Anda di halaman 1dari 22

3.

DESIGN OF BOLTS IN CONNECTIONS

3.1 Individual bearing bolts

Bearing bolts are bolts that are tightened by hand using an ordinary steel erectors
spanner (i.e. they are not pretensioned) and act in shear and bearing. They are the
cheapest and most widely used form of fastener and are normally used in holes with a
diameter 2 mm larger than the diameter of the bolt shank. Because of this clearance it is
likely that a joint made with such bolts will slip into bearing at a fairly low load when
subjected to shear loading. In most structural situations such slippage is quite acceptable.
If a connection will be subjected to dynamic leading of any kind, Clause 13.12.1.3 of SANS
10162-1 stipulates that pretensioned (or preloaded) bolts must be used. Such bolts are
designed just like bearing bolts. If the designer wants to prevent slip in the joint a high
strength friction grip connection can be used, as described in 3.4 below.

The two grades of bearing bolts most widely used in structural applications in South Africa
are Class 4.8 and the Class 8.8 bolts, described in Chapter 2 above. Class 10.9 bolts are
typically used in pretensioned and friction grip situations.

The general behaviour of a connection with a single Class 4.8 bolt in shear is shown in
Figure 3.1. Because of the clearance between the holes and the bolt, the connection will
slip into bearing at a low load. Once in bearing, the mode of behaviour and failure will
depend on the proportions of the connection, as discussed below. The behaviour of
connections with Class 8.8 or 10.9 bolts will be similar to that of Class 4.8 bolts, though with
higher strengths and some decrease in the deformation at failure.

Figure 3.1 - Behaviour

Experiments show that the shear strength of a bolt is typically about 62% of its tensile
strength. This leads quite logically to a formula for the shear resistance Vr:

Vr = 0,60b Ab f ub (3.1)
where b = 0,8
d 2
Ab =
4
d =diameter of bolt shank
f ub = tensile strength of bolt steel

1
However, unless specific steps are taken to ensure that the shear plane (the faying surface
between the plates held together by the bolt) does not go through the threaded portion
of the bolt, and noting that the effective area As in the threaded portion is a bit more
than 70% of that of the shank, it would be safer to say:

Vr = 0,7 x0,60b Ab f ub
(3.2)

If the bolt passes through several shear planes, the shear resistance must be multiplied by
the number of planes.

See Table 3.2 near the end of this chapter for values of Vrfor different bolts.

Up to now, we have only looked at the shear failure of the bolt as such in a shear
connection. If the thickness of the plates being held together becomes thinner or their
tensile strength is reduced, the plates may fail rather than the bolt. The failure mode will
tend to be by deformation and bunching up of the steel in front of the bolt. If the bolt is
shifted closer to the end of the plate, failure can take the shape of tearing out at the end,
as shown in Figure 3.2. The strength of such a connection is a factor of the distance a of
the bolt hole from the end of the plate, as demonstrated in Figure 3.3. Such failure tends
to be very ductile, with deformations in the order of 10 mm.

Figure 3.2 Failure mode with bolt near end of plate

2
Figure 3.3 Sensitivity of failure to end distance

Figure 3.3 shows that the resistance of the connection tends to be directly proportional to
the end distance , but for > 3 failure happens at a bearing stress of somewhat more
than 3 . This leads to the following two expressions for the bearing resistance , neither
of which should be exceeded:

Br1 = 3br d tf u (3.3)

Br 2 = br at f u (3.4)
where br= 0,67
a =distance from middle of hole to end of plate.
t = thickness of plate
f u =tensile strength of plate

See Table 3.2 near the end of this chapter for values of Br1when t =1 mm .

Figure 3.4 Force at angle to end of plate

If the forceFudoes not act at right angles to the edge of the steel, as shown in Figure 3.4,
the dimension ashould be used in Equation 3.4. Alternatively, the components Fuxand
Fuycan be calculated, in which case the requirement is:

Fux br a y tf u (3.5)
and Fuy br a y tf u (3.6)

The second equation for in the various pairs of equations that were given above is
based on the distance of the bolt from the end of the plate. Now, if there are bolts in a
row, one could argue that its only the end bolts resistance thats influenced by this
requirement. However, Clause 13.10 (c) states that, if there are bolts in the connection,
the pair of equations becomes:

Br = 3br tdnf u (3.7)


and Br = br antf u (3.8)

