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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART A

1. INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................4
2. THEORY.................................................................................................................4
2.1 Metallography.................................................................................................4
2.2 Optical Microscopy..........................................................................................5
2.3 Etching (as explained by Ryan Wojes).............................................................6
2.3.1 Why Etching?............................................................................................7
2.3.2 Applications of Etchants............................................................................7
2.4 Hardness.........................................................................................................9
2.4.1 Vickers Micro indentation Hardness Test.................................................10
3. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES.............................................................................11
3.1 Benchwork Square specimen (Specimen B)................................................11
3.1.1 Filing and chamfering of specimen..........................................................12
3.2 Lathe Operations Round specimens (Specimen A and C)............................12
3.2.1 Facing of the specimens..........................................................................12
3.2.2 Chamfering of specimens.......................................................................12
3.3 Grinding and observation under microscope All Specimens.......................12
3.3.1 Medium Grinding.....................................................................................13
3.3.2 Fine Grinding...........................................................................................13
3.3.3 Super Fine Grinding.................................................................................14
3.4 Polishing....................................................................................................... 14
3.4.1 Ultrafine polishing...................................................................................15
3.5 Reaction which chemical reagents Etching.................................................16
3.6 Optical Microscopy........................................................................................16
3.7 Vickers Hardness Test...................................................................................16
4. RESULTS..............................................................................................................16
4.1 After polishing-phase..................................................................................16
4.2 Photomicrographs of specimens after etching..............................................18
4.3 Vickers Hardness Test...................................................................................19
4.3.1 Specimen A.............................................................................................19
4.3.2 Specimen B.............................................................................................19
4.3.3 Specimen C.............................................................................................19
5. ANALYSIS............................................................................................................ 20

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6. PRECAUTIONS AND SAFETY MEASURES..............................................................21
PART B

1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................22
1.1 WHAT IS CORROSION?..................................................................................22
1.2 HOW DOES RUSTING OCCUR?.......................................................................22
1.3 TYPES OF CORROSION:.................................................................................23
1.4 WHAT IS CORROSION TESTING?....................................................................24
2. PROCEDURE.....................................................................................................26
3. RESULTS..............................................................................................................29
4. CONCLUSION....................................................................................................32
5. REFERENCES....................................................................................................33

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PART A

1. INTRODUCTION

Engineering metals and alloys are widely used in the society, from the tip
of a pen to the roof of a skyscraper. But the metal components, structures
people encounter and use in the everyday life are not randomly chosen.
Behind it lies a certain complexity from the point of extracting the metal to
the fabrication of the structure. This part of the assignment is based on the
identification process of metallic specimens and this has been achieved
means of an experimental method name Metallurgy. The metallurgy
experiment is generally carried out to view the microstructures of metals
and thereby using the results of tests to deduce their identity. For the
purpose of this assignment, 3 samples have been provided and asked to
perform the metallurgy experiment which shall lead to their identification.
The samples included:

A cylindrical metallic specimen Specimen A


A square-based metallic specimen Specimen B
Another cylindrical specimen of relatively larger than specimen A
Specimen C
The Metallurgy experiment comprises of several steps, from coarse
polishing on engineers vices to much finer polishing using diamond paste
on rotating wheels. This report contains all the detailed part of each step,
sometimes accompanied with figures to achieve proper explanation.

2. THEORY

2.1 Metallography

Metallography is the study of metals by optical and electron microscopes.


Structures which are coarse enough to be discernible by the naked eye or
under low magnifications are termed macrostructures. Useful information
can often be gained by examination with the naked eye of the surface of
metal objects or polished and etched sections.

Those which require high magnification to be visible are termed


microstructures. Microscopes are required for the examination of the
microstructure of the metals. Optical microscopes are used for resolutions

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down to roughly the wavelength of light (about half a micron) and electron
microscope are used for detail below this level, down to atomic resolution.

The most commonly used microscope is the conventional light microscope.


