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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The need for automatic gates has been on the increase in recent times. The system
described here incorporates the use of programmable logic controller (PLC) as the
controller in achieving the aims of this project. It is no exaggeration to say that the PLC has
revolutionized the electronics industry and has had a remarkable impact on many aspects of
our lives most especially the industry. Almost all areas of technology have started taking
advantage of the inexpensive computer control that the PLC can provide. Some typical
applications include automatic motor braking systems, industrial process controls,
electronic measuring instruments, traffic controllers, and a rapidly growing number of new
products [1].

The automatic gate may be describe as automated entrance portals that are popularly used in
parking lots of residential homes, organizations, automobile terminals, and public car parks, which
utilize microcontrollers for added intelligence. It is automatic to avoid the stress of manually
opening and closing the gate. The technology used eliminates gate monitoring and manning by
human beings. The gate uses a state-of-the-art entry system. The gates have to perform gyrations
open, auto-reverse, stop, fully close and fully stop [2]. The automatic gate is not a security device
and should not construe as one. It provides convenient access and intelligent features that makes it
distinct from all other gates, which bring it so close to a security device [3].

Conventional portals are mostly manually operate as practiced by most third world countries and
thus are vulnerable to some security issues, which endanger stakeholders within the community.
Unattended portals are more prone to illegal entry and monitoring of visitors is compromised.
Moreover, these conventional portals are stressful to operate due to its manual manipulation during
opening and closing. Hence, guards and home owners resort to just leaving the gates open at all
times.

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Since security is very important in everyones context, maintaining a dependable portal system is of
utmost consideration. There are noteworthy initiatives made by home owners and institutions that
utilize automated entrance gates. The most prominent are those who are identified as the rich and
famous, military installations, medical facilities, laboratories, and other sensitive rooms.

The aforementioned arguments considered as baseline research and other benchmarked information
on relevant portal concepts provided motivation for the conduct of this present study in the hope of
making a difference in Debre Markos University (DMU), Ethiopia, Africa.

1.2. Problem statement


The design and simulation of an automatic entrance gate of DMU will provide a model
automated gating system of the university. The automated portal will not only provide
security but also provide academic impact to the Electrical and Computer Engineering as it
helps students understand the concepts of automation helpful for them to be prepared in the
real industry experience. The study therefore seeks to address the following questions:

1. What design parameters to consider in terms of the input and output devices,
microcontroller, programming language, and simulation techniques to model the
system?

2. What development strategy to utilize in the integration of the sub-systems in the


control framework?

3. What simulation technique to use in order to effectively model the automated portal
system of the university?

4. What evaluation parameter to use in measuring the performance and acceptability of


the system?

1.3. Objectives

The general objective of this project is to design and simulate an automatic entrance gate of
DMU using a PLC-based motor-driven portal system. The specific objectives are:

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1. To design an automatic entrance gate of DMU using a motor-driven barrier
controlled by PLC.
2. To develop and integrate the input/output devices, controller and model an
operational control system using acceptable simulation techniques.
3. To model and simulate the automated entrance gate of DMU using the Automation
Studio software.
4. To evaluate the performance and acceptability of the project in accordance to
acceptable evaluation parameters in terms of aesthetics, functionality, and
relevance.

1.4. Significance of the study

The design and simulation of the automatic entrance gate of Debre Markos University
utilizing a simulated model will provide baseline design of automated portal system that
can be used to some relevant application that offers better security and controllability. The
design also provide academic impact to some relevant courses in the university as it
provides benchmarked technical information of the project highly important in the fields of
industrial control and automation.

1.5. Framework of the study


The control framework used in the study follows the input process output relationship
as shown in Table 1. Switches and other sensing devices are connected to the appropriate
input module of the PLC while output devices are connected to the designated output
module of the controller. Input & output devices are processed through the PLC to the
desired control outcome of the output devices.

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Table 1: The framework of the system
Input Process Output

Switches and Programmable logic Motor

sensors Control (PLC) programming

The control framework of the study is anchored on the use of appropriate sensing devices to
detect the incoming vehicle at the university gate. The entrance vehicle sensor will prompt
the guard on the coming vehicle for the opening motion sensing to trigger the reverse
rotation of the gate. The full opening shall be confirmed by another capacitive sensor thus
stopping the motor-driven gate. Once the vehicle is on the way inside the university,
another sensor will detect the vehicle thus sends signal to the system to automatically close
the gate via the forward rotation of the motor, hence the gate is closed.

