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Standard Specification for Repairing Concrete

with Epoxy Mortars (ACI 503.4-92, Reapproved 1997, 2003)


Reported by ACI Committee 503

R.W. Gaul George Selden


Chairman Secretary

Russell H. Brink Leonard J. Mitchell G.M. Scales


George Horeczko Myles A. Murray Raymond J. Schulz
Harold C. Klassen Leonard Pepper George W. Whitesides
Joseph A. McElroy

Committee voting on the 1992 revisions:

Raymond J. Schutz Myles A. Murray


Chairman Secretary

Milton D. Anderson David P. Hu Richard Montani


Roger W. Black T. Michael Jackson Joseph M. Plecnik
John P. Cook Troy D. Madeley Hamid Saadatmanesh
Floyd E. Dimmick Albert Mayer W. Glenn Smoak
Wolfgang D. Eisenhut Joseph A. McElroy Joe Solomon
Jack J. Fontana Paul F. McHale Michael M. Sprinkel
Robert W. Gaul Peter Mendis Douglas G. Walters
Paul R. Hollenbach

This specification describes the work of repairing defects in hardened fication(s) for any building project, together with sup-
portland cement concrete with a sand-filled mortar using an adhesive plementary requirements for the specific project.
binder such as defined in ASTM C 881. It includes controls for adhesive
labeling storage, handling, mixing and application, surface evaluation and
This specification is written in the section and three-part
preparation as well as inspection and quality control. format of the Construction Specifications Institute, but with
the numbering system modified to ACI requirements. The
Keywords: bond (concrete to concrete); concrete construction; epoxy language is generally imperative and terse.
resins, hardened concrete; mortars (material); quality control; repairs; A specification guide and checklist are included as a
resurfacing; specifications; standards.
preface to, but not forming a part of Standard Specifi-
cation ACI 503.4. The purpose of this guide and checklist
is to assist the Architect/Engineers' d e s i g n e r ( s ) a n d
FOREWORD specifier(s) to properly choose and specify the necessary
supplementary requirements for the project specification(s).
This foreword is included for explanatory purposes only; it
does not form a part of Standard Specification ACI 503.4.
Standard Specification 503.2 is a reference standard
which the Architect/Engineer may cite in the project speci-

A C I Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices, and * Adopted as a standard of the American Concrete Institute effective June 1979.
Commentaries are intended for guidance in designing, plan- in accordance with the Institutes standardization procedure. It was revised
ning, executing, or inspecting construction and in preparing according to the expedited procedure effective October 1986 and March 1992,.
specifications. References to these documents shall not be Copyright 8 1978 and 1986 American Concrete Institute.
made in the Project Documents. If items found in these All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by
any means. including the making of copies by any photo process, or by any elec-
documents are desired to be a part of the Project Docu- tronic or mechanical device. printed or written or oral, or recording for sound or
ments, they should be phrased in mandatory language and visual reproduction or for use in anv knowledge or retrieval system or device,
incorporated into the Project Documents. unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.

503.4-l
503.4-2

CONTENTS SPECIFICATION GUIDE

SGl-Standard Specification ACI 503.4 is intended to


Specification guide, pg. 503.4-2 be used essentially in its entirety, by citation in the
project specification, to cover all usual requirements for
Specification checklist, pg. 503.4-2 repairing concrete with epoxy mortars. Individual sec-
tions, parts, and articles should not be copied into project
specifications since taking them out of context may
Section l-General requirements, pg. 503.4-4 change their meanings.
SG2-However, adjustments to the needs of a parti-
1.1-Scope cular project shall be made by the Architect/Engineers
1.2-Notation designers and specifiers by reviewing each of the items
1.3--Specification wording indicated in this specification guide and checklist and
1.4-Reference standards then including their decisions on each as mandatory
requirements in the project specification.
Section 2-Materials and application, pg. 503.4-4 SG3-These mandatory requirements shall designate
specific qualities, procedures, materials, and performance
criteria for which alternatives are permitted or for which
Part 2.1-General, pg. 503.4-4 provision is not made in Standard Specification ACI
503.4. Or exceptions shall be taken in Standard Speci-
2.1.1-Description fication ACI 503.4 if required.
2.1.2-Submittals SG4-A statement such as the following will serve to
2.1.3-Quality assurance make Standard Specification ACI 503.4 an official part of
2.1.4-Product delivery, storage, and handling the contract requirements:
2.1.5-Project conditions
Repairing concrete with epoxy mortars shall conform
to all requirements of Standard Specification for
Part 2.2-Products, pg. 503.4-4 Repairing Concrete with Epoxy Mortars (ACI 503.4),
published by the American Concrete Institute, De-
2.2.1-Epoxy mortar troit, Mich., except as modified by the requirements
of this project specification.
Part 2.3-Execution, pg. 503.4-4
SG5-The specification checklist that follows is ad-
2.3.1-Preparation of concrete surfaces dressed to each item of ACI 503.4 that requires the
2.3.2-Inspection of concrete surfaces prior to mortar designer/specifier to make a choice where alternates are
application indicated, or to add provisions where they are not in-
2.3.3-Mortar mixes dicated in ACI 503.4, or to take exceptions to ACI 503.4.
2.3.4-Mortar application The checklist consists of one column identifying sections,
2.3.5-Cleanup parts, and articles of ACI 503.4, and a second column of
2.3.6-Safety notes to the designer/specifier to indicate the action
required of them.