In principle, Optical microscopes may be used to look through specimens
(in transmission) as well as at them (in reflection). Many materials,
however, do not transmit light and therefore it is restricted to looking at
the surface of the specimens with an optical microscope. Electron
microscope can then be used in the transmission e.g. Transmission Electron
Microscope (TEM) and to look at the surfaces e.g. Scanning Electron
Microscope (SEM).

Based on the availability of the laboratory but also as per the requirement
of this assignment, an Optical Microscope has been used.

2.2 Optical Microscopy

With optical microscopy, the light microscope is used to study the


microstructure; optical illumination systems are its basic elements. For
materials that are opaque to visible light (all metals, many ceramics and
polymers), only the surface is subject to observation, and the light
microscope must be used in a reflective mode. Contrasts in the image
produced result from differences in reflectivity of the various regions of the
microstructure.

Careful and meticulous surface preparations are necessary to reveal the


important details of the microstructure. The specimen surface must first be
ground and polished to a smooth and mirror like finish. This is
accomplished by using successively finer abrasive papers and powders.
The microstructure is revealed by a surface treatment using an appropriate
chemical reagent in a procedure termed etching. The etching reagents
depend on the material used and after etching the specimen must be
washed with alcohol and ether to remove the grease. The atoms at the
grain boundaries are chemically more active, and consequently dissolve
more readily than those within the grains forming small grooves. These
grooves become discernible when viewed under a microscope because
they reflect light at an angle different from that of the grains themselves.

Below is a picture (Figure 1) of the optical microscope available and used in


the study of the microstructure of the 3 samples:

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Figure 1.1 - Optical microscope equipped camera (Venkanah, [2006])

This optical microscope is equipped with a 35mm camera and a digital


camera which was both used to generate photomicrographs for each
specimen after etching was done.

Infact, microscopy can give information concerning a materials


composition, previous treatment and properties. Generally, the particular
features of interest are:

1. Grain size
2. Phases present
3. Chemical homogeneity
4. Distribution of phases
5. Elongated structures formed by plastic deformation
As stated above, there is infact a series of steps involved in the preparation
of a specimen so as to study it under the Optical Microscope and thereby
determining the microstructure of the specimens. These steps grossly
include:

1. Benchwork
Filing and chamfering of the specimen
2. Lathe Operations
Perform facing on each specimens
Chamfering
3. Working with polishers and microscopes
Grinding
Working on finer grinding machines (particle diameter 500m and
200m)
Polishing on extra fine abrasive paper (6m and 1m) and
diamond paste
4. Etching
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Etching reagents depending on etchant
5. Examination under optical microscope

2.3 Etching (as explained by Ryan Wojes)

Metallographic etching is a technique used to highlight features of metals


at microscopic levels. These features include, but are not limited to, grain
boundaries, phase differences and inclusions. By studying the character,
quantity and distribution of these different features, metallurgists are
capable of predicting and explaining physical properties and performance
failures of a given sample of metal.

Figure 1.2: Specimen B after the etching process

2.3.1 Why Etching?

Most metallurgical features are microscopic in size -- they cannot be seen


or analyzed without optical magnification of at least 50x and as much as
1000x when using light microscopes. To analyze planar features such as
grain boundaries, a metallic sample must be polished to a very fine mirror-
like finish. Unfortunately, under a microscope, such a finely polished
surface just looks like a plain white field.

To create contrast between the elements of the metal's


microstructure, chemical solutions known as etchants are used to
selectively corrode some of those elements, which show up as darker
regions. This is possible because differences in the composition, structure
or phase of a metal will create electrochemical potentials that alter the

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relative rates of corrosion when exposed to an etchant. There is also the
formation of grooves.

2.3.2 Applications of Etchants

Chemical etchants can be designed to do most anything to a metal


surface. Some common practical uses of etchants are to:

Expose grain boundaries - The boundaries of metallic grains can


corrode very quickly when the appropriate etchant is used,
highlighting the edges of the grains and making it possible to
determine their size and shape.

Highlight metallic phases - Different phases will have different


shading and texture after etching, allowing for phase fraction
estimation and identification of undesirable phases.

