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MARS

This view of Mars is a mosaic com-


prising thousands of photographic
Western Hemisphere Eastern Hemisphere Average distance 141,637,725 mi (227,943,824 km)
from the sun:
Closest point 128,409,598 mi (206,655,215 km)
images from NASAs Mars Global to the sun:
Surveyor. The true-color map shows North Pole North Pole Farthest point 154,865,853 mi (249,232,432 km)

P
from the sun:
PL
Linemin a L A
what astronauts would see G
AN
Boreales Scopuli
M M a Length of year: 687 Earth days
UM BOREU
75 75 75 NUM pi
75
ly g ula
BOR EU

ae
approaching the red planet from Earth la mp ym um U
15 mi/s (24.1 km/s)

O
Average orbital velocity:
l

Chasma

nd
Oly
Sc n i Ge

Boreale
P
including jagged valleys, craggy a n pia U um a min O an pia Average temperature: -81F (-63C)
Pl Olym

m
di i Scopuli
a C ndae Length of day: 24.6 hours

Sca

lev
slopes, craters, and polar ice caps. ia s
avi pia

nd

ro
4,220 mi (6,792 km)
alo e
Equatorial diameter:
Th Olym sae
Ab nda

Ko
Marss surface changes constantly, o li Men 0.107
Abalos Mass (Earth=1):

V V
U
however, so scientists are finding 60 Colles Siton 60 60 60 Density: 245 lbs/ft (3.93 g/cm)

I S
v

I S
Undae edon so
and naming new features each week.
A Aspl ae
Und on
o
A Surface gravity (Earth=1): 0.38

S T L Lo
m
S T L
Axial tilt: 25

I A I T A S A Louth

B O R E B O R E
2

C o l l e sT A S
Known moons:
For centuries Mars has stoked earthly imaginations, tantalizing stargazers
a y es
a n d i w sk ok
S c no
Orty
g and scientists with the prospect of extraterrestrial life. Before the space P a n St
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Phoenix (U.S.)
I A es
A c h
LI A
Landed age the planet was thought to be Earthlikea potential home to A
AL
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ank May 25, 2008 A a R
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ovi

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civilization. But as technology improved, a cold, dry world R
DI
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o

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a of the most rugged in the solar system. Ism ute

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PLANITIA
Ma es

He l l e s
S

30 Pl ss up 30 30 Colles
m
r l
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ll 30
A

is
ELLAS
Arrhenius
ner an o sR u m Mo SCALE 1:28,249,000
ri F o eid Har r
H
Va l l Aria

R
Ma us or rrie
um r n twig Le Ve unten A d
1 CENTIMETER = 282 KILOMETERS; 1 INCH = 446 MILES
ch sp e H Col nes

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ia Bo Vo

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Krishtofovich les
0 250 500 750 1000
Rabe Extent of

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te

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ar

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New a Slipher
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STATUTE MILES
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ois Hooke
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KILOMETERS Cru
E

nt
Co
Ptol
em h Douglass YRE
T T Crashed Tikhov Wallace r ls Bje
S

es
Landed, contact lost Lowell November 27, 1971 Tych rkn
December 2, 1971 Li F
an Porter
Spacecraft landing or impact site
er roc
tor Gledhill T lda
ne
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es
T

en PLAN Ha
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e
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lm With the absence of sea level,
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xius Spallanzani I co
p Huggins
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ltz ov Valles Secchi E nia
S
T H
elevations are referenced to a
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h

Glossary en 2,107-mi (3,390-km) radius sphere. r ssb


r de
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a

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n t S rry
y ni i t 45 n Peneera Vin

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45 45
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p

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Planu
V M Pat
s Vallis
P R Hux
(Singular, plural) aev M a ads
Dokuch

A
p
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lis

in Rupes Pal la Ru C ky
Catena, catenae: chain of craters
Hs
E eno R R A
Gr
ha Malea Planu ley n um
i
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l

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Va

u lc el
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Malera in mp
Suri
Cavus, cavi: hollow
rig Fontana
N
St ARGE p ros Pate be