SPECIFICATION CHECKLIST

Section/Part/Article of ACI 503.4 Notes to the Designer/Specifier


Section l-General requirements
1.1 Scope Indicate specific scope.
1.4 Reference standards Review applicability of cited references and take ex-
ceptions if required.
Section 2-Materials and application
2.1.2 Submittals To whom sent?
EPOXY RESINS 503.4-3

SPECIFICATION CHECKLIST (cont.)


Section/Part/Article of ACI 503.4 Notes to the Designer/Specifier
2.1.3.2 Application control Mixing and application procedures submitted must be
in accordance with product manufacturers instructions.
2.1.4.2 Storage of materials Storing epoxy compounds at other than specified tem-
perature range may result in degradation of the pro-
duct. If such storage takes place, manufacturer should
be contacted before product is used.
2.1.5.1 Environmental requirements Performance of epoxy systems may be affected by tem-
perature, humidity, and surface water. Strict adherence
to the manufacturers recommendations should be
maintained. Where other unusual conditions are en-
countered, the material manufacturer should be con-
sulted before application.
2.2.1 Epoxy mortar Epoxy mortars consist of a two component epoxy sys-
tem plus aggregate which may or may not be incorpor-
ated in one or both components. Since the amount and
type of aggregate is important to the performance of
the mortar, the supplier and contractor must be in full
agreement on selection and use. If the aggregate is
furnished with proper instructions by the supplier the
problem is minimized.
The amount and type of aggregate selected can re-
sult in a mortar mix that will not adequately wet the
concrete substrate and thus can result in a poor bond.
The manufacturers recommendations should be close-
ly followed regarding the need for and application of a
primer for the mortar mix selected.
2.3.1 Preparation of surfaces Specify limitations, if any, on use of mechanical
abrasion, and on disposal of waste products.
2.3.2 Inspection of surfaces Specify if architect/engineer will also inspect, and if
hold points are required.
2.3.2.2 Pullout strength tests The test method specifies the bonding of a steel pipe
cap to the concrete surface with an epoxy adhesive. If
the test results not in failure of the concrete but in
cohesion of the epoxy resin adhesive or any failure in
adhesion, the test shall be repeated. Repeated failures
in adhesion, or cohesion in the adhesive, indicate im-
proper cleaning of the concrete, incorrect adhesive, or
faulty adhesive application techniques.
2.3.2.4 Surface condition of concrete Surface condition of the concrete must be in accor-
dance with the suppliers recommendation. Some
mortars require a dry surface and a test method should
be available to the applicator.
Some epoxy adhesives may be capable of wetting
the concrete surface at temperatures below 40 F. The
specification should allow such use only if test data is
available which conclusively demonstrates adequate
bond at the actual concrete temperature expected.
503.4-4 ACI STANDARD

SPECIFICATION CHECKLIST (cont.)

Section/Part/Article of ACI 503.4 I Notes to the Designer/Specifier


2.3.4.1 Mortar application Too thin an application of epoxy mortar can result in a
surface without adequate integrity for intended use.
Too thick an application can result in delamination
caused by temperature changes. See Use of Epoxy
Compounds with Concrete reported by Committee 503
for a more complete explanation.

SECTION l-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 2.1.1 Description - This section covers the require-
ments for surface preparation of hardened concrete and
l.l-Scope for materials and application of the epoxy mortar.
1.1.1 This standard specification covers repairing of 2.1.2 Submittals
defects in hardened portland cement concrete with sand- 2.1.2.1 Contractor shall submit manufacturers
fiied epoxy mortar. certification verifying conformance to material specifi-
1.1.2 The provisions of this standard specification shall cations specified in Part 2.2.
govern unless otherwise specified in the contract docu- 2.1.3 Quality assurance
ments. In case of conflicting requirements, the contract 2.1.3.1 Labeling-Clearly mark all containers with
documents shall govern. the following information:

1.2-Notation a) Name of manufacturer


1.2.1 ACI: American Concrete Institute b) Manufacturers product identification
P.O. Box 19150 c) Manufacturers instructions for mixing
Detroit, MI 48219 d) Warning for handling and toxicity