Identify inclusions - Nonmetallic inclusions often have


characteristic shapes and colorations after appropriate etching, which
allows for quick size measurement and number density estimation.
Below is an illustration of the effect of etching on the grain boundaries as
well as the reflected light hitting an etched surface (Figure 2):

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Figure 2 - Effects of Etching

Metallurgy of steel

When carbon in small amount is added to iron, steel is obtained.

The microstructure of steel at ambient temperature has a mixture of


what is known as pearlite and ferrite. Figure 2.2 shows a
microstructure comprising of ferrite and pearlite.

Figure 2.2: Pearlite and ferrite structure

As it can be seen from figure 2.2, pearlite is a lamellar mixture of


ferrite and cementite.

Ferrite is soft and ductile and pearlite is hard and it imparts


mechanical strength to steel. The higher the carbon content in the
sample, the higher would be the pearlite content and hence higher
mechanical strength.

The ferrite in the sample appears bright and pearlite appears dark.

2.4 Hardness

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Hardness is a measure of a materials resistance to localized plastic
deformation (e.g., a small dent or a scratch). Early hardness tests were
based on natural minerals with a scale constructed solely on the ability of
one material to scratch another that was softer. A qualitative and
somewhat arbitrary hardness indexing scheme was devised, termed the
Mohs scale, which ranged from 1 on the soft end for talc to 10 for diamond.

Quantitative hardness techniques have been developed over the years in


which a small indenter is forced into the surface of a material to be tested,
under controlled conditions of load and rate of application. The depth or
size of the resulting indentation is measured, which in turn is related to a
hardness number;

The softer the material, the larger and deeper the indentation, and the
lower the hardness index number.

Measured hardnesses are only relative (rather than absolute), and care
should be exercised when comparing values determined by different
techniques. Hardness tests are performed more frequently than any other
mechanical test for several reasons:

1. They are simple and inexpensive - ordinarily no special specimen


need be prepared, and the testing apparatus is relatively inexpensive.
2. The test is non-destructive - the specimen is neither fractured nor
excessively deformed; a small indentation is the only deformation.
3. Other mechanical properties often may be estimated from hardness
data, such as tensile strength.
For this assignment, the micro hardness of the material has been tested
using the Vickers Hardness Test.

2.4.1 Vickers Micro indentation Hardness Test

A hardness-testing technique is Vickers test (sometimes also called


diamond pyramid). For this test a very small diamond indenter having
pyramidal geometry is forced into the surface of the specimen. Applied
loads are much smaller than for Rockwell and Brinell tests, ranging
between 1 and 1000 g. The resulting impression is observed under a
microscope and measured; this measurement is then converted into a
hardness number.

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Again, careful specimen surface preparation (grinding and polishing) may
be necessary to ensure a well-defined indentation that may be accurately
measured. The Vickers hardness numbers are designated HV. Vickers is
referred to as micro indentation-testing methods on the basis of indenter
size. It well suited for measuring the hardness of small, selected specimen
regions.

Below are 2 figures, Figure 3 giving a schematic representation of the


principle Vickers Hardness Tester and Figure 4 is the graphical
representation of the indentation procedure.

Figure 3 - Schematic Principle of Vickers Hardness Tester (Mathers, [2009])

D1

D2

Figure 4 - Indentation Process (Matsuzwa [2010])

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The Vickers Hardness test is infact performed on each specimen after the
etching has been done. This implies that proper polishing has been
performed and the observation under optical microscope has already been
done. Based on the examination of the grain size from the
photomicrographs taken by the optical microscope, the hardness test
performed.

3. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

As briefly explained early, the Metallurgy experiment comprises of many


steps, starting off the bench vice, ending up under the Vickers Hardness
Tester. Below are the descriptions of the several experimental procedures
carried out in doing the Metallurgy experiment.

3.1 Benchwork Square specimen (Specimen B)

Filing is a material removal process and helps achieve workpiece function


by removing some excess material and deburring the surface. Sandpaper
may be used as a filing tool for other materials, such as glass.

3.1.1 Filing and chamfering of specimen

In our case, specimen B was held on an Engineers Vice and cross-filed to


remove maximum material so as to make the workface (later subjected to
polishing) completely horizontal.

