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WORLD LITERATURE back to their citadel.

Achilles kills
Hector. He abuses the corpse but, in the
In the ancient Greek religion and Greek final pages of the poem, returns it to
mythology, the Twelve Olympians are the Priam for funeral honors.
major deities of the Greek pantheon,
commonly considered to be Zeus, Hera, The Iliad ends there, before Achilles dies
Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Apollo, from an arrow shot into his heel, before
Artemis, Ares, Aphrodite, Hephaestus, the Greeks enter Troy by means of a
Hermes, and either Hestia or Dionysus. hollow wooden horse and destroy the

The Iliad is set three millennia ago,
during the final year of the Trojan War,
a conflict in which Greek warriors sailed
the Aegean to what is now Turkey and
besieged the citadel of Troy for ten
In the first few pages the Greek hero
Achilles quarrels with the chief king, My favorite character: ZEUS
Agamemnon, over a female slave whom
Zeus was the father of the famous Greek
the Greek soldiers had awarded to
hero Hercules. The name Zeus means
Achilles as a prize of honor in recognition
"bright" or "sky." His weapon of choice
of his exploits.
was the thunderbolt, made for him by the
Agamemnon seizes the woman. Achilles
withdraws from fighting in a rage, and
remains withdrawn for the bulk of the
poem, during which time the Trojans, led refers to the literature produced on
by Hector--Trojan King Priam's son-- the Indian subcontinent until 1947 and in
almost burn the beached Greek ships and the Republic of India thereafter. The
drive the invaders into the sea. Republic of India has 22 officially
recognized languages. The earliest works
Hector kills Achilles' close friend,
of Indian literature were orally
Patroclus, prompting Achilles to resume
fighting. The Greeks drive the Trojans
"Shakuntala" is an Indian play that BEOWULF
revolves around a central female figure, The main protagonist Beowulf, a hero of
named Shakuntala, who trades her the Geats, comes to the aid of Hrothgar,
forest-dwelling lifestyle for a more king of the Danes, whose great hall,
refined and noble life as a wife of a Heorot, is plagued by the monster
Sanskrit king. Shakuntala is born in a Grendel. Beowulf kills Grendel with his
heavily forested and remote part of bare hands and Grendel's mother with a
India, an area that she calls home for giant's sword that he found in her lair.
many years.
A hero is anyone who can show courage
when faced with a problem. A hero is a

Insert your first love with essay and person who is able to help another in

explanation various ways. A person can become a hero

by saving someone who is in danger.
Another example of a hero is someone
who is there to help others and gives
III.ENGLISH LITERATURE them strength to go on through lifes
difficulties. A hero can be someone who
Old English literature, or Anglo-Saxon
gave up his or her life so another could
literature, encompasses the surviving
live. A hero does not always have to show
literature written in Old English in Anglo-
courage he can be afraid but still be a
Saxon England, in the period after the
hero through his other actions.
settlement of the Saxons and other
I do believe that heroes dont
Germanic tribes in England (Jutes and the
have to be afraid to do engage in a heroic
Angles) c.450, after the withdrawal of
act. Most of the time heroes are scared
the Romans, and "ending soon after the
because they are human just like any of
Norman Conquest" in 1066. These works
us. But they feel a moral obligation or
include genres such as poetry,
something inside of them tells them to
hagiography, sermons, Bible translations,
act regardless of they are scared or not.
legal works, chronicles and riddles. In all
A lot of times heroes talk about being
there are about 400
scared at the time but that they had
surviving manuscripts from the period.
some type of super human strength or will
that allowed them to act like or helped
them do what they had to do. But
sometimes a hero can be a teacher or a
school counselor. They can teach you to The Analects of Confucius is an
read or write and that will make a huge anthology of brief passages that present
difference in your life. But most of the the words of Confucius and his disciples,
time that will go unappreciated during describe Confucius as a man, and recount
your lifetime until youre older and start some of the events of his life.
reflecting on your life. You will sit back
2.) Anyone learning without thought is
and think that without that teacher that
lost anyone thinking but not learning is in
taught you how to read you would of
never been able to get a job or go on to
college. These are heroes that are Confucianism Never kiss a
overlooked everyday and dont get the fool, or be fooled by a kiss.
recognition they deserve. Also, we have
to look at the people who get are children 1.) Do unto others as you would have

to school ever day, like the school bus them do unto you

driver. A bus driver is a person who has A command based on words of

little child lives in their hands five day Jesus in the Sermon on the
out of the week. They take them to Mount: All things whatsoever
school they put them up from school. For ye would that men should do to
that time for those hours on minutes that you, do ye even so to them.
child life is in that person whom ever is The Mosaic Law contains a
driver the school bus hands. That is a parallel commandment:
hero to me someone who makes an impact Whatever is hurtful to you, do
in a person life. not do to any other person.
Note: Do unto others ... is
a central ethical teaching of

IV.CHINESE LITERATURE Jesus, often referred to as

the Golden Rule.
is a vast subject that spans thousands of
years. One of the interesting things
about Chinese literature is that much of
the serious literature was composed using
a formal written language that is called
Classical Chinese.

