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International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)

ISSN: 2278-0181
Vol. 3 Issue 3, March - 2014

Design Comparison of Different Structural


Elements By using Different International Codes
Labani Nandi
M.Tech (Structural Engineering)
Narula Institute of Technology
Agarpara,Kol-109,W.B.,India

Prof. Priyabrata Guha


Narula Institute of Technology
Agarpara, Kol-109,W.B.,India

Abstract : - This paper is intended to compare the design of point of view because he is not aware of the various
reinforced concrete structure with various International codes implications involved in the process of planning and
from economical point of view. Three different famous
structural building codes have been adopted. These are the design, about the limitation and intricacies of structural
IS456:2000, BS8110:1985, and Euro Code2:1992. These codes science.
have been compared in the strength design requirements of
structural elements. The comparison include shear design. It is emphasized that any structure to be constructed
must satisfy the need efficiently for which it is intended
Throughout this study elaborated design models and
and shall be durable for its desired life span.
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criteria of the considered codes have been exhibited. Although
Thus, the design of any structure is categorized into the
the principles contained in these codes are basically the same,
following two main types :-
they differ in details..
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1) Functional design
Keywords Different structural element like continuous
2) Structural design.
slab,contineuous beam, column and column footing.

FUNCTIONAL DESIGN:
The structure to be constructed should be primarily
INTRODUCTION:
serve the basic purpose for which it is to be used and
Engineering is a professional art of applying science to
must have a pleasing look.
the efficient conversion of natural resources for the
benefit of man. Engineering therefore requires above all
STRUCTURAL DESIGN:
creative imagination to innovative useful application for
Structural design is an art and science of understanding
natural phenomenon.
the behavior of structural members subjected to loads
THE DESIGN PROCESS: and designing them with economy and elegance to give
The design process of structural planning and design a safe, serviceable and durable.
requires not only imagination and conceptual thinking
but also sound knowledge of science of structural STAGES IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN:
engineering besides the knowledge of practical aspects, The process of structural design involves the following
such as recent design codes, bye laws, backed up by stages-
sample experience, initiation and judgment. The 1.0 Structural planning.
purpose of standards is to ensure and enhance the 2. 0 Action of forces and computation of loads.
safety, keeping careful balance between economy and 3.0 Member analysis.
safety. 4.0 Member design.
The process of design commences with planning of the 5.0 Comparison between various RCC. Design code.
structure. primarily to meet its functional requirements. 6.0 Detailing, drawing and preparation of schedules.
Initially, the requirements proposed by the client are
taken into consideration. They may be vague, This paper is devoted to focus a spot of light on
ambiguous or even unacceptable from engineering design the minimum or maximum area of steel

IJERTV3IS031436 www.ijert.org 2161


International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)
ISSN: 2278-0181
Vol. 3 Issue 3, March - 2014

requirement for elements of concrete structure. Three calculating the effective span of a
different International Structural building codes are member
adopted in this study. These are: [1] IS 456:2000; [2] gk, Gk= characteristic permanent action
BS 8110:1985 and [3] EC2:1992 for the design of qk, Qk = characteristic variable action
concrete structures. fck = characteristic compressive cylinder
strength of concrete at 28 days
A. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS: fyk = characteristic yield strength of
a) As per IS Code: reinforcement
As = Area of tension reinforcement
L = Effective span AV = Area of shear reinforcement within a distance S
d = Effective depth Mu Factored IS,BS and EC Codes moment at section
Wd = Factored dead load S: Spacing of stirrups
Wl =Factored live load V = Nominal shear strength of section
Mu,lim = Limiting bending moment Vc = Nominal shear strength provided by concrete
Pt = Percentage of steel VRd1 = EC2 concrete shear strength
Vu = Shear force
tv = Nominal shear stress
tc = Design shear strength B. UNITS:
Ld = Development length
P = Spacing of stirrups Use either SI (MKS) or CGS as primary units. (SI units
Pu = Ultimate load on column are encouraged.) English units may be used as
Ks = Co-efficient secondary units (in parentheses).
bc = Short side of column section/Long side of
column section
C. EQUATIONS:
fck = Characteristic cube compressive strength of [1] As per IS code:
concrete Basic L/d = 26 [For continuous beam]
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f y = Characteristic strength of steel Basic L/d = 20 [For simply supported beam]


