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Hexactinellida -- glass Anthozoa -- corals and Turbellaria -- free-living or Polychaetes -- Gastopods -- snails and slugs Asteroidea -- starfish Trilobitomorpha -- tribolites (extinct) Urochordata -- tunicates
(siliceous) sponges sea anemones symbiotic flatworms (Dugusia) segmented
Groups Demospongia -- spongin Hydrazoa -- hydras, some corals Trematoda -- flukes (parasitic) bristleworms
Bivalves -- clams, scallops,
mussels Cephalopods -- squid,
Echinoidea -- sea urchins,
sand dollars
Arachnida -- spiders, scorpions
Cephalochordata -- lancelets
Mixini -- hagfish
(organisms studied in detail or siliceous sponges Cubozoa -- box jellyfish, sea Cestoda -- tapeworms (parasitic) Oligochaetes -- earthworms Holothuroidea -- sea cucumbers Xiphosura -- horseshoe crabs
octopus, Petromyzontida -- lamprey
in Bio1AL are underlined) Calcarea -- calcareous sponges (Lumbricus) Mandibulata
wasps Scyphozoa -- jellyfish, sea Monogenea -- parasitic nautilus Ophiuroidea -- brittle stars Chondrichtyes -- sharks, skates
Scleropongiae -- coralline or Hirudinea -- leeches Crustacea -- crustaceans (shrimp, crayfish
nettles flatworms Polyplacophora -- chitons Crinoidea -- sea lily, feather Actinipterygia -- ray-finned fish
tropical reef sponges Hexapoda -- insects (cockroach, fruit fly)
stars Sarcopterygia -- lobed-finned fish
Amphibia (frog, newt)
Chilopoda -- centipedes
Diplopoda -- millipedes Reptilia (snake, turtle)
Aves (chicken, hummingbird)
Mammalia (human, rat)
Hexapoda Crustacea

Asymmetrical or radial Bilateral Bilateral Bilateral

Symmetry Radial, about the axis of the

mouth surface
Bilateral Radial; but larvae bilateral

No Coelom No Coelom No Coelom True coelom Well-developed coelom Well-developed Well-developed coelom Well-developed Well-developed coelom

Coelom and Body Specialized cells (including chaonocytes

and amoebocytes), but lack true tissues
Specialized cells organized
into tissues
Have true organs, with solid mass of
mesodermal parenchyma cells
Metamerism - repetition of body parts
(hearts, nephridia, reproductive
coelom coelom

Organization Canal system of pores Lack organs surrounding organs organs)

Septa separate segments (somites)

No true germ Two germ layers: Three germ layers: Three germ layers: Three germ layers: Three germ layers: Three germ layers: Three germ layers: Three germ layers:
Germ Layers and layers Two cell
Ectoderm becomes
epidermis Endoderm
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm ecto-, meso-, endo- ecto-, meso-, endoderm ecto-, meso-, ecto-, meso-, ecto-, meso-, endoderm ecto-, meso-, endoderm

Development Pinacocytes form outer cells of

epidermis Chaonocytes line inner
becomes inner
Protostome Protostome endoderm Deuterostome endoderm Protostome Protostome Deuterostome
cavities Two stages in the life cycle: free- Can be hemimetabolous (like
Cell layers separated by gel swimming medusa stage and the cockroach) or
layer called mesenchyme sessile polyp stage holometabolous (like fruit fly)
Respiratory Diffusion
Diffusion Use hemoglobin as respiratory pigment
dissolved in blood (no red blood
Sinuses collect hemolymph and
transport to ctenidia for gas exchange
Gases diffuse via dermal branchiae;
soluble wastes released by simple
Air enters lateral spiracles,
through trachea, into
Gills; use blood to
transport O2 and CO2;
Gills, functionally replaced by lungs
in higher vertebrates; use blood to

