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Savannah Kruse

Anatomy Period 5
March 3, 2017
This Lab report addresses the structures and functions within the nervous system.
Nerves transmit signals to the entire body in order to perform different functions. Nerves are
able to transmit signals by impulses in order to move the signals along (See Figure 3). Various
infusions, neurotoxins, in this case, can affect how these nerves function and trigger different
internal reactions, particularly disruption neurotransmitter function and blockages (See Table 1).
Whenever the body is physically damaged, it can also cause different levels of spinal nerve
function and can determine what parts of the body an individual will be able to use (See Figure
7). The Nervous System as a whole consists of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems.
Through a Vast communicating network of cells and the information they can send and receive,
the nervous system can detect changes in the body, make decisions, and stimulate muscles or
glands to respond (Holes Human Anatomy, 361). The Central Nervous System (CNS) includes
the brain, cranial nerves, and the spinal cord (See Figures 1A, 1B, 1C). Different stimuli can
trigger responses from the cranial nerves and activate different portions of the brain (See Table
2 and Figure 2). These would be considered sensory reflexes, as they mostly affect the senses
and functions of sensory organs. The Spinal cord runs through and is protected by the vertebra
and different forms of neuroglia (See Figure 6). Sensory Organs, such as the eyes, ears, and
nose are directly connected to the CNS via cranial nerves which run into the brain. The eyes
have multiple cranial nerves connected to them and are composed of several layers themselves
(See Figure 8). The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) includes the nerves and ganglia outside
of the brain and spinal cord (See Figures 4, 5A, and 5B). Different forms of contact to the nerves
of the PNS create responses known as reflexes (See table 3). Because PNS Nerves innervate
into multiple muscles, the reactions would be considered motor responses.

TABLE 1. Neurotoxins from Planet Soma Packet.


Mutant Gene Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel in nociceptive neurons; DNA

produces nonfunctional channels

Orange Juice Synthetic Toxin Destroys myelin covering your optic nerves and motor Chemical Compound;
neurons. Herbicidal Warfare Vietnam

Batrachotoxin Causes voltage-gated sodium channels to open at a Poison-Dart Frog

more negative membrane potentials and also prevents
their inactivation.

Dendrotoxin K Blocks voltage-gated potassium channels. Black Mamba Snake

Sevoflurane Opens potassium Channels in neurons of reticular highly fluorinated methyl

formation in brainstem. isopropyl ether used as an
inhalational anesthetic

Potassium Brain flooded with 10x Potassium Levels Nature

Sodium Channel Mutation Alters voltage sensitivity of sodium channel, only Sodium Channels
opening it at positive membrane potentials. Causes

Maculotoxin Blocks Sodium Channels Blue-Ringed Octopus

Latrotoxin Enhances acetylcholine release Black Widow Spider

a-bungarotoxin Blocks acetylcholine receptor Krait Snake

Tetrodotoxin Blocks Sodium Channels Pufferfish

Apamin Blocks Potassium Channels Bee

Charybdotoxin Blocks Potassium Receptors Scorpion

Conotoxin One type blocks voltage-sensitive calcium channels; Cone Snail

one blocks voltage-sensitive sodium channels; one
blocks ACh receptors

Figure 1A. Dorsal Image of Sheep Brain with Structures Labeled. CNS includes brain and spinal cord. Photo By Author.

Figure 1B. Ventral Image of Sheep Brain with Structures Labeled. Photo By Author.
Figure 1C. Sagittal Section of Sheep Brain with Interior Structures Labeled. Photo By Author.

Figure 2. Ventral Image of Sheep Brain Labeled with Nerves. Cranial Nerves and spinal nerves are of the PNS. Photo By Author.
TABLE 2. Brain Structures and Functions.


Cerebrum Associated with higher brain function (thought and action)

Cerebellum associatedwithregulationandcoordinationofmovement,

Pons Motor control and sensory analysis

Medulla Oblongata Maintaining vital body functions (breathing and heartrate)

Gyri folding created by the sulci and gyri increases the amount of
cerebral cortex that can fit in the skull

Sulci folding created by the sulci and gyri increases the amount of
cerebral cortex that can fit in the skull

Corpus Callosum Connects the two hemispheres of the brain; integrates motor,
sensory, and cognitive performances

Lateral Ventricle contain cerebrospinal fluid, a clear, watery fluid that provides
cushioning for the brain while also helping to circulate nutrients
and remove waste

Thalamus Sensory and motor functions

Pineal Gland produces melatonin, which helps maintain circadian rhythm

and regulate reproductive hormones

Superior Colliculus primary integrating center for eye movements

4th Ventricle protect the human brain from trauma (via a cushioning effect)
and to help form the central canal, which runs the length of the
spinal cord

Spinal Cord receives sensory information and conveys motor function from
cranial nerves

Figure 3. Graph of Nerve impulse with Voltage Timeline. Data from Planet Soma Packet; graph by Author.
TABLE 3: Cranial Nerves Lab and Data. Photos and Results by Author.