B.M. for end span:
b) As per BS code: WdL2/12 + WlL2/10 [B.M. at the centre of the end span]
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WdL2/10 + WlL2/9 B.M.[over penultimate support]


M = Bending moment B.M. for intermediate span:
As = Area of steel WdL2/16 + WlL2/12[B.M. at the centre of the span]
S = Development length WdL2/12 + WlL2/9 [B.M. over interior support]
Vs = Shear force Mu,lim=0.138fckbd2
V = Nominal shear stress Pt = 50[1-{1-(4.6*Mu)/fckbd2}]/(fy/fck)
Pu = Ultimate load on column Vu = 0.6(Wd+Wl)L
VEd = Design shear stress at the column perimeter tv = Vu/bd
As = Cross sectional area of reinforcement Ld < 0.1.30(M1/Vu)+L0
ASV = Cross-sectional area of shear reinforcement in the p = (0.87fyAwd/Vus)
form of link Pu = o.40fckAc + 0.67fyAsc
F = Ultimate load tv = Vu/b'd' [Nominal shear stress]
fy = Characteristic strength of reinforcement b'd' dimension at the critical section of footing.
fcu = Characteristic concrete cube strength8+/ ks = 0.5+bc

c) As per EC code: [2] As per BS code:

MRd = Ultimate moment of resistance M = 0.086FL


K0 = Co-efficient of main reinforcement As = M/ (0.87fyz)
VRd,c = Design shear resistance of concrete S (ft)/(4rfb)
b = width of section Smax = ft/2rfb
d = effective depth of the tension M = 0.09FL [Near middle of end span]
reinforcement M = 0.11FL[At first interior support(-Ve Moment)]
h = overall depth of section M = 0.07FL[At middle of interior spans]
Z = lever arm M = 0.08FL [At interior supports(-Ve Moment)]
A1, a2 = allowance at supports used for As = 0.156fcubd2/(0.87fyz

IJERTV3IS031436 www.ijert.org 2162


International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)
ISSN: 2278-0181
Vol. 3 Issue 3, March - 2014

Vs = 0.6F wu(support weidth/2) can be predicted, and the probability of particular


load combinations occurring. Table (1)
Actual Considering Actual Consideri
Illustrates the values of partial factors of safety for
Code grade of grade of grade ng grade
concrete concrete of steel of steel the loadings, and a basic load combination
Stipulated by the three codes [1, 2, 3].
IS M30 M30 Fe415 Fe415
456:2000 Table (1) Basic Load Combinations and Partial Safety
Factors (df) at the Ultimate Limit State :
BS8110: M30 M30 Fe460 Fe415
1995
Code Dead Load (DL) Live load (LL)
EC2:1992 M30 M30 Fe500 Fe415

IS 456:2000 1.5 1.5

BS8110:1985 1.4 1.6


V = Vs/bd < 0.8fcu
Pu = 0.40fckAc + 0.67fyAsc EC2:1992 1.35 1.5

[3] As per Euro code:


Table (1)
Basic L/d = 31
MRd = 0.167fckbd2
As = M/0.87fykZ 1.6
Z = d[0.5+(0.25-3K0/3.4)1/2] 1.5
K0 = M/fckbd2
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1.4
Ds = 5/8fckAreq/Aprov
Checked Basic L/d = K[11+1.5fck1/2(p0/p)+3.2fck(p0/p- 1.3 Dead Load (DL)
1)3/2] 1.2 Live load (LL)
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As,max = 0.04Ac
As,min = 0.26fctmbtd/fyk
VRd,c = [CRd,cK(100P1fck)1/3+Kdcp]bwd VEd =(V1d/u0d)
VRd,max = 0.5vfcd
V = 0.6[1-(fck/250)]
CRd,c = 0.18/dc
K = 1+(200/d)
P1 = (p1y p1x) =[As1,y/bd . AS1,x/bd] GRADE OF CONCRETE AND STEEL:
Vmin = 0.035K3/2f Table (2)
VRd,c =[ CRd,cK3/2+K1dcp][2d/a]
RESULT:
LOADING : A.CALCULATING AREA OF STEEL WITH RESPECT TO
ACTUAL GRADE OF CONCRETE AND STEEL:
The three codes impose partial factors of safety for
loads due to design assumptions and inaccuracy of Code
SLAB BEAM COLUMN[ FOUNDATI
calculation, possible unusual load increases, and [Ast] [Ast] Ast] ON[Ast]
constructional inaccuracies. IS 456:2000
[M30
279 619.64 1240.37 1676.88
&Fe415]
Design load = characteristic load* partial load factor BS8110:
of safety 1995[M30&
203.41 583.88 1653.23 2080
Fe460]
EC2:1992
The value of this factors of safety takes into [M30&Fe50
account the importance of the limit state under 0] 269.57 743.17 1512 2080
Consideration and reflects to some extent the
accuracy with which different types of loading