system cells) diffusion across surface epithelium tracheoles throughout

body; no respiratory
respiratory pigment in
plasma is hemocyanin
transport O2 and CO2; respiratory
pigment is hemoglobin
Gastrovascular cavity (GVC) pigment
Open circulatory system; hemocyanin
Circulatory Open circulatory system; poorly-defined Open circulatory system; Closed circulatory system (except
Gastrovascular cavity (GVC) dissolved in plasma; lymphocytes
Closed circulatory system (blood channels in coelomic cavity; lack Open circulatory system; dorsal heart arteries tissue cephalo- and uro-); ventral two-
Specialized cells called chaonocytes present; a few bivalves and gastropods
system contain flagella that produce a current
moving water through pores in body
Cilia lining cavity move fluid
and food
contained within vessels);
dorsal blood vessel and ring-like use hemoglobin and have erythrocytes;
dorsal heart beats rhythmically to
heart; cilia associated with water
vascular system circulate coelomic
vessel carries hemolymph
anteriorly, into cavities
sinuses gills
pericardial sinus
to four-chambered heart (except
cephalo- and uro-); respiratory
hearts contract rhythmically fluid surrounding organs, then return to heart pigment is hemocyanin (cephalo-
create pressure; hemolymph forced into flows posteriorly and back and uro-) or hemoglobin
aorta and carried into tissues by open into dorsal vessel
Hydraulic skeleton - gastrovascular vessels
Skeletal Diverse skeletal elements
Mesoglea: space between epidermis
and gastrodermis; filled with
fluid; longitudinal and circular muscles
Hydraulic skeleton - coelomic Hard exoskeleton; outer organic layer Calcareous endoskeleton made up of Chitinous exoskeleton
Chitinous exoskeleton (with
some calcium carbonate)
Bony or cartilaginous

system cavity filled with fluid rests on layers of calcium carbonate; small plates joined by connective secreted by underlying secreted by underlying
depending on type, extracellular matrix. Functions like epidermis; limits
including calcareous endoskeleton, but is not considered exoskeleton reduced or absent in most tissue epidermis; limits growth;
cephalopods growth; requires molting requires molting
laminae, organic filaments, cellular layer
and siliceous and calcium Organized like a ladder with two lateral
Extensive cephalization; dorsal,
Nervous carbonate spicules
Primitive; forms irregular net
cords connected by transverse
cords; some cephalization with Cephalization; suprapharyngeal Limited cephalization, except Extensive cephalization; Extensive cephalization; double, hollow nerve cord; often

system No cephalization or specialized Responds to stimuli in a ganglia (in somite 3) connects to cephalopods, which have giant nerve No cephalization; nerves distributed flattened, double, ventral ventral nerve cord; ganglia protected by vertebrae
sensory, association, and motor
sensory cells coordinated ventral nerve cord; nerves branch out cells, complex sensory system with throughout arms and central disk; no nerve cord; ganglia along along length of cord
neurons; pigmented eyespots but no
fashion (outer tentacle engulf to adjacent tissues image forming eyes and complex special sense organs (except starfish length of cord have strand-like
while inner tentacles contract behavior and brittle stars have light-sensing eyes nerves branching outward
Limited sensory capabilities; on end of each arm Complete; including in rat:
Digestive no cephalization GVC consists of mouth,
pharynx, and three branched Complete (both mouth and anus); Complete; including crop Short esophagus; large, two- pharynx with three regions,

