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Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design

Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design Introduction Beam design is based on four important considerations: bending moment, shear,http://www.structural-drafting-net-expert.com/ ● Activity 3.2.4 Beam Analysis Short Cuts (completed) ● MD Solids software Procedure The Partial Second Floor Framing Plan for a new hotel is given below. The second floor will be used for conference space. Design the following floor framing members for the hotel structure. ● Interior beam ● Exterior beam ● Girder on column line 3 ● Girder on column line 5 © 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 1 " id="pdf-obj-0-4" src="pdf-obj-0-4.jpg">

Introduction

Beam design is based on four important considerations: bending moment, shear, deflection, and cost. Once the design loads have been determined and the beam has been analyzed to determine the resulting internal shear forces and bending moments imposed, a structural engineer can select a cost-effective beam design that will provide sufficient shear and bending strength and adequate stiffness to limit deflection to acceptable limits.

Beam design methods are dictated by building codes and standards and require the inclusion of a factor of safety. Therefore, the beam design selected must possess more strength than required to resist the imposed loads.

In this activity you will design floor framing (beams and girders) for a hotel.

Equipment

Pencil

Calculator

Computer with Internet access

Activity 3.2.4 Beam Analysis Short Cuts (completed)

MD Solids software

Procedure

The Partial Second Floor Framing Plan for a new hotel is given below. The second floor will be used for conference space. Design the following floor framing members for the hotel structure.

Interior beam

Exterior beam

Girder on column line 3

Girder on column line 5

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 1

Criteria The following data is to be used for design of the floor framing: ● Dead

Criteria

The following data is to be used for design of the floor framing:

● Dead load = 50 psf Assume the weight of the floor beams and girders are included in the dead

load

Floor live load = 100 psf (Hotels—Public space per IBC table 1607.1)

F y =

50,000 psi

The floor will support a plaster ceiling

Note: E = 29,000,000 psi for structural steel

  • 1. Complete the following for each beam and girder using the Allowable

Strength Design method. You must show all work and include proper units for full credit.

Calculate the loading

Create a beam diagram

Calculate end reactions

Calculate the maximum moment

Calculate the required nominal moment

Calculate required plastic section modulus

Choose an efficient steel wide flange to safely carry

the load

Check shear capacity Calculate deflection limits Check deflection using beam formula; if necessary, revise member choice and recalculate deflection

Choose final design; prove that the revised choice is sufficient to carry bending moment and shear

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 2

2.

Check calculations for each beam and girder using MD Solids. Print out

the following:

Shear and moment diagrams

Slope and deflection (in inches) diagrams

Note: Be sure to choose your final beam designation in MD Solids before producing slope and deflection diagrams since these values are dependent upon the section properties of the beam. Use inches for the units on the deflection diagram.

Conclusions Questions

  • 1. If the beam loading and beam span is different for every beam in a

building, is it reasonable and practical to choose a different beam section for

every installation? Why or why not?

  • 2. Aside from simply pushing the wrong keys on your calculator, what is the

most likely reason for an error in calculating a required section modulus or a deflection?

  • 3. Which structural steel section would carry the largest bending moment, a

W12 x 22 or a W14 x 22? Why? If subjected to the same magnitude of loading

over the same span, which beam would display the largest deflection? Why?

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 3

Interior Beam

  • 1. Include the loading and beam diagrams.

Interior Beam 1. Include the loading and beam diagrams. © 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc.
Interior Beam 1. Include the loading and beam diagrams. © 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc.
Interior Beam 1. Include the loading and beam diagrams. © 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc.

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 4

2. Calculate the end reaction and maximum moment. 1.) Simple Beam – Concentrated Load at Center
2. Calculate the end reaction and maximum moment. 1.) Simple Beam – Concentrated Load at Center
2. Calculate the end reaction and maximum moment. 1.) Simple Beam – Concentrated Load at Center
  • 2. Calculate the end reaction and maximum moment.

