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Endocrine System - Affects transcription of various proteins that cell

can synthesize
- Coordinates and integrates with diff. physiological - Attaches to DNA
systems o Attachment causes production of specific
- Maintains homeostasis mRNA
o Role begins with hormones o Moves to cytoplasm
Secreted from ductless endocrine
Where ribosomes translate to
glands mRNA to protein
Endocrine Glands
Tissues with Epithelial Endocrine glands act out together does NOT function
origin independently
Secrete hormones into ECF
Blood carries hormones Negative Feedback Mechanisms
sometimes attached with plasma
proteins to target cells - Regulates hormone secretion, synthesis and
Target cells may be close effectiveness at target ells
or far from the source - Ensures if body needs hormone, it will be
Hormones bind to receptors produced
Receptors located: - Too much would cause inhibition
o on target cells
The Body rarely makes use of the Positive Feedback
o Cytosol
o Nucleus -release of oxytocin from posterior pituitary is an example
Receptors are sensitive
Hormone receptor Oxytocin
complex can exert - Causes muscle layer of uterus (myometrium) to
biological action through contract during childbirth
signal-transduction - Contraction of myometrium causes additional
cascades and alteration of production of oxytocin
gene transcription at - Increased levels of oxytocin does not inhibit its
target cell secretion
Peptide & catecholamine Hormones ACTIVITY 1: Metabolism and Thyroid Hormone
- Fast-acting hormones Metabolism
- Attaches to plasma membrane receptor
- Causes second messenger cascade in cytoplasm of - Range of biochemical reactions in body
target cell - Includes anabolism and catabolism
- Example cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) o Anabolism
o Synthesized from ATP Build up of small molecules into
o Synthesis of this makes cell more larger more complex molecules
metabolically active and responds to thru enzymatic reactions
stimulus Energy is stored in chemical bonds
formed when larger more complex
Steroid Hormones and Thyroxine (Thyroid horomone) molecules are formed
- Slow acting o Catabolism
- Enter target cell and interact with the nucleus Breakdown of molecules via
enzymatic reactions
Releases energy so cell can secretion of
perform various activities thyroxine
Eg. Formation of ATP o Increased
Sometimes released as thyroxine
heat to maintain body stimulates
temp. hypothalamus to
Humans are reduce prod. of
homeothermic organisms TRH
to maintain body temp
o Travels from hypothalamus to pituitary
Thyroxine gland via the hypothalamic pituitary
portal system
- Thyroid hormone
System consists of a single portal
- Hormone for maintaining metabolism and body
connects 2 capillary beds
- Also known as tetraiodothyronine (T4)
transports other hormones too
- Secreted by thyroid gland in neck
- hypothalamus primarily secretes tropic hormones
- Production controlled by pituitary
o TRH is a tropic hormone
Stimulates secretions of other
Pituitary Gland hormones
o TSH is also a tropic hormone
- Secretes TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone)
o Causes thyroid gland to increase in size Rats metabolic Rate
and secrete thyroxine into general
- Measured in this expt
- Indicated by amount of oxygen rat consumes per
o If TSH is too high, thyroid gland enlarges
time per body mass (BMR)
GOITER glandular swelling in
- Use of 3 rats:
neck from too much TSH
o Normal rat
Hypothalamus o Thyroidectomized rat (rat with no thyroid
- Participant in Thyroxine and TSH production o Hypophysectomized rat (rat with no
- Primary endocrine gland pituitary gland)
- Secretes several hormones that affect the
hypophysis Equipments used:
- Releases Thyrotropin releasing Hormone (TRH)
1. 3 refillable syringes
o Directly linked to thyroxine and TSH
a. Rats injected with 3 things:
i. propylthiouracil (inhibits prod. of
o Stimulates anterior pituitary to produce
thyroxine by blocking the
incorporation of iodine into the
TSH then stimulates thyroid to
hormone precursor molecule)
produce thyroxine
ii. TSH
Part of negative feedback
iii. Thyroxine
2. Glass Animal Chamber
Level of thyroxine are low
a. T-connector on right tube connected to
o Hypothalamus
secretes more TSH
b. Left tube allows outside air into chamber
o Increased TSH
c. This chamber provides a sealed system to
measure amount of oxygen consumed
3. Soda Lime - Normal Rat = Hypothyroid
a. Absorbes Carbon Dioxide given off by rat - Hypox Rat = Hypothyroid
4. Manometer - Tx Rat = Hypothyroid
a. Tube containing fluid
b. Rat consumes oxygen, fluid will rise on left Which developed a goiter from propylthiouracil injection:
side and fall on right side - The Normal Rat
Calculate Oxygen Consumption per hour: Post Lab
(ml O2 consumed/ 1 minute) x (60 minutes/hour) = mL O2 / 1. How would u treat Tx rat so it functions into a normal
hour animal?
Metabolic rate: - Provide T4 supplements
(ml O2 / hr) / (weight in kg) = ml O2 / kg/hr 2. What is the result of missing hormones in Hypox rat?
BMR - Decreased metabolic rate
- Indicator of thyroid function 3. Injection of thyroxine on a normal rat will cause:
- Hypothyroid (BMR below 1600; low thyroid levels)
- Euthyroid (Good/Normal Thyroid levels; BMR from - Hyperthyroidism
1650 150)
4. Why didnt any rats develop a goiter after thyroxine
- Hyperthyroid (High thyroid Levels BMR above
- TSH levels were not elevated by thyroxine injection

