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## Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design

http://www.structural-drafting-net-expert.com/ ● Activity 3.2.4 Beam Analysis Short Cuts (completed) ● MD Solids software Procedure The Partial Second Floor Framing Plan for a new hotel is given below. The second floor will be used for conference space. Design the following floor framing members for the hotel structure. ● Interior beam ● Exterior beam ● Girder on column line 3 ● Girder on column line 5 © 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 1 " id="pdf-obj-0-4" src="pdf-obj-0-4.jpg">

### Introduction

Beam design is based on four important considerations: bending moment, shear, deflection, and cost. Once the design loads have been determined and the beam has been analyzed to determine the resulting internal shear forces and bending moments imposed, a structural engineer can select a cost-effective beam design that will provide sufficient shear and bending strength and adequate stiffness to limit deflection to acceptable limits.

Beam design methods are dictated by building codes and standards and require the inclusion of a factor of safety. Therefore, the beam design selected must possess more strength than required to resist the imposed loads.

In this activity you will design floor framing (beams and girders) for a hotel.

### Equipment

 ● Pencil ● Calculator ● Computer with Internet access ● ● Activity 3.2.4 Beam Analysis Short Cuts (completed) ● MD Solids software

### Procedure

The Partial Second Floor Framing Plan for a new hotel is given below. The second floor will be used for conference space. Design the following floor framing members for the hotel structure.

 ● Interior beam ● Exterior beam ● Girder on column line 3 ● Girder on column line 5

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 1

Criteria

The following data is to be used for design of the floor framing:

 ● Dead load = 50 psf Assume the weight of the floor beams and girders are included in the dead ● load ● Floor live load = 100 psf (Hotels—Public space per IBC table 1607.1) ● F y = 50,000 psi ● The floor will support a plaster ceiling

Note: E = 29,000,000 psi for structural steel

• 1. Complete the following for each beam and girder using the Allowable

Strength Design method. You must show all work and include proper units for full credit.

 ● Calculate the loading ● Create a beam diagram ● Calculate end reactions ● Calculate the maximum moment ● Calculate the required nominal moment ● Calculate required plastic section modulus ● Choose an efficient steel wide flange to safely carry

Check shear capacity Calculate deflection limits Check deflection using beam formula; if necessary, revise member choice and recalculate deflection

Choose final design; prove that the revised choice is sufficient to carry bending moment and shear

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 2

2.

Check calculations for each beam and girder using MD Solids. Print out

the following:

 ● Shear and moment diagrams ● Slope and deflection (in inches) diagrams

Note: Be sure to choose your final beam designation in MD Solids before producing slope and deflection diagrams since these values are dependent upon the section properties of the beam. Use inches for the units on the deflection diagram.

### Conclusions Questions

• 1. If the beam loading and beam span is different for every beam in a

building, is it reasonable and practical to choose a different beam section for

every installation? Why or why not?

• 2. Aside from simply pushing the wrong keys on your calculator, what is the

most likely reason for an error in calculating a required section modulus or a deflection?

• 3. Which structural steel section would carry the largest bending moment, a

W12 x 22 or a W14 x 22? Why? If subjected to the same magnitude of loading

over the same span, which beam would display the largest deflection? Why?

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 3

### Interior Beam

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 4

• 2. Calculate the end reaction and maximum moment.

1.) Simple Beam – Concentrated Load at Center a.) Reaction: 50 Ibs b.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 2.) Simple Beam – Uniformly Distributed Load

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 5

a.) Reaction: 1350 Ibs b.) Moment: 24300 ftIbs 3.) Simple Beam – Uniformly Distributed Load and Concentrated Load at Mid-Span a.) Reaction: 1400 Ibs b.) Moment: 24750 ftIbs 4.) Simple Beam – Two Equal Concentrated Loads – Symmetrically Placed

a.) Reaction: 100 Ibs

b.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 5.) Simple Beam – Two Equal Concentrated Loads – Symmetrically Placed and Uniformly Distributed Load

a.) Reaction

 i.) a.) 75 Ibs ii.) b.) 25 Ibs b.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 6.) Simple Beam Concentrated Loads –Asymmetrically Placed a.) Reaction i.) a.) 75 Ibs ii.) b.) 25 Ibs

b.) Moment: 337.5 ftIbs

• 3. Calculate the required nominal moment. 1.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 2.) Moment: 24300 ftIbs 3.) Moment: 24750 ftIbs 4.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 5.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 6.) Moment: 337.5 ftIbs

• 4. Determine the required plastic section modulus and select an efficient

wide flange.

