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Geology 101 (2015 - 2016)

Lithosphere and internal


part of the Earth
Dr. Maryam Al-Mulla

- The Earth consists from multiple parts includes: Earth crust, mantle
and core.

- How the scientists identified the internal parts of Earth????

The scientists managed to know these parts of the lithosphere through:


1- the use of geophysical methods especially a geophysical analysis
process. 2- In addition to field study for collect information and 3-
analyze the rocks and the products of volcanic activity, which reflects
the nature of the materials contained in the ground.

- Different methods and ways were used to study the inside


composition of the Earth. The physical studies depended on the 1)
physical properties of the land such as: heat, gravity, magnetism,
pressure, density in addition to 2) geophysical measurements by using
advanced devices sensitive, and 3) analyzed the results of the physical
studies.

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Seismic waves

Body waves
Surface waves

Rayleigh waves Love


waves

Primary waves (p) Secondary waves

(Compressibility waves) (S-waves or Transverse)

Seismic waves
What is seismic waves??

- Seismic waves are waves of energy that travel through the Earth and
are a result of earthquakes, volcanos or explosions, and there are two
types of seismic waves: body waves and surface waves.

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Type of Seismic waves
-There are two types of seismic waves: 1- body waves and

2-surface waves, which are characterized by different properties. These


different seismic waves are exploited to identify the parts of the Earth.

1- Body waves: Body waves are similar to the refraction of light waves,
travel through the interior parts of the Earth and they refracted
affected by the varying of density and solidity of the Earth's
composition. In turn, the density and solidity of the Earth vary
according to temperature and type of composition.

The body waves included Primary waves (p) and Secondary waves (s).

(1)- Primary waves (P-waves) or Compressibility waves

- What is the important characteristics of primary waves???

- There are areas in the Earth, are not affected by the Seismic
waves, if the earthquake happened, why??

Primary waves are type of Body waves, and it is longitudinal waves,


working such as sound waves, where spreading in form of consecutive
pulses in the direction of wave propagation and can penetrate the
fluids. They are fast waves, therefore they are the first waves that
reach to a recorder. The Primary waves (compressibility) wave breaking
and reflecting at the border between the core and mantel of the Earth
and this is the reason that there are areas in the Earth, are not affected
by the compressibility waves, if the earthquake happened, because
the waves are not reach to these locations of the land.

-2) Secondary waves (S-waves or Transverse):

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These waves are type of Body waves and typically follow P waves
during an earthquake, perpendicular to the direction of propagation
and works such as electromagnetic waves. Their speed is less than the
speed of the P waves, accordingly reaches to recording equipment
after the compressibility waves, and these waves can- not penetrated
liquids.

3) Surface waves: are analogous to water waves and travel along the
Earth's surface at shallow depth, short waves, usually non-
homogeneous, relatively slow; reach to recording devices after the
compressibility waves and Transverse waves. Because of their low
frequency, long duration and large amplitude, they can be the most
destructive type of seismic wave. There are two types of surface
waves: Rayleigh waves and Love waves.

- Why the surface waves are the most destructive seismic


wave??

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Seismograph
The device that used to record seismic waves is seismograph and it
logs the intensity of the waves and the time that take to reach to the
device or registration center.

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Parts of the Earth

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- What is the crust?

; Is it found in the land and oceans; what is the different between the crust
in the land and in the oceans?

1- Earth Crust

- The earth's crust: is the external solid cover, surrounded the mantel and
extends to a depth of about 100 km. The thickness of the crust in
continental regions is thicker than in the oceans areas, where the estimated
thickness of the crust in areas of continents between 20-60 km, and the
thickness average in the areas of the plains and flat areas about 20 km,
whereas it in the mountainous areas about 60 km. The thick under the
ocean ranges between 6-10 km, and less than 2km are disjoint sediments

Rocks & Elements of Earth Crust


- In general, the earth's crust consists of a group of different rocks including:
igneous , sedimentary and metamorphic rocks in addition to minerals and
economic materials raw. The rocks containing minerals and most of them
are silicate minerals in addition to eight elements are: O - Mg - K - Na - Ca
Fe - Al - Si and these elements accounted for 99% of the elements of the
earth's crust.

