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122 tayangan47 halamanSolutions for 9th Edition Chapter 2

Mar 30, 2017

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Solutions for 9th Edition Chapter 2

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122 tayangan

Solutions for 9th Edition Chapter 2

© All Rights Reserved

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1

Problem 1.1 [Difficulty: 3]

1.1

Tar Sand

Some of these substances exhibit characteristics of solids and fluids under different conditions.

Solution: Tar, Wax, and Jello behave as solids at room temperature or below at ordinary pressures. At high

pressures or over long periods, they exhibit fluid characteristics. At higher temperatures, all three

Modeling clay and silly putty show fluid behavior when sheared slowly. However, they fracture

Toothpaste behaves as a solid when at rest in the tube. When the tube is squeezed hard, toothpaste

flows out the spout, showing fluid behavior. Shaving cream behaves similarly.

Sand acts solid when in repose (a sand pile). However, it flows from a spout or down a steep

incline.

Problem 1.2

Problem 1.2 [Difficulty: 2]

1.2

1.2

Given: 1.2

Five basic conservation laws stated in Section 1-4.

b. Newton's second law of motion The net force acting on a system is directly proportional to the product of the

c. First law of thermodynamics The change in stored energy of a system equals the net energy added to the

d. Second law of thermodynamics The entropy of any isolated system cannot decrease during any process

e. Principle of angular momentum The net torque acting on a system is equal to the rate of change of angular

Problem 1.3

Problem 1.3 [Difficulty: 3]

1.3

Open-Ended Problem Statement: The barrel of a bicycle tire pump becomes quite warm during use.

Discussion: Two phenomena are responsible for the temperature increase: (1) friction between the pump piston

and barrel and (2) temperature rise of the air as it is compressed in the pump barrel.

Friction between the pump piston and barrel converts mechanical energy (force on the piston moving through a

distance) into thermal energy as a result of friction. Lubricating the piston helps to provide a good seal with the

pump barrel and reduces friction (and therefore force) between the piston and barrel.

Temperature of the trapped air rises as it is compressed. The compression is not adiabatic because it occurs during a

finite time interval. Heat is transferred from the warm compressed air in the pump barrel to the cooler surroundings.

This raises the temperature of the barrel, making its outside surface warm (or even hot!) to the touch.

Problem 1.4

(Difficulty: 1)

1.4

Solution: Compute tank volume, and then us e oxygen density to find the mass.

data is:

For oxygen the critical temperature and pressure are: Tc = 279R p c = 725.2psi (data from NIST WebBook)

Using a compressiblity factor chart: Z = 0.948 Since this number is close to 1, we can assume ideal gas behavior.

p = R O2T M

Therefore, the governing equation is the ideal gas equation and =

V

3

V = D 3 3

where V is the tank volume V = (16ft) V = 2144.7ft

6 6

Hence:

Problem 1.5

Problem 1.10 [Difficulty: 4]

FD = 3 V d

FD = 3Vd

Find: Diameter of gasoline droplets that take 1 second to fall 10 in.

a = dV/dt

Solution: Use given data and data in Appendices; integrate equation of

motion by separating variables.

Mg

The data provided, or available in the Appendices, are:

= 4.48 10 w = 1.94 SG gas = 0.72 gas = SGgas w gas = 1.40

2 3 3

ft ft ft

dV

Newton's 2nd law for the sphere (mass M) is (ignoring buoyancy effects) M = M g 3 V d

dt

dV

= dt

so 3 d

g V

M

3 d 3 d t

M g M

t

M g M M

Integrating twice and using limits V( t) = 1 e x( t) = t + e 1

3 d 3 d 3 d

18 t

2 2

d

3 gas d g gas d gas d2

Replacing M with an expression involving diameter d M = gas x( t) = t + e 1

6 18 18

This equation must be solved for d so that x ( 1 s) = 10 in. The answer can be obtained from manual iteration, or by using

Excel's Goal Seek.

3

d = 4.30 10 in

1 10

0.75 7.5

x (in)

x (in)

0.5 5

0.25 2.5

t (s) t (s)

Note That the particle quickly reaches terminal speed, so that a simpler approximate solution would be to solve Mg = 3Vd for d,

with V = 0.25 m/s (allowing for the fact that M is a function of d)!

Problem 1.12

Problem 1.6 [Difficulty: 3]

1.6

kVt

Find: Drag constant k, and time to reach 99% of terminal speed.

