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In simple terms, saponification is the name for a chemical reaction between an acid
and a base to form a salt. When soap is make using the cold process soap making method,mix
an oil or fat (which is the acid) with NaOH (which is the base) to form soap which is a salt.
Soap are sodium or potassium salts of long chain unsaturated fats. At the point when
triglycerides in fat/oil respond with watery NaOH or KOH, they are changed over into soap
and glycerol. This is called antacid hydrolysis of esters. Since this response prompts the
arrangement of soap, it is known as the Saponification process. This can be explained through
the diagram.

The objective of the experiment was to synthesize a sample of hard soap and to test
soap have produced. Saponification usually used to refer the reaction of metallic alkali (base)
with a fat or oil to form soap. In view of the examination done, saponification (hydrolysis) is
an ester under fundamental condition to frame a alcohol and the salt of carboxylic acid. The
triglycerides procedure was responded with a sodium hydroxide to deliver glycerol and
unsaturated fat salts. The alkaline arrangement, which is frequently called lye alludes only to
soap made with sodium hydroxide, brings the saponification response. In this response, the
triglyceride fats are initially hydrolyzed into free unsaturated fats, and afterward these join
with the soluble base to frame rough soap, an amalgam of different soap salts, fat or alkali,
water, and freed glycerol (glycerin) which is glycerin is helpful for soap generation and
softening agent. From the experiment the observation at the point when soap mixed with
distilled water white bubbles seems top of the arrangement. The sodium and potassium salts
of most carboxylic acids are water solvent. Nonetheless, the calcium, magnesium, and iron
salts are definitely not. Subsequently, when soap are put in hard water which hard water is the
water that contains such magnesium and calicum. This procedure expels soap particles from
arrangement, and declines the effectiveness of soap. From that point onward, the solution
foam form and white precipitate which called scum form because of the hard water.As clarify,
soap does not respond incredibly as it does not function admirably in hard water since it
contain the arrangement of cation Ca2+. Lastly,for the third analysis, the trisodium phosphate
was included and from the mixture it show colloid solution was formed. . This reaction occur
as trisodium phosphate act as water softner.

The added substance of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in this examination brought on the
hard soap framed. Though potassium cleanser (potassium hydroxide (KOH)) has a tendency
to be gentler than the relating sodium cleanser. Potasium are chiefly utilized as a part of
making fluid type of soap. Vegetable oils and creature fats are greasy esters as triglycerides.
The soluble base breaks the ester bond and discharges the unsaturated fat and glycerol. In the
event that essential, cleansers might be encouraged by salting it out with immersed sodium

In a nutshell the objective of the experiment was achieved as the soap has been
synthesized and been test as been recorded in the result.
Pre Laboratory Question

1 Saponification is the alkaline hydrolysis of the fatty acid esters. Example: The
chemical reaction between any fat and sodium hydroxide is a saponification reaction.
triglyceride + sodium hydroxide (or potassium hydroxide) glycerol + 3 soap

2 In studying how soap works, it is useful to consider a general rule of nature: "like
dissolves like." The nonpolar hydrophobic tails of soap are lipophilic ("oil-loving")
and so will embed into the grease and oils that help dirt and stains adhere to surfaces.
The hydrophilic heads, however, remain surrounded by the water molecules to which
they are attracted. As more and more soap molecules embed into a greasy stain, they
eventually surround and isolate little particles of the grease and form structures called
micelles that are lifted into solution. In a micelle, the tails of the soap molecules are
oriented toward and into the grease, while the heads face outward into the water,
resulting in an emulsion of soapy grease particles suspended in the water. This how
soap can function as dirt remover.

The advantages of detergent are Detergents can be used in hard water.

Detergents are prepared from hydrocarbons of petroleum which can overcome the
shortage of natural fats and oils.
The can be used in acidic medium.
The cleansing actions of detergents are stronger than that of soaps.
Detergents are more soluble in water.
Detergents are applied in laundry. These detergents contain enhancers like
softeners, surfactants, bleach, enzymes, fragrances, brighteners and many others.
They are also used at reagent grade in the process of isolation and purification of
integral membrane proteins in biological cells.

Post Laboratory Question

1 The nature of soaps depends on alkali metal, which the soap that are produced from
sodium hydroxide was firmer while potassium hydroxide are softer. When Sodium
Hydroxide (NaOH) is replaced by Potassium hydroxide (KOH) long chain
carboxyclic acid will form. This means it will formed a soft soap.

J. Chem. Educ. Soap and glycerol, Chemical Education, pages 172, 2013.
T.Y Toon, S. Shanmuganathan, Oxford Fajar, Chemistry for matriculation, Fourth
Edition 2013.
Isah,A G. (2006). Production of Detergent from Castor oil. Leornado Journal of
Practices and Technologies 9: 153-160
Amrita (2013) Saponification-The process making of soap Available at: (Acessed on 28 March