Then, a fine filling was performed on all 4 edges of the workface of the
square specimen. This process is called chamfering. This was done to
smooth the edges so as to avoid damaging the abrasive cloth used to
polish the workfaces of the specimens but also to avoid bruising the users
hand.

3.2 Lathe Operations Round specimens (Specimen A and C)

Since the specimens provided were initially of suitable dimensions, that is,
they could be easily handled, no cutting was necessary so as to reduce
them to a proper handy size.

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3.2.1 Facing of the specimens

With the use of a 3-jaw chuck, the round specimens were mounted on the
headstock of the lathe machines. Using a carbide-toolbit, facing was then
performed on both surfaces of the round specimens by moving the toolbit
from the edge to the center of the specimen. This process was performed
to provide a flat surface for further experimentation.

3.2.2 Chamfering of specimens

Again, to avoid damaging the abrasive cloth and safety measures,


chamfering was performed on the 2 round specimens. The toolbit was fed
diagonally (with the help of the graduated collars) along the edge of the
workface of the round specimens.

3.3 Grinding and observation under microscope All


Specimens

Initially, it was impossible to study the microstructure of the specimen


given the fact that the workfaces of each specimen was rough and highly
scratched. So grinding had to be performed so as to obtain a flat surface
which would be easier to examine.

The specimen underwent polishing progressively from a medium one to the


finest one. It should be noted that the microstructure of the specimens
were observed under optical microscope as they moved progressively to
finer polishing machines. The abrasive clothes used were made of SiC
(Silicate Carbide) of different grit sizes.

Note:

During the polishing parts, great care was taken while holding the
specimens on the rotating wheel. The specimens were grabbed firmly
though not pressing hardly against the rotating wheel.
Firstly, the specimens were each marked with an arrow, used to
provide a certain a point of reference while polishing.
Water was used as a coolant, as a lubricant and also as a mean to
wash away residual grinding products from the surface of the
workpieces.

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For fine and super fine grinding, the position of the specimen (being
ground) on the rotating wheel was maintained throughout these
processes to avoid cross grinding (due to the circular motion of the
grinding cloth).

3.3.1 Medium Grinding

The specimens were ground on an abrasive cloth of average 80 grits


(average particle size of 1000m) to produce a reasonably flat surface. The
specimens were moved forward and backward (along the direction of the
arrow drawn) on the paper until their whole surface was covered with
unidirectional scratches. This process was done to remove rust layers,
imperfections and pits on the surface of the metal.

At times, the specimens heated up. They were then cooled by dipping
them in water, dried with tissues and put back on the polisher. At times,
sparks formed between the abrasive paper and the specimens.

3.3.2 Fine Grinding

The specimens were then ground on the next finer paper of 220 grits
(average particle size of 68m) such that the scratches produced were at
right angles to those formed by the previous paper (80 grits). The
specimens were moderately pressed against the rotating wheel for an
average of 15 mins while being held firmly. Water was continuously
sprayed on the polishing cloth. After 15mins, the specimen was washed
with soap, cleaned and examined under microscope for unidirectional
microstructural patterns (lines were observed). If certain uniformity was
found in the directions of the patterns produced, the specimen was taken
to the next finer paper. Small spots throughout the specimens were also
observed under the microscope but it was irrelevant at this stage of
grinding.

Considering only 1 specimen at a time from now on.

3.3.3 Super Fine Grinding

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Maintaining the same direction of the arrow as on the previous abrasive
paper, the grinding was continued on a finer paper of 500 grits (average
particle size of 20m) by pressing the specimen moderately against the
rotating surface of the cloth. After 15mins, the specimen was washed,
cleaned and examined under microscope. The ideal microstructure was
defined by patterns of fine lines in a single direction with minimum spots
throughout the specimen. And from the naked eye, no line were to be
visible and the workface should have started being reflective. These
conditions should have been visible to move to the Polishing
(ultrafine/finest) part.

