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ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline

Engineering

Lecture 16: Bottom Roughness

Shawn Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.


Assistant Professor
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science
Memorial University of Newfoundland
spkenny@engr.mun.ca
Lecture 16 Objective
to examine engineering analysis methods
to evaluate pipeline mechanical response
with respect to bottom roughness

2 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 16
On-Bottom
Roughness
Mechanical Design Calculation
Input
Pipeline configuration
Seabed roughness (profile)
Pipeline heading alignment
Load Cases
As-laid
Flooded
Hydrotest
Operations
Output
Pipeline stress & strain response
Span length & height
Pre-lay & post-lay
intervention assessment
Ref: Hansen (2005), Langley (2005)

3 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 16
On-Bottom Roughness (cont.)
Mechanical Analysis
Internal pressure, axial load,
and moment
Moment
Bending
Effective
Force
Depth
Water

4 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 16
On-Bottom Roughness (cont.)
Design Criteria and Code Checks?

5 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 16
Pipeline Span
Free Body
Diagram
Location
of maximum
stress?

Ref: Mousselli (1981)

6 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 16
Pipeline Span (cont.) Ref: Mousselli (1981)

Maximum
Stress, m

7 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 16
Pipeline Span (cont.) Ref: Mousselli (1981)

Midspan
Stress, o

8 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 16
Pipeline Span (cont.) Ref: Mousselli (1981)

Midspan
Deflection,

9 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 16
Pipeline Span (cont.) Ref: Mousselli (1981)

Induced
Span, l

10 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 16
Example 16-01
For the following pipeline system,
calculate the maximum stress, midspan
stress, midspan deflection and induced
span length for an observed span length of
155m and an effective residual lay tension
of 85kN.

11 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 16
EN 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 15 Winter 2008
Example 15-01

Example 16-01

Calculate themaximum stress, midspan stress, midspan deflection and induced span length.

DEFINED UNITS
6 3 9 3
MPa := 10 Pa kPa := 10 Pa GPa := 10 Pa C := K kN := 10 N

PIPELINE SYSTEM PARAMETERS

Nominal Outside Diameter Do := 609.6mm


Initial Selection Nominal Wall Thickness (Sec.5 C203 Table 5-3) tnom := 22.2mm
External Corrosion Protection Coating Thickness tcpc := 0mm
Fabrication Process (Sec.7 B300 Table 7-1) [SMLS, HFW, SAW] FAB := "SMLS"
Corrosion Allowance (Sec.6 D203) tcorr := 3mm
Elastic Modulus E := 205GPa
Specified Minimum Yield Stress (Sec.7 B300 Table 7-5) SMYS := 450MPa
Speciifed Minimum Tensile Stress (Sec.7 B300 Table 7-5) SMTS := 535MPa
5 1
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion T := 1.15 10 C
Poisson's Ratio := 0.3
Pipeline Route Length Lp := 25km
3
Linepipe Density s := 7850kg m
Concrete Coating Thickness tc := 0mm
3
Concrete Coating Density c := 3050kg m
Effective Tension Teff := 85kN

OPERATATIONAL PARAMETERS

API Gravity API := 38


Product Contents Density
3 141.5 3
cont := 1000 kg m cont = 835 m kg
131.5 + API

Design Pressure (Gauge) Pd := 10MPa


Safety Class (Sec.2 C200-C400) [L, M, H] SC := "M"
Design Pressure Reference Level h ref := 10m
Temperature Differential T := 45 C
Maximum Water Depth h l := 1000m
3
Seawater Density w := 1025kg m
3
Hydrotest Fluid Density t := 1025kg m

3/6/2008 Page 1 of 5
EN 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 15 Winter 2008
Example 15-01

DNV OS-F101 PARTIAL FACTORS AND DESIGN PARAMETERS

System Operations Incidental/Design Pressure Factor (Sec.3 B304) inc_o := 1.10


System Test Incidental/Design Pressure Factor (Sec.3 B304) inc_t := 1.00
Material Resistance Factor (Sec.5 C205 Table 5-4) m := 1.15
Safety Class Resistance Factor (Sec.5 C206 Table 5-5) SC := 1.138
Material Strength Factor (Sec.5 C306 Table 5-6) U := 0.96
Maximum Fabrication Factor (Sec.5 C307 Table 5-7)
fab := 1.00 if FAB = "SMLS" fab = 1.00
0.93 if FAB = "HFW"
0.85 if FAB = "SAW"

Diameter Fabrication Tolerance(Sec.7 G200 Table 7-17)


Do := max( 0.5mm , 0.0075 Do) if FAB = "SMLS" Do 610mm Do = 4.572 mm
0.01 Do if FAB = "SMLS" Do > 610mm
min( max( 0.5mm , 0.0075 Do) , 3.2mm) if FAB = "HFW" Do 610mm
min( 0.005 Do , 3.2mm) if FAB = "HFW" Do > 610mm
min( max( 0.5mm , 0.0075 Do) , 3.2mm) if FAB = "SAW" Do 610mm
min( 0.005 Do , 3.2mm) if FAB = "SAW" Do > 610mm

