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DTG1I1

Sistem Konversi Daya


Listrik (Rectifier dan
Inverter)

By Dwi Andi Nurmantris


Sistem Konversi Daya Listrik
Telecommunication Power system

1. Rectifiers
2. Battery
3. Charge bus
4. Discharge bus
5. Primary Distribution systems
6. Secondary Distribution
systems
7. Voltage converters
8. Prime and standby ac power
systems
9. Alternating current power
distribution system
10.Load equipment
11.Monitoring and control system
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Tipe Power Converter

 AC to DC Converter (Rectifier)
 DC to AC Converter (Inverter)
 DC to DC Converter
 AC to AC Converter
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Elemen dari Power Converter

 Energy source  Sumber input power converter


 power section  Bagian utama yang mengkonversi
daya
 Control system  bagian yang melakukan fungsi
komparator dan melakukan modifikasi dibagian
pulsa trigger pada power section
 Protective and monitoring device  bagian yang
melakukan proteksi internap pada perangkat power
konverter maupun beban
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RECTIFIER

RECTIFIER adalah alat yang


digunakan untuk mengubah sumber arus
bolak-balik (AC) menjadi sinyal sumber
arus searah (DC).
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RECTIFIER
Rectifiers always are provided in an N + 1 redundant configuration giving a minimum of two
rectifiers in any given system

Rectifiers are equipped for N + 1 redundancy:


N rectifiers are required to serve load and
battery recharge requirements and one rectifier is
added as a spare
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RECTIFIER
Rectifier Technology

 Silicon-controlled Rectifier (SCR)/thyristor


 Controlled ferroresonant transformer
 Switch-mode rectifiers
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RECTIFIER
Prinsip Rangkaian Penyearah

 Penyearah Half Wave


 Penyearah Full Wave
 Penyearah Bridge


2 t


2 t
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RECTIFIER
Prinsip Rangkaian Penyearah

 Penyearah
Half Wave
 Penyearah
Full Wave
 Penyearah
Bridge
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RECTIFIER
Prinsip Rangkaian Penyearah

 Penyearah
Half Wave
 Penyearah
Full Wave
 Penyearah
Bridge
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RECTIFIER
Prinsip Rangkaian Penyearah

 Penyearah
Half Wave
 Penyearah
Full Wave
 Penyearah
Bridge
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RECTIFIER
Prinsip Rangkaian Penyearah
D2 Vo
+ D2 on , D3 on
 Penyearah
D1 off , D4 off
Half Wave RL
 Penyearah V2 - +
Full Wave Vo
 Penyearah -
I D3
t
Bridge

I Vo
- D1 on , D4 on
D2 off , D3 off
D1 RL
V2
- +
Vo
+
D4 t
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RECTIFIER
Prinsip Rangkaian Penyearah

Capacitance output filter


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RECTIFIER
Rectifier Feature

 Operation Mode (float mode and equalize mode)


 Load Sharing and Parallel Operation
 Remote Control
 Voltage Sensing
 Temperature-Compensated Charging
 Rectifier Current Limitation
 Voltage Regulation
 Efficiency
 Power Factor Correction
 Input Voltage Range
 High-Voltage Shutdown
 Visual Indicators and Controls
 Internal Protection and Control Functions
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INVERTER

INVERTER adalah Rangkaian


elektronika daya yang digunakan untuk
mengkonversikan tegangan searah (DC)
ke suatu tegangan bolak-balik (AC).
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INVERTER

 Beberapa Perangkat telekomunikasi tetap membutuhkan catuan AC tanpa boleh


terputus  pada kondisi ini inverter dibutuhkan
 Tegangan input inverter bisa 24 volt maupun 48 volt
 Output inverter paling umum adalah 120 Volt AC, satu phasa, dan 60 Hz
 A typical 48-V inverter will meet output specifications from 42- to 56-Vdc input, while
24-V inverters typically meet output specifications from 21- to 28-Vdc input
 Another important requirement of inverters used in the telecommunications environment,
one that differentiates them from inexpensive consumer inverters, is the requirement that
they provide a relatively distortion-free sine wave output voltage waveform
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INVERTER
Konfigurasi Inverter pada sistem catu daya

 Passive stanby  PLN subagai sumber utama, inverter standby


 Active stanby  Inverter sebagai catuan utama PLN sebagai sumber standby
 Continuous operation  inverter sebagai catuan utama tanpa sistem standby
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INVERTER
Konfigurasi Inverter pada sistem catu daya