The figure (Figure 3) below shows the apparatus used for the fine and
superfine grinding:

Figure 3 - Rotating wheels for superfine and fine grindings

3.4 Polishing

Due to the very small depth of field obtained from an optical microscope it
is essential that the surface is flat, in fact it needs to be optically flat,
acting as a perfect mirror. The specimen therefore had to be polished.

3.4.1 Ultrafine polishing

Two separate wheels were used, the first with a 6m diamond paste and
the second with a 1m diamond paste. The wheels were lubricated with an
organic liquid and water should not come into contact with these polishing
wheels. The 6 m diamond wheel was used first. The specimen was pressed

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down onto the lubricated rotating wheel. It is important not to hold the
specimen in one orientation for an extended time as it will cause
dragging of some microstructural components. For example, small
spherical particles can develop tail and look rather like a comet. To avoid
this, the specimen was oscillated about its vertical axis continuously. After
30 seconds the specimen was removed and rotated through 90 0 in the
hand (referring to the arrow drawn earlier), placed back on the wheel and
then again oscillated. This process was continued until the fine scratches
from the final paper had been removed.

The specimen and the hands, particularly finger nails, were thoroughly
washed to remove all traces of lubricant and the 6 m diamond paste. The
specimen were then rinsed in alcohol and dried. The above technique was
then repeated using the 1 m diamond wheel. After polishing on that
wheel, the surface was optically flat and looked like a mirror.

The above steps from superfine grinding to ultrafine polishing were


repeated for the remaining samples also. It must be noted much time was
spent on the whole process of polishing for specimen B (square specimen).

The figure (Figure 4) below shows the apparatus used for the ultrafine
polishing:

Figure 4 - Apparatus used for ultrafine polishing

3.5 Reaction which chemical reagents Etching

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Before etching the workpiece, the microstructure of the specimens were
observed under the optical microscope if desired standards of polishing
were met. If it was the case, the etching process was carried out; else the
ultrafine polishing was continued until the correct microstructural
observation was made. For specimens A and B, dilute acid (Nital 0.2%) was
used for etching process. The workface of the specimens were dipped in a
small quantity of etchant for 5 seconds and removed. Immediately after,
the specimens were rinsed with alcohol and dried with tissue followed by
furnace heating to evaporate all tiny drops of water.

For the specimen C, the workface was treated with concentrated acid. And
the above technic was adopted but with better precaution because of the
presence of concentrated acid.

3.6 Optical Microscopy

The etched workfaces for each experiment were then studied under the
optical microscope (Figure 1.1) equipped with 35mm camera.

3.7 Vickers Hardness Test

Finally, the specimens were brought on the Vickers Harness tester where a
load of 0.200kgf was applied on all the 3 specimens for a time of
15seconds. The respective lengths D of the diagonals of the indentation
formed by the application of the load to the surface of each specimen was
measured.

4. RESULTS

4.1 After polishing-phase

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Below are the finish products of the polishing phase of the Metallurgy
experiment:

Figure 5 - Polished Specimen A

Figure 6 - Polished Specimen B

Figure 7 - Polished Specimen C


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4.2 Photomicrographs of specimens after etching

Figure 8 - Photomicrograph for etched Specimen A

Figure 9 - Photomicrograph of etched Specimen B

Figure 10 - Photomicrographs of etched Specimen C

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4.3 Vickers Hardness Test

A load of 0.2kgf was applied on the specimens for 15seconds. It was


repeated on 3 different locations on the prepared surface of the material.
The diagonal of the microstructure obtained was measured and an average
was calculated. Based on this average, the Vickers Hardness Number was
determined using the Vickers test table of results.

4.3.1 Specimen A

Length of
Test No.
diagonal D / m
1 46.0
2 46.0
3 46.0
Average value of
46.0
diagonal
The Vickers Hardness number (VB) obtained from the tables for Specimen
A was 244.

4.3.2 Specimen B

Length of
Test No.
diagonal D / m
1 39.0
2 39.0
3 39.0
Average value of
39.0
diagonal
The Vickers Hardness number (VB) obtained from the tables for Specimen
A was 175.