1.6. Scope and limitation

The study outlines the design and simulation of a simulated model of an automated
entrance gate of DMU most specifically the vehicular gate of the university using a motor-
driven gate controlled by a PLC using ladder diagram programming. Authorized vehicle
identification is presumed done by the security guard by university sticker system. The
following undertaking is not included in this present study: prototyping using physical
components, implementation of pedestrian gate, and any other gates other than the vehicles
gate.

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1.7. Project organization

Chapter 1 describes the background and motivation for this study, the problem description,
the research objective, the scope and limitation, as well as the significance of the study.

Chapter 2 presents a review of related literature and project component. Chapter 3 presents
the methodology or design system. Chapter 4 talks about result and finding. Finally, in
Chapter 5, conclusions are drawn and future research is proposed

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CHAPTER 2
RELATED LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Introduction
There several issues regarding to the usage of automatic gate system. These problem occurs
because of the most of automatic gate system is using remote control that been used remote
sensor. Present remote sensor is easily damaged and force repair if damaged. Besides that,
it happened when the system is not meeting the manufacturing industry desired and needed.
For this purpose, many parties try to develop the automatic gate system that only capable to
fulfill the task of manufacturing but also easier to operate and to handle. This automatic
gate system is not only focus on the system but also focus on the part or equipment that
been used.

2.2. Designing Dependable Logic Controllers Using the Supervisory Control

In this paper, the authors deal with the problem of designing a controller for a
discrete event system. They argue that the classical approach of supervisory control theory
(SCT) can be used as an essential step of such a procedure. However, some of the features
that make supervisory control an attractive paradigm to solve theoretical problems are often
a major source of difficulty in implementing a controller: such is the case, for instance, of
the abstraction level usually considered in SCT. They define a method to obtain the correct
abstraction level and present a procedure to design a Controller using SCT. This approach is
applied to a simple but realistic example: an automatic gate [4].

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2.2.1 Description of Case Study

Figure 2.1: Decomposition of the system

In this case, study the plant was composed of several elements:

A gate with 2 limit switches to indicate when the gate is fully open or fully closed,

An electrical motor with 2 contactors to control the direction (one per direction),

A receiver for the users remote controls, a sensor to detect the presence of a vehicle
in front of the gate.

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Figure 2.2: Inputs and outputs of Control Unit (PLC)

2.2.2 Control specifications

The desired behavior of the plant may be expressed by the set of specifications
given here after in plain natural language. Among these seven specifications, the first three
are related to vivacity requirements (what must be done to perform the expected task).
Specification P4 expresses a safety requirement. Specifications P5 and P6 express
constraints coming from actuators and the last one is an assumption on the correct operation
of the sensors (the problem of sensors monitoring is not deal with in this study).

The specifications areas follow:

P1 - When the remote control is activated, the gate opens.

P2 - When the gate is open with no request from the user or no detection of a car, the gate
closes.

P3 - While the gate is not totally closed, the detection of a car causes the reopening of the
gate.

P4 - The gate must never be simultaneously controlled to open and to close.

P5 - An open gate cannot be controlled to open.

P6 - A closed gate cannot be controlled to close.

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P7 - The gate is never simultaneously open and closed.

By review this case study, the concept and the base of the system is similar to this project
that is to implement the automatic gate system by using control systems such as PLC. For
this case study, they use the remote controlled to opened and closed the gate, but in this
project, the gate is automatically open and closed.

2.3. A Microprocessor-Based Gate Security System

A microprocessor based security system for gate control in a housing estate is described
this. The system provides efficient gate access and estate control to perform the job of the

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gate security guard. The hard hardware and software development this system is presented.

Figure 2.3 Block Diagram Gate Security System

The microprocessor is the main part of the block diagram that functions to control the
whole of the system. In this module, the program prompts the tenant for the access code. A
check is then made and if valid, the program request for the identification code. The gate is

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then opened once this code is verified. This mode also that offers the facility to check if the
access or entry is of a forced or threatened nature. An alarm code that is appended to the
tenant code can be keyed in to alert the security personnel in such situations. The visitor
mode is provided for in module. It display the appropriate prompts to guide the visitor,
performs the address translation to retrieve the telephone number , generates the dual tone
timing for auto-dial to the unit concerned, and controls the up or down hook status of the
telephone. In addition, this module provides a continuous background beep to indicate calls
from the gate and accepts the generated key code from the tenant to acknowledge the
identity of the visitor before the gate is opened [5].