5. why did the normal rat develop a goiter with TSH

No Injection
Normal Rat = Euthyroid
- TSH receptors on thyroid gland were stimulated
Thyroidectomized (Tx) Rat = Hypothyroid excessively

Hypophysectomized (Hypox) Rat = Hypothyroid 6. Injection of propylthiouracil in a normal animal will

Syringe with Thyroxine
- Goiter development
Normal Rat = Hyperthyroid
7. Why did the normal rat develop a palpable goiter with
Tx Rat = Hyperthyroid the propylthiouracil injection?
Hypox Rat = Hyperthyroid - Injection decreased the negative feedback
TSH Injection mechanism on TSH

Normal Rat = Hyperthyroid Activity 2: Plasma Glucose, Insulin and Diabetes Mellitus

Tx Rat = Hypothyroid Insulin

Hypox Rat = Hyperthyroid - Hormone produced by beta cells of endocrine

portion of pancreas
Developed goiter after TSH injection: - Vital to regulation of plasma glucose levels/ blood
- Normal rat and Hypox rat - Enables cells to absorb glucose from bloodstream
Injected with Propylthiouracil - Glucose
o Used as fuel for metabolism Deionized water
o Stored as glycogen (animal starch)
In liver and muscle cells - Adjusts volume so that it is the same for each
75% of glucose in a meal is stored reaction
as glycogen Glucose standard curve:
Prod. of glycogen ensures a supply
of glucose even after a meal - X axis glucose mg/dl
o Opposes action of insulin - Y axis Optical density

Glucagon Barium Hydroxide

- Produced by alpha cells of pancreas - Clears both proteins and cell membranes so the
- Stimulates breakdown of stored glycogen into glucose readings can be obtained
Type 1 Diabetes Melllitus
- Prevents blood clot
- Pancreas does not produce enough insulin
Fasting Plasma Glucose
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
- Intersection of glucose concentration and optical
- Pancreas produces enough insulin but body does density
not respon
Post Lab
**Both cases glucose remains in bloodstream
1. Patient has 115, 110, 122 mg/dl the person has?
**Body cells unable to take it up to serve as primary fuel a. Appears to have impairment/borderline
for metabolism impairment of insulin
2. To obtain an accurate spectrophotometric
Kidneys measurement of glucose concentration
- Filter the excess glucose out of the plasma a. Heparin is added to prevent blood clot
- Reabsorption of filtered glucose involves a finite 3. The optical density increases as glucose
number of kidney tubule cells concentration increases
- Excess glucose sometimes not reabsorbed, 4. Female patient has 130, 140, 128 patient has?
a. Developed diabetes
resulting to Diabetes Mellitus (= sweet urine)
5. To maintain plasma glucose homeostasis
What happens when body cells cant take up glucose? a. Insulin mediated transport of glucose
into cells act as negative feedback
- Skeletal muscles undergo protein catabolism mechanism
o Frees up amino acids to be used in forming 6. Plasma glucose concentration will be the same for
glucose in liver
the arm vein and index finger
o This causes a negative nitrogen balance
from protein depletion Activity 3: Hormone Replacement Therapy