4.3.3 Specimen C

Length of
Test No.
diagonal D / m
1 40.0
2 40.0
3 40.0
Average value of
40.0
diagonal
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The Vickers Hardness number (VB) obtained from the tables for Specimen
A was 232.

5. ANALYSIS

Comparing the composition of pearlite and ferrite for the different Specimens

Consider Specimen A

There are a few amounts of black dots which correspond to the pearlite as compared to the
light coloured phases (the ferrite). As previously explained, the amount of carbon in steel is
related to the amount of pearlite. Therefore it can be seen that specimen A is low in carbon.

Consider Specimen B

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Comparing specimen B with specimen A, it can be seen that specimen B has darker phases.
This implies that the composition of pearlite in specimen B is greater than in specimen A. We
can therefore conclude the presence of a high percentage of carbon.

Consider Specimen C

It can be seen that specimen C has almost no black dots and dark phases as compared to the
two other specimens. Specimen C, therefore, has very low carbon content.

6. PRECAUTIONS AND SAFETY MEASURES

Safety glasses/goggles were worn in all labs when any experiments


were running (especially those involving chemical substances and
flying/moving objects).
Rubber gloves were worn when dealing with any chemical. Also,
furnace-rated gloves were worn when dealing with furnaces.
Closed-toe shoes were required at all times in the lab.
During the polishing part of the experiment, no gloves were worn to
prevent it from getting entangled into the rotating wheel but also to
allow the user handle the specimens more carefully.
Watches and jewelries were not worn during the entire practical.

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PART B
1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 WHAT IS CORROSION?

Corrosion is degradation of materials properties due to interactions with


their environments.(Barbara Shaw, Robert Kelly, 2006)
The most prevalent form of corrosion in metals is rust.

1.2 HOW DOES RUSTING OCCUR?

Figure 1: Rust formation mechanism.(TutorVista.com,corrosion)

1. At anode, the Fe undergoes oxidation in the presence of O 2, giving


Fe Fe2++ 2e

2. The electrons are then taken up by the H+ ions to form Hydrogen


which in turn is oxidised to water.

(i) >2H++ 2e H2
(ii) >2H2+O2 2H2O

3. Multiplying (i) by 2 and combining (i) and (ii), we have:

O2+ 4H++ 4e 2H2O

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4. At cathode, the Oxygen may also accept electrons to give hydroxide
ions,

O2+H2O+4e 4OH-

The overall reaction becomes:

2Fe+O2+4H+ 2Fe2++2H2O

5. Finally, the Fe2+ reacts with oxygen to give ferrous oxide (rust).

4Fe2++O2+H2O 2Fe2O3 + 8H+

1.3 TYPES OF CORROSION:

Uniform corrosion
It wears out the whole surface of the metal and reduces its
thickness.

Galvanic corrosion
This occurs mostly in electrolytes, such as saltwater. If metals of
different electro negativities are placed in the electrolyte, there
will be a transfer of electron, and hence current, from the more
electronegative metal to the less electronegative one, causing
the one with the higher electronegativity to corrode faster.

Pitting corrosion
Metals with scratches or spots tend to experience this particular
type of corrosion whereby a hole or pit enacts as the anode
while the unimpaired part of the metal is the cathode. This leads
to a reduced thickness of the metal and may induce fatigue.

Stress corrosion cracking


Stresses induced to welding and heat treatment combined with
a corrosive environment are at the roots of this type of stress.

Corrosion fatigue
These crop up due to stress, environmental factors and the
presence of crevices or cracks in the material.

Intergranular corrosion
welding, heat treatments may cause corrosion to occur at the
grain boundaries, thus resulting in a metal having lower tensile
strength.
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Crevice corrosion
Closely similar to the pitting corrosion, this type of corrosion
occurs when corrosive liquids such as chlorides are trapped in
the gaps of the metal such that an anode develops at the
oxygen deprived region while the outside part of the material
acts as the cathode.

Filiform corrosion
Any irregularity in the protective coating of a metal is due to the
filaments of the corrosion product. The growing filaments do not
intersect with the dormant ones but when they do collide with
each other the metals surface starts looks dull.
Erosion corrosion
This occurs due to flow of corrosive liquids over the metal
surface.