2.4. Block Diagram of Power Supply for the Controlling System

A transformer used to step down the input AC voltage level with a turns ratio of 10
to 1.1 would convert the 220 volt 50 Hz input sine wave into a 24 volt sine wave.

Bridge rectifier the job of the bridge rectifier is to take the ac voltage from the
transformer and rectify it. So, that the voltage no longer goes through a negative
cycle with the rectifier all of the voltage is rectified positive.

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Filter the rectifier produces a DC output but it is pulsating rather than a constant
steady value over time like that from a battery. A filter used to remove the pulsations
and create a constant output.

Regulator The regulator is a circuit that helps maintains a fixed or constant


outputvoltage.

Changes in the load or the AC line voltage will cause the output voltage to
vary.

Most electronic circuits cannot withstand the variations since it designed to


work properly with a fixed voltage.

The regulator fixes the output voltage to the desired level then maintains
that value despite any output or input variations.

Smoothing capacitorthe capacitor does a good job of smoothing the pulses from
the rectifier into a more constant DC.A small variation occurs in the DC because the
capacitor discharges a small amount between the positive and negative pulses.
Then it recharges. This variation is called ripple

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2.5. Components
The component of this project has both electronics component and electrical and
electromechanical component is appearing.

2.5.1. Electronics component

2.5.1.1. Programmable logic controller

A PLC (Programmable Logic Controllers) is an industrial computer used to monitor inputs


and based on its program or logic, to control (turn on/off) its outputs to automate a machine
or a process. It can also be defined as a digitally operating electronic apparatus which uses
a programmable memory for the internal storage of instructions by implementing specific
functions such as logic sequencing, timing and counting through digital or analog
input/output modules and arithmetic to control [6].

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Figure 2.4 the Block Diagram of PLC

2.5.1.1.1 Hardware Components of a PLC System

2.5.1.1.1.1 Central Processing Unit (CPU)

CPU makes a great number of check-ups of the PLC controller itself so as eventual errors
would be discovered early. Microprocessor based CPU may allow arithmetic operations,
logic operators, block memory moves, computer interface, local area network, functions,
etc.

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2.5.1.1.1.2 System Buses

The internal paths along which the digital signals flow within the PLC are called buses.

The system has four buses: The CPU uses the (a) data bus for sending data between the
different elements, (b) address bus to send the addresses of locations for accessing stored
data,(c) control bus for signals relating to internal control actions and (d) system bus for
communications between the I/O ports and the I/O unit.

2.5.1.1.1.3 Memory

Memory Is the component that stores information, programs and data in a PLC. System
(ROM) is the component to give permanent storage for the operating system and the fixed
data used by the CPU.RAM is for data where information is stored on the status of input
and output devices and the values of timers and counters and other internal devices.
EPROM is for ROMs that can be programmed and then the program is made permanent.

2.5.1.1.1.4 I/O Sections

INPUT MODULES accepts and converts signals from sensors into a logic signal

Ex. Switches, Pushbuttons and sensor.

OUTPUT MODULES that convert control instructions a signal that can be used
by actuators.

Ex. Solenoid valves, motor etc.

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2.5.1.1.1.5 Power Supply

Most PLC controllers work either at 24 VDC or at 220 VAC. Some PLC controllers have
electrical supply as a separate module, while small and medium series already contain the
supply module in this project used 24V DC.

2.5.1.1.1.6 . Programming Device

The programming device is used to enter the required program into the memory of the
processor. The program is developed in the programming device and then transferred to the
memory unit of the PLC.

2.5.1.1.2. PLC operation takes place through:

1. Input Relays

Input relays are transistors that connect to the outside world and receive signals from
switches, sensors, etc.

2. Internal Utility Relays

Internal Utility Relays do not receive signals from the outside world and do not physically
exist. These simulated relays enable a PLC to eliminate external relays and are dedicated to
performing only one task.