Glucose Standard Curve Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

- Measure fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels - Anterior pituitary peptide hormone
- FPG > 126 mg/dl WITH DIABETES - Stimulates ovarian follicle growth
- FPG between 110 126 mg/dl indicate borderline o Ovarian follicle growth produces and
impairment of insulin-mediated glucose secrete a steroid hormone called estrogen
- FPG <110 mg/dl considered NORMAL in the plasma
Estrogen Tscores from Experiment:

- Stimulates bone growth and protection against Control Rat = -2.54

o Reduction in quantity of bone Calcitonin Rat = - 2.18
characterized by decreased bone mass and Estrogen Rat = -1.54
increased susceptibility to fractures
Post Lab
Menopause effects:
1. Saline injections were used to measure the effect
- Loss of bone density that can result in osteoporosis of:
and bone fractures a. Placebo on bone density
2. Ovariectomized rats used in the experiment
Postmenopausal treatments
a. Osteoporosis was evident prior to
- Prevent osteoporosis injections of estrogen
- Includes hormone replacement therapy 3. Injection of Calcitonin
- Estrogen administered to increase bone density a. Inhibits osteoclast activity and stimulates
calcim uptake and deposition in long bones
Calcitonin 4. As the Rats Bone Density increases
- Secreated by C cells in thyroid gland a. X-Ray scanning shows less negative Tscore
- Counteracts osteoporosis Activity 4: Measures Cortisol and Adrenocorticotropic
- Inhibits osteoclast activity Hormone
- Stimulates calcium uptake and deposition in long
bones Cortisol

Ovariectomized rats - Secreted by adrenal cortex

- For bodys response to stress
- No longer producing estrogen - Release is stimulated by Adrenocorticotropic
- Ovaries surgically removed Hormone (ACTH)
T score o ACTH released by anterior pituitary
o ACTH release stimulated by Corticotropin
- Quantitative measurement of mineral content of releasing hormone (CRH)
bone - CRH (Corticotropin releasing hormone)
- Indicator of structural strength of bone o A tropic hormone from hypothalamus
- T score of 3 rats = -2.61 (indicating osteoporosis) o Increased cortisol negatively feed backs to
- Interpreted as: inhibit release of ACTH and CRH
o Normal = +1 to 0.99
o Osteopenia (bone thinning) = -1 to -2.49 Hypercortisolism
o Osteoporosis = -2.5 and below - Increased cortisol in blood
Hormone replacement therapy - Referred to as Cushings Syndrome
o If increase is caused by adrenal gland
- Administer estrogen therapy tumor
- Calcitonin therapy o Can also be iatrogenic (physician induced)
When glucocorticoid hormones
Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)
such as prednisone are
- Used to obtain T score administered to treat arthritis
- Measurement of Vertebral Bone Density (VBD) of - Cushings Syndrome
each rat o Aka steroid diabetes
o Results in hyperglycemia
- Cushings disease
o Hypercortisolism is caused by anterior
pituitary tumor Cortisol Level ACTH Level
Cushings High Low
o Exhibit increased ACTH and cortisol
** Cushings syndrome refers to hypercortisolism which (Primary
could be iatrogenic
Iatrogenic High Low
- Addisons disease Cushings
o Decreased cortisol in blood
Cushings Disease High High
o Hypocortisolism (Secondary
Occurs because of adrenal Hypercortisolism)
insufficiency Addisons Disease Low High
o Low cortisol is directly caused by gradual (Primary Adrenal
destruction of adrenal cortex and ACTH Insufficiency)
levels Secondary Low Low
- Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency
o Results in low levels of cortisol (Hypopituitarism)
o Caused by damage to anterior pituitary
- HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography)
o Used in quantitatively measure the
amount of cortisonl and ACTH in patient

High levels of Cortisol inhibits ACTH and CRH

CRH stimulates the pituitary gland to release ACTH

Post Lab:

1. Under normal conditions, if amount of CRH

increases then
a. Secreted ACTH will increase
2. Under normal conditions, if secreted ACTH
increases then
a. Secreted CRH will decrease
3. Under normal conditions, if secreted cortisol
a. Amount of secreted ACTH will decrease
4. If a hypersecreting pituitary tumor develops the
expected outcome is
a. Cushings disease
5. If the hypersecreting adrenal cortex tumor
develops the outcome is
a. Abnormally low levels of CRH due to
negative feedback
6. A patients chart lists the diagnosis of Addisons
a. Expect abnormally high levels of ACTH