IJERTV3IS031436 www.ijert.org 2163


International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)
ISSN: 2278-0181
Vol. 3 Issue 3, March - 2014

Table (3) CONCLUSION:

The main conclusions from this study can be


2500
Code summarized as follow:
2000 [1]. Although the principles contained in the considered
the grade of concrete is same for three codes differ in
1500 SLAB
grade of steel.
1000 [2]. Calculating the area of steel with respect to actual
BEAM
grade of concrete and grade of steel. Result showing
500
that-
0 COLUMN[Ast]
a. For slab Area of steel is maximum as per IS code
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 than BS and EC.
b. For beam Area of steel is maximum as per EC code
than IS and BS.
c. For column Area of steel is maximum as per BS code
B.CALCULATINGAREAOFSTEELWITH RESPECT TO
CONSIDERIND GRADE OF CONCRETE AND STEEL: than IS and BS.
d. For foundation Area of steel is minimum as per IS
SLAB BEAM COLUMN[ FOUNDATI code than BS and EC.
Code [Ast] [Ast] Ast] ON[Ast]
e. For foundation with respect to EC code minimum
IS
456:2000 279 619.64 1240.37 1676.88 steel are to be provided.
[M30 [3]. Calculating the area of steel with respect to
&Fe415]
providing grade of concrete and grade of steel. Result
BS8110:
showing that-
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1995[M30& 225.47 647.12 1840.21 2080
Fe415] a. Increasing the area of steel of the all structural
EC2:1992 element with respect to actual grade of concrete and
[M30&Fe41
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5]
324.78 895.39 1821.67 2080 steel.
b. For foundation with respect to EC code minimum
steel are to be provided.
Table (4)
REFERENCE:
1. Indian Standard PLAIN AND REINFORCED
SLAB CONCRETE CODE OF PRACTICE.[IS 456:2000].
2500
2. BS8110:1995 Structural Use of Concrete, Part 1, 2 British Standard
2000 Institute.
1500 BEAM 3. W. H., Mosley, R., Husle, and J. H., Bungey, Reinforced Concrete
1000 Design to Euro Code 2, Macmillan Press Ltd, 1996.
500 4. DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS CONCRETE,STEEL
COLUMN[Ast] WORK,MASONRY AND TIMBER DESIGNS TO BRITISH
0 STANDARD AND EUROCODES By Chanakya Araya.
5. DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURE By S.
Ramamurtham.
FOUNDATION[ 6. DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURE By Krishna
Ast] raju.
7. Journal on Strength Design Requirements of ACI-318M-02 Code,
BS8110, and EuroCode2 for Structural Concrete by Asst. Lect. Ali
Abdul Hussein Jawad Civil Engineering Department, College of
Engineering Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, Iraq
8. Mini project report on ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF
COMPONENT REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURE By
DIVYA Kamath(08241A0113) & K.Vandana
Reddy(08241A0155),Department of civil engineering, Gokaraju
Rangaraju Institute and Technology, Bachupally,Hyderabad.
9. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL AND STRUCTURAL
ENGINEERING vol-2,No-3 2001 by Manish Varma, Umesh
Pendharkar, Ravi K. Sharma.
10. [10] Manual for design and detailing of RC code of practice for
structural use of concrete 2004 by housing department may
2008(version 2.3).

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