13 ft mg

The data provided are: M = 1 10 slug Vt = 0.2

s

dV

Newton's 2nd law for the general motion is (ignoring buoyancy effects) M = M g k V (1)

dt

M g

Newton's 2nd law for the steady state motion becomes (ignoring buoyancy effects) M g = k Vt so k =

Vt

2

13 ft s lbf s 11 lbf s

k = 1 10 slug 32.2 k = 1.61 10

2 0.2 ft slug ft ft

s

dV

= dt

To find the time to reach 99% of Vt, we need V(t). From 1, separating variables k

g V

M

ln 1 V

M k

Integrating and using limits t=

k M g

ft

We must evaluate this when V = 0.99 Vt V = 0.198

s

lbf s

2 11 lbf s

2

0.198 ft slug ft

ln 1 1.61 10

13 ft 1 s

t = 1 10 slug

11 slug ft ft 13 32.2 ft s 2

1.61 10 lbf s 1 10 slug lbf s

t = 0.0286 s

Problem 1.7

(Difficulty: 2)

1.7 A rocket payload with a weight on earth of 2000 is landed on the moon where the acceleration

due to the moons gravity . Find the mass of the payload on the earth and the moon and the

6

payloads moon weight.

Given: Rocket payload weight on earth = 2000 . The acceleration due to the moons gravity

.

6

Find: The mass of payload on earth and on moon in SI and EE units. The payloads moon weight

.

Solution:

=

6

The value of gravity is:

= 32.2

2

The mass on earth is:

2000

= = = 62.1

32.2 2 .

The mass on moon is the same as it on earth:

= 62.1

The weight on the moon is then

= = = = = 333

6 6 6

Problem 1.8

(Difficulty: 1)

1.8 A cubic meter of air at 101 and 15 weighs 12.0 . What is its specific volume? What is the

specific volume if it is cooled to 10 at constant pressure?

Given: Specific weight = 12.0 at 101 and 15 .

3

Find: The specific volume at 101 and 15 . Also the specific volume at 101 and 10 .

Solution:

The specific volume is equal to the reciprocal of the specific weight divided by gravity

1 =

9.81 2 3

1 = = = 0.818

12.0

The temperature conditions are

1 = 15 = 288 , 2 = 10 = 263

For 2 at the same pressure of 101 and cooled to 10 we have, because the gas constant is the

same at both pressures:

1

1 1

= =

2 2 2

2 3 263 3

2 = 1 = 0.818 = 0.747

1 288

Problem 1.9

(Difficulty: 2)

1.9 Calculate the specific weight, specific volume and density of air at 40 and 50 . What are the

values if the air is then compressed isentropically to 100 psia?

Find: The specific weight, specific volume and density at 40 and 50 psia and the values at 100 psia

after isentropic compression.

Solution:

Basic equation: =

1 = 40 = 500

= 1715

1 1715 3

1 = = 500 = 119.1

1442

50

2

1

1 = = 0.0084

1 3

Using Newtons second law, the specific weight is the density times gravity:

1 = = 0.271

3

For the isentropic compression of air to 100 psia, we have the relation for entropy change of an ideal gas:

2 2

2 1 = ln ln

1 1

The definition of an isentropic process is

2 = 1

2 2 /

=

1 1

= 1715 = 53.3 = 0.0686

= 0.24

2 / 100 0.0686/0.24

2 = 1 = 500 = 610

1 50

2 = 100 = 14400

2

2 1715 3

2 = = 610.00 = 72.6

2 1442

100

2

1

2 = = 0.0138

2 3

2 = 2 = 0.444

3

Problem 1.10

Problem 1.13 [Difficulty: 5]

1.10 1.6

1.6

Find: Distance traveled to reach 99% of terminal speed; plot of distance versus time. kVt

13 ft

The data provided are: M = 1 10 slug Vt = 0.2 mg

s

dV

Newton's 2nd law for the general motion is (ignoring buoyancy effects) M = M g k V (1)

dt

M g

Newton's 2nd law for the steady state motion becomes (ignoring buoyancy effects) M g = k Vt so k =

Vt

2

13 ft s lbf s 11 lbf s

k = 1 10 slug 32.2 k = 1.61 10

2 0.2 ft slug ft ft

s

dV dy dV dV

To find the distance to reach 99% of Vt, we need V(y). From 1: M = M = M V = M g k V

dt dt dy dy

V dV

= dy

Separating variables k

g V

M

2

M g

ln 1 V

k M

Integrating and using limits y= V

k

2 M g k

ft

We must evaluate this when V = 0.99 Vt V = 0.198

s

2

( ) lbf s ln 1 1.61 10 11 lbf s 0.198 ft slug ft

2 2 2 2

32.2 ft

13 ft 1 s

y = 1 10 slug ...