3
It happens quite frequently that a packing is used in a shear-type connection, as
demonstrated in Figure 3.5 (a). Unless this is a friction grip connection, slip can occur as
shown in (b), causing the bolt to be subjected to a combination of shear and bending
moment. SANS 10162-1 doesnt mention anything about this, but EN 1993 1 8 Clause
3.6.1 (12) states that, if t p > d b / 3 the equations for Vr in equation 3.1 and 3.2 above
should become:

Figure 3.5 Shear bolts with thick packings

Vr = 0,6b Ab f ub (3.9)

and Vr = 0,7 x0,6b Ab f u (3.10)

ad
where = 1,0 but greater than 0,8
8d + 3t p
Another special case arises where theres only one bolt, or one lateral row of bolts, in a
single lap joint. Thin plates in such a connection tend to rotate as shown in Figure 3.6, and
eventually the bolts act largely in tension. This issue is also not addressed in SANS 10162-1.
SANS 10162-2 does cover the subject in Clause 5.3.4, and we recommend on the basis of
this code that for plates less than 5 mm thick the following equations be used in addition
to Equations 3.3 and 3.4:

If washers are supplied under both the bolt head and the nut:


Check Br = 0,55 0,1 +
3d
( )
b nd h tf u
s
'
(3.11)

where s = lateral spacing of bolts, or width of plate b
for a single bolt.

b= width of plate

d h' = effective diameter of bolt hole

Without washers:

Check Br = 0,65
2,5d
( )
b nd h tf u
'
(3.12)
s

4
Figure 3.6 Single end bolts in thin plates

SANS 10162-2 Clause 5.3.4.2 imposes a further limitation to prevent excessive deformations
when the plate is thin and the diameter of the bolts more than 10 times the thickness of
the plate, namely to replace Equation 3.3 with the following:

Br1 = xCdtf u (3.13)


where x = 0,6

= 1,0 if there are washers under both the bolt head and the nut.

= 0,75 without washers

C = 4 0,1d / t if d / t 22

C = 1,8 if d / t > 22

3.2 Long connections with bearing bolts

In a shear connection consisting of a long line of bolts the forces in the plates joined and
the shear deformation in the bolts will vary along the length of the connection as shown in
Figure 3.7. Consequently, the shear forces in the bolts will vary as shown in Figure 3.8. This is
handled in SANS 10162-1Clause 13.12.12 by requiring that, in a joint with L 15 d (L is the
distance between the bolts at the opposite ends), the average shear resistance of the

bolts must be reduced to a value Vr where

L
Vr* = 1,075 0,005 Vr (3.14)
d

but Vr not less than 0,75Vr

5
Figure 3.7 Stresses in plates in long bolted splice

Figure 3.8 Forces in long splices.

3.3 Combined shear and tension

How to determine the tensile resistance Tr of a bolt will be discussed in 3.7 below. In a joint
such as that shown in Figure 3.9 the bolts will be subjected to a combination of tension
and shear forces.

Figure 3.9 Bolts acting in combined shear and tension

6
Figure 3.10 shows test results for bolts in combined tension and shear. It also shows the line
resulting from the requirement of Clause 13.12.1.4 of SANS 10162-1:

Vu Tu
+ 1,4 (3.15)
Vr Tr

and Vu Vr (3.16)

Tu Tr (3.17)

Figure 3.10 Interaction of tension and shear in bolts

See Table 3.3 near the end of this chapter for values of the resistance under combined
tension and shear.

The problem with this approach is that, if prying action is handled as described in 3.7.2
below, the actual tensile force Tuin a bolt remains unknown, so we cannot use the
interaction Equation 3.15. The only thing we can say is that, according to the AISC (Ref),
there will be no prying action if (somewhat modified):

4Tu m
t (3.18)
e f y

where Tu = applied tensile force (N)


m= as in 3.7.2 below

7
e=
smaller of 2mor s (mm)
s= spacing of bolts (mm)

Thus, with a thick enough plate the interaction equation can be used. For thinner plates it
is safer to assume Tumay be as high as Trwhenever there is a possibility of prying action,
and to limit Vuas follows to ensure Equation 3.15 is always satisfied:

Vu 0,4Vr (3.19)

3.4 High strength friction grip (HSFG) joints

HSFG joints are more expensive than those with bearing bolts and should thus only be
prescribed where they are really necessary, namely in joints subject to impact or vibration,
or where any slip in a connection must be avoided. In the US and Europe preloaded bolts
are quite frequently required by their standards, but we have not seen reason to do so in
South Africa. Note that there is a difference between friction grip and preload, in that
in the latter case no effort is made to ensure a relatively high and predictable coefficient
of friction, although the bolts are treated and fastened identically. The design of friction
grip connections is described in Clause 13.12.2 of SANS 10162-1.

