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Chapter 9

Workplace Responsibilities and Rights

9.1 Teamwork

9.2 Confidentiality and conflicts of interest

9.3 Right of engineers

9.4 Whistle-blowing

Van pushing Rowing team

Teamwork is "work done by several associates with each

doing a part but all subordinating personal prominence to
the efficiency of the whole.
Cemerlang Bekerja dalam Pasukan

Bertolong-tolonglah kamu dalam pekara kebaikan

dan takwa dan janganlah kamu bertolong-tolongan
dalam perkara dosa dan permusuhan.
Al-Maidah, 2

Sesungguhnya Allah menyukai jika perjuangan

dijalannya dilakukan (secara tersusun) seperti
satu saf seolah-olahnya mereka merupakan
sebuah bangunan yang kukuh.
As-Saf, 4
Sembahyang Jemaah Sebagai Latihan
Pilih Imam / Ketua yang wibawa
Tidak boleh seorang yang keji dilantik menjadi imam kepada orang mukmin
Riwayat Imam Ibn Majah

Bulatkan hati dan rapatkan saf mengadap Allah

Hendaklah kamu luruskan saf-saf kamu atau Allah akan perselisihkan antara wajah-wajah
Hadis Imam Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Daud, Tarmizi, an-Nasai dan Ibn Majah

Konsep persamaan
Kesemua kamu berasal dari AdamTidak ada kelebihan seseorang ke atas seorang yang
lain melainkan berdasarkan agama dan takwa
Imam Ahmad

Konsep sedia memberi dan menerima teguran

Setiap muslim dituntut mendengar dan mentaati pemimpin dalam perkara yang mereka
suka ataupun benci melainkan jika disuruh melakukan maksiat. Ketika itu tidak ada lagi
tuntutan untuk dengar dan taat
Imam Muslim
Konsep tolong menolong serta kerjasama lahirkan
....Interaksi antara dua ataupun lebih agen atau
kekuatan yang melahirkan kesan yang lebih hebat
daripada campuran tenaga agen-agen atau
kekuatan itu.bahasa mudah 1+1=3
Islam formulanya 1+1=3+bantuan Allah
Sesungguhnya Allah telah menolong kamu dalam
perang Badar sedangkan kamu ketika itu orang-
orang yang lemah. Kerana itu bertakwalah kepada
Allah supaya kamu mensyukurinya
Surah Ali Imran, 123

*Synergy: The interaction of two or more agents or forces so that their combined effect is greater
tah the sum of their individual effects. Cooperative interaction among groups, especially among the
acquired subsidiaries or merged parts of a corporation, that creates an enhanced combined effect
The American Heritage, Dictionary of the English Language. 4th Edition (2000)
Sinergi Nabi dan Sahabat
Sinergi formula Islam 1+1=3 + bantuan Tuhan
Perang Badar, umat Islam 313 berdepan dgn
musuh 1,000
Sesungguhnya Allah telah menolong kamu
dalam perang Badar sedangkan kamu ketika itu
orang-orang yang lemah. Kerana itu
bertakwalah* kepada Allah supaya kamu
Surah Ali Imran, 123

*Takwa: Berhati-hati dalam hidup supaya tidak terjebak dengan pekara yang haram serta
bersungguh-sungguh semasa beramal berlandaskan Quran dan Sunah.
Teamwork Semut
Surah An-Naml (semut)
Kepintaran semut
Hingga apabila mereka sampai di lembah semut berkatalah
seekor semut, Wahai semut-semut masuklah ke dalam sarang-
sarangmu agar kamu tidak diinjak oleh Sulaiman dan tenteranya
sedangkan mereka tidak menyedari. Maka dia (Sulaiman)
tersenyum dengan tertawa kerana mendengar perkataan semut
Surah An-Naml, 18-19

Anggaran 30 juta jenis serangga: 20,000 drpnya adalah dari kump.

