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SYSTEMATIC INORGANIC QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

Acid Radicals Basic Radicals


Group Radical Group Radical
Zero NH4+
I CO32-
I Absent
II Absent
II Cl-, Br-, NO3- III Al3+
IV Absent (Mn2+, Zn2+)
V Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+
III SO42-
V1 Mg2+

Group Number Radicals Present Group Reagent


0 (Zero) NH4+ No reagent.
I - Dil. HCl.
II - Dil. HCl, pass H2S gas.
NH4Cl(solid) + Excess of NH4OH
III Al3+
solution.
NH4Cl(solid) + Excess of NH4OH
IV -
solution, pass H2S gas.
NH4Cl(solid) + Excess of NH4OH
V Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+
solution + (NH4)2CO3 solution.
VI Mg2+ No reagent.

ANALYSIS OF SALT INVOLVES FOUR STEPS WHICH ARE AS FOLLOWS:

1. Preliminary test
2. Detection of Acid Radical
3. Detection of Basic Radical
Preparation of Original solution (OS):
About half test tube of solvent is taken and the salt is added little by little with
constant shaking until a saturated clear, homogeneous solution is obtained. For the
detection of basic radical few drops of original solution (OS) is used
4. Report the Salt.
SALT NUMBER: XX
I. PRELIMINARY TEST:
Sl.
Experiment Observation Inference
No.
Crystalline
Appearance
1. or -
(Physical State)
Amorphous
2. Color -
SoluablityTest:
Water Dil. HCl Dil.HNO3
3. Cold Hot Cold Hot Cold Hot

II. DETECTION OF ACID RADICALS:


Experiment Observation Inference
Brisk effervescence with I group acid radical
liberation of colorless gas. is present.
Salt+ Dil. HCl
I group acid radicals
No reaction.
are absent.
Pass the gas into the lime water May be CO32-
Lime water turns milky.
taken in another test tube. present.
Confirmatory Test for CO32-:
(Lime-Water test)
Salt + Water, heat to boil; pass Lime water doesnt turn into CO32- is present and
the vapours into the test tube milky. confirmed
containing lime water.
Salt in a dry test tube + Conc. Vigorous reaction takes II group acid radical
sulfuric acid (H2SO4) place at room temperature. is present.

Held the glass rod dipped in Dense white fumes are May be Cl-.
aqueous ammonia solution to the evolved.
mouth of the test tube

More reddish fumes in cold May be Br-.


condition and the solution
turns brown.
If no reactions at RT, add pieces Reddish fumes in cold
of copper bits to the test tube and condition and the solution May be NO3-.
heat. turns blue.
No reaction even after II group acid
heating. radicals are absent.
Confirmatory Test for Cl-:
1. Chromyl chloride test: Orange-Red vapors are
Salt + K2Cr2O7 crystals in a dry evolved.
test tube + few drops of Conc.
sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and heat
The above vapors are passed into Yellow solution is obtained.
a test tube containing a solution
of NaOH solution
To the above solution add acetic A bright yellow precipitate Cl- is present.
acid and lead acetate. is formed.
2. Silver nitrate test: Curdy white precipitate is Cl- is confirmed
Salt solution + AgNO3 solution formed and soluble in
excess of NH4OH.
Confirmatory Test for Br -:
1. Globule or chlorine
water test:
An orange red globule is
Salt + Water, shaken well to Br- is present.
formed.
dissolve + few drops of CCl4 +
Chlorine-water, shaken well.
2. Silver nitrate test: Pale yellow precipitate is Br- is confirmed.
Salt solution + AgNO3 solution formed and insoluble in
excess of NH4OH.
Confirmatory Test for NO3- :
1. Brown ring test:
Salt solution + freshly prepared NO3- is present &
A brown ring is formed at
FeSO4 solution + few drops of confirmed.
the junction of two liquids.
Conc. sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
along the sides of test tube
without shaking
Test for sulfate ion (SO42-): III group acid
White precipitate is formed.
Salt solution + dilute HCl + radical is present.
BaCl2 solution. May be SO42-.