Friction grip joints are designed to resist serviceability or working loads, not ultimate or
factored loads. They usually have a considerable reserve of strength above their slip
resistance (i.e. load at which the friction is overcome and the bolts slip into bearing). If slip
will only cause unserviceability of the structure and not collapse, we may in the design rely
on this post-slip reserve for the ultimate limit state.

The essential requirement of a friction grip connection is that an adequate degree of


frictional resistance must be developed on the faying surfaces between the plies when
they are drawn together by the pretension in the bolts. In practice, considerable variation
exists in the coefficient of friction even for a nominally similar set of circumstances. Clause
13.12.2.2 provides the following equation for determining the slip resistance V sof an HSFG
joint:

Vs = 0,53c1k s mnAb f ub (3.20)

where c1= a coefficient to allow for the variability in connections, depending


on the class of bolt, method of installation, and characteristics of the steel
surfaces. (Note that c1is higher for the turn-of-the-nut method than for other
methods.)
k s =mean slip coefficient
m = number of faying surfaces (contact surfaces of plates clamped together)
n =number of bolts
Ab =gross cross-sectional area of the threaded portion of a bolt
f ub =bolt tensile strength

8
Values of c1, k sand V s can be obtained from Table 3.4 near the end of the chapter or
from Table 5 in SANS 10162-1.

It is important that the steelwork fabricator and erector be made aware of the class of
surface condition or treatment that is required at each joint, and of which bolts need to
be pretensioned.

3.5 HSFG bolts in combined shear and tension

Clause 13.12.2.3 of SANS 10162-1 deals with joints subject to combined friction (or shear)
and tensile forces. Externally applied tension produces a proportional reduction in the
clamping force between the plies, which in turn produces a corresponding reduction in
the friction resistance of the connection. The relationship is directly proportional, so the
code formula is one of linear interaction. Note that the tensile force used in the formula
includes the applied load plus prying and eccentricity effects, if any, but not the initial pre-
tension.

The expression to be satisfied for combined shear and tension is:

V 1,9T
+ >1,0 (3.21)
Vs nAb f ub

where T and V = applied tensile and shear forces respectively on the connection
under serviceability loads,

Vs =slip resistance of the joint according to Clause 13.12.2.


n =number of bolts in connection
Ab =gross cross-sectional area of bolt.

The implications of the interaction equation are shown in Figure 3.11

Figure 3.11 Interaction between tension and shear for HSFG bolts

It is advisable to make the plates in HSFG connections subject to combined tension and
shear thick enough so that prying will not be an issue, as it is difficult to know the value of
the prying force. This can be achieved by employing Equation 3.18 above.
9
See Table 3.5 near the end of this chapter for resistances of combined shear and tension
serviceability loads on HSFG connections.

3.6 Eccentric loads on bolt groups

Where a bolt group is loaded with an applied load, the line of action of which is in the
plane of the group but does not pass through the centroid of the group, the bolts are
subject, in addition to the direct shear forces, to shear forces caused by the eccentricity
of the applied load.
The analysis of such fastener groups has traditionally been based on elastic theory, with
the assumption that each fastener will support a) an equal share of the vertical
component of the load, b) an equal share of the horizontal component (if any) of the
load, and c) a proportional share of the moment due to eccentricity of the load,
depending on the fasteners distance from the centroid of the group. The largest value of
the vector sum of these forces on any fastener and limiting it to the resistance of that
fastener, defines the critical load.

Consider the bolt group shown in Figure 3.11 with the origin of the axes at the centroid of
the group. The bolt group must resist a force Fu, with components Fuxand Fuy, acting at
a point with coordinates (e x , e y).
Bolt jwith coordinates ( x j , y j), will be the most critically loaded bolt in the configuration
as shown.

Figure 3.12 Forces on bolt group

The resultant force on bolt will be


j
2 2
F Fux e y y j Fuy Fuy e x x j
Fuj = ux + + + (3.22)
n Ip n Ip

where I p = polar moment of inertia of the bolt group (taking each bolt as having an
area 1,0) about the centre of gravity at
.

10
( )
n
I p = xi2 + y i2
i =1

n = number of bolts in group.