Semut. Jumlah semut di dunia anggaran: 10 juta billion

Afrika dan Amerika Selatan: semut jenis Driver Ants dan Army Ants.
Setiap kolonial mengandungi antara 170,000 700,000 ekor semut
Teamwork & Pergorbanan Semut
Lalui kawasan lapangtentera semut akan
kedepanjaga keselamatan rakan rakan lain
Melalui paritbuat jambatan semut
Three categories:
Transition processes (between periods of action)
Mission analysis
Goal specification
Strategy formulation
Action processes (when the team attempts to accomplish its goals
and objectives)
Monitoring progress toward goals
Systems monitoring
Team monitoring and backup behaviour
Interpersonal processes (present in both action periods and
transition periods)
Conflict management
Motivation and confidence building
Affect management
Problems solving: A single brain cant bounce different ideas off of
each other.

Accomplish tasks faster: A single person taking on multiple tasks will

not be able to perform at a same pace as a team can.

Healthy competition: A healthy competition in groups can be used to

motivate individuals and help the team excel.

Developing relationships: A team that continues to work together

will eventually develop an increased level of bonding.]

Everyone has unique qualities: Every team member can offer their
unique knowledge and ability to help improve other team members.

In healthcare: teamwork is associated with increased patient safety

1.spoken, written, acted on, etc., in strict privacy or secrecy
; secret: a confidential
2.indicating confidence or intimacy; imparting private matt
ers: a confidential tone of voice
3.having another's trust or confidence; entrusted with
secrets or private affairs: a confidential secretary.
4.a.bearing the classification confidential, usually being
above restricted and below secret. to persons authorized to use information,
documents, etc., so classified.
confidentiality /confidentiality/
the principle in medical ethics that the information a patient
reveals to a health care provider is private and has limits on how
and when it can be disclosed to a third party.
Confidentiality Obligations
all documentation and information is maintained in strict confidence at all
review documentation is stored in a secure manner to prevent unauthorized
it must be transmitted using secure techniques and when it is no longer
required, it must be destroyed in a secure manner
any loss or theft of the documentation must be reported


Auditor/s have undertaken not to disclose any information or documents

obtained during the audit, and the final report, to any third party, without the
expressed approval of the client unless required by the law.
Conflict of Interest
Conflict of Interest (COI) means a conflict between a
participant's duties and responsibilities with regard to the
Review Process, and a participant's private, professional,
business or public interests.
A conflict of interest (COI) occurs when
an individual or organization is involved in
multiple interests, one of which could possibly corrupt the
There may be a real, perceived or potential conflict of
interest when the participant:
would receive professional or personal benefit resulting
from the funding opportunity or application being reviewed;
has a professional or personal relationship with an applicant
or the applicants institution; or
has a direct or indirect financial interest in a funding
opportunity or application being reviewed
Common forms of conflicts of interest
Self-dealing, in which an official who controls an organization
causes it to enter into a transaction with the official, or with
another organization that benefits the official. The official is
on both sides of the "deal."
Outside employment, in which the interests of one job
contradict another.
Family interests, in which a spouse, child, or other close
relative is employed (or applies for employment) or where
goods or services are purchased from such a relative or a firm
controlled by a relative. For this reason, many employment
applications ask if one is related to a current employee. If this
is the case, the relative could then recuse from any hiring
decisions. Abuse of this type of conflict of interest is
called nepotism.
Gifts from friends who also do business with the person
receiving the gifts. (Such gifts may include non-tangible things
of value such as transportation and lodging.)

An engineer is a professional practitioner

of engineering, concerned with applying scientific
knowledge, mathematics, and ingenuity to develop
solutions for technical problems. Engineers design
materials, structures, and systems while considering
the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation,
safety, and cost. The word engineer is derived from
the Latin roots ingeniare ("to contrive, devise")
and ingenium ("cleverness").