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3. Output Relays

These connected to the outside world. They physically exist and send on/off signals to
solenoids, lights, etc. That can be transistors, relays, or triacs depending upon the model
chosen.

2.5.1.1.3. Programming Languages of PLC

Ladder Logic

The ladder logic is the oldest programming language for PLC. It is well suited to
express Combinational logic. The main ladder logic symbols represent the elements

Following are the features of Ladder Diagram:

Power flows from left to right.

Output on right side cannot connect directly with left side.

Contact cannot place on the right of output.

Each rung contains one output at least.

Each output can be used only once in the program.

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A particular input a/o output can appear in more than one rung of a ladder.

The inputs and outputs are all identified their addresses.

2.5.1.2. Electrical and electro-mechanical components

2.5.1.2.1. Sensor
A Sensor is a device, which responds to an input quantity by generating a functionally
related output usually in the form of an electrical or optical signal. A Sensor converts the
physical parameter (temperature, pressure, humidity, speed, flow, level, etc.) into a signal
which can be measured electrically. . Figure 3.2 shows the sensing process in terms of
energy conversion. The form of the output signal will often be a voltage analogous to the
input signal, though sometimes it may be a wave form whose frequency is proportional to
the input or a pulse train containing the information in some other form

Figure 2.5 the signal conversion of sensor

2.5.1.2.1.1. Capacitive sensor

A capacitive sensor is a proximity sensor that detects nearby objects by their effect on the
electrical field created by the sensor. Capacitive type proximity sensors consist of an
oscillator whose frequency is determined by an inductancecapacitance (LC) circuit to
which a metal plate is connected. When a conducting or partially conducting object comes
near the plate, the mutual capacitance changes the oscillator frequency. This change is
detected and sent to the controller unit. The object being sensed is often referred to as the
proximity sensors target. Figure 3.2 shows an example of the capacitive proximity sensor.
As the distance between the proximity sensor and the target object gets smaller, the electric

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field distributed around the capacitor experiences a change, which is detected by the
controller unit.

Figure 2.6 Capacitance based proximity sensor

The maximum distance that a proximity sensor can detect is defined as nominal range.
Some sensors have adjustments of the nominal range or ways to report a graduated
detection distance. A proximity sensor adjusted to a very short range is often used as a
touch switch. Capacitive proximity detectors have a range twice that of inductive sensors,
while they detect not only metal objects but also dielectrics such as paper, glass, wood, and
plastics. They can even detect through a wall or cardboard box. Because the human body
behaves as an electric conductor at low frequencies, capacitive sensors have been used for
human tremor measurement and in intrusion alarms. Capacitive type proximity sensors
have a high reliability and long functional life because of the absence of mechanical parts
and lack of physical contact between sensor and the sensed object.

2.5.1.2.2. Limit Switch


Limit Switches are electro-mechanical devices that consist of an actuator mechanically
linked to a set of contacts. When an object comes into contact with the actuator, the device
operates the contacts to make or break an electrical connection. Limit switches work in a

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variety of applications and environments because of their ruggedness, simple visible
operation, easy installation and reliable operation.

2.5.1.2.3. Overload Relay

Traditional motor control circuits use thermal, or electronic, overload relays to protect
electric motors from the effects of heat generated from mechanical or electrical overload
conditions. When the overload relay detects an overload condition of sufficient magnitude
and duration, a normally closed contact on the overload relay opens, turning the protected
motor off.

A tripped overload relay causes:

Unexpected shut downs

Unidentified reason for the trip

Potential lost production

2.5.1.2.4. Solenoid Valve

A solenoid valve is an electromechanical device used for controlling liquid or gas flow. The
solenoid valve is controlled by electrical current, which is run through a coil. When the coil
is energized, a magnetic field is created; causing a plunger inside the coil to move. The
solenoid valve uses an electric current which moves the solenoid. This pulls a piston
preventing it from stopping the flow of air and fluid. The valve will need a constant flow of
electrical current to remain open because when there is no current flow, the electromagnetic
field scatters and the valve returns to its original position. Depending on the design of the
valve, the plunger will either open or close the valve. When electrical current is removed
from the coil, the valve will return to its de-energized state.