2 11 slug ft ft 13 32.2 ft s 2

s 1.61 10 lbf s 1 10 slug lbf s

2

13 ft 0.198 ft lbf s

+ 1 10 slug

11 s slug ft

1.61 10 lbf s

3

y = 4.49 10 ft

Alternatively we could use the approach of Problem 1.12 and first find the time to reach terminal speed, and use this time in y(t) to

find the above value of y:

dV

= dt

From 1, separating variables k

g V

M

ln 1 V

M k

Integrating and using limits t= (2)

k M g

ft

We must evaluate this when V = 0.99 Vt V = 0.198

s

lbf s

2 11 lbf s

2

0.198 ft slug ft

ln 1 1.61 10

13 ft 1 s

t = 1 10 slug

11 slug ft ft 13 32.2 ft s 2

1.61 10 lbf s 1 10 slug lbf s

t = 0.0286 s

k

t

dy M g M

From 2, after rearranging V= = 1 e

dt k

k

M g

t

M M

Integrating and using limits y= t + e 1

k k

2

13 32.2 ft ft lbf s

y = 1 10 slug 0.0291 s ...

slug ft

s

2

1.61 10

11

lbf s 1.61 10

11

.0291

2

+ 10 13 slug ft lbf s 1 10

13

e 1

11 slug ft

1.61 10 lbf s

3

y = 4.49 10 ft

3.75

y (0.001 ft)

2.5

1.25

0 5 10 15 20 25

t (ms)

Problem 1.14

Problem 1.11 [Difficulty: 4]

1.11

2

N s

Given: Data on sky diver: M = 70 kg k = 0.25

2

m

Find: Maximum speed; speed after 100 m; plot speed as function of time and distance.

dV 2

Newton's 2nd law for the sky diver (mass M) is (ignoring buoyancy effects): M = M g k V (1)

dt

2 M g FD = kV2

(a) For terminal speed Vt, acceleration is zero, so M g k V = 0 so Vt =

k

1

2

a = dV/dt

2

N s

2

Vt = 70 kg 9.81

m m m

Vt = 52.4

2 2 kg m s Mg

s 0.25 N s

dV dV dy dV 2

(b) For V at y = 100 m we need to find V(y). From (1) M = M = M V = M g k V

dt dy dt dt

V

V

y

Separating variables and integrating: dV = g dy

2

k V 0

1

M g

0

2 k y

k V

2

2 k M g

ln 1

2 M

so = y or V = 1 e

M g M k

1

2

2 k y

M

Hence V( y ) = Vt 1 e

1

2

N s

2

1 kg m

2 0.25 100 m

m m

2 70 kg s 2 N m

For y = 100 m: V( 100 m) = 52.4 1 e V( 100 m) = 37.4

s s

60

40

V(m/s)

20

y(m)

dV 2

(c) For V(t) we need to integrate (1) with respect to t: M = M g k V

dt

V

V

t

Separating variables and integrating: dV = 1 dt

M g 2

V 0

k

0

M g

+V

= 1 M ln t

M 1 k V +V

so t= ln

2 k g M g 2 k g Vt V

V

k

k g

2 M

t

Rearranging V( t) = Vt

e 1

or V( t) = Vt tanh Vt t

k

k g M

2 M

t

e + 1

60

40

V(m/s)

V ( t)

20

0 5 10 15 20

t

t(s)

Problem 1.12

Problem 1.16 [Difficulty: 3]

1.12

Given: Long bow at range, R = 100 m. Maximum height of arrow is h = 10 m. Neglect air resistance.

Find: Estimate of (a) speed, and (b) angle, of arrow leaving the bow.

y V0

Fy = m dv

dt

= mg , so v = v0 gt, and tf = 2tv=0 = 2v0/g x 0

dv v2

Also, mv = mg, v dv = g dy, 0 0 = gh R

dy 2

Thus h = v 20 2g (1)

du 2u v

Fx = m = 0, so u = u 0 = const, and R = u 0 t f = 0 0 (2)

dt g

gR gR gR 2

From Eq. 2: u0 = = u 20 =

2v 0 2 2gh 8h

1

gR 2 gR 2 2

Then V =u +v =

2 2

+ 2 gh and V0 = 2 gh +

2

(4)

8h

0 0 0

8h

1

m 9.81 m 1 2 m

V0 = 2 9.81 2 10 m + 2

100 2 m 2 = 37.7

s 8 s 10 m s

2gh

From Eq. 3: v 0 = 2gh = V0 sin , = sin 1 (5)

V0

1

m s

= sin 2 9.81 2 10 m

2

1

= 21.8

s 37.7 m

80

70

60

V 0 (m/s)

50

40

30

20

10

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

h (m)

60

50

40

( )

o

30

20

10

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

h (m)

Problem 1.17

Problem 1.13 [Difficulty: 2]

1.13

Find: Dimensional representation of quantities below, and typical units in SI and English systems.