Source: BEM

Human Rights
Professional Rights

Employee Rights
Human Rights
Fundamental Freedoms
i. freedom of conscience and religion
ii. Freedom of thought, belief, opinion
and expression, including freedom of
the press and other media of
iii.freedom of peaceful assembly
iv.freedom of association

Democratic rights (vote)

Mobility Right (leave, stay)
Legal Rights
- life, liberty, security
- not be arbitrarily detained, torture
Equality Rights
- no discrimination based on race, ethnicity,
color, religion, sec, age, mental or physical
- National language
Employee Rights
Pursue outside activities
- includes political or special interest group
- other employment pursuits
- no right to harm or sabotage employer, on or off the job
- unwarranted search, drug testing
Due process (fair treatment, process, appeal)
No sexual harassment
- No physical, psychological attack, coercion, abuse,
- Often related to female as employees, but applicable
to any relationship of unequal power
Professional Rights
Right of Professional Conscience
Not participate or condone unethical
Talk publicity about work, involved in
professional organization (respecting
Recognition, including fair
Protect public interest
The Rights for Recognition
Right to professional recognition for
their work and accomplishments
and their accountability
- right to speak about work
(remember confidentiality)
- also internal recognition (e.g.
patterns, promotion, raises)
- Includes fair remuneration
Accountability vs. Responsibility
You can delegate responsibility, but you can't
delegate accountability to any one. If someone
gives you a job to do, you can get someone else to
do it, but you are still accountable to produce the
results. If the job isn't done right the only person to
blame is you, because even though you've
delegated the responsibility, you are still
accountable. Responsibility means who is going to
do the work and Accountability means who will be
answerable in case there is some problem in the
work being done.
E.g. A team member may be responsible for writing
the code for the application but the project
manager is accountable in case the delivery gets
Right of Professional Conscience
The right to exercise professional judgment in carrying
out ones duties, and to exercises this judgment in a
moral and ethnical manner.

This is the most fundamental professional right; essential

for engineers in order to carry out their professional duties.

Professional conscience requires that the engineer can

make their own decisions (autonomous moral judgment)
and hence freely pose questions.

These rights to question do not meant that everything

must be challenged (abuse of the right)
Source: Martin, Mike W and Roland Schnizinger, Ethics in Engineering, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 1996
Right of Conscientious Refusal
Refusal to participate in or condone unethical
behavior / activities
- based on their belief that it is so
- generally two categories:
those generally considered to be so
within the profession (e.g. forging, lying,
bribes, etc.)
differing yet reasonable opinions (e.g.
Also includes right to protect public interests,
Again, must not be abused
Source: Martin, Mike W and Roland Schnizinger, Ethics in Engineering, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 1996
General principles - Engineer
Engineers shall hold a fundamental the safety, health and welfare of
the public.
Engineers shall perform services only in areas of their competence.
Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objective and
truthful manner.
Engineers shall act in professional matters for each employer or
client as faithful agents or trustees, and shall avoid conflicts of
Engineers shall build their professional reputation on the merit of
their services and shall not compete unfairly with others.
Engineers shall act in such a manner as to uphold and enhance the
honour, integrity, and dignity of the engineering profession and shall
act with zero-tolerance for bribery, fraud, and corruption.
Engineers shall continue their professional development throughout
their careers, and shall provide opportunities for the professional
development of those engineers under their supervision.
The Duties and Responsibilities of a
Chemical Engineer
Duties are ascribed to people naturally, this is
expected of and from a reasonable human beings
i.e. duty of care, but responsibilities are
demanded-duties that are brought upon our self
because of our close connections with others e.g.
responsibilities you have towards your children.
A task is a job of work, usually something that it is
hard or difficult to complete. A duty refers to
something you should or ought to do. Let me put
both words into one sentence: If you are the boss
of an enterprise, it is your duty to be optimistic
even when business is bad but this can often
personally be a difficult task.
What is a Chemical Engineer?
is responsible for manufacturing chemicals and developing
processes for doing so.
design chemical plant equipment as well
involve in developing may include rubber, plastic, gasoline, cement
and paper others chemical product

