOG and z. Optimum value for mV*/L* = 0.7 to 0.8

## Experimental values of HTU are available as a function of type and size of

packings in Sinnott and Perrys handbook. If experimental values are not available
for the system under consideration, predictive methods are used to estimate them.

## HOG and HOL are estimated using the following relationships:

V*
H OG = H G + m HL
L*
L*
H OL = H L + HG
mV *
where HG = height of a transfer unit based on gas film, m
HL = height of a transfer unit based on liquid film, m

Predictive methods

## HG and HL values are estimated using two methods:

1. Cornells method (approximate) 2. Ondas method (preferred method)

2. Ondas method

this method is used to predict kG and kL values and is applicable for various
packings

## Let aw is the effective wetted area of the packing

0 . 05
aw c
0 . 75
L*m L*m a
0 .1 2
L*m 2
0.2

= 1 - exp -1.45
a L a L 2L g L L a

1/ 3 2/3 1 / 2
L L*m L
kL = 0.0051 (ad p )0.4
Lg a w L LDL
0.7
V*
1/ 3
k G RT V
= K 5 m (ad p )-2.0
a Dv a V V DV

## where K5 = 5.23 for packing sizes above 15 mm

= 2.0 for packing sizes below 15 mm
a = actual area of packing per unit volume, m2/m3
dp = packing size, m
c = critical surface tension for packing material, mN/m
4

## = 61 mN/m for ceramic

= 75 mN/m for metal
= 33 mN/m for plastic
= 56 mN/m for carbon
L = liquid surface tension, N/m

## Now HG and HL can be calculated using the following relationships:

V*
HG =
kGa w P
where kG = gas-film mass transfer coefficient, kmol/m2.s.atm
V* = molar gas flow rate/cross-sectional area, kmol/m2.s

L*
HL =
k La w C t

## where kL = liquid-film mass transfer coefficient, m/s

L* = molar liquid flow rate/cross-sectional area, kmol/m2.s
Ct = total concentration, kmol/m3 = L = molecular weight of solvent
5

Tutorial 2

## Packing height calculation

1. Ammonia content of a gas stream is reduced from 4.0 mole% to 0.5 mole% in a
packed absorption tower at 293 K and 1.013 x 105 Pa. The inlet flow of pure water is
68 kmol/h and the total flow of inlet gas is 58 kmol/h. The tower diameter is 0.75 m.
The packings are 25 mm Intalox saddles.

a) Estimate HOG values using Ondas methods (Ans: 2.57 m using Ondas method)
b) Compare the packed-bed height values calculated using the HOG values obtained in
the previous step

## NH3 -water equilibrium data are given in Table 1.

2. The gas SO2 is being scrubbed from air-SO2 mixture by pure water at 303 K and
1.013 x 105 Pa. The inlet gas contains 6.0 mole% SO2 and the outlet gas contains 0.3
mole% SO2. The tower cross-sectional area of packing is 0.44 m2. The inlet gas flow
is 15 kmol inert air/h and the inlet water flow is 980 kmol inert water/h. The packing
used are 38 mm Berl saddles.

Compare the packed-bed height values calculated using Ondas methods. (Ans: 1.6 m
using Ondas method)

3. SO2 -water equilibrium data are given in Table 2. A flue gas containing 6.0% SO2
by volume is to be scrubbed with water in a tower packed with 1 inch metallic pall
rings to remove the SO2 so that the exit gas will contain no more than 0.1 mole%
SO2. The tower must treat 0.125 kg/s of flue gas at atmospheric pressure and 20oC
and is to be designed using 60% of flooding velocity. The water flow rate is 5.0 kg/s.
Operating conditions of the tower will be isothermal at 20oC and 1 atmospheric
pressure.

Calculate the
a) diameter of the column assuming liquid mass flow rate does not change much over
the column height
b) height of the packing using Ondas method

## Some useful design data:

At 20oC:
L = 998 kg/m3 Average molecular weight of inlet gas = 31.1 kg/kmol
v = 1.82 x 10 Pa.s
-5
DL = 1.7 x 10-9 m2/s
v = 1.29 kg/m 3
L = 1.00 x 10-3 Pa.s
Dv = 1.45 x 10-5 m2/s
The equilibrium curve, which is a plot of mole fractions of SO2 in the vapour (y) and
liquid (x) phases, is nearly linear so it could be fitted by the following least-squares
equation:
y = 25.7x 0.00063.
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