system includes pharynx, esophagus with Complete; specialized for filtering Mouth on oral surface leads to cardiac and gizzard (with chitinized chambered stomach: anterior esophagus, stomach, small
Suspension feeders Tentacles used to gather food intestines; pharynx extends
calciferous glands, crop, gizzard, small food particles from water stomach (everted during feeding), then teeth) in foregut, digestive cardiac chamber with gastric intestine with three regions,
Specialized cells called chaonocytes GVC functions in food distribution and through mouth during feeding
and intestine to pyloric stomach with hepatic (gastric) ceca in midgut, mill (with chitinized teeth), and liver, pancreas, cecum,
contain flagella that produce a current digestion; gastrodermis lines cavity and secrete digestive
Cilia lining ctenidia draw water into mantle (digestive, pyloric) ceca extending into ileum, colon, rectum in pyloric chamber; large large intestine
through pores in body; chaonocytes and has glands that secrete enzymes; muscular
cavity through incurrent siphon; from each arm; short intestine with out- hindgut digestive glands beneath
ingest food by phagocytosis proteases contractions of pharynx
mantle, labial palps direct food to branching rectal ceca leads from stomach release enzymes into
Specialized amoebocytes distribute food Nutritive muscular cells form pull food into mouth
mouth; esophagus, stomach, digestive pyloric stomach to anus on aboral gut
throughout body pseudopods that engulf partially
glands; waste exits anus into excurrent surface
digested food and transport them to
vacuoles where final digestion takes
Diffusion and out pores Diffusion Nitrogenous waste diffuses Pair of nephridia (primitive kidneys) Nitrogenous wastes excreted into Lack excretory organs Malpigian tubules at junction of Green gland filters nitrogenous Nitrogenous waste filtered by pair
into surrounding environ- within each somite; opens into excurrent siphon by pair of kidneys; mid- and hind-gut function in wastes from hemolymph and of kidneys
Excretory ment; protonephridia
regulate ion balance;
coelom by a ventral ciliated funnel
and empties into exterior by pore in
some ammonia eliminated by
removal of nitrogenous
wastes from hemolymph in
excretes near base of
system cilia line blind tubes open
to outside; undigested
ventral wall coelom for transfer to
hindgut for excretion
food expelled out mouth
Most are monoecious (hermaphroditic); Most both sexual and asexual (mitotic Hermaphroditic with cross- Sexual; dioecious Sexual; dioecious Sexual; dioecious (except
Both Sexual; dioecious urochordates are monoecious)
sperm released into water current cell divisions produce a bud that is Sexual; dioecious in Male has pair of testes, vas
Asexual, via regeneration when
Reproduction with internal fertilization
Some also asexual (mitotic cell
pinched off from parent); Hydra can
be either dioecious or
cut fertilization Clitellum secretes mucus
Pair of gonads empties gametes
Gonads near base of each arm
under hepatic ceca
deferens, accessory
gland in
Male has pair of three-
lobed testes, vas
hermaphroditic for into excurrent siphon ro Female has pair of deferens, modified
divisions produce a bud that is Sexual; most hermaphroditic Some starfish can reproduce asexually ac ay swimmerets
reproductive processes ovaries with 8 ovarioles,
pinched off from parent) with cross-fertilization by regeneration h fis Female has pair of
accessory glands
h ovaries, oviduct

Many secrete Tentacles contain specialized cells Burrowing with muscular foot; Spine Exoskeleton Exoskeleton; pincers Various
toxins called cnidocytes, which have stinging hard exoskeleton (shell-reduced s
Defense organelles called
nematocysts, which
in cephalopods)
Ink used by some cephalopods
discharge harpoon-
like projections with

Sessile (motile larval phase) Tentacles and body contract and Ventral surface covered in cilia Localized, coordinated muscle Muscular foot Water-vascular system Jointed legs, wings Jointed legs, swimmerets Various, including fins, legs,
Locomotion release for swimming in medusa
Thin strands of dorsiventral muscles
pass through parenchyma
contractions (longitudinal vs.
and wings

Outer circular and inner longitudinal

In polyp stage, nematocysts muscle layers beneath epidermis
help attaching to substratum Anchoring by setae
~6,000 species ~15,000 species ~100,000 species; second largest phylum ~7,000 living species; exclusively Most diverse phylum; over 1,000,000 species; 90% of ~45,000 living species
Notes Mostly marine, but some freshwater ~10,000 species, mostly marine 80% are internal ~15,000 species of invertebrates marine Evolved ~600MYA animals species are in this phylum Evolved ~530MYA
Can live independently or in Hydra are freshwater, and have parasites Evolved Evolved Evolved ~540MYA Evolved ~530MYA
no ~550MYA ~530MYA
colonies Evolved ~600 MYA
medusa stage