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SPUTUM

Pink frothy : Pulmo Edem


Blood Streak : Pneumonia (pneumococlla and pseudomonas)
prune juice (drak brown, mucopurulent, offenseive odor) : Pneumonia
(pneumococcal and klebsiella)
Rusty: bronchiectasis (mucopurulent with red tinge
Currant Jelly (Jam stroberi) : neoplasm and pneumoniaklesbsiella
Hemoptsis: brightred, frothpy blood : bronchiectasis, lungcancer, neoplasm.
TBC
Purulent: yellow or green thici viscous : BE, Lung Abcess, TBC

Lights Criteria
Effusion/Serum Protein ratio < 0.5
Effusion/Serum LDH ratio < 0.6
Effusion LDH < 2/3 batas atas serum LDH (105-333 IU/L)

Week 1 Pneumothorax + Physiology


Pleuristic: Non productive cough.
Adenosine Deaminase >70 U/L (Pleurutis TB) <40 U/L rules out diagnosis.
pH pleural fluid 7.64
Pleural Biopsy (Abrams Needle)
Chylothorax (kayak susu) (lemak)
Thoracocentesis ICS 7-9 Posterior to Middle Axilary line.

FEV1/FVC (Tiffenau Index)


Obstrucive FEV1/FVC (<70%)
FVC (<80%) Mild 60-80, moderat <60 severe <30

Amphoric breathing sounds: TBC


IUTLD
- Tidak ditemukan BTA dalam 100 lapang pandang, disebut negatif
- Ditemukan 1-9 BTA dalam 100 lapang pandang, ditulis jumlah kuman yang
ditemukan
- Ditemukan 10-99 BTA dalam 100 lapang pandang disebut + (1+)
- Ditemukan 1-10 BTA dalam 1 lapang pandang, disebut ++ (2+)
- Ditemukan >10 BTA dalam 1 lapang pandang, disebut +++ (3+)

Thoracocentesis
Batas paru 6 8 10
Batas pleura 8 10 12
Tb anak hilus
Friedlander Pneumonia : Klebsiella pneumonia
Centrilobul empyfisema dan centraacinar : respiratory bronbhioles
PArasepta : ducts and sacus
Elis DMaisseau : Pleural Effusion

Honeycomb : multipler ring shadow : bronchiectasis specific radio.

Nasal Canule:
Venturi:

PaO2 SpO2 % (PaO2) Clinical Notes

MildHypoxemia 60-79 90-94%


mmHg

Moderate 40-59 75-89%


Hypoxemia mmHg

SevereHypoxemia < 40 <75% PaO2 30: loss of


mmHg consciousness
PaO2 20: anoxia-
brain injury
likely

Aspergiloma, hemoptysis massive biasanya. Treatment pertama bronchoscopy


(dibersihin), bestnya di lobectomy.
Pertussis : inspiratory gasping.
Kromolin : MAST cell stabilizer
Antileukotriene : -kast

Restriction (KV)

Normal : <80%
Ringan: 50-80%
Sedang: 30-50%
Berat: <30%

Restriksi KVP(paksa) <80%

Obstruction:
FEV-1: <80%
FEV-1/FVC normal: >75%
Ringan 50-75%
Sedang 30-50
Berat <30%

Asma:
Intermittent: Bulanan <80% (VEF1 / APE) Variasi APE <20% | SABA
Asma Ringan: Mingguan (<80%) Variasi APE 20-30% | SABA + Glukokortikoid
Asma sedang: Harian + Malem seminggu jarang (60-80%) Variasi >30% | SABA
LABA Glukokortikoid
Asma Berat: Harian + malem sering (<60%). Variasi >30% | SABA LABA GLuko +
Theophylin/Antileukotrien/Oral Steroid
PPOK
Ringan VEP1/KVP < 70% VEF-1 >80%| SABA, XANTIN
Sedang VEF-1 : 50-70% | LABA, Antikolinergik,
Berat 30-50% | LABA, Antikolinergik, PDE Inhibitor (theophilin)
Sangat berat <30% LABA, antikolinergik, PDEinhibitor+ Oksigen