Wall Thickness Fabrication Tolerance(Sec.7 G307 Table 7-18)


tfab := 0.5mm if FAB = "SMLS" tnom 4mm tfab = 2.775 mm
0.125 tnom if FAB = "SMLS" tnom > 4mm
0.125 tnom if FAB = "SMLS" tnom 10mm
0.100 tnom if FAB = "SMLS" tnom 25mm
3mm if FAB = "SMLS" tnom 30mm
0.4mm if FAB = "HFW" tnom 6mm
0.7mm if FAB = "HFW" tnom > 6mm
1.0mm if FAB = "HFW" tnom > 15mm
0.5mm if FAB = "SAW" tnom 6mm
0.7mm if FAB = "SAW" tnom > 6mm
1.0mm if FAB = "SAW" tnom > 10mm
1.0mm if FAB = "SAW" tnom > 20mm

3/6/2008 Page 2 of 5
EN 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 15 Winter 2008
Example 15-01

Material Derating (Sec.5 C300 Figure 2)


SMYS := 0MPa if T < 50C SMYS = 0.00 MPa
( T 50 C) 30MPa if 50 C < T < 100C

50 C
30MPa + ( T 100 C) 40MPa otherwise

100 C

SMTS := 0MPa if T < 50C SMYS = 0.00 MPa


( T 50 C) 30MPa if 50 C < T < 100C

50 C
30MPa + ( T 100 C) 40MPa otherwise

100 C

fy := ( SMYS SMYS ) U fy = 432 MPa

fu := ( SMTS SMTS) U fu = 514 MPa

ENGINEERING ANALYSIS

PIPELINE GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES


Inside Pipeline Diameter (Operations Case)
Di_o := Do 2. tcorr 2. tfab Di_o = 598.05 mm

Inside Pipeline Radius (Operations Case)


Ri_o := 0.5 Di_o Ri_o = 299.02 mm

Effective Outside Pipeline Diameter


De := Do + 2. tcpc + 2. tc De = 609.60 mm

Pipeline Steel Area

Do ( Do 2 tnom)
2 2 4 2
Ast := Ast = 4.10 10 mm
4

Concrete Area

( Do + 2 tc) Do
2 2 2
Ac := Ac = 0.00 mm
4

Effective Outside Pipeline Area

( Do + 2 tc)
2 5 2
Ae := Ae = 2.92 10 mm
4

Inside Pipeline Area


2 5 2
Ai := Di_o Ai = 2.81 10 mm
4

3/6/2008 Page 3 of 5
EN 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 15 Winter 2008
Example 15-01

Pipelne Steel Moment of Inertia

Do Di_o
4 4 4 4
Ist := Ist = 4.99 10 m
64

BUOYANCY FORCE (per meter basis)


BF := g m ( w Ae c Ac s Ast) BF = 0.22 kN

Buoyancy Force Check


BFchk := "NEGATIVE BUOYANCY" if BF < 0 BFchk = "NEGATIVE BUOYANCY"
"FLOTATION" otherwise
External Hydrostatic Pressure
Pe := w g h l Pe = 10.05 MPa

DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS (Mousselli, 1981)


Characteristic Length
1
3
E Ist
Lc := Lc = 77.5 m
1
BF
m

Characteristic Stress

E ( 0.5 Do)
c := c = 806 MPa
Lc

Dimensionless Tension

Teff
T_eff := T_eff = 5.0
1
BF Lc
m

Dimensionless Span

155m
LL_Lc := LL_Lc = 2.00
Lc

MAXIMUM BENDING STRESS


Dimensionless Bending Stress Factor m_c := 0.19
Maximum Bending Stress
max := m_c c max = 153 MPa

3/6/2008 Page 4 of 5
EN 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 15 Winter 2008
Example 15-01

MIDSPAN BENDING STRESS


Dimensionless Bending Stress Factor o_c := 0.11
Midspan Bending Stress
mid := o_c c mid = 89 MPa

MIDSPAN DEFLECTION
Dimensionless Deflection Factor _Lc := 0.0375
Midspan Deflection
mid := _Lc Lc mid = 2.9 m

INDUCED SPAN DEFLECTION


Dimensionless Induced Span Factor l_Lc := 0.82
Midspan Deflection
ind := l_Lc Lc ind = 63.5 m

EQUIVALENT STRESS CHECK


2 2
eq := h h l + l eq = MPa

eqchk := "EQUIVALENT STRESS OK" if eq < 0.9 SMYS


eqchk =
"INCREASE WALL THICKNESS" otherwise

3/6/2008 Page 5 of 5
Pipeline Obstruction
Free Body Diagram

Ref: Mousselli (1981)

17 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 16
Pipeline Obstruction (cont.) Ref: Mousselli (1981)

Span, L

18 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 16
Pipeline Obstruction (cont.) Ref: Mousselli (1981)

Maximum
Stress, m

19 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 16
References
Chaudhuri, J and Nash, I. (2005). Medgaz: the ultra-
deep pipeline. Pipeline World, June, 10p.
DNV (2007). Submarine Pipeline Systems. Offshore
Standard, DNV OS-F101, October 2007, 240p.
Hansen, B. (2005). How Hydros Ormen Lange Project
Can Contribute to the Development of the Russian
Arctic. Proc., IBC Arctic Oil and Gas Development
Conference, Challenges and Opportunities The
Technology Solution, London, UK.
Langley, D. (2005). A Resourceful Industry Lands the
Serpent, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 57(10), 6p.
Mousselli, A. (1981). Offshore pipeline design, analysis
and methods. ISBN 0-87814-156-1

20 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 16