Analects of Confucius V.JAPANE LITERATURE

Down in Hell, the myriad sinners are
struggling in the Pool of Blood, in total
darkness save for the light glinting off
the Mountain of Spikes, and in total
silence save for the sighs of the damned.
Kandata, looking up by chance at the sky
above the pool, sees the spider's thread
descending towards him and grabs hold
with all the might of a seasoned criminal.
The climb from Hell to Paradise is not a
short one, however, and Kandata quickly
tires. Dangling from the middle of the
rope, he glances downward, and sees how
far he has come. Realizing that he may
Earliest extant works are the Kojiki (712)
and the Nihongi (720), which are actually escape from Hell, he is overcome
by joy and laughs giddily. His elation is
histories written in Chinese characters
used phonetically. The earliest short-lived; however, as he realizes that
others have started climbing the thread
recorded Japanese poetry is in the
Manyoshu (760), which contains poems behind him, stretching down into the
murky depths below. Fearing that the
dating to the 4th century.
thread will break from the weight of the
Shakyamuni is meandering around others, he shouts that the spider's
Paradise one morning, when he stops at a thread is his and his alone. It is at this
lotus-filled pond. Between the lilies, he moment that the thread breaks, and he
can see, through the crystal-clear and all the other sinners are cast back
waters, the depths of Hell. His eyes come down into the Pool of Blood.
to rest on one sinner in particular, by the
name of Kandata. Kandata was a cold- Shakyamuni witnesses this, knowing all
but still with a slightly sad air. In the
hearted criminal, but had one good deed
to his name: while walking through the end, Kandata condemned himself by being
concerned only with his own salvation and
forest one day, he decided not to kill a
spider he was about to crush with his not that of others. But Paradise
continues on as it has, and it is nearly
foot. Moved by this single act of
compassion, the Buddha takes the silvery noontime there. Thus the Buddha
continues his meanderings.
thread of a spider in Paradise and lowers
it down into Hell.
Character Analysis
Kandata, a sinful man floats and
The story entitled "The Spider's Thread" sank along with other sinners in
taught us a valuable lesson about attitude the Lake of Blood at the Bottom
of a person.This story tells about a man, a of the Hell.
notorious, a murderer, arisoner and Buddha recalled Kandata's kind
performed other act of evil whos named act performed and thought to use
Kandata. Despite of being a very sinful his good deed a way of giving a
man in the story, the Buddha still gave chance to save him from fate
him a chance to get out of Hell and gave
him a chance of salvation. Through his one
What moral value is important by the
good deed the Buddha got his attention
and offers his compassion to hound
Kandata from floating and sinking in the An entertaining short story about
Lake of Blood at the bottom of Hell. death, afterlife, selfishness, mercy
and irony.


He was the son of Zeus and Hera, both of

whom hated him (according to Homer).
Eros (more commonly known as Cupid) was
the child of Ares and Aphrodite. Ares
was most notably referred to as the God
of War; he represented the unpleasant
aspects of battle.


He was also called the God of Wealth or

the rich one because he possessed the
ARES precious metals of the earth. Hades had a
cap or helmet that made its wearer
invisible. His wife was Persephone, teamed up to cause Zeus to fall in love
Demeters only daughter, whom he with a human named Europa.
kidnapped and made his queen.
Athena was the Goddess of War, the
Hephaestus was the only ugly god among female counterpart of Ares. She is one of
perfectly beautiful immortals. He was the three virgin goddesses; the other two
workman of the immortals: he made their were Hestia and Artemis. Athena served
dwellings, furnishings, and weapons. as a guardian of Athens, where the
Hephaestus was known as the God of Fire. Parthenon served as her temple.


Hermes was considered a trickster due Hera was Queen of the Olympian gods. In
to his cunning and clever personality. He the story of the Quest of the Golden
primarily served as the herald or Fleece, Hera was a gracious protector of
messenger of the gods. Hermes was born the heroes. Hera had few, if any,
in a cave on a mountain in Arcadia; he was redeeming qualities. She never forgot an
conceived and born within the course of injury.
one day.
Artemis was daughter of Zeus and Leto
Zeus was the father of the famous Greek and twin sister of Apollo. She was
hero Hercules. The name Zeus means primarily a virgin huntress, goddess of
"bright" or "sky." His weapon of choice wildlife and patroness of hunters. She
was the thunderbolt, made for him by the was an important goddess in the lives of
Cyclops. women, especially when it came to
marriage and young creatures.

Aphrodite was the goddess of fertility,
Apollo was the son of Leto and Zeus. He
love, and beauty. During the Trojan War,
was born on the island of Delos. He and
Aphrodite fought on the side of Paris.
his twin sister Artemis, also an Olympian,
Aphrodite and her son Eros (Cupid)
shared an aptitude for archery. The nine
Muses were companions of his; they were
goddesses known for inspiring art and


Poseidon was allotted his dominion after

the fall of the Titans. He wielded the
trident or three-pronged spear, and this
image of him is reflected in art. Poseidon
was most notably the God of the sea and
the protector of all waters.


Demeter was the daughter of Cronos and

Rhea. She was the goddess of harvest
and fertility. Only women attended the
Thesmophoria, a fertility festival held in
honor of Demeter.