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# ENSC-283

Assignment #6

## Water in an open channel is held in by a sluice gate. Compare the

horizontal force of the water on the gate (a) when the gate is
closed and (b) when it is open (assuming steady flow, as shown).
Assume the flow at sections 1 and 2 is incompressible and
uniform, and that (because the streamlines are straight there) the
pressure distributions are hydrostatic.

V1=1 m/s
D1 = 3 m
V2=7 m/s
D2 = 0.429 m
water

1 2

Solution:
The forces acting on the control volume include:
Force of gravity, W
Friction force, F f
Components of R x and Ry
of reaction force from gate
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M.Bahrami ENSC 283 Assignment
#6
Hydrostatic pressure distribution on vertical surface
Pressure distribution along the bottom surface (not shown)
CV

V1=1 m/s
D1 = 3 m
V2=7 m/s
D2 = 0.429 m
water

1 2
Ry

p1 ( y) Rx
W

Ff p2 ( y)

Assumptions:
Ff
Friction force is negligible.
No body force in x direction.
Incompressible flow.
Uniform flow at each section.
Hydrostatic pressure distribution at sections 1 and 2.

Then,
F R 1 + F R 2 + Rx =(V 21 w D1 ) + ( V 22 w D2)

## The surface forces acting on the CV are due to the pressure

distributions and the unknown force, R x . From our assumptions,

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M.Bahrami ENSC 283 Assignment
#6
we can integrate the gage pressure distribution on each side to
compute the hydrostatic forces F R 1 and F R 2 ,
D1 D1
D21
F R 1= p1 ( y ) dA=w gydy=gw
0 0
2
2 D2 2
D2
F R 2= p2 ( y ) dA=w gydy=gw
0 0
2

Hence,

gw 2
R x =w ( V 22 D 2 V 21 D 1 ) ( D1D 22)
2

## The horizontal force per unit width of the gate is

Rx g
= ( V 22 D 2V 21 D1 ) ( D21 D22)
w 2

Part (a):
D 2=0 V 2=0
When gate is closed, and . From mass conservation
V 1=0

R x g D 21
=
w 2

2
Rx m (3 [ m ])
w
kg
m [ ] [ ]
=999 3 9.81 2
s 2
=44.1 kN

Part (b):
V 1=1[m/s ] , and V 2=7 [m/ s] , hence,

[ ] [( [ ]) ]
2 2
Rx
w
kg
=999 3 7
m
m
s
( 0.429 [ m ] ) 1 ( [ ])
m
s
1
2 [ ] [ ]
kg
m
m
( 3 [ m ] ) 999 3 9.81 2 [ ( 3 [ m ] ) ( 0.429 [ m ] ) ]=25
s
2 2

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M.Bahrami ENSC 283 Assignment
#6
Note: As can be seen, the force on the open gate is significantly
less than the force on the closed gate as the water accelerates
out under the gate.

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M.Bahrami ENSC 283 Assignment
#6