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Basic Theory

Temperature is an important factor in knowing the distribution of species. There are

cold temperatures and warm to hot temperatures, this limitation is a fact that is supported by
the fact abiotic factors that determine whether the restrictions are a response to climate
change (Krohne, 1997). The influence of temperature on the distribution of species is not
limited to a plant or animal that does not regulate a constant body temperature (poikilotherm),
but also mammals do (Krohne, 1997). Type of adaptation responses to abiotic environmental
divided into two, namely an organism can develop physiological mechanisms to neutralize
the influence of physical factors, called the homeostatic mechanisms. In addition, the
organism can develop a process to escape the pressures of the physical parameter, called a
strategy of avoidance (Krohne, 1997).

Gupi is a very easy fish to breed [3]. The gestation period of these fish ranged from
21-30 days (average 28 days) depending on the water temperature. The water temperature is
most suitable for breeding is around 27 C (72 F). Instead of laying eggs, fish gupi
conceive and bear a son (livebearers). Once the fertilized female fish, the dark area around
the anus, known as 'pregnancy spots' (gravid spot) will expand and darken the color. Towards
the moment of his birth, eye spots the kids fish can be seen from its parent abdominal skin is
thin and dreamy. A mother can give birth gupi fry (young fish) between 2-100 tail at every
birth, but mostly between 5-30 tail only. A few hours after birth, the mother gupi ready to be
fertilized again.
Once out of the belly of its mother, children gupi been able to live alone. Swim, find food,
and avoid enemies. Gupi children generally will continue to join the group, and with other
fish bigger. However gupi adult would not hesitate to prey on fry are much smaller; so that
they are maintained in an aquarium, children's fish need to be separated from adult fish. Fry-
fry it, if it survived, will reach maturity at the age of one or two months. That is why these
fish can immediately double the number of members of the group, so named also fish

The anal fin of the male fish changing into gonopodium, which serves to remove
sperm will enter the body of the female fish (Kottelat, M., AJ Whitten, SN Kartikasari, and S.
Wirjoatmodjo. 1993) Gupi females have the capability to store sperm, so it can be repeatedly
pregnant with only one mating. Other key success factors is the ability to adjust to living with
various water conditions, with a diverse variety of food. Analysis of the stomach contents
gupi who live in Lake Buyan, Bali, showed that this fish mainly feed on zooplankton are
abundant there. While gupi that live in the lake Bratan and Batur mostly rely on organic
materials that are at the bottom of the lake. Gupi can even live in waters with high salinity
(salt water), up to 150% of normal seawater salinity, In the development of guppy fish is also
strongly influenced by abiotic factors, or environmental parameters ,. Environmental
Pamameter Maintenance accordance guppy was submitted by Totok in 1998 are as follows:

guppy fish can live well at pH 6.7 to 7.2, but the growth of guppy fish may be
optimal. Indonesian ground water has a pH range of 7.2 to 7.4, in order to overcome it we can
use ketapan leaves. Ketapang leaves can not be directly used, we have to perform sterilization
in advance. First of all leaves ketapan of nature must be soaked in salt water first so that
leaves ketapan net of negative-borne bacteria from alam.Lalu ketapan leaves in the sun to dry
and if it is dry can langusng in use. enter into the ketapan leaf cultivation medium to light
orange colored water, weak tea. Then removed, do not let leaves ketapan remain in
maintenance media guppies, because if left ketapag leaves will rot and cause ammonia. High
levels of ammonia can be toxic and cause fish to die.

- DO (dissolved oxygen levels in the water)

The oxygen content in the water should be sufficient. For media maintenance
guppies, for example, the content of which takes about 3 milligrams per liter. Less oxygen
levels, it will cause the death of fish. Related oxygen content in water temperature, so that if
there is an increase in water temperature, the oxygen content drops, and vice versa.
The number of fish in the maintenance media guppy fish, and the water circulation is not
good also contribute to oxygen deprivation. To keep kestablian oxygen levels, create a good
aeration system

- temperature

The water temperature for guppies as important for fish in the aquarium. Fish and
aquatic plants have been shown to tolerate only a limited range of water temperatures.
Another important factor that should be considered when talking about the temperature of the
water is consistency. Sudden and drastic changes in water temperature can often cause health
problems. For guppies, the ideal water temperature range is between 10-29 C (50 F - 85
F), with a guppy fish fry thrive best at 25.6 C (78 F), juvenile guppies 24.4 C (76 F),
and adult guppies 23.3 C (74 F).