I don’t understand this. but here is my best guess. We do not have enough information to calculate the plastic modulus.

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 6

w24x335. Flange: 13.52x13.5 inches (width) and 2.48x2.5 (thickness).

• 5. Check the shear strength.

We do not know how thick the beam is so we can not calculte the area needed to calculate the shear strength. But the force is 150Ibs, and the length is 18ft.

• 6. Calculate deflection limits.

We are not given what “I” is, so I am using 1.44 from memory. 1.) 2.91x10^-4 psi 2.) .0049 psi 3.) .0052 psi 4.) 4.0005x10^-4 psi 5.) .00547 psi 6.) .00547 psi

• 7. Calculate actual deflections.

No new deflection formulas except for #5 and #6

7.) 1.) 2.91x10^-4 psi 8.) 2.) .0049 psi

9.) 3.) .0052 psi

 10.) 4.) 4.0005x10^-4 psi 11.) 5.) 6.874 psi 12.) 6.) 6.874 psi
• 8. Select a final design.

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 7

### Exterior Beam

The dimensions are the same, so the calculations will be the same.

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 8

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 9

10.Calculate the end reaction and maximum moment. 7.) Simple Beam – Concentrated Load at Center a.) Reaction: 50 Ibs b.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 8.) Simple Beam – Uniformly Distributed Load a.) Reaction: 1350 Ibs

b.) Moment: 24300 ftIbs 9.) Simple Beam – Uniformly Distributed Load and Concentrated Load at Mid-Span a.) Reaction: 1400 Ibs b.) Moment: 24750 ftIbs

 10.) Simple Beam – Two Equal Concentrated Loads – Symmetrically Placed a.) Reaction: 100 Ibs b.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 11.) Simple Beam – Two Equal Concentrated Loads –

Symmetrically Placed and Uniformly Distributed Load

a.) Reaction

 i.) a.) 75 Ibs ii.) b.) 25 Ibs b.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 12.) Simple Beam Concentrated Loads –Asymmetrically Placed a.) Reaction i.) a.) 75 Ibs ii.) b.) 25 Ibs

b.) Moment: 337.5 ftIbs

11. Calculate the required nominal moment. 7.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 8.) Moment: 24300 ftIbs 9.) Moment: 24750 ftIbs

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 10

 10.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 11.) Moment: 450 ftIbs 12.) Moment: 337.5 ftIbs

12.Determine the required plastic section modulus and select an efficient wide flange.

I don’t understand this. but here is my best guess. We do not have enough information to calculate the plastic modulus.

w24x334. Flange: 13.52x13.5 inches (width) and 2.48x2.5 (thickness).

13.Check the shear strength.

We do not know how thick the beam is so we can not calculte the area needed to calculate the shear strength. But the force is 150Ibs, and the length is 18ft.

14.Calculate deflection limits.

We are not given what “I” is, so I am using 1.44 from memory.

 13.) 2.91x10^-4 psi 14.) .0049 psi 15.) .0052 psi 16.) 4.0005x10^-4 psi 17.) .00547 psi 18.) .00547 psi 15.Calculate actual deflections. No new deflection formulas except for #5 and #6 19.) 1.) 2.91x10^-4 psi 20.) 2.) .0049 psi 21.) 3.) .0052 psi

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 11

 22.) 4.) 4.0005x10^-4 psi 23.) 5.) 6.874 psi 24.) 6.) 6.874 psi

16.Select a final design.

1.

### Girder on Column Line 3

1.