R
Smith
Chaos, chaoses: area of broken terrain W
ambe
rlin NT Vo A Tale of Two Terrains s
Mitchel pes
ll
Chasma, chasmata: large canyon or steep-sided depression Ch Agassiz EA Krn
Phi
llip Ma H Da Pityusa
D o
r s a Burroughs
Byrd
les
Ru
U Heaviside
P
mn s ra rw Rupes Gilbert Hutton

R
Collis, colles: small hill or knob ldi in Mars is a planet hewed by violent, ancient geologic sa B r e y
Schmidt yu a Th Deep Space 2 Probes
Dorsum, dorsa: ridge
M one
y
Lau C forces. The flat, low-lying northern latitudeswhich Pit Pater
es
v i a Liais
(U.S.) Crashed E
r

St Holm
lie

LA

Fluctus, flucts: area covered by outflow from a volcano


lanum Ray December 3, 1999
ar

yno
ld s
um A phi P 60 appear green on these topographic mapsare coated
phi o m e
t h e i R u p leig
T 60
Ch

Fossa, fossae: long, narrow depression 60 Sisy


60 Sisy
e s h ula
NU

Re
an in layers of accumulated sediment eroded from the P r g Mars Polar Lander
l Lin
O num ethei Planu
Labyrinthus, labyrinthi: area of intersecting valleys or ridges Planum
a P ale
M
surrounding higher terrain. Farther south lies jagged, Pla ut
h Prom m a (U.S.) Crashed
Angustum
N tim
M

Lingula, lingulae: plateau having lobate or tonguelike boundaries


rv
Ly

So Ul Dec. 3, 1999
a
ell

tr
ell

Mensa, mensae: mesa


P us opuli crater-pocked terrainshown here in yellow and Ultim
ish

Mons, montes: mountain c Scop i


PLANU E
A

uli
M AUSTRAL
brownthat is thought to be older. In general the south SUPPLEMENT TO NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC, NOVEMBER 2016
S

Palus, paludes: small plain North Pole North Pole


Patera, paterae: irregular crater, often with scalloped edges
75 75 features higher elevations than the north. 75 75 EDITOR: MATTHEW W. CHWASTYK
TEXT: JEREMY BERLIN
Sulcus, sulci: nearly parallel furrows and ridges 60 60
Planitia, planitiae: low plain
Terra, terrae: extensive area
South Pole 60 60 South Pole
MAP EDIT: GUS PLATIS
RESEARCH: TARYN SALINAS
Planum, plana: plateau or high plain
SOURCES: NASA; GAZETTEER OF PLANETARY NOMENCLATURE, PLANETARY
Rupes, rups: scarp Tholus, tholi: small, dome-shaped mountain or hill GEOMATICS GROUP, USGS; NASA/JPL; UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA; JOHNS
HOPKINS UNIVERSITY APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY; CARNEGIE INSTITUTION
Scopulus, scopuli: lobed or irregular scarp Unda, undae: dune OF WASHINGTON; ROSALYN HAYWARD, JAMES SKINNER, AND KENNETH TANAKA,
ASTROGEOLOGY SCIENCE CENTER, USGS
Serpens, serpentes: sinuous feature with segments of Vallis, valles: valley
COPYRIGHT 2016 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC PARTNERS, LLC, WASHINGTON, D.C.
raised and depressed elevation Vastitas, vastitates: extensive plain PRINTED AUGUST 2016
30 30 30 30
Elevation
210 240 270 300 330 FEET 69,715 ft METERS
21,249 m 30 60 90 120 150
Misshapen Martian Moons Fourth Rock From the Sun
52,493 16,000
and above
EQUATOR EQUATOR
0 0 39,370 12,000 0 0 From Mercury to Neptune, heres how the
diameters of our solar systems eight planets
26,247 8,000 compare with one another. All known dwarf Neptune
Phobos Deimos planets (such as Pluto) have diameters smaller
30,775 mi