Temperature also affects the growth of guppies, if the optimal water temperature was
optimal guppy fish metabolism, appetite high fish, bigger fish will fast.

- Hardness

water hardness is an important water parameters for the growth and survival of
guppies. but many aquarium owners often ignore. The fish thrive in certain water hardness
range, and when this level is not reached, it can cause stress and possible death.
Hard water refers only to the amount of dissolved minerals in any kind of water. Hard water
is the term used when the dissolved mineral content is quite high, whereas soft water has low
mineral levels. It is important to pay attention to the relationship that exists between water pH
and hardness. Hard water usually has a high pH because the minerals as a buffer, thereby
reducing the amount of acid (pH) in water. The range of water hardness is ideal for guppy is
GH 8-12

Salinity levels are optimal for media guppy fish farming is 1 ppm.


Levels of ammonia can at tolelir body guppy fish is <0,012 ppm.

-Light intensity

Light is very influential on the quality of the color of guppies. light can stimulate
pigment color pigment to arise on the body of guppies.
If all the above parameters are met then it can be sure guppies can live and thrive. If not then
the survival of guppies can be disrupted, and caused the death of guppies.

Poor-quality water is very harmful at all and therefore we should be able to resolve
the issue. Usually I use Probiotics (see Troubleshooting Guppy Fish Farming With Probitik)
and doing water changes 10 days. Before replacing the water we have to prepare the
replacement water that has been deposited at least 48 hours. As well as we can add a little salt
to kill the germs contained in the water. Substitution of water is done by removing dirt dirt
guppies (I usually use a hose / shifon) and reduce water guppy fish culture media up to 1.3
parts. With preserve water quality then it is likely we will be successful cultivation guppy.
Every living creature that is always dynamic or changing the scale of the room (varies
somewhere) and the timescale (fluctuate). Therefore living beings should be able to adapt
themselves to face the conditions of abiotic environmental factors. But not every living
creature can live on a wide range of abiotic tingakatan.

Each animal has a specific range of tolerance against all environmental factors.
Shelford Tolerance Law: "that every organism has a minimum and maximum ecological,
which is the lower limit and the upper limit of the tolerance range of the organism to the
conditions of environmental factors." Hereditary determined tolerance range, however, can be
changed by the process of acclimatization (in nature) or acclimatization (in the laboratory).
Acclimatization is a form of business that humans do to animals adjust to the conditions of
environmental factors on the new artificial habitat. Acclimation is human efforts to adjust the
conditions of the animals against certain environmental factors in the laboratory.
To find one technique of determining the range of tolerance or limit the effects of
environmental factors on survival of living beings and also at what temperature kisarran most
favored by indvidu-individuals, it is necessary to preferendum.

The discussion in this lab samples used are guppies because these fish have a
relatively small body size, cold-blooded, their movements are easily observed, as well as easy
to regulate the temperature of its environment. These fish are small ornamental fish species
that are easily found in the market. Preferences temperature involves many physiological
functions in maintaining homeostasis, with homeostasis as a self-regulatory mechanism to
keep going on the stability of the internal environment in response to external environmental
conditions that can be changed.

Acclimation in fish Poecilia reticulate with local names gatul in warmer temperatures
given 30C After the treatment the fish acclimation has been familiarized with certain
temperature and then do preferendum fatherly see a tendency toward a preferred temperature
or the right temperature for the fish gatul. In preferendum fish gatul distinguished three
phases which juvenile or small fish, gravid phase or adult fish during the reproductive and
non-gravid phase or adult fish but do not initiate reproduction Preferendum for 5 Minutes
In acclimation warm temperature is 30C then dipreferendum show fare juveil fish with tails
are a number 3 at a temperature of 21C and two tails at a temperature of 22C, then the
spread of juvenile fish that are in the phase of warmer temperatures are 29C temperature
some 5 tails. While the fish with a phase of non-gravid more spread at normal temperature, at
a temperature of 23C found only one tail and then as many as 4 heads, 3 heads and one tails
successively occupy temperature 24C, 25C, and 26C, above these temperatures suda not
found fish with non-gravid phase. While the fish with the phase gravid just spread at warmer
temperatures are straight-turu in suhu25C, 25C, 26C, 27C, 28C, 29C and 30C as 1ekor,
2 tails, 1 head, 3 heads, one head and two tails. Seddangkan at a temperature of 31C not
found one ekorpun fish at all phases of fish gatul.