In practice most forces in steel structures act parallel to a main axis of a group of bolts,
and Figure 3.13 is representative of such a situation.

Figure 3.13 Bolt group with load eccentric about one axis

The resultant force on bolt i


is now given by:

2 2
F ey Fu exi Fu
Fui = u i + +
I
p
I
p n
(3.23)

With Fu = 1,0 kN this reduces to

2 2
ey ex 1 1
Fui = i + i + = (3.24)
I I
p p n C

For the critical bolt e, x i and y i can be taken as absolute values.

If follows that, if the resistance of a bolt is given by


Pr, where Pris the lesser of Vrand Brin
3.1 above, and the magnitude of the force acting on the group is Fu, the connection will
be adequate if

Fu CPr (3.25)

The values of the coefficient C for different bolt groups and load eccentricities are listed
in Tables 3.6 to 3.9 at the end of this chapter.

Coefficients for pre-tensioned high strength friction grip bolts can obviously be derived on
the same basis, so the same tables may be used for HSFG bolts. In this case the resistance

11
of the bolt group, at the serviceability load, isCV s, where V s is the slip resistance of one
bolt.

An alternative method of analysis is that presented by Crawford and Kaku, which uses the
instantaneous centre concept. This method is not used for the tables in this section,
although it gives higher bolt group resistances. We can accept that the procedure
described above is somewhat conservative.

3.7 Bolts in tension

3.7.1 Bolts without prying force

Figure 3.14 gives an indication of the behaviour of different classes of bolts in tension.
Higher strength bolts obviously have a higher tensile strength, but they also have less
ductility than Class 4.8 bolts.

Figure 3.14 Comparison of bolt classes in direct tension

The tensile strength of a bolt is simply equal to its cross-sectional area times its tensile
strength f ub
. However, the smallest area called the tensile stress are As- occurs in the
threaded part, and has the following value:


As = (d 0, 938 p ) (3.26)
2

4
where d = shank or nominal diameter
p = pitch of thread

The tensile stress areas for various bolt sizes are as follows:

Nominal bolt size M12 M16 M20 M24 M30 M36


Tensile stress area (mm2) 84,3 157 245 353 561 817

The tensile stress area is about 78% of the unthreaded shank area Abgiven by:

12

Ab = d2
4 (3.27)

This leads to the formula for the tensile resistance Trof a bolt:

Tr = 0, 75b Ab f ub (3.28)

where b = 0, 8

The tensile strength of a bolt is not affected by the length of the threaded portion. Figure
3.15 confirms that a bolt with a longer threaded part tends to be about as strong, but
more ductile, than one with a very short thread.

Figure 3.15 Tensile behaviour of Class 8.8 bolts of different thread lengths

If the nut is of the same strength class as the bolt, it is as likely that failure of the fastener will
be by stripping of the threads as by tensile failure of the bolt. This should always be
preceded by yielding of the bolt in tension, thus ensuring that adequate ductility will be
achieved. However, if either the nut is weaker than the bolt or the threads are weaker
than they should be (because they are outside geometric tolerance) then stripping of the
threads may occur prior to yielding of the bolt. In this case the mode of failure will be
undesirably abrupt, with little warning of failure and even less ductility.

Values for the tensile resistance Trof bolts can be obtained from Table 3.2 near the end of
this chapter.

3.7.2 Bolted connections in tension with prying action

In practice it is not possible to separate the discussion of the strength bolts in tension from
that of the surrounding elements, because flexure of the steel elements may lead to a
significant increase in bolt load as a result of prying action. Figure 3.16 shows the type of
behaviour that tends occur. (The sketches show the bolts preloaded to about 170 kN, but
the behaviour will be very similar with less preload.) In Figure 3.16(a) the flange is relatively
rigid, thus its flexural action may be ignored. For an applied load that is less than the bolt
preload there is no separation of the connected components and only a very modest

13
change in the bolt preload (these changes are due to through-thickness effects in the
immediate vicinity of the bolt). Once the applied load exceeds the bolt preload the
flange separates from the base; from this point onwards to rupture, the tension in the bolt
equals the applied load.

Figure 3.16 The influence of plate thickness on bolt load, through prying action

However if a thinner, more flexible flange is used the behaviour is more complex. Each
portion of the flange bends into double curvature (see Figure 3.17(b)), with restraining
moments at the bolt centreline developed by the forces Q at or near the tips of the end
plates. Equilibrium requires that 2T = 2Tu + 2Q , which means the bolt forces are increased.
The effect of this amplification of the bolt forces is that the ultimate resistance of the
connection is reduced (in the example shown in Figure 3.16(b), from 270 kN to 210 kN).