Oxygen is the most element prevalent, where it forms about (46.60) of the
amount of other elements combined. It is important for plants and different
neighborhoods that live in the soil. Also, it united with many elements to be
different metals in the earth's crust.

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Rocks of continental and oceanic crust
- The rocks of the continental crust are different than the rocks of the
oceanic crust; the rocks of the continental crust dominated acidic granite
whereas the composition of rocks of the oceanic crust is basaltic (basal).

- Continental crust consists mostly of rocks rich in silicon, aluminum, and


know sial" relative to the aluminum and silicon elements" and the average
of its rocks density is 2.7g/cm3. The oceanic crust consists of rocks rich in
silicon and magnesium and called sima relative to the silicon and
magnesium elements and the average density of its rocks is 3g/cm3.

- The silicon and aluminum are form the basic elements for quartz and
feldspar formation, which was very abundant in the granite rocks which is
the main component of the Earth crust rocks, whereas magnesium is one of
the basic components of the minerals in the rocks of basalt and gabbro,
which make up the oceanic crust.

-The continental crust is less dense than oceanic crust and the reason
is that the continental crust is generally acidic igneous rocks of low
density whereas the oceanic crust generally consists of basal igneous
rocks and of high density.

Geological processes that happen in the Earth crust


- All the external geological processes such as weathering, erosion and
deposition in addition to the internal processes such as earthquakes,
volcanoes are occurs in the earth's crust. The internal processes are caused
the formation of mountain ranges and plateaus, valleys and depressions.

The reason for the internal operations of the earth's crust is because the
crust composed of several rocky layers, moving in certain directions on
elastic bed and when they converge these plates collide and earthquakes
and volcanoes occur.

2- Mantle
- Present below the earth's crust, extends at depth from 100 - 3000 km. It
consists of two layers:

1- External mantle: and forms a top-level which extends to a depth of 1300


km (100-1300km) and consists of rocks of density about 3.5 g /cm3 .

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2- Internal mantle: extending to the core of the earth at a depth of 3000 km
(1300-3000km) and consists of rocks of high density up to 6 g /cm3, which
is rich in sulfur mineral such as galena, pyrite and chalcopyrite, and
considered one of the largest rocks that included huge amount of economic
sulfur ore.

- Centrosphere (core):
- The core starts at a depth of 3000km and extends until the center of the
Earth. It mainly composed of iron and nickel with some elements, and the
intensity of the core more than
12 g /cm3.
The core of the earth was divided into two sections according to the seismic
measurements; each one characterized by different properties, namely: 1)
the external nucleus; and consists of molten iron and nickel with a small
percentage of silicon and sulfur of up 20%. The remaining 80% are of iron
and nickel, and extends to 5140 km depth. 2) The inner solid core; which
extending to the center of the earth. The density of the inner core 13g/cm3
and the pressure reaches to up 218 000 kg/cm3.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seismic_wave

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithosphere

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http://www.answers.com/topic/lithosphere

http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/chapter10.html

_____________________________________________________________________________

Principles of general Geology


Training No. 6 (2016 - 2017)
Dr. Mariam Al- Mulla

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Answer the following Questions

Q1- How the scientists identified the internal parts of Earth?

Q2- What is the important characteristics of surface waves?

Q3- What is a definition of seismic waves?

Q4- Why there are areas in the Earth, are not affected by the Seismic waves,
if the earthquake happened?

Q6- Why the surface waves are the most destructive seismic wave?

Q7- What is the difference between:-

1- Body waves and surface waves,

2- Primary waves (p) and Secondary waves (s).

3- External mantle and internal mantle.

4- External core and internal core.

5- Rocks of the continental crust and rocks of oceanic crust.

6- Earth crust in the continental and earth crust in the oceans.

Q8- There are two types of seismic waves; these are:

1-
2-

Q9- There are two types of body waves these are: and two types of
surface waves; these are:

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1- 1-

2- 2-

Q10- The lithosphere of the Earth consists of multiple parts includes:-

1-
2-
3-

Q11- Seismograph device is used to record seismic waves. It logs the:-

1-
2-

Q12- The important characteristics of primary waves:

1-
2-
3-
4-
5-

Q13- The important characteristics of Secondary waves:-

1-
2-
3-
4-

Q14- The lithosphere of the Earth consists from multiple parts includes:-

1-

2-

3-

Q15- Select the most correct statement regarding the stratosphere:-

a-
- The continental crust is denser than oceanic crust.