Solution:

Energy Force Distance F L

(a) Power Power = = =

Time Time t

M L

From Newton's 2nd law Force = Mass Acceleration so F=

2

t

2 2 2

F L M L L M L kg m slug ft

Hence Power = = =

t 2 3 3 3

t t t s s

Force F M L M kg slug

(b) Pressure Pressure = = = =

Area 2 2 2 2 2 2

L t L L t m s ft s

Force F M L M kg slug

(c) Modulus of elasticity Pressure = = = =

Area 2 2 2 2 2 2

L t L L t m s ft s

Radians 1 1 1

(d) Angular velocity AngularVelocity = =

Time t s s

2 2 2

M L L M L kg m slug ft

(e) Energy Energy = Force Distance = F L = =

2 2 2 2

t t s s

2 2 2

M L L M L kg m slug ft

(f) Moment of a force MomentOfForce = Force Length = F L = =

2 2 2 2

t t s s

L M L kg m slug ft

(g) Momentum Momentum = Mass Velocity = M =

t t s s

Force F M L M kg slug

(h) Shear stress ShearStress = = = =

Area 2 2 2 2 2 2

L t L L t m s ft s

LengthChange L

(i) Strain Strain = = Dimensionless

Length L

2 2 2

M L M L kg m slugs ft

(j) Angular momentum AngularMomentum = Momentum Distance = L =

t t s s

Problem 1.14

(Difficulty: 1)

1.14 The density of a sample of sea water is 1.99 3 . What are the values in SI and EE units?

Solution:

For SI unit:

1

1.99 0.0685

= 1.99 3 = = 1026 3

1

3

3.283

For EE units:

1

1.99 0.0311

= 1.99 3 = 3 = 64.0

3

Problem 1.15

(Difficulty: 1)

Solution:

1 = 1.341

1 = 0.000393

The power is then

1

= 50 = 50 = 37.3

1.341

1

= 50 = 50 = 127,200

0.000393

Problem 1.16

(Difficulty: 1)

1.16 A fluid occupying 3.2 3 has a mass of 4. Calculate its density and specific volume in SI, EE and

BG units.

Solution:

For SI units:

4000

= = 3 = 1250 3

3.2

The specific volume is the reciprocal of the density:

1 3

= = 8 104

For EE units:

1 = 16.0

3 3

1250

= = 78.0

16.0 3 3

1 1 3 3

= = = 0.0128

78.0

1 3 = 32.2

3

78.0

= 3 = 2.43

32.2 3

And the specific volume is

1 1 3 3

= = = 0.412

2.43

Problem 1.17

(Difficulty: 1)

1.17 If a power plant is rated at 2000 output and operates (on average) at 75% of rated power,

how much energy (in and ) does it put out a year.

Solution:

For SI units:

= = 2000 106 365 24 3600 0.75 = 4.73 1016

For EE units:

1 = 1.356

4.73 1016

= = 3.49 1016

1.356

Problem 1.18

Problem 1.18 [Difficulty: 2]

1.18

Find: Dimensional representation of quantities below, and typical units in SI and English systems.

Solution:

Energy Force Distance F L N m lbf ft

(a) Power Power = = =

Time Time t s s

Force F N lbf

(b) Pressure Pressure = =

Area 2 2 2

L m ft

Force F N lbf

(c) Modulus of elasticity Pressure = =

Area 2 2 2

L m ft

Radians 1 1 1

(d) Angular velocity AngularVelocity = =

Time t s s

L

(f) Momentum Momentum = Mass Velocity = M

t

2

L F t

From Newton's 2nd law Force = Mass Acceleration so F = M or M=

2 L

2 t

L F t L

Hence Momentum = M = = F t N s lbf s

t L t

Force F N lbf

(g) Shear stress ShearStress = =

Area 2 2 2

L m ft

2 2 2

Energy F L F L L m ft

(h) Specific heat SpecificHeat = = = =

Mass Temperature M T F t2 2 2 2

t T s K s R

T

L

LengthChange

Length 1 1 1

(i) Thermal expansion coefficient ThermalExpansionCoefficient = =

Temperature T K R

Problem 1.20

Problem 1.19 [Difficulty: 1]

1.19

Solution:

Using data from tables (e.g. Table G.2)