To the above precipitate, add


Precipitate insoluble. SO42- is present &
excess of dilute HCl. confirmed.
III. DETECTION OF BASIC RADICALS:

Experiment Observation Inference


Zero group basic radical is
+
Test for NH4 :
Salt + dilute NaOH solution, Pungent smelling gas of present. May be NH4+
Heat to boil. ammonia (NH3) is evolved. present.

Held the glass rod dipped in Gives dense white fumes. NH4+ is present.
Conc. HCl to the mouth of No pungent smelling gas Zero group basic radicals
the test tube. and no white fumes. are absent.
Confirmatory Test for
NH4+:
A reddish brown precipitate NH4+ is confirmed.
Original solution (OS) +
is formed.
Nessler`s reagent + NaOH
(Excess)
Original solution (OS) + I group basic radical is
No precipitate.
Dilute HCl absent.
Original solution (OS) +
II group basic radical is
Dilute HCl, pass H2S gas No precipitate.
absent.
Original solution (OS) + two A gelatinous white III group basic radical is
spatula of NH4Cl(solid) + precipitate is formed. present. May be Al3+
Excess of NH4OH solution. III group basic radicals are
No Precipitate.
present.
Confirmatory Test for Al3+:

1. Original solution (OS) + A blue floating mass is Al3+ is present.


blue litmus solution, few formed.
drops of NH4OH
solution.
2. Original solution (OS) A white gelatinous
+dilute NaOH dropwise precipitate is formed first
first and then excess. and dissolves in excess of
NaOH solution to give clear
solution.
To the above clear Solution
of White gelatinous precipitate Al is Confirmed.
3+
add two spatula
NH4Cl(solid) boil and cool reappears.
under water.
Original solution (OS) + two
IV group basic radicals are
spatula of NH4Cl(solid) +
No Precipitate. absent.
Excess of NH4OH solution,
pass H2S gas.
Original solution (OS) + two V group basic radical is
spatula of NH4Cl(solid) + present.
Excess of NH4OH solution, White precipitate is formed. May be Ba2+, Ca2+, and
+( NH4)2CO3 solution. Sr2+.
V group basic radicals are
No precipitate.
absent.
Flame Test:-
A paste of the given salt is
prepared in Conc. HCl on a Apple-Green color is Ba2+ is present.
watch glass. It is heated with imparted to the flame. Ca2+ & Sr2+ are absent.
a pre-heated Cu-wire in a
non-luminous flame
Confirmatory Test for Ba2+:- A yellow precipitate is Ba2+ is confirmed.
Original solution (OS) + formed.
K2CrO4 solution.
Flame Test:-
A paste of the given salt is
prepared in Conc. HCl on a Brick-Red color is imparted Ca2+ is present.
watch glass. It is heated with to the flame. Ba2+ & Sr2+ are absent.
a pre-heated Cu-wire in a
non-luminous flame
2+
Confirmatory Test for Ca :-
A white precipitate is
1) Original solution (OS) + Ca2+ is confirmed.
formed.
(NH4)2C2O4, solution
Flame Test:-
A paste of the given salt is
prepared in Conc. HCl on a Crimson-Red color is Sr2+ is present.
watch glass. It is heated with imparted to the flame. Ba2+ & Ca2+are absent.
a pre-heated Cu-wire in a
non-luminous flame
2+
Confirmatory Test for Sr :-
1) Original solution (OS) + A white precipitate is Sr2+ is confirmed.
(NH4)2SO4, heat & scratch formed.
the sides of the test tube
with a glass rod.
Test for Mg2+:-
Original solution (OS) + A white crystalline VI group basic radical is
Equal volume of NH4OH precipitate is formed. present. May be Mg2+ is
solution & (NH4)H2PO4 present.
solution, scratch the sides of
the test tube with a glass rod.

Mg2+ is
2+
Confirmatory Test for Mg :- Blue precipitate is formed. present &
Original solution (OS) + confirmed.
Magneson reagent + NaOH
solution.

IV. Report:-

Nature of the Radical Group Radical

Acidic

Basic

The given salt is