Figure 3.17 Thick and thin end plates

14
The accurate assessment of prying forces is extremely complex. Various methods for their
evaluation have been developed, but they vary considerably and some are of limited
applicability. However, a sound approach is that adopted in Eurocode 3: Design of Steel
Structures Part 1-8: Design of Joints, and this will be followed here. This approach has the
beauty of addressing the strength of the assembly bolts and flange or end plate
simultaneously.

Consider the T-connection shown in Figure 3.18(a) with a tensile force 2Tuapplied to its
stem. If the thickness t
of the flange is small, the flanges will yield and yield lines will form
along the lines A-A and B-B, shown as plastic hinges at A and B in Figure 3.18 (b).

Figure 3.18 Yield line approach to prying action

The plastic moment at each of these hinges is given by:

ef t 2
Mp = fy
4 (3.29)

Using the principle of virtual work we can say:

2Tu1c = 4M p

2M p
Thus Tu1 =
c (3.30)

This is called Mode1 failure. Note that we dont know the values of either Tor Q
.

As the flange gets thicker the forces in the bolts may reach the values of their tensile
resistance Tr after hinges have formed at B but before they can form at A. This is Mode 2
failure, depicted in Figure 3.18 (c). Virtual work now gives us:

2Tu 2 (q + c ) = 2Tr q + 2 M p (3.31)

15
M p + qTr
Thus: Tu 2 = (3.32)
q+c

If the flange becomes even thicker a point will be reached where no plastic hinge forms
and we get Mode 3 failure, depicted in Figure 3.18 (d). At this point we simply have:

Tu 3 = Tr (3.33)

To determine which of Modes 1,2 or 3 applies, we simply choose the lowest value among
Tu1 , Tu 2 and Tu 3.

EN 1993-1-8 also provides equations for a more refined approach, assuming that the force
the bolt exerts on the flange is uniformly distributed under the bolt head (or nut), as shown
in Figure 3.19.

Figure 3.19 Reaction distributed over bolt head or nut

This has no effect on Mode 3 failure and little effect on Mode 2, but for Mode1 the
equation becomes:

(4q 0, 25 d w )M p (3.34)
Tu1 =
2qc 0, 25 d w (c + q )

Where d w =width across the far corners of a bolt head or nut.

If the dimension q in the figures above becomes very large, the formulae would lead one
to believe that the Mode 2 prying force becomes very small. In reality, elastic bending of
the flange will cause the prying force to shift away from the flange tips. In EN 1993 -1-8 this
is handled by requiring that

q 1,25c (3.35)

16
An interesting situation occurs where the rigid surface to which the flange is bolted is
narrower than the flange, as shown in Figure 3.20. In this case the force Q
acts at the edge
of the supporting surface. In this case qshould be measured as shown.

Figure 3.20 Rigid surface narrower than flange

We must draw attention to the fact although we have given the equations for Tuas the
force that can be resisted per individual bolt, the model we used was symmetric, with a
bolt on either side of the stem. It is thus customary (as in EN 1993-1-8) to give the formulae
for the resistance of a pair of bolts. Prying action can, however, also occur in situations not
involving a Ttype element, as shown in Figure 3.21.

Figure 3.21 Prying in nonT sections

In the approach till now we have worked with a short piece of Tsection. However, in
reality we can have bolts acting in tension in a variety of situations: far from the end of the
flange, near an end, near the edge of the flange, near a stiffener supporting the flange,
near other bolts in a line, etc. Figure 3.22 demonstrates typical situations, and shows the
yield lines that may form near a bolt when the flange yields plastically. Also shown in the
figure are lengths efassociated with each yield line pattern. These lengths have been
calibrated such that the T-stub approach can be used by simply plugging the values for
effrom Figure 3.22 into the equation for M p:

ef t 2
M p = fy (3.36)
4

and then using this value of M p to get Tu.

17
Note that the circular yield line pattern is only applicable to Mode 1 failure, for which we
always have to check that the circular pattern does not control.