2.5.1.2.5. DC- MOTOR

A DC motor is an electric motor that runs on direct current (DC) electricity. DC motors are
self-starting. The motors variable speed characteristic. When the voltage to a DC motor is

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increased from zero to some base voltage, the motors speed increases from zero to a
corresponding base speed. But AC motor, on the other hand, always runs at full speed. In
any electric motor, operation is based on simple electromagnetism. DC motors consist of
one set of coils, called armature winding, inside another set of coils or a set of permanent
magnets, called the stator. Applying a voltage to the coils produces a torque in the armature,
resulting in motion.

Stator

The stator is the stationary outside part of a motor. The stator of a permanent magnet dc
motor is composed of two or more permanent magnet pole pieces. The magnetic field can
alternatively created by an electromagnet. In this case, a DC coils (field winding) wounds
around a magnetic material that forms part of the stator.

Rotor

The rotor is the inner part, which rotates. The rotor is composed of windings (called
armature windings) which connected to the external circuit through a mechanical
commutator. Both stator and rotor are made of ferromagnetic materials. This two separated
by air-gap.

Winding

A winding made up of series or parallel connection of coils. Armature winding - The


winding through which the voltage is applied or induced.

Field winding - The winding through which a current is passed to produce flux (for the
electromagnet) Windings are usually made of copper

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Figure 2.7 Dc motor constructions

CHAPTER 3

MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY


3.1 Materials
The materials we have used in our project are websites; which we go through different
books, journals, thesis and ongoing projects in automatic entrance gate system. From this
we are going to select appropriate rating of dc motor, dc power supply, solenoid valve,
relays, sensors and limit switch based on their application in automatic vehicles
entrance gate system and analyzed values.

The other material we have been using for our simulation is automation studio software.

3.2. Methodology
3.2.1. The design and development

The building blocks of the design are composed of the motor-driven portal system,
vehicles detection sensors, the solenoid valve, the PLC input-output interfacing, and the
systems motion sequence diagram.

3.2.1.1. The design

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Figure present the system design which consists of Programmable Logic Controller,
Ladder logic simulator, DC motor and capacitive sensors. Here, PLC acted as the brain of
this system because it controlled all the operations with the external devices

Figure 3.1 Block diagram of a system

To develop the system following hardware equipment and specification of this project:

1. Programmable logic controller used as a black box with a number of inputs from, and a
number of outputs to, the outside world. It can make decisions easier, store data, convert
codes, do timing cycles, and do simple arithmetic analysis. Siemens PLC was used in
this project which has a fully functional ladder logic design. PLC simulation software
program that incorporates the basic functions used in PLC ladder programming A simple
drag and drop method is used to add functions to the ladder rung, and comments can be
added to each rung for documentation purposes. Functions include inputs, outputs.

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2. Sensor: Capacitive type proximity sensors have a high reliability and long functional
life because of the absence of mechanical parts and lack of physical contact between sensor
and the sensed object. Sensors used for non-contact detection of targets at a distance
regardless of material.

3. Motor: DC motors used to open and close the barrier for entry and exit of the cars,

4. An electromechanical limit switch applied for breaking the electrical path for
interrupting the current flow.

5. In this project, a special type of regulated DC power supply was designed which
has one types of output voltage ( 24V).

The motor-driven conveyor system

The motor-driven portal systemutilizes a three-phase motor prime mover as shown in


Figure below which has a directional rotation to rotates in both forward and reverse
direction to the gate is automatically open and close. The motor is controlled through an
external relay contacts k1 and K2 in which its corresponding coil is interfaced into the PLC
input/output modules.

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Figure 3.1: The motor-driven portal system

The solenoid valve:

The solenoid valve QO in Figure 3.2 is utilized to represent the action of the motor driven
action that the gate is fully open and fully closed. The piston of this Rodless 2-cushion
cylinder served as the rail gate in DMU that can be detected by approximate sensors S2 and
S3.

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Figure 3.2 the plunger-based solenoid valve

Assumption

The gate initially closed

Type of gate is slide gate

The motor-driven set in the left side

The vehicle detection

The vehicles detection simulated by using single-acting cylinders and a pair of proximity
sensors to demonstrate the vehicle detection. As shown in above Figure 3.2 every actua-
tion of the cylinders represents one single vehicles detection by the proximity sensors S2
and S3 respectively to be the gate fully opened and fully closed .