Preferendum for 10 Minutes In acclimation 30C for 10 minutes preferenddum results

indicate the specific conditions of each Fasse. Juvenile phase more clusters at colder
temperatures, namely at a temperature of 21C 90% or as much as 9 tails and at a temperature
of 22 C there is only one phase of juvenile fish. While at normal temperatures dominated by
non-gravid phase occupying the compartment with a temperature of 24C, 25C, 26C, 27C
and 28C by the number of fish that are found in a row as much as 2 heads, 3 heads, 3 heads,
two tails and one tail. At warmer temperatures between 27C to 30C occupied by fish gravid
phase in which one tail at a temperature of 27C, 4 heads at 28C, two tails at 29C at 30C
can be found 3 phase gravid fish. Sedagkan at a temperature of 31C did not reveal any
presence of fish. Preferendum for 15 Minutes During the 15-minute treatment with the fish
preferendum alimasi treatment over 30C indicates a certain temperature specifications in
each phase gatul fish.

At colder temperatures juvenile phase dominates at 21C temperature of 7 animals

and 2 tails the other is at a temperature of 22C. While at normal room temperature is 25C,
26C, and 27C respectively are 4 heads, 4 heads and one tails that are exclusively fish gatul
on non-gravid phase. Fish with more gravid phase gathered at a temperature of 28C 2 tails,
at a temperature of 29C for 3 tails and at 30C found a number of phases 5 gatul gravid fish,
while at a temperature above that temperature is 31C there is no single fish.
In this acclimation temperature has seen the highest number of fish are at ambient
temperatures of 27 C - 30 C. In accordance with aklimasinya high temperature is expected
most of the fish from the treatment acclimation in hot temperatures (30 C) when it is
released in the medium (compartment with the environment created) will swim towards
temperatures similar to those previously diaklimasi.
In the 5th minute look compartment 7 is still a lively station frequented by fish gatul,
with a temperature of 27.5 C. there is still headed toward the cold temperatures
(compartment 1 and 2), but not as much as visiting the compartment 6. In this case the
physiological control processes gatul fish begins. In the 10th minute, the fish that were in the
compartment first move to other compartments, namely compartment 7. However, the
average number of fish that were there outnumbered by existing in the compartment 6. This is
because the temperature in the compartment 6 is considered safe for fish gatul to survive. As
Muoz et al. (2012) that usually organisms that are in a hot environment is potentially less
fecundity. Fecundity alone is an ability of any organism to be able to produce children

Towards the end, it appears the fish have spread more evenly, especially in
compartment 5 and 8 with a temperature of 25 C and 32.5 C. There are a small part Padda
compartment 1 and compartment 4. To put it simply that over time these observations, the
fish perform a process of adaptation to the environment temperature. This adaptation process
includes physiological processes and behavior that prefer to live in areas that have a relatively
moderate temperature (not hot or cold). Where hot and cold is also an upper limit and a lower
limit of a tolerance that gatul fish.

From the results in the 15th minute was more assured that the fish chose to dwell in
temperate environments, because of their upper and lower limits of factors previously
discussed. Then, the longer it goes, the more evenly spread of fish as well, seen from the
diagram that has been made that this gatul fish distibusi spread to various compartments.


1. Provision acclimatization treatment (the temperature limitations) in fish Poecilia

sp.berpengaruh against the spread of fish behavior.

2. Conditions preferendumnya temperature of Poecilia sp. Having an optimum temperature in

the range of 25-27 C.

3. The effect of acclimatization of the fish Poecilia sp. Preferendum effect on the fish, the
time preferendum also affect the results of experiments that have been tested.
For laboratories, should provide tools and materials lab even more, so the lab can take place

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