1.2.2 ASTM: American Society for Testing and 2.1.3.2 Application control-Submit mixing and
Materials application procedures for approval prior to use.
1916 Race Street 2.1.4 Product delivery, storage, and handling
Philadelphia, PA 19103 2.1.4.1 Delivery of materials-Deliver all materials
in sealed containers with labels legible and intact.
1.3-Specification wording 2.1.4.2 Storage of materials-Store all materials at
1.3.1 The language of this standard specification is temperatures between 40-100 F (5-38 C) unless otherwise
generally imperative and terse, and may include incom- recommended by manufacturer.
plete sentences. Omissions of phrases and of words such 2.1.4.3 Handling of materials--Handle all materials
as the contractor shall, in accordance with, shall be, in a safe manner and in a way to avoid breaking con-
as indicated, a, an, the, all, etc., are intentional. tainer seals.
Omitted phrases and words shall be supplied by in- 2.1.5 Project conditions
ference. 2.1.5.1 Environmental requirements-Contractor
shall comply with manufacturers recommendations as to
1.4-Reference standards environmental conditions under which the epoxy com-
1.4.1 The standards referred to in this Standard Speci- pound may be applied.
fication ACI 503.4 are listed in Article 1.5.2 of this
section, with their complete designation and title in- Part 2.2-Products
cluding the year of adoption or revision and are declared 2.2.1 Epoxy mortar-ASTM C 881 Type III. Curing
to be a part of this Standard Specification ACI 503.4 the temperature requirements (Class) and viscosity (Grade),
same as if fully set forth herein, unless otherwise in- as well as special requirements regarding filling of either
dicated in the contract documents. the components or the final system, shall be determined
1.4.2 ASTM standard by supplier and contractor after project conditions have
C 881-87 Standard Specification for Epoxy-Resin-Base been established.
Bonding Systems for Concrete
Part 2.3-Execution
2.3.1 Preparation of concrete surfaces
SECTION 2-MATERIALS AND APPLICATION 2.3.1.1 Concrete surfaces to which epoxies are to be
applied shall be newly exposed parent concrete free of
Part 2.1-General loose and unsound materials. Prepare surfaces by mech-
EPOXY RESINS 503.4-5

anical abrasion. be at a temperature between 60-100 F (16-38 C), unless


2.3.1.3 Mechanical abrasion-Use sandblasting, otherwise recommended by manufacturer.
scarifying, waterblasting, or other approved means. 2.3.3.3 Thoroughly blend epoxy components with a
2.3.2 Inspection of concrete surfaces prior to mortar ap- mechanical mixer to a uniform and homogeneous mix-
plication ture. Mix small batches (up to 1 qt) by use of spatulas,
2.3.2.1 Inspect all concrete surfaces prior to palette knives, or similar devices.
application of mortar to insure that requirements of this 2.3.4 Mortar application
Article 2.3.2 are met. 2.3.4.1 Apply epoxy mortar to concrete surface by
2.3.2.2 Surfaces shall be sound concrete which trowel or screed. Thickness shall be within the limits re-
exhibits a minimum 100 psi pullout strength when tested commended by the manufacturer.
in accordance with Appendix A of Use of Epoxy Com- 2.3.4.2 Work mortar into place and consolidate tho-
pounds with Concrete, reported by ACI Committee 503. roughly so that all contact surfaces are wet by the mortar
2.3.2.3 Surfaces shall be free of any deleterious and entrained air is reduced to the level recommended
materials such as laitance, curing compounds, dust, dirt, by manufacturer.
and oil. Materials resulting from surface preparation spe- 2.3.4.3 Finish surface of mortar to texture, color,
cified in Article 2.3.1 shall be removed. and smoothness required for the specific application.
2.3.2.4 All concrete surfaces shall be dry as defined 2.3.4.4 Upon completion of finishing operations,
in Article 2.3.2.5 below unless a water-insensitive coating allow mortar to cure in accordance with manufacturers
is used. Surface temperature shall be at least 40 F to per- recommendations.
mit wetting of concrete surface by epoxy coating. 2.3.5 Cleanup
2.3.2.5 Evaluate moisture content for concrete by 2.3.5.1 Protect concrete surfaces, beyond limits of
determining if moisture will collect at bond lines between surface receiving mortar, against spillage.
old concrete and epoxy coating before epoxy has cured. 2.3.5.2 Immediately remove any epoxy compound
This may be accomplished by taping a 4 x 4 ft poly- applied or spilled beyond desired areas. Perform cleanup
ethylene sheet to concrete surface. If moisture collects on with material designated by epoxy mortar manufacturer.
underside of polyethylene sheet before epoxy would cure, Avoid contamination of work area.
then allow concrete to dry sufficiently to prevent the 2.3.6 Safely-Epoxy materials may be skin irritants or
possibility of moisture between old concrete and new sensitizers to many people. Accordingly, advise appli-
epoxy. cators to avoid contact with eyes and skin, inhalation of
2.3.3 Mortar mixes vapors, and ingestion. Make protective and safety equip-
2.3.3.1 Mix epoxy components in a clean container ment available on site. Heed all label warnings by manu-
free of harmful residue or foreign particles. facturer. Make application in accordance with applicable
2.3.3.2 Condition epoxy compound components to safety laws.