The input-output devices-PLC interfacing

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All the input and output devices of the system are appropriately connected into the PLC
input/output (I/O) modules as shown in Figure3.3. Table 3.1 depicts the complete detailed
description of the I/O devices utilized in the system.

Figure 3.3: The input-output devices PLC interface

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Table 3.1

INPUT DEVICE OUTPUT DEVICE


S0-start button K1-forward external contact
S1-stop button K2-reverse external contact
S2-proximity sensor Q0-solonide valve
S3- proximity sensor
S4-vehicle entry sensor which required the
gate is opened
S5-sensor detects vehicles that already
passed to the gate

The development and integration


The building blocks of the design are integrated to form the whole systems framework.
The aforementioned figure depicts the integration of the sub- systems of the whole frame-
work which consists of the motor driven, feeding actuators and vehicles detection.

The simulation

The systems simulation is conducted using the Automation Studio software. The integrated
design is subjected to the careful modeling and simulation in adherence to a scientific
method of PLC programming aided by the systems motion sequence diagram. This motion
sequence diagram serves as guide for the programmer to create and develop the PLC ladder
program specifically in building up the control and power control framework. The motion
sequence describes the series of activation and de-activation of output devices (Prefix Q
and k addresses) triggered appropriately by its corresponding input devices (Prefix I ad-
dresses).

I3 I2

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K1+/Q0-, K1-, K2+/Q0- K2-/RESET
M1 I5
Figure 3.4-motion sequence diagram

From above figure motion sequence shows M1 is activated the motor ration is reverse
(k1+&Q0-) or the gate is open. I3 energized the motor reversed Stop (K1-) the output I5
trigger onMotor rotates in forward direction(k2+ &Q0-) or the gate is closed and the output
I2 is activatedthe motor will be stop Forward rotation and reset the motion Sequence.

The PLC ladder program utilizes a scientific method of programming approach. There are
scientific steps that are followed in the PLC ladder programming which adheres to the
prevailing International Electro technical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 1131

1. Each control steps shall be represented by a unique relay address and should be self-
latched.

2. The first step of the sequence shall bear the startup button connected in series with a
normally closed interlocking contact. This step should be represented by a unique
relay address and self-latched.

3. The proceeding control steps shall bear the triggering switches/sensors connected in
series with a step marker (the normally open contact address of the previous step
relay representation address). These proceeding steps should still be represented by
relays and self-latched.

4. The last step of the control circuit which is the RST shall also be represented by a
relay but may not be self-latched. The contact of the relay representing the RST
shall be the address used in the interlocking contact mentioned in the first step of
the control circuit.

5 The power circuit shall bear the appropriate control of output component activation and
deactivation. Say Q0+ represented by a normally open contact shall be connected to a nor-
mally closed contact of the Q0- step. This series combination of normally open (NO) and
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normally closed (NC) contacts shall be connected to the output component (solenoid coil).
The same treatment to the other output components activation and DE-activation. Based on
the abovestipulated motion sequence, the following PLC ladder program shown in Figure
3.5

Figure 3.5 PLC ladder diagram

Chapter 4

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RESULTS AND FINDINGS
This chapter is dedicated to describe the results and findings of the study based on the
stated methodology that simulation result of the development of automatic vehicle entrance
gate in Debre Markus University. However, the thorough completion of this study is
hindered by material and software constraints, the results described in this chapter are
limited to motor controls simulation. Physical prototyping and other undertaking are not
implemented due to the aforementioned constraints. The objective of this project study
anchored on the use of capacitive sensor devices to detect the incoming vehicle at the
university gate. The entrance vehicle sensor will prompt the guard on the coming vehicle
for the opening motion sensing to trigger the reverse rotation of the gate. The full opening
shall be confirmed by another sensor thus stopping the motor-driven gate. Once the vehicle
is on the way inside the university, another sensor will detect the vehicle thus sends signal
to the system to automatically close the gate via the forward rotation of the motor, hence
the gate is closed. The sensing variables are interconnected to one common output device
of which the functional truth table shown below

Push Approximat Vehicle Vehicle Motor action Output


button e entry passed gate is
sensor sensor open/close
sensor

S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 K1 K2

1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 OPEN

0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 CLOSE

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Table 4.1

1 forK2( motor)_ rotate reverse direction the gate is open

1 for K1( motor)_ rotate forward direction the gate is closed

1 for S0(start push button) for Open the gate

1 for S1(stop push button) for Closed gate

1 for S2( approximate sensor) the gate is fully closed

1 for S3(approximate sensor) the gate is fully open

1 for S4 (vehicle entry sensor) vehicle is already coming

1 for S5(vehicles passed sensor) is vehicle is already passed to the gate

The truth table above described the relationships between the input devices and the
output devices with respect to the status of the sensing devices mentioned. From the above
table 0 represents the system is OFF or de-energized and 1 means our system is ON
(energized).