General Responsibilities of a Chemical Engineer

who has multiple job responsibilities under their charge. One who works as a
chemical engineer must do a lot of research in the beginning to determine
the best way of producing certain products.
along with researching the issues, the chemical engineer must design
programs, machinery and processes which will allow the products to be
perform a multitude of tests along the way to ensure that everything is going
according to plan.
must consult with numerous individuals to ensure that their job is done to
the best of their ability and the desired outcome is reached.
Engineer - Obligation to society
The paramount value recognized by engineers is the safety and
welfare of the public. As demonstrated by the following selected
excerpts, this is the case for professional engineering organizations
in nearly every jurisdiction and engineering discipline:
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: IEEE
Institution of Civil Engineers: ICE
Professional Engineers Ontario:
National Society of Professional Engineers:
American Society of Mechanical Engineers: ASME
Institute of Industrial Engineers: IIE
American Institute of Chemical Engineers: AICE
American Nuclear Society: ANS

Board of Engineer Malaysia: BEM
Institute of Engineer Malaysia: IEM
The Chernobyl disaster - Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine 26 April 1986
Nuclear Power Plant Schematic Diagram
Basic Steam/Water Cycle
Whistle Blowing - Definition
An act where an employee or former
employee releases information about a
significant moral problem outside normal
organization channels to someone in a
position to act the problem
The act by an employee of informing the
public or higher management of unethical or
illegal behavior by an employer or supervisor
Whistle Blowing
Duty of an engineer report to authorities on
possible risk to others from a client/employer
failing to follow the engineers directions.

An engineer may be disciplined or have their

license revoked, even if the failure to report to

In many cases, this duty can be discharged by

advising the client of the consequences in a
forthright matter, and ensuring the client takes
the engineer's advice.
However, the engineer must ensure that the remedial
steps are taken and, if they are not, the situation must
be reported to the appropriate authority.

In very rare cases, where even a governmental

authority may not take appropriate action, the
engineer can only discharge the duty by making the
situation public.

As a result, whistleblowing by professional engineers is

not an unusual event, and courts have often sided with
engineers in such cases, overruling duties to employers
and confidentiality considerations that otherwise
would have prevented the engineer from speaking out.
Main Features
The act of disclosure
- Intentional conveying of information
The topic
- E.g. criminal behavior, safety issues
The agent
- The person who speaks out
The recipient
- The person who may be able to act
Another view: Four conditionswhistle blowing
will explode
- Will harm occur if it is not corrected
- If harm is not immediate, could it become a problem over
- This whistle blower must be first hand disputable evidence
(no hearsay) based on his/her area of expertise

- Can you actually stop it?

Last resort
- Are there others more knowledgeable than you to present
the case
- Have all other lines of action been exhausted
If these four conditions have
been met, you may blow the
whistle if the matter is sufficiently
Professionals have the moral
obligation to whistle blow if the
safety of the public is at stake of
if a criminal activity has occurred.
Common sense procedures for whistle blowing
Work though established channels first; understand formal
and informal procedures.
Do it right away
Keep it very impersonal and in professional tones (use soft
rhetoric); this helps to minimize accusations of personality
Use memos, which record your concerns at all possible,
times and copy yourself. When sending email, copy yourself
at all times (a good thing to do anytime)
Be meticulous in your calculations or observations; keep an
accurate diary with dates and events document
Consult colleagues for advices- technical and personal
Go to your professional organization for assistance and help
Get a lawyer(all professional should have a god lawyer that
they can consult at all times).
Preventing Whistle Blowing
Set an environment that negates the need to
whistle blow
- The company should have a culture which
encourages ethnical behavior in all aspects of
tis operation
- There should be clear lines of
communications in the company
- There should be no reprisals for raising
concerns to high level managers and the
employees should feel free to do so
- Management/ the company should be willing
to admit within the company or indeed,
publicly (where appropriate) that a mistake
has been made