6895 Pa 1 kPa

(a) 1 psi = 1 psi = 6.89 kPa

1 psi 1000 Pa

1 quart 1 gal

(b) 1 liter = 1 liter = 0.264 gal

0.946 liter 4 quart

2

1 ft

lbf s lbf s 4.448 N 12 Ns

(c) 1 = 1 = 47.9

ft

2

ft

2 1 lbf 0.0254m

m

2

Problem 1.22

Problem 1.20 [Difficulty: 1]

1.20

Solution: Use Table G.2 and other sources (e.g., Machinery's Handbook, Mark's Standard Handbook)

2

4047 m 0.3048 m 3 3

(a) 3.7 acre ft = 3.7 acre = 4.56 10 m

1 acre 1 ft

3 3 3 3

in in 0.0254 m = 0.00246 m

(b) 150 = 150

s s 1 in s

3 3 3

gal 231 in 0.0254 m 1 min = 0.000189 m

(c) 3 gpm = 3

min 1 gal 1 in 60 s s

(d) 3 = 3 = 1.34

s hr s 1 mile 3600 s 2

s

Problem 1.21

Problem 1.23 [Difficulty: 1]

1.21

3 3 3 3

ft ft 0.0254 m 12 in 1 min = 0.0472 m

(a) 100 = 100

m min 1 in 1 ft 60 s s

3 3

231 in 0.0254 m = 0.0189 m3

(b) 5 gal = 5 gal

1 gal 1 in

mile 1852 m 1 hr m

(c) 65 mph = 65 = 29.1

hr 1 mile 3600 s s

3

4047 m 4 2

(d) 5.4 acres = 5.4 acre = 2.19 10 m

1 acre

Problem 1.22

Problem 1.24 [Difficulty: 1]

1.22

appropriate

2

2 2 1 in 1 ft = 538 ft 2

(a) 50 m = 50 m

0.0254m

12 in

3

3 1 m 1 in 1 ft = 8.83 10 3 ft 3

(b) 250 cc = 250 cm

100 cm 0.0254m

12 in

1000 W 1 hp

(c) 100 kW = 100 kW = 134 hp

1 kW 746 W

2

kg kg

0.0254m 12 in 1 slug slug

(d) 5 = 5 = 0.0318

m

2

m

2 1 in 1 ft 14.95 kg

ft

2

Problem 1.26

Problem 1.23 [Difficulty: 2]

1.23

Solution: Use Table G.2 and other sources (e.g., Google) as needed.

The author's tank is approximately 12 in in diameter, and the cylindrical part is about 8 in. The weight of propane specified is 17 lb.

kg

The density of water is = 998

3

m

mprop mprop

The volume of propane is given by Vprop = =

prop SGprop

3 3

1 m 0.454 kg 1 in 3

Vprop = 17 lbm Vprop = 953 in

0.495 998 kg 1 lbm 0.0254 m

The volume of the tank is given by a cylinder diameter D length L, D2L/4 and a sphere (two halves) given by D3/6

2 3

D D

Vtank = L +

4 6

2 3

( 12 in) ( 12 in) 3

Vtank = 8 in + Vtank = 1810 in

4 6

Vprop

The ratio of propane to tank volumes is = 53 %

Vtank

This seems low, and can be explained by a) tanks are not filled completely, b) the geometry of the tank gave an overestimate of

the volume (the ends are not really hemispheres, and we have not allowed for tank wall thickness).

Problem 1.24

Problem 1.28 [Difficulty: 1]

1.24

Solution:

3 3 3 3

in in

0.0254m 1000 mm 1 min mm

(a) 1 = 1 = 273

min min 1 in 1 m 60 s s

3 3

m m 1 gal 60 s

(b) 1 = 1 = 15850 gpm

s s 3 1 min

4 0.000946 m

(c) 1 = 1 = 0.264 gpm

min min 4 0.946 liter 1 min

3 3 3

1 SCFM = 1

ft

0.0254 m 60 min = 1.70 m

(d)

min 1 1 hr hr

ft

12

Problem 1.25

Problem 1.30 [Difficulty: 1]

1.25

Table G.2.Table

m

Define kgf kgf = 1 kg 9.81 kgf = 9.81N

2

s

2

lbf 4.448 N 1 kgf 12 in 1 ft 1 m = 2.25 kgf

Then 32

in

2 1 lbf 9.81 N 1 ft

0.3048m 100 cm

cm

2

[Difficulty: 2]

Problem 1.32

Problem 1.26

1.26

Find: COPideal, EER, and compare to a typical Energy Star compliant EER value.

Solution: Use the COP equation. Then use conversions from Table G.2 or other sources (e.g., www.energystar.gov) to

find the EER.