1.) Simple Beam – Concentrated Load at Center a.) Reaction: 50 Ibs b.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 2.) Simple Beam – Uniformly Distributed Load

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 5

a.) Reaction: 1350 Ibs b.) Moment: 24300 ftIbs 3.) Simple Beam – Uniformly Distributed Load and Concentrated Load at Mid-Span a.) Reaction: 1400 Ibs b.) Moment: 24750 ftIbs 4.) Simple Beam – Two Equal Concentrated Loads – Symmetrically Placed

a.) Reaction: 100 Ibs

b.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 5.) Simple Beam – Two Equal Concentrated Loads – Symmetrically Placed and Uniformly Distributed Load

a.) Reaction

i.)

a.) 75 Ibs

ii.)

b.) 25 Ibs

b.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 6.) Simple Beam Concentrated Loads –Asymmetrically Placed

a.) Reaction

i.)

a.) 75 Ibs

ii.)

b.) 25 Ibs

b.) Moment: 337.5 ftIbs

  • 3. Calculate the required nominal moment. 1.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 2.) Moment: 24300 ftIbs 3.) Moment: 24750 ftIbs 4.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 5.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 6.) Moment: 337.5 ftIbs

  • 4. Determine the required plastic section modulus and select an efficient

wide flange.

I don’t understand this. but here is my best guess. We do not have enough information to calculate the plastic modulus.

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 6

w24x335. Flange: 13.52x13.5 inches (width) and 2.48x2.5 (thickness). 5. Check the shear strength. We do not

w24x335. Flange: 13.52x13.5 inches (width) and 2.48x2.5 (thickness).

  • 5. Check the shear strength.

We do not know how thick the beam is so we can not calculte the area needed to calculate the shear strength. But the force is 150Ibs, and the length is 18ft.

  • 6. Calculate deflection limits.

We are not given what “I” is, so I am using 1.44 from memory. 1.) 2.91x10^-4 psi 2.) .0049 psi 3.) .0052 psi 4.) 4.0005x10^-4 psi 5.) .00547 psi 6.) .00547 psi

  • 7. Calculate actual deflections.

No new deflection formulas except for #5 and #6

7.) 1.) 2.91x10^-4 psi 8.) 2.) .0049 psi

9.) 3.) .0052 psi

10.)

4.) 4.0005x10^-4 psi

11.)

5.) 6.874 psi

12.)

6.) 6.874 psi

  • 8. Select a final design.

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 7

Exterior Beam The dimensions are the same, so the calculations will be the same. 9. Include

Exterior Beam

The dimensions are the same, so the calculations will be the same.

  • 9. Include the loading and beam diagrams.

Exterior Beam The dimensions are the same, so the calculations will be the same. 9. Include
Exterior Beam The dimensions are the same, so the calculations will be the same. 9. Include

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 8

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 9
© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 9
© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 9

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 9

10.Calculate the end reaction and maximum moment. 7.) Simple Beam – Concentrated Load at Center a.)

10.Calculate the end reaction and maximum moment. 7.) Simple Beam – Concentrated Load at Center a.) Reaction: 50 Ibs b.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 8.) Simple Beam – Uniformly Distributed Load a.) Reaction: 1350 Ibs

b.) Moment: 24300 ftIbs 9.) Simple Beam – Uniformly Distributed Load and Concentrated Load at Mid-Span a.) Reaction: 1400 Ibs b.) Moment: 24750 ftIbs

10.)

Simple Beam – Two Equal Concentrated Loads –

Symmetrically Placed

 

a.) Reaction: 100 Ibs b.) Moment: 450 ftIbs

11.)

Simple Beam – Two Equal Concentrated Loads –

Symmetrically Placed and Uniformly Distributed Load

a.) Reaction

 

i.)

a.) 75 Ibs

ii.)

b.) 25 Ibs

b.) Moment: 450 ftIbs

 

12.)