Figure 3.22 Yield line patterns around bolts in tension

Where stiffeners are used to support the flange the problem becomes somewhat more
complex. The applicable yield line pattern and efvalues are shown in Figure 3.23. Note
that the equations for efcontain a valuewhich can be obtained from the graph in
Figure 3.24 with

c
1 = (3.37)
q+c

c*
2 = (3.38)
q+c

Figure 3.23 Yield line patterns near stiffeners

18
Figure 3.24 Values of to be used near stiffeners

It is quite cumbersome to read the values of from Figure 3.24. Ref provides a formula
for calculating from 1 and 2, but the formula is extremely unwieldy. Looking at
practical cases, with bolts between 30 and 70 mm from the relevant web or stiffener, it
becomes apparent that 1and 2will lie between 0,45 and 0,65. Within this limited region
the following expression for is accurate to within 2% and the bolt resistances to within
1%:

= 9,5 5,2, 1 2,22 6,28 (3.39)

No theory has been developed for prying action in connections with more than one bolt
each side of the stem of a T, as shown in Figure 3.25. One of two approaches can be
adopted in such a situation: make the flange so thick that prying cannot occur, or add
stiffeners as shown in dotted lines to restore the condition of having only one line of bolts
on each side of a stem or rib.

19
Figure 3.25 T with two rows of bolts each side

The discussion on prying forces also applies to connection in tension involving two angles,
back-to-back as shown in Figure 3.26.

Figure 3.26 T-connection consisting of two angles

3.7.3 Other connections with bolts in tension

Let us now consider the case of T-stub with a tensile force, as shown in Figure 3.27(a),
without any solid surface the ends of the flange can push against.

Figure 3.27 T-stub without prying

If the flange is strong enough, the bolts control and the following applies:

20
Tu = Tr (3.40)

If the flange is not strong enough, plastic hinges will form at A. Taking moments about A
we get:

Tc = M p (3.41)

but T = Pu (3.42)

Mp
thus Pu = (3.43)
c

t 2 ef
where M p = fy
4

The value efcan be taken as the lesser of the spacing of the bolts, the length of the T-
stub, or 4c.

Comparing Equation 3.41 with the Mode 1 value for prying action (Equation 3.30), it is
clear that the plate with prying action can resist twice the load of the one without prying.
Of course, prying action reduces the capacity of the bolts for resisting applied load.

Figure 3.28 Single sided prying

Single sided prying relates to the situation depicted in Figure 3.28. If the angle is thick
enough, failure can happen as shown in Figure 3.28 (b), i.e. the bolt fails. Taking moments
about point A we get:

Tr q = bTu (3.44)

21
qTr
Thus Tu = (3.45)
b

If the leg of the angle fails as shown in Figure 3.28 (c), virtual work gives us:

Tu c = 2M p (3.46)

2M p
Thus Tu = (3.47)
c

t 2 ef
where M p = fy
4

The value of efcan be taken as the lesser of the spacing of the bolts, the length of the
angle, or the length of the appropriate yield line from Figure 3.22 or 3.23.

Note that Equation 3.47 is identical to Equation 3.30 for Mode 1 failure with double sided
prying action.

3.8 Fatigue in bolts

A bolt acting in shear is not subject to classical fatigue, but if there is repeated movement
in a bolted joint the bolts and the steel can be damaged and deformed, the bolts can
work loose, and the connection can start causing real concern. For this reason it makes
sense to use either a friction grip connection, precision bolting (and in severe cases even
a combination of these), or proprietary fasteners designed for this purpose wherever there
will be either large changes in the direction of force, significant impact forces, or a large
number of cyclic changes in force.

If a bolt is loaded in tension, it is quite susceptible to fatigue, as the thread forms an ideal
notch. Clause 13.12.1.3 of SANS 10162-1 deals with this by stating that for tensile cyclic
loading including bit that refers to prying the permissible range of stress under specified
loads, based on the shank area of the bolt, shall not exceed 214 MPa for Class 8.8 bolts or
262 MPa for Class 10.9 bolts. Note that this applies to the shank area (i.e. 20 2 / 4 mm2 for
an M20 bolt), that the loads are specified (i.e. not multiplied by a load factor), and that
this approach applies regardless of the number of stress cycles.

The reference to prying force in the clause draws attention to the fact that the prying
force effect can cause the stress range to be much higher than a simple calculation
might show. The designer is asked to limit the prying force to less than 30% of the externally
applied load. The best way of achieving this is to avoid prying by making the plate thick
enough see Equation 3.18 so that prying will not occur. (But making the plate thicker
doesnt help for single sided prying see 3.7.3 above.)

The last paragraph in Clause 13.12.1.3 refers to the bolt pretension and suggests that it can
simply be ignored. That is a safe approach, and the following may be more useful.

22