293

The COPIdeal is COPIdeal = = 14.65

313 293

The EER is a similar measure to COP except the cooling rate (numerator) is in BTU/hr and the electrical input (denominator) is in W:

BTU BTU

2545

hr hr BTU

EER Ideal = COPIdeal EER Ideal = 14.65 = 50.0

W 746 W hr W

This compares to Energy Star compliant values of about 15 BTU/hr/W! We have some way to go! We can define the isentropic

efficiency as

EER Actual

isen =

EER Ideal

Problem 1.33

Problem 1.27 [Difficulty: 2]

1.27

(psia)

Find: Whether it is dimensionally correct. If not, find units of 2.38 coefficient. Write a SI version of the equation

Solution: Rearrange equation to check units of 0.04 term. Then use conversions from Table G.2 or other sources (e.g., Google)

mmax T0

"Solving" the equation for the constant 2.38: 2.38 =

At p 0

Substituting the units of the terms on the right, the units of the constant are

1

1 1

2 2 2 2

slug 2 1 1 slug 2 1 in lbf s R in s

R = R =

s 2 psi s 2 lbf slug ft 3

ft ft ft

1

2 2

R in s

Hence the constant is actually c = 2.38

3

ft

For BG units we could start with the equation and convert each term (e.g., At), and combine the result into a new constant, or simply

convert c directly:

1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2

R in s R in s K 1 ft 1 ft

c = 2.38 = 2.38

ft

3

ft

3 1.8 R 12 in

0.3048m

1

2

K s At p 0

c = 0.04 so mmax = 0.04 with At in m2, p 0 in Pa, and T0 in K.

m T0

Problem 1.28

Problem 1.34 [Difficulty: 1]

1.28

Solution: Use the mean free path equation. Then "solve" for C and use dimensions.

m

The mean free path equation is = C

2

d

2

d

"Solving" for C, and using dimensions C=

m

M 2

L L

3

L

C= =0 The constant C is dimensionless.

M

Problem 1.36

Problem 1.29 [Difficulty: 1]

1.29

2

ft 1 lbf s

Ww = 2.5 slug 32.2 3.5 lbf Ww = 77.0 lbf

2 1 slug ft

s

slug

The temperature is 90F = 32.2C and from Table A.7 = 1.93

3

ft

Mw Ww

Hence Vw = or Vw =

g

2 3

1 s 1 ft 1 slug ft 3

Vw = 77.0 lbf Vw = 1.24ft

32.2 ft 1.93 slug 2

1 lbf s

Problem 1.30

Problem 1.38 [Difficulty: 1]

1.30

Solution:

1 3

2 4

rpm gpm ft

The units are or

3 3

4 2

ft s

1

2

rpm gpm

NScu = 2000

3

4

ft

3

1

1 4

2 1 ft

rpm gpm

2

2 rad 1 min 4 0.000946 m 1 min

3 12

NScu = 2000

3 1 rev 60 s 1 gal 60 s 0.0254 m

4

ft

1

2

m3

rad

s s

NScu = 4.06

3

4

m

Problem 1.31

Problem 1.40 [Difficulty: 2]

1.31

Find: Air density using ideal gas equation of state; Estimate of uncertainty in calculated value.

Solution:

p lbf lb o R 1 in 2

= = 14.7 2 144

RT in 53.3 ft lbf 519o R ft 2

1

p 2 T 2 2

u = u p + uT

p T

p 1 RT 0.1

= RT = = 1; up = = 0.334%

p RT RT 29.9

T T p p 0.5

= = = 1; uT = = 0.0963%

T RT 2

RT 460 + 59

Then

[ ] [ ]

1 1

u = u 2p + ( uT ) = 0.334% 2 + ( 0.0963% )

2 2 2 2

lbm

u = 0.348% = 2.66 10 4

ft 3

Problem 1.32

Problem 1.42 [Difficulty: 2]

1.32

Given: Standard American golf ball:

D = 1.68 0.01in. (20 to 1)

m m 3 m 6 m

= =4 3 = =

V 3 R 4 (D 2) D 3

3

6 1 0.4536 kg in.3

= 1.62 oz = 1130 kg/m 3

(1.68) in.