Simple Beam Concentrated Loads –Asymmetrically

Placed

 

a.) Reaction

i.)

a.) 75 Ibs

ii.)

b.) 25 Ibs

b.) Moment: 337.5 ftIbs

11. Calculate the required nominal moment. 7.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 8.) Moment: 24300 ftIbs 9.) Moment: 24750 ftIbs

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 10

10.)

Moment: 450 ftIbs

11.)

Moment: 450 ftIbs

12.)

Moment: 337.5 ftIbs

12.Determine the required plastic section modulus and select an efficient wide flange.

I don’t understand this. but here is my best guess. We do not have enough information to calculate the plastic modulus.

10.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 11.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 12.) Moment: 337.5 ftIbs 12.Determine the required plastic

w24x334. Flange: 13.52x13.5 inches (width) and 2.48x2.5 (thickness).

13.Check the shear strength.

We do not know how thick the beam is so we can not calculte the area needed to calculate the shear strength. But the force is 150Ibs, and the length is 18ft.

14.Calculate deflection limits.

We are not given what “I” is, so I am using 1.44 from memory.

13.)

2.91x10^-4 psi

14.)

.0049 psi

15.)

.0052 psi

16.)

4.0005x10^-4 psi

17.)

.00547 psi

18.)

.00547 psi

15.Calculate actual deflections.

No new deflection formulas except for #5 and #6

19.)

1.) 2.91x10^-4 psi

20.)

2.) .0049 psi

21.)

3.) .0052 psi

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 11

22.)

4.) 4.0005x10^-4 psi

23.)

5.) 6.874 psi

24.)

6.) 6.874 psi

16.Select a final design.

22.) 4.) 4.0005x10^-4 psi 23.) 5.) 6.874 psi 24.) 6.) 6.874 psi 16.Select a final design.

1.

Girder on Column Line 3

1.

Include the loading and beam diagrams.

22.) 4.) 4.0005x10^-4 psi 23.) 5.) 6.874 psi 24.) 6.) 6.874 psi 16.Select a final design.

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 12

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 13
© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 13
© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 13

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 13

2. Calculate the end reaction and maximum moment. Simple Beam – Concentrated Load at Center c.)
2. Calculate the end reaction and maximum moment. Simple Beam – Concentrated Load at Center c.)
  • 2. Calculate the end reaction and maximum moment. Simple Beam – Concentrated Load at Center c.) Reaction: 50 Ibs d.) Moment: 166.67 ftIbs

13.)

Simple Beam – Uniformly Distributed Load a.) Reaction: 500 Ibs

14.)

b.) Moment: 833.33 ftIbs Simple Beam – Uniformly Distributed Load and

Concentrated Load at Mid-Span

 

a.) Reaction: 550 Ibs b.) Moment: 1000 ftIbs

15.)

Simple Beam – Two Equal Concentrated Loads –

Symmetrically Placed

 

a.) Reaction: 100 Ibs b.) Moment: 166.67 ftIbs

16.)

Simple Beam – Two Equal Concentrated Loads –

Symmetrically Placed and Uniformly Distributed Load

a.) Reaction

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 14

 

i.)

a.) 75 Ibs

ii.)

b.) 25 Ibs

b.) Moment: 125 ftIbs

 

17.)

Simple Beam Concentrated Loads –Asymmetrically

Placed

 

a.) Reaction

i.)

a.) 75 Ibs

ii.)

b.) 25 Ibs

b.) Moment: 125 ftIbs

  • 3. Calculate the required nominal moment.

1.) 166.67 ftIbs 2.) 833.33 ftIbs 3.) 1000 ftIbs 4.) 166.67 ftIbs 5.) 125 ftIbs 6.) 125 ftIbs

  • 4. Determine the required plastic section modulus and select an efficient

wide flange.

Again we do not have enough information to calculate the section modulus. But here is my best geus.

i.) a.) 75 Ibs ii.) b.) 25 Ibs b.) Moment: 125 ftIbs 17.) Simple Beam Concentrated

W8x10: Flange: 3.94x4 (width) .205x(3/16) thickness.