4.1 Simulation Result

The aforementioned control design illustrated by the systems truth table was simulated
using the design parameters described in the previous Chapter (The Methodology). The
control parameters were integrated into one common electronic circuit design to
function as one whole controlling circuit for the entire control parameter.

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4.1.1. The gate opens system

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Figure 4.1 automatic gate open system result

As we observed from the above circuit diagram when the vehicle entry sensor (S4) is
sensed vehicles (activated) and limit switch open gate activated they will promote motor
rotate reverse direction hence, the gate is open. For our project Rod less 2-cushion cylinder
served as a gate that moves to lift side means the gate is automatically open. Our diagram
red color part is represent energized.

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4.1.2. The gate closed system

Figure 4.2 the gate closed system result

From this observation when vehicle passed sensed sensor (S5) is activate the motor
activated forward direction hence, the gate is closed. Rod less 2-cushion cylinder moves to
right side means the gate is automatically closed.

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CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The final chapter of this study describes the summary of the undertakings of the
mini-project and/or simulation. The conclusions based on the most significant
accomplishment of the study while the recommendations anchored on the least significant
findings of the assessment process.

5.2 Conclusions
We conclude that in this project we have studied and simulated an automatic
entrance gate system using plc programming. The design can be easily adapted to any
electric gate and any form of control, which requires the use of sensors. The effectively
design this kind of system, it is necessary to understand the basic sensor characteristics,
microprocessor input and output interfacing, and utilized in the system plan. Sensors serve
as a transducer for vehicle detection while the programming language is fundamental to
software design based on the system requirements, specifications, and planned operation of
the system. There is total agreement between the system designed and the required
operation of the system. The automatic gate in this research can employ in organizations,
public car parks, residential parking lots, and automobile where no form of security
measure is required.

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5.3 RECOMMENDATION

For an improved, effective, and security gate system to implement and achieved, the
following suggestions should considered for further work.

1. A form of vehicle identification should be provided for security purposes For instance
where a vehicle stands still at the focus of the sensors.

2. A better sensor recommended is to achieve new functionality For instance, a suitable


sensor such as radar sensor that could detect contraband goods in any vehicle.

3. To achieve full automation, a real time system should employ and a Closed Circuit
Television (CCTV) system provided for proper monitoring and security purposes. This can
helpful in detecting the presence of vehicles before the system activate.

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REFERENCES

[1]. Shoewu, O. and O.T. Baruwa 2006

[2]. Kolej University, 2007

[3] .University of Lagos in 1992

[4].Theory by Jean-Marc ROUSSEL, Alessandro GIUA

Access Automation, LTD. 2006 Commercial Barriers. Sommerset, UK.


http://www.access-automation.co.uk.

Baruwa, Olatunde T. 2004. Design and Construction of a Microprocessor Based Auto-


matic Gate. Unpublished B.Sc. Project. Lagos State University: Epe, Nigeria.

Hall, Douglas V. 1991. Microprocessors and Interfacing Programming and


Hardware.2nd edition Gregg College Division: New York, NY.

Krutz, R.L. 1980. Microprocessor and Logic Design John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York,
NY.

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Leventhal, Lance A. 1978. 8080A, 8085 Assembly Language Programming McGraw-Hill,
Inc: New York, NY.

McGlynn, Daniel R. 1976. Microprocessor Technology and Application John Wiley &
Sons, Inc: New York, NY.

Philips ECG. 2000. ECG Data Book Bloomfield, NJ.

Private Door Openers 2006Private Door Information Lombard, II http://www.private-


door.com.

Stewart, P.M. 1983. Techniques for Vehicle Detection Report Unpublished.

Theraja, A.K and Theraja, B.K, 1999. Electrical Technology3rd Edition S. Chand

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