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Excretion

System of Nutrient
Novita Wijayanti

Physiology and
Nutrient Metabolism

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Contents

1 Defecation System

2 Urinary System

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Daily volumes of fluid
ingested, secreted,
absorbed, and
excreted from the
Gastrointstinal tract

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Defecation

Defecation is the process of emptying the rectum or


passage of feces out of the body.
this is achieved by the gastro-colic reflex action with
the infant whereas in adult
This is under the control of the will and is carried out in
responset to the desire to empty the bowel produced
by distension of the rectum with feces

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Large intestine

Overall function to complete absorption, produce


certain vitamins, and form and expel feces
4 major regions cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal
Ileocecal sphincter between small and large intestine
Colon divided into ascending, transverse, descending
and sigmoid
Opening of anal canal (anus) guarded by internal anal
sphincter of smooth muscle and external anal sphincter
of skeletal muscle

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Large Intestine

Is horseshoe shaped
Extends from end of ileum to anus
Lies inferior to stomach and liver
Frames the small intestine
Also called large bowel
Is about 1.5 meters (4.9 ft) long and 7.5 cm (3
in.) wide

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Large Intestine Functions
Reabsorption of water
Compaction of intestinal
contents into feces
Absorption of important
vitamins produced by bacteria
Storage of fecal material prior
to defecation

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Anatomy of the large intestine

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Large Intestine - Histology
Mucosa mostly absorptive and goblet cells
No circular folds or villi
Does have microvilli
Submucosa
Muscularis
Longitudinal muscle modified to form teniae coli
Forms haustra pouches
Serosa

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Histology of the Large Intestine

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Histology of the Large Intestine

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Parts of Large Intestine
The Cecum
Is an expanded pouch
Receives material arriving from
the ileum
Stores materials and begins
compaction
Appendix
Also called vermiform appendix
Is a slender, hollow appendage
about 9 cm (3.6 in.) long
Is dominated by lymphoid nodules
(a lymphoid organ)
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Parts of Large Intestine

The Colon
The
Has a larger diameter and thinner wall than small
intestine
The wall of the colon
haustra
Forms a series of pouches (haustra
haustra)
Haustra permit expansion and elongation of colon

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Parts of Colon
Ascending Colon
Begins at superior border of cecum
Ascends along right lateral and posterior wall of peritoneal
cavity to inferior surface of the liver and bends at right colic
flexure (hepatic flexure)
Transverse Colon
Crosses abdomen from right to left; turns at left colic flexure
(splenic flexure)
Is supported by transverse mesocolon
Is separated from anterior abdominal wall by greater omentum

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Parts of Colon

The Descending Colon


The
Proceeds inferiorly along left side to the iliac fossa (inner
surface of left ilium)
Is retroperitoneal, firmly attached to abdominal wall
The Sigmoid Colon
The
Is an S-shaped segment, about 15 cm (6 in.) long
Starts at sigmoid flexure
Lies posterior to urinary bladder
Is suspended from sigmoid mesocolon
Empties into rectum

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Parts of Colon

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Parts of Large Intestine
The Rectum
Forms last 15 cm (6 in.) of
digestive tract
Is an expandable organ for
temporary storage of feces
Movement of fecal material into
rectum triggers urge to defecate
The anal canal is the last portion of
the rectum
Contains small longitudinal folds
called anal columns
Anus
Also called anal orifice
Is exit of the anal canal
Has keratinized epidermis like
skin

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Physiology of the Large Intestine

Absorption in the Large Intestine


Absorption
Reabsorption of water
Reabsorption of bile salts
In the cecum
Transported in blood to liver

Absorption of vitamins produced by bacteria


Absorption of organic wastes

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Physiology of the Large Intestine

Three Vitamins Produced in the Large Intestine


1. Vitamin K (fat soluble):
Required by liver for synthesizing four clotting factors, including
prothrombin

2. Biotin (water soluble):


Important in glucose metabolism

3. Pantothenic acid: B 5 (water soluble):


Required in manufacture of steroid hormones and some
neurotransmitters

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Physiology of the Large Intestine

Organic Wastes
Bacteria convert bilirubin to urobilinogens and
stercobilinogens
Bacteria break down peptides in feces and generate
Ammonia, Indole & skatole, hydrogen sulfide
Bacteria feed on indigestible carbohydrates (complex
polysaccharides)
Produce flatus
flatus, or intestinal gas, in large intestine

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Digestion of the Large Intestine
Mechanical digestion
Haustral churning : the relaxation and constraction of th
individual segment of the colon
Peristalsis : rhythmical contraction of th colon that move the
content along through the lenght of the colon
Mass peristalsis : a strong peristaltic were that begins about
th middle of the transverse colon and drives contents of colon
toward rectum
Chemical digestion
Final stage of digestion through bacterial action
Ferment carbohydrates, produce some B vitamins and
vitamin K
Mucus but no enzymes secreted
Remaining water absorbed along with ions and some vitamins

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Movements of the Large Intestine

Movements from transverse colon through rest of large


intestine results from powerful peristaltic contractions
(mass movements)
Stimulus is distension of stomach and duodenum; relayed
over intestinal nerve plexuses
Distension of the rectal wall triggers defecation reflex
Two positive feedback loops
Both loops triggered by stretch receptors in rectum

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Neural Control of Defecation

1. Filling of the rectum

2. Reflex contraction of
rectum & relaxation
of internal anal
sphincter

3. Voluntary relaxation
of external sphincter

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24
2008 Thomson - Wadsworth
Amino acid metabolism
Amino acids are the building
blocks of protein. If not needed
for building protein, then can
be metabolized for energy, or
broken apart and the carbon
chains used to make fat.
Metabolism requires removal
of the amine unit (NH3).

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Ammonia and Urea

Ammonia is toxic and


highly water soluble.
The liver turns
ammonia into urea,
which is less toxic and
less soluble.

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Urinary system anatomy

Main structures of the


urinary system:
kidneys
ureters
bladder
urethra

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Anatomy of the Kidney

Main structures of the


mammalian kidney:
renal cortex
renal medula
renal pelvis
nephrons

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Anatomy of the Nephron

Glomerulus
Proximal tubule
Loop of Henle
Distal tubule

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Glomerulus

This is the only place in


the system where the
blood is actually
filtered.
Blood pressure is used
to push plasma through
capillary walls and into
the Bowmans capsule.

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Proximal tubule

Nutrients (salts,
vitamins, etc.) are
moved out of the
tubule through active
transport.
Water follows the
nutrients by osmosis.

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Loop of Henle

Tissue around the Loop


of Henle is salty, from
active transport and
diffusion of sodium
chloride.
The salty conditions
allow water to diffuse
out of the loop.

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Distal tubule
Active transport is used to move more nutrients out of
the concentrated urine.
Some ions, drugs, and toxins are actively pumped into
the tubule.

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Collecting Duct

More water leaves the


tube by osmosis, since
the tube is surrounded by
salty tissue.
Some urea leaves by
diffusion, and may be
cycled through the
system.

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Any Question?

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