Fretting corrosion
This usually results in the disappearance of the materials
surface due to fretting and corrosion.

1.4 WHAT IS CORROSION TESTING?

Corrosion testing is a form of testing whereby the degradation of a selected


material is done on purpose and under cautious supervision. The material
is put under different conditions which are close to its application and
every little change is noted and analysed. The information is then used to
during the designing of the product.

The types of tests that are conducted depend on the standard that is being
followed. Some of the mostly used standards are:

ASTM INTERNATIONAL
ISO STANDARDS
GMNA
and many more.

Here are some types of tests that are performed on materials, [ASTM,
2015]:

Electrochemical tests
Cabinet tests
Immersion testing
High temperature and high pressure testing
Atmospheric
Seawater
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Freshwater
Soils
Industrial applications
High temperature testing

Figure 1.1: Corrosion test site (Corrosion Test Facility Not As Rusty As Expected,
2015)

Corrosion tests are important in nearly every engineering application most


importantly involving metals. There are applications where corrosion has a
significant effect such as

Propeller for a boat or aircraft


Gears in machines
Internal steel bars in concrete
Metal bolts

Figure 1.2: Bars in concrete (Toward shock-proof infrastructure - National Research


Council Canada. 2015)
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Figure 1.3: Metal gears (Free stock photos, 2010)

2. PROCEDURE

The corrosion test experiment has been performed on the three specimens
A, B and C in order to differentiate between the three materials.

The specimens were left to corrode in air, in pure distilled water in


accordance to ASTM D2688 and in 5% NaCl solution in accordance to ASTM
B895.

1. The three specimens given are first cleaned according to the Practice
G1 Standard Practice for Preparing, Cleaning, and Evaluating
Corrosion Test Specimens.
Physical Cleaning: Using Abrasive Paper.
Chemical Cleaning: Using some specific reagents to remove
impurities.
2. The specimens were properly marked using a scriber.
3. Each specimen was cut into 3 parts, such that there were a total of 9
pieces. The values are tabulated in the tables below.

Samples subscripted with 1 (X1) were tested for corrosion in normal


conditions (atmospheric temperature, pressure, relative humidity etc.).
Those subscripted with 2 (X2) were observed for corrosion under distilled
water. Finally those subscripted with 3 (X 3) were treated with a solution of
NaCl and water of known concentration.

Length, width and thickness of the samples were measured using ruler and
Vernier calliper where better accuracy was needed.

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Avera
Sample A1 A2 A3
ge
Length / cm 11 11 11
Width / cm 9.8 9.8 9.8
Surface 107. 107.
107.8
Area/cm 8 8
Thickness t /cm 0.07 0.07 0.07
7.54 7.54
volume/cm3 7.546
6 6
52.3 52.1
Initial Mass / g 52.6
3 7
6.93 6.91
Density/g/cm3 6.971 6.940
5 4
Table 1.1: Density of sample A

Avera
Sample B1 B2 B3
ge
Length / cm 11.8 10.8 7.5
Width / cm 7.5 7.5 8.5
Surface
88.5 81.0 63.8
Area/cm
Thickness t /cm 0.03 0.03 0.03
volume/cm3 2.66 2.43 1.91
18.4 15.3
Initial Mass / g 15.37
1 8
6.93 8.04
Density/g/cm3 6.325 7.100
4 1
Table 1.1: Density of sample B

Avera
Sample C1 C2 C3
ge
Length / cm 5.3 5.1 5.3
Width / cm 5.1 4.9 5.0
Surface
27.0 25.0 26.5
Area/cm
Thickness t /cm 0.09 0.09 0.09
volume/cm3 2.43 2.25 2.39
Initial Mass / g 18.6 17.36 18.6

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8 2
7.67 7.80
Density/g/cm3 7.719 7.735
9 7
Table 1.1: Density of sample C

4. The test apparatus was then prepared in accordance to ASTM B895,


that is, each test specimen would be placed in a glass jar with the
solution (water or 5% NaCl) of volume in mL five times the mass of
the specimen in g. The distance from the surface of the test bars to
the top of the solution has been kept to 25 mm.