Cranial Nerve M/S/Both Innervation Test Results Function Pictures

(Subject: 16 y/o male)

Olfactory Sensory Upper Nasal Smell + Smell

Cavity Coffee

Optic Sensory Retina Shine + Vision and

Flashlight Detection of
light by pupil

Oculomotor Motor Orbits of See finger + Eye

Eyes in movement and
peripheral pupil changes

Trochlear Motor Superior Follow + Down/ Inward

Oblique finger eye movement
Muscles downward

Trigeminal Both Eye, Mouth, Touch + Facial

Jaw forehead sensation and
and clench chewing

Abducens Motor Lateral Follow + Lateral eye

Rectus finger to the movement
Muscles side

Facial Both Sides of SMILE + Facial

Face expression
and taste in
front 2/3rds of

Vestibulocochlear Sensory Inner ear Hear proper + Hearing and

tone for 16 Balance
(16,000 Hz)

Glossopharyngeal Both Pharynx, Swallow + Swallowing,

Tonsils, gag reflex, and
Posterior speech
1/3rd of
Vagus Both Chest and Speak + Swallowing,
Abdomen gag reflex, and
muscle control
internal organs

Accessory Motor Trapezius Shrug + Shoulder

and shoulders Shrug, Neck
Sternocleido Turning

Hypoglossal Motor Tongue Stick out + Tongue

tongue Movement

Figure 4. Anterior View of Mink Nerves within the Thoracic and Brachial Region. Photo By Author.
Figure 5A. Lateral View of Mink Spinal and Leg Nerves. Photo By Author.

Figure 5B. Medial View of Mink Spinal and Leg Nerves. Photo By Author.
TABLE 4. Spinal Nerves Lab and Data. Records by Author.


Biceps + - Thumb over biceps, hit C5 C6

with sharp end, watch
for flexion

Triceps + + Hit triceps brachii with C7 C8

sharp end, watch for

Brachioradialis + + Strike brachioradialis C5 C6

with broad end, watch
for supination of hand

Hoffmans + - Flick distal phalanx of Pyramidal Tract

index finger, other Lesions
fingers should not

Patellar + + Strike patellar tendon L2 L3 L4

with sharp end; leg
should extend

Achilles + + Strike calcaneal S1 S2

tendon with broad end;
foot should flex

Babinski - + Run handle of mallet S1 S2 L4

from heel along lateral
edge of foot; toes
should curl downwards

Crossed Extensor + + Prick pad of middle C5 C6

finger; fingers on
opposite hands should

Glabellar + Tap glabella of Trigeminal & Facial

forehead while eyes Nerve
are closed. Eyes
should blink, and
individual may flinch

Abdominal Did Not Test T8 T9 T 10 T11 T12

Figure 6. Cross Section of Mink Spinal Cord. Central Nervous System. Photo By Author.
Figure 7. A Case of Spinal Cord Injury Infographic, which addresses the function/anatomy of the spinal cord, levels of injury,
common causes of SCI, and differentiation of Paraplegia and Tetraplegia. Photo by Author.

Figure 8. Sheep eye separated by layers. Ordered left to right showing the path of light through the eye, where the sensory
information transforms luminant energy into electrical energy. Photo by Author.

1. Shier,D.,Butler,J.,Lewis,R.,&Shier,D.(1999).Hole'shuman
2. Chapter10NervousSystemI.(1999).InHole'sHumanAnatomy&
3. Figure1A[PersonalphotographtakeninC.H.YoeHighSchool].
4. Figure1B[PersonalphotographtakeninC.H.YoeHighSchool].
5. Figure1C[PersonalphotographtakeninC.H.YoeHighSchool].
6. Figure2[PersonalphotographtakeninC.H.YoeHighSchool].
7. Figure3[PersonalphotographtakeninC.H.YoeHighSchool].
8. Figure4[PersonalphotographtakeninC.H.YoeHighSchool].
9. Figure5A[PersonalphotographtakeninC.H.YoeHighSchool].
10. Figure5B[PersonalphotographtakeninC.H.YoeHighSchool].
11. Figure6[PersonalphotographtakeninC.H.YoeHighSchool].
12. Figure7[PersonalphotographtakeninC.H.YoeHighSchool].
13. Figure8[PersonalphotographtakeninC.H.YoeHighSchool].
14. Kruse,S.P.(2017,February21).[Table1].Unpublishedraw
15. Kruse,S.P.(2017,April3).[Table2].Unpublishedrawdata.
16. Kruse,S.P.(2017,March6).[Table3].Unpublishedrawdata.
17. Kruse,S.P.(2017,March27).[Table4].Unpublishedrawdata.
18. Grobstein,P.(2012,September5).BrainStructuresandtheir