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- The oceanic crust is denser than continental crust.
- The dense of continental crust is similar to the dense of oceanic crust.

b-
- The continental crust is thicker than the oceanic crust.
- The oceanic crust is thicker than the continental crust.
- The thick of continental crust is similar to the thick of oceanic crust.

Q16- Correct the following statements:-


- The composition of rocks of the oceanic crust is dominated acidic granite.

- The thickness of Earth crust in the oceans is thicker than the thickness in
the
Continental.

- The density of the rocks in the continental crust is higher than the density
of the rocks in the ocean.

- The range of the thickness of the crust in continental regions is 6-10km


whereas it is between 20 60 km in the oceans.

- The internal core is rich in sulfur mineral such as galena, pyrite and
chalcopyrite.

Q17- Complete the following blanks with suitable words.

1- The most destructive type of seismic waves


is.

2- The device that used to record seismic waves is


..

3- The most element prevalent in the rocks of the crust is..and it


forms about..of the amount of the other elements.

4- Continental crust consists mostly of rocks rich in , ., and


called . and the oceanic crust consists of rocks rich in and
..and called .

5- The average of the density of the rocks of crust in the Continental is


and it is .of the rocks of the ocean crust.

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http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0072402466/student_view0/
chapter17/multiple_choice_quiz.html

1- The inner core is most likely composed of:

A) silicon.

B) oxygen.

C) sulfur.

D) iron.

2- The S-wave shadow zone is evidence that:

A) the outer core is liquid.

B) the outer core is composed of iron and nickel oxides.

C) the inner core is solid.

D) it is very hot near the core.

3- The largest portion of Earth's volume is:

A) the crust.

B) the mantle.

C) the inner core.

D) the outer core.

4- The average thickness of the crust is:

A) 10-12 km.

B) 30-50 km.

C) 100-150 km.

D) 1 km.

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http://reviewgamezone.com/mc/candidate/test/?
test_id=12790&title=Layers%20Of%20The%20Earth

1- Which layer is made up of liquid iron?


a- inner core
b- mantle
c- crust
d-outer core

2- All of the following elements are commonly found in Earths crust EXCEPT
a- oxygen
b- calcium
c- iron
d- silicon

3- Complete this sentence: As you go deeper inside the Earth


a- it gets hotter, materials get denser and pressure increases

b- the temperature increases, but the pressure decreases

c- it gets cooler, drier, and easier to travel

d- the temperature stays the same, but the pressure increases

4- Which of the following statements is NOT true about continental


crust?

a- It is thicker and less dense than oceanic crust.

b- It is up to 100km thick.

c- It can be found beneath the ocean.

d- If forms the continents.

5- What is the heat source for convection currents?

a- mantle

b- crust

c- inner core

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d- asthenosphere

6- Which layer is made up of mostly oxygen and silicon?

a- core

b- mantle

c- lithosphere

d- asthenosphere

http://reviewgamezone.com/mc/candidate/test/?
test_id=13885&title=Layers%20Of%20The%20Earth

1- Which Layer of Earth is directly below the crust?

a- mesosphere

b- outer core

c- inner core

d- mantle

2- The instrument that measures and records earthquake waves is


the...

a- seismograph

b- Richter scale

c- barograph

d- spectrograph

3- Scientists believe that _______________________.

a- Earth's core is made up primarily of iron and nickel

b- Earth's stratosphere is made up primarily of iron and nickel

c- Earth's matle is made up promarily of iron and nickel

d- Earth's crust is make up primarily of iron and nickel

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4- What is the correct order of the layers of Earth

a- lithosphere, upper and lower mantle, asthenosphere, outer and inner core

b- outer and inner core, upper and lower mantle, lithosphere, asthenosphere

c- lithosphere, asthenosphere, upper and lower mantle, outer and inner core

d- upper and lower mantle, lithosphere, asthenosphere, outer and inner core

5- Geologist study Earth's interior using:

a- seismic waves

b- large drills

c- X-rays

d- manned probes

6- The crust and upper mantle of the Earth are together known as
the ___________.

a- hydrosphere

b- lithosphere

c- biosphere

d- atosphere

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