3 3

16 oz (0.0254) m3 3

kg m3

and SG = = 1130 = 1.13

H O2

m 3 1000 kg

1

m 2

D 2

2

m D

m m 1 0.01

= = = 1; um = = 0.617%

m 1.62

D D 6m 6 m 0.1

= 3 4 = 3 = 3; uD = = 0.595%

D D D 4 1.68

Thus

[ ] [ ]

1 1

u = u + ( 3u D ) = 0.617% + ( 3 0.595% )

kg

u = 1.89% = 21.4

2 2 2 2 2 2

m

m3

u SG = u = 1.89% = 0.0214

Finally,

SG = 1.13 0.0214 (20 to 1)

Problem 1.33

Problem 1.43 [Difficulty: 2]

1.33

H = 102 1 mm (20 to 1)

D = 73 1 mm (20 to 1)

m = 397 1 g (20 to 1)

Solution: Density is

m m 4 m

= = = or = ( m, D, H )

R H D 2 H

2

1

m 2

D H

2

2 2

From uncertainty analysis: u = u m + u D + u H

m D H

m m 4 1 1 4m 1

= = = 1; um = = 0.252%

m D 2 H D 2 H 397

D D 4m 1 4m 1

Evaluating: = ( 2) = ( 2 ) = 2; u D = = 137%

.

D D H

3

D H

2

73

H H 4m 1 4m 1

= ( 1) = ( 1) = 1; u H = = 0.980%

H D H

2 2

D H2

102

[ ]

1

u = (1 0.252 ) + ( 2 1.37 ) + ( 1 0.980)

2 2 2 2

Substituting:

u = 2.92%

m3

= D2 H = (73) 2 mm 2 102 mm 9 3

= 4.27 10 4 m 3

4 4 10 mm

m 397 g kg

= = 4 3

= 930 kg m 3

4.27 10 m 1000 g

Problem 1.34

Problem 1.44 [Difficulty: 2]

1.34

Given: Mass flow rate of water determine by collecting discharge over a timed interval is 0.2 kg/s.

Find: Estimate precision of flow rate calculation for time intervals of (a) 10 s, and (b) 1 min.

m

m& =

t

Computing equations: 1

m m& t m&

2

2

2

u m& = u m + u t

m& m m& t

m m& 1 t m& t 2 m

Thus = t = 1 and = 2 = 1

m& m t m& t m t

The uncertainties are expected to be half the least counts of the measuring instruments.

Tabulating results:

Water

Time Uncertainty Uncertainty Uncertainty

Error in t Collected, Error in m

Interval, t in t in m &

in m

(s) m (kg)

(s) (%) (%) (%)

(kg)

A time interval of about 15 seconds should be chosen to reduce the uncertainty in results to 1 percent.

Problem 1.45

Problem 1.35 [Difficulty: 3]

1.35

Given: Nominal mass flow rate of water determined by collecting discharge (in a beaker) over a timed

& = 100 g s ; Scales have capacity of 1 kg, with least count of 1 g; Timer has least

interval is m

count of 0.1 s; Beakers with volume of 100, 500, 1000 mL are available tare mass of 1000 mL

beaker is 500 g.

Find: Estimate (a) time intervals, and (b) uncertainties, in measuring mass flow rate from using each of

the three beakers.

Solution: To estimate time intervals assume beaker is filled to maximum volume in case of 100 and 500 mL

beakers and to maximum allowable mass of water (500 g) in case of 1000 mL beaker.

m m

Then & =

m and t = =

t &

m &

m

Tabulating results

= 100 mL 500 mL 1000 mL

t = 1s 5s 5 s

1

m m& t m&

2

2

2

u m& = u m + u t

m& m m& t

The uncertainties are half the least counts of the measuring instruments: m = 0.5 g t = 0.05 s

[ ]

1

m m& t m& t 2 m

1

u m& = u m + ( u t )

2 2 2

= t = 1 and = = 1

m& m t m& t m t 2

Tabulating results:

Error in m Uncertainty Error in t Uncertainty Uncertainty

Volume Collected Interval t

(g) in m (%) (s) in t (%) & (%)

in m

(mL) m(g) (s)

100 100 0.50 0.50 1.0 0.05 5.0 5.03

500 500 0.50 0.10 5.0 0.05 1.0 1.0

1000 500 0.50 0.10 5.0 0.05 1.0 1.0

Since the scales have a capacity of 1 kg and the tare mass of the 1000 mL beaker is 500 g, there is no advantage in

using the larger beaker. The uncertainty in m& could be reduced to 0.50 percent by using the large beaker if a scale

with greater capacity the same least count were available

Problem 1.36

Problem 1.46 [Difficulty: 2]

1.36

D = 411

. 0.3 mm (20 to 1)

m m 3 m 6 m

= = = =

4

3

R 3 4 ( D 2) 3

D3

6 1

= 0.0459 kg m 3 = 1260 kg m 3

(0.0411) 3

and

kg m3

SG = = 1260 = 126

.