  • 5. Check the shear strength.

We do not know the width or depth and therefore cannot calculate the area needed to calculate the shear strength.

  • 6. Calculate deflection limits.

1.) 1.478x10^-5 psi 2.) 9.239x10^-5 psi 3.) 1.072x10^-4 psi 4.) 2.032x10^-5 psi 5.) 1.692x10^-4 psi 6.) 1.692x10^-4 psi

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 15

  • 7. Calculate actual deflections.

Please note that there are no new deflection formulas except for #5 and #6

7.) 1.478x10^-5 psi

8.) 9.239x10^-5 psi 9.) 1.072x10^-4 psi

10.)

2.032x10^-5 psi

11.)

2.546 psi

12.)

2.546 psi

  • 8. Select a final design.

7. Calculate actual deflections. Please note that there are no new deflection formulas except for #5

Girder on Column Line 5

  • 1. Include the loading and beam diagrams.

7. Calculate actual deflections. Please note that there are no new deflection formulas except for #5

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 16

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 17
© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 17
© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 17

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 17

9. Calculate the end reaction and maximum moment. Simple Beam – Concentrated Load at Center c.)
9. Calculate the end reaction and maximum moment. Simple Beam – Concentrated Load at Center c.)
  • 9. Calculate the end reaction and maximum moment. Simple Beam – Concentrated Load at Center c.) Reaction: 50 Ibs d.) Moment: 166.67 ftIbs

18.)

Simple Beam – Uniformly Distributed Load a.) Reaction: 500 Ibs

19.)

b.) Moment: 833.33 ftIbs Simple Beam – Uniformly Distributed Load and

Concentrated Load at Mid-Span

 

a.) Reaction: 550 Ibs b.) Moment: 1000 ftIbs

20.)

Simple Beam – Two Equal Concentrated Loads –

Symmetrically Placed

 

a.) Reaction: 100 Ibs b.) Moment: 166.67 ftIbs

21.)

Simple Beam – Two Equal Concentrated Loads –

Symmetrically Placed and Uniformly Distributed Load

a.) Reaction

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 18

 

i.)

a.) 75 Ibs

ii.)

b.) 25 Ibs

b.) Moment: 125 ftIbs

 

22.)

Simple Beam Concentrated Loads –Asymmetrically

Placed

 

a.) Reaction

i.)

a.) 75 Ibs

ii.)

b.) 25 Ibs

b.) Moment: 125 ftIbs

10.Calculate the required nominal moment.

7.) 166.67 ftIbs 8.) 833.33 ftIbs

9.) 1000 ftIbs

10.)

166.67 ftIbs

11.)

125 ftIbs

12.)

125 ftIbs

11. Determine the required plastic section modulus and select an efficient

wide flange.

Again we do not have enough information to calculate the section modulus. But here is my best geus.

i.) a.) 75 Ibs ii.) b.) 25 Ibs b.) Moment: 125 ftIbs 22.) Simple Beam Concentrated

W8x10: Flange: 3.94x4 (width) .205x(3/16) thickness.

12.Check the shear strength.

We do not know the width or depth and therefore cannot calculate the area needed to calculate the shear strength.

13.Calculate deflection limits.

13.)

1.478x10^-5 psi

14.)

9.239x10^-5 psi

15.)

1.072x10^-4 psi

16.)

2.032x10^-5 psi

17.)

1.692x10^-4 psi

18.)

1.692x10^-4 psi

14.Calculate actual deflections.

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 19

Please note that there are no new deflection formulas except for #5 and #6

19.)

1.478x10^-5 psi

20.)

9.239x10^-5 psi

21.)

1.072x10^-4 psi

22.)

2.032x10^-5 psi

23.)

2.546 psi

24.)

2.546 psi

15.Select a final design.

Please note that there are no new deflection formulas except for #5 and #6 19.) 1.478x10^-5

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 20