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 12

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 13

• 2. Calculate the end reaction and maximum moment. Simple Beam – Concentrated Load at Center c.) Reaction: 50 Ibs d.) Moment: 166.67 ftIbs

 13.) Simple Beam – Uniformly Distributed Load a.) Reaction: 500 Ibs 14.) b.) Moment: 833.33 ftIbs Simple Beam – Uniformly Distributed Load and Concentrated Load at Mid-Span a.) Reaction: 550 Ibs b.) Moment: 1000 ftIbs 15.) Simple Beam – Two Equal Concentrated Loads – Symmetrically Placed a.) Reaction: 100 Ibs b.) Moment: 166.67 ftIbs 16.) Simple Beam – Two Equal Concentrated Loads –

Symmetrically Placed and Uniformly Distributed Load

a.) Reaction

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 14

 i.) a.) 75 Ibs ii.) b.) 25 Ibs b.) Moment: 125 ftIbs 17.) Simple Beam Concentrated Loads –Asymmetrically Placed a.) Reaction i.) a.) 75 Ibs ii.) b.) 25 Ibs

b.) Moment: 125 ftIbs

• 3. Calculate the required nominal moment.

1.) 166.67 ftIbs 2.) 833.33 ftIbs 3.) 1000 ftIbs 4.) 166.67 ftIbs 5.) 125 ftIbs 6.) 125 ftIbs

• 4. Determine the required plastic section modulus and select an efficient

wide flange.

Again we do not have enough information to calculate the section modulus. But here is my best geus.

W8x10: Flange: 3.94x4 (width) .205x(3/16) thickness.

• 5. Check the shear strength.

We do not know the width or depth and therefore cannot calculate the area needed to calculate the shear strength.

• 6. Calculate deflection limits.

1.) 1.478x10^-5 psi 2.) 9.239x10^-5 psi 3.) 1.072x10^-4 psi 4.) 2.032x10^-5 psi 5.) 1.692x10^-4 psi 6.) 1.692x10^-4 psi

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 15

• 7. Calculate actual deflections.

Please note that there are no new deflection formulas except for #5 and #6

7.) 1.478x10^-5 psi

8.) 9.239x10^-5 psi 9.) 1.072x10^-4 psi

 10.) 2.032x10^-5 psi 11.) 2.546 psi 12.) 2.546 psi
• 8. Select a final design.

### Girder on Column Line 5

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 16

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 17

• 9. Calculate the end reaction and maximum moment. Simple Beam – Concentrated Load at Center c.) Reaction: 50 Ibs d.) Moment: 166.67 ftIbs

 18.) Simple Beam – Uniformly Distributed Load a.) Reaction: 500 Ibs 19.) b.) Moment: 833.33 ftIbs Simple Beam – Uniformly Distributed Load and Concentrated Load at Mid-Span a.) Reaction: 550 Ibs b.) Moment: 1000 ftIbs 20.) Simple Beam – Two Equal Concentrated Loads – Symmetrically Placed a.) Reaction: 100 Ibs b.) Moment: 166.67 ftIbs 21.) Simple Beam – Two Equal Concentrated Loads –

Symmetrically Placed and Uniformly Distributed Load

a.) Reaction

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 18

 i.) a.) 75 Ibs ii.) b.) 25 Ibs b.) Moment: 125 ftIbs 22.) Simple Beam Concentrated Loads –Asymmetrically Placed a.) Reaction i.) a.) 75 Ibs ii.) b.) 25 Ibs

b.) Moment: 125 ftIbs

10.Calculate the required nominal moment.

 7.) 166.67 ftIbs 8.) 833.33 ftIbs 9.) 1000 ftIbs 10.) 166.67 ftIbs 11.) 125 ftIbs 12.) 125 ftIbs

11. Determine the required plastic section modulus and select an efficient

wide flange.

Again we do not have enough information to calculate the section modulus. But here is my best geus.

W8x10: Flange: 3.94x4 (width) .205x(3/16) thickness.

12.Check the shear strength.

We do not know the width or depth and therefore cannot calculate the area needed to calculate the shear strength.

13.Calculate deflection limits.

 13.) 1.478x10^-5 psi 14.) 9.239x10^-5 psi 15.) 1.072x10^-4 psi 16.) 2.032x10^-5 psi 17.) 1.692x10^-4 psi 18.) 1.692x10^-4 psi

14.Calculate actual deflections.

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 19

Please note that there are no new deflection formulas except for #5 and #6

 19.) 1.478x10^-5 psi 20.) 9.239x10^-5 psi 21.) 1.072x10^-4 psi 22.) 2.032x10^-5 psi 23.) 2.546 psi 24.) 2.546 psi

15.Select a final design.

© 2010 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Civil Engineering and Architecture Activity 3.2.6 Beam Design—Page 20