H 2 O m3 1000 kg

1

m 2

D

2

2

u = um + uD

m D

m m 1 0.3

= = = 1; um = = 0.654%

m 45.9

D D D 6 m 6m 0.3

= 3 4

= 3 4 = 3; uD = = 0.730%

m D D 41.1

Thus

[ ] [ ]

1 1

u = u m + ( 3u D ) = 0.654 2 + ( 3 0.730 )

2 2 2 2 2

u = 2.29% = 28.9 kg m 3

u SG = u = 2.29% = 0.0289

SG = 126

. 0.0289 (20 to 1)

Problem 1.48

Problem 1.37 [Difficulty: 3]

1.37

Solution:

5 Ns

The data is: A = 2.414 10 B = 247.8 K C = 140 K T = 303 K

2

m

0.5 K

The uncertainty in temperature is uT = u T = 0.171 %

293 K

B

( T C) 3 Ns

Also ( T) = A 10 Evaluating ( 293 K ) = 1.005 10

2

m

d A B ln( 10)

For the uncertainty ( T) =

dT B

C T 2

10 ( C T)

T ln( 10) B T u T

d

Hence u ( T) = ( T) u T = Evaluating u ( T) = 1.11 %

( T) dT

( CT ) 2

Problem 1.38

Problem 1.50 [Difficulty: 3]

1.38

Given: Lateral acceleration, a = 0.70 g, measured on 150-ft diameter skid pad; Uncertainties in Path

deviation 2 ft; vehicle speed 0.5 mph

ft ft

From the given data, V 2 = aR; V = aR = 0.70 32.2 2

75 ft = 41.1

s s

V mi s ft hr

Then uv = = 0.5 5280 = 0.0178

V hr 41.1 ft mi 3600 s

R 1

and uR = = 2 ft = 0.0267

R 75 ft

so

1/ 2

u a = (2 0.0178) 2 + (0.0267) 2 = 0.0445

u a = 4.45 percent

Experimental procedure could be improved by using a larger circle, assuming the absolute errors in measurement are

constant.

For

D = 400 ft; R = 200 ft

ft ft

V 2 = aR; V = aR = 0.70 32.2 2

200 ft = 67.1 = 45.8 mph

s s

0.5 2

uV = = 0.0109; u R = = 0.0100

45.8 200

[ ]

u a = (2 0.0109) + 0.0100 2 = 0.0240 = 2.4%

2

Problem 1.39

1.39

Given data:

H= 57.7 ft

L = 0.5 ft

= 0.2 deg

For this building height, we are to vary (and therefore L ) to minimize the uncertainty u H.

Plotting u H vs

5 4.02%

10 2.05% 12%

15 1.42%

10%

20 1.13%

25 1.00% 8%

30 0.95%

uH

6%

35 0.96%

40 1.02% 4%

45 1.11% 2%

50 1.25%

0%

55 1.44%

60 1.70% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

65 2.07% (o)

70 2.62%

75 3.52%

80 5.32%

85 10.69%

(deg) uH

31.4 0.947%

To find the optimum as a function of building height H we need a more complex Solver

H (ft) (deg) uH

50 29.9 0.992% Optimum Angle vs Building Height

75 34.3 0.877%

50

100 37.1 0.818%

125 39.0 0.784% 40

175 41.3 0.747%

200 42.0 0.737%

(deg)

30

250 43.0 0.724%

300 43.5 0.717% 20

400 44.1 0.709%

10

500 44.4 0.705%

600 44.6 0.703% 0

700 44.7 0.702% 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

800 44.8 0.701%

900 44.8 0.700% H (ft)

1000 44.9 0.700%

Problem 1.40

Problem 1.52 [Difficulty: 4]

1.40 1.32

Find: Precision to which D must be measured to estimate density within uncertainty of 1percent.

= 34 R 3 = D6

3

m

Definition: Density,

1

x R

2

2

Computing equation: u R = 1 u x1 + L

R x1

= Dm = 6Dm = (m, D)

3/6 3

m D

Thus m = 1 and D = 3 , so

u = [(1 u m ) 2 + (3 u D ) 2 ] 2

1

u 2 = u m 2 + 9 u 2D

Solving,

u D = 13 [u 2 u m2 ] 2

1

u = 0.0100

0.01 oz

um = = 0.00617

1.62 oz

1

u D = [(0.0100) 2 (0.00617) 2 ] 2 = 0.00262 or 0.262%

1

3

Since u D = DD , then

The ball diameter must be measured to a precision of 0.00441 in.( 0.112 mm) or better to estimate density

within 1percent. A micrometer or caliper could be used.

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