 Passive stanby  PLN subagai sumber utama, inverter standby


 Active stanby  Inverter sebagai catuan utama PLN sebagai sumber standby
 Continuous operation  inverter sebagai catuan utama tanpa sistem standby
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INVERTER
Konfigurasi Inverter pada sistem catu daya

 Passive stanby  PLN subagai sumber utama, inverter standby


 Active stanby  Inverter sebagai catuan utama PLN sebagai sumber standby
 Continuous operation  inverter sebagai catuan utama tanpa sistem standby
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INVERTER

Prinsip Rangkaian Inverter

Prinsip kerja
Contoh Topologi
 Half-Bridge
 Full-Bridge
 Push-pull
 Three phase
 Multilevel
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S1,S2 ON; S3,S4 OFF for t1 < t < t2
INVERTER
vO

Prinsip Rangkaian Inverter


S1 S3 VDC

Prinsip kerja VDC


t
Contoh Topologi + vO t1 t2
S4 S2
 Half-Bridge
 Full-Bridge
 Push-pull S3,S4 ON ; S1,S2 OFF for t2 < t < t3
vO
 Three phase
 Multilevel
S1 S3

VDC t2 t3
+ vO t

S4 S2
-VDC
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INVERTER INVERTER OUTPUT VOLTAGE
Vdc
Prinsip Rangkaian Inverter  Output of the inverter is chopped AC
voltage with zero DC component. It
-Vdc contain harmonics.
harmonics.
Prinsip kerja FUNDAMENTAL COMPONENT
 An LC section low-low-pass filter is normally
fitted at the inverter output to reduce the
Contoh Topologi V1
4VDC high frequency harmonics.
 Half-Bridge

 Full-Bridge
 Push-pull V1
3RD HARMONIC

 Three phase 3

 Multilevel

5RD HARMONIC
V1
5
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INVERTER

Prinsip Rangkaian Inverter

Prinsip kerja

Half Bridge
C1 S1
Contoh Topologi Vs
 Half-Bridge
 Full-Bridge
C2 S2
 Push-pull
 Three phase
 Multilevel
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INVERTER

Prinsip Rangkaian Inverter

Prinsip kerja

Full Bridge
Contoh Topologi S1 S3
 Half-Bridge Vs
 Full-Bridge
 Push-pull S2
S4
 Three phase
 Multilevel
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INVERTER

Prinsip Rangkaian Inverter

Prinsip kerja
Contoh Topologi
 Half-Bridge
 Full-Bridge
 Push-pull
 Three phase
 Multilevel
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INVERTER

Prinsip Rangkaian Inverter

Prinsip kerja
Contoh Topologi
 Half-Bridge
 Full-Bridge
 Push-pull
 Three phase
 Multilevel
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INVERTER

Prinsip Rangkaian Inverter

Prinsip kerja
Contoh Topologi
 Half-Bridge
 Full-Bridge
 Push-pull
 Three phase
 Multilevel

3-phase 2-level
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DC-DC Converter

Latar Belakang

 Most telecommunications switching and transmission equipment operates from 48 V but the
radio frequency (RF) equipment used in many wireless base stations operates from +24 V
 Some older RF equipment used in paging and land mobile radio (LMR) installation operates
from +12 V
 Equipment requiring other voltages and polarities has been deployed over the years, for
example, +130 Vdc, 130 Vdc, and +48 Vdc
 If a site has a mixture of equipment, a separate battery plant may be provided for each voltage or
polarity but, depending on the load currents, it may be more economical to use dcdc converters
instead
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DC-DC Converter

 Converters may be used to :


o Change voltage (e.g., from +24 Vdc to 48 Vdc)
o Change polarity (e.g., from +24 Vdc to 24 Vdc)
o Provide voltage stability
o Compensate for voltage drop
o Relocate power equipment to reduce floor space requirements in the power room
o Optimize voltage
 The dcdc converters in telecommunications applications are similar to switch-
mode rectifiers and operate on the same basic principles except that the input
rectification stage is not needed
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DC-DC Converter

DC-DC converter configuration

a battery plant power system


DCDC converter system
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DC-DC Converter

DC-DC converter configuration

DCDC converter common-bus configuration


DCDC converter split-bus configuration