Figure 1.4: The experimental set-up for immersion testing in accordance with ASTM B895

5. The jars were then tightly closed and the date and time of test was
recorded.
6. The test specimens were examined after 7days intervals.
7. The specimens were properly cleaned using tissues paper to prevent
loss of the material. The change in mass was then recorded.
8. The test solution was renewed after the 7 days intervals.
9. The values after each examination of the specimens are tabulated in
the table 1.2. The corrosion rates after each week were also recorded
in the table.

Corrosion Rate = (K*W)/ (A*T*D)

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K = 8.76 *107 m/y

W = mass loss in grams

A = area in cm

T = time of exposure in hours

D = density in g/cm3

Corrosion
Mass loss
Mass loss

Mass loss
Condition

Initia Corrosion
Sample

Week 2
Week 1

Week 3
Rate
l Rate
mass
/g
52.2 0.0 52.2 0.0 52.2 0.0
A1 52.33 34.87 27.90
8 5 4 4 0 4
18.4 0.0 18.3 0.0 18.2 0.0
AIR B1 18.41 8.50 42.49
0 1 5 5 8 7
18.6 18.6 18.6
C1 18.68 0 0 0 0 0
8 8 8
52.4 0.1 52.2 0.1 52.1 0.1
A2 52.60 124.90 104.08
2 8 7 5 3 4
15.3 0.0 15.2 0.0 15.1 0.0
WATER B2 15.37 40.71 91.60
3 4 4 9 6 8
17.3 17.3 17.3
C2 17.36 0 0 0 0 0
6 6 6
52.1 0.0 51.9 0.1 51.8 0.1
A3 52.17 48.97 76.96
0 7 9 1 6 3
5% 15.3 0.0 15.2 0.0 15.1 0.0
B3 15.38 81.31 71.15
NaCl 0 8 3 7 4 9
18.6 18.6 18.6
C3 18.62 0 0 0 0 0
2 2 2

3. RESULTS

Table 1.2: Tabulated result for the corrosion immersion test and corrosion
rate

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Corrosion Rate for the different Specimens when placed in air
70

60

50

40 A1
Corrosion Rate B1
30
C1

20

10

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

Weeks

Corrosion Rate for the different Specimens when placed in distilled water
140

120

100

80 A2
Corrosion Rate B2
60
C2
40

20

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

Weeks

31 | P a g e
Corrosion Rate for the different Specimens when placed in 5% NaCl
100

90

80

70

60
A3
50 B3
Corrosion Rate
40 C3

30

20

10

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

Weeks

Corrosion test in air

From the start of the experiment up to about week 1.5, the corrosion rate
for specimen A was greater than that for B. Beyond that point, the
corrosion rate for Specimen B became the greatest.

The Specimen C does not corrode in air.

Maximum Corrosion rate recorded = 60

Corrosion test in water

The Specimen A corrodes faster and/or to a greater extent than the


specimen B.

The Specimen C does not corrode in water.

Maximum Corrosion rate recorded = 130

Corrosion test in 5% NaCl

Corrosion rate for specimen B was greater than that for specimen A from
the start of the experiment up to week 1.8 and from week 3 to week 4.

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Between week 1.8 and week 3, the corrosion rate for specimen A was
greater than that for specimen B.

The Specimen C does not corrode in 5% NaCl. Maximum Corrosion rate


recorded = 90

4. CONCLUSION

Specimen A

From the microstructure, it has been found that it has low carbon
content.

The Vickers hardness number, being 175, confirms that fact that the
specimen A is a low carbon mild steel.

Specimen B

The microstructures together with the high value for the Vickers
hardness number (244) show that the specimen B is a high carbon
mild steel with a higher carbon content than specimen A.

Specimen C

The specimen C having a relatively low hardness value (232) confirms


the presence of carbon in a very low amount.

Furthermore, the corrosion rate is zero in all the three conditions


tested.

The Specimen C is stainless steel

33 | P a g e
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