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Experiment no.


AIM: To study the effect of force on the flat plate vane.

APPARATUS: Test plates, measuring tank, stopwatch, etc

When a plate is placed in the path of a Jet, the jet exerts a force on the plate. This
force can be calculated from the impulse momentum equation. Momentum equation is based on
Newtons second law of motion, which states that The algebraic sum of external forces applied
to control volume of fluid in any direction is equal to the rate of change of momentum in that
The external forces include the compounds of the weight of the fluid and of the forces
exerted externally upon the boundary surface of the control volume.Water turbines are widely
used throughout the world to generate power. In the type of water turbine referred to as a Pelton
wheel, one or more water jets are directed tangentially on to vanes or buckets that are fastened to
the rim of the turbine disc. The impact of the water on the vanes generates a torque on the wheel,
causing it to rotate and to develop power.
Description of Apparatus
There is arrangement, in which water supplied from the Hydraulic Bench is fed to a vertical pipe
terminating in a tapered nozzle. This produces a jet of water which impinges on a vane, in the
form of a flat plate or a hemispherical cup.
The nozzle and vane are contained within a transparent cylinder, and at the base of the cylinder
there is an outlet from which the flow is directed to the measuring tank of the vane is supported
by a lever which carries a jockey weight, and which is restrained by a light spring. The lever
may be set to a balanced position (as indicated by a tally supported from it) by placing the jockey
weight at its zero position, and then adjusting the knurled nut above the spring. Any force
generated by impact of the jet on the vane may now be measured by moving the jockey weight
along the lever until the tally shows that it has been restored to its original balanced position.
Arrangement of Apparatus

1. The desired vane was fixed on the apparatus.
2. It was ensured that all the on/off switches given on the panel were are at off position.
3. The main power supply was switched on.
4. The pump was switched on.
5. The flow of water through the channel was regulated with the help of given flow control
6. The initial heading of the plate provided at the top was noted and a known weight was
placed on the plate.
7. The valve was controlled so that the applied weight on the top was counterbalanced by
the impact of Jet.
8. The flow rate was measured using a vessel and stopwatch.
Velocity of Jet V = Q / A
Q = Actual discharge in m /sec

Diameter of nozzle d = 10mm = 0.01m

Area of cross-section of nozzle A = d /4 = 7.85 10
m 2

Area of measuring tank = 0.1 m 2

Density of water at ambient temperature = 1000 kg/m 3

1. Weight of aluminum disk = 0.073 kg

2. Weight of SS rod = 0.193 kg
3. Total weight of the flat plate vane = 0.6165kg


Time(sec) Height in vane(cm) Q, Flow rate(m3/sec)*10-4 Vwater*10-3 Vjet Fcal

3.68 13 5.43 5.43 6.9317 3.7482

3.87 11 5.16 5.16 6.5699 3.3848

3.79 17 5.27 5.27 6.7100 3.5306

4 16 5.27 5.27 6.7100 3.5306

4.10 15 5.27 5.27 6.7100 3.5306

1) The theoretical value of impact force for a weight of 615.5 gm was approximately
found to be 6.0381 N and the experimental value was found to be 3.5449 N.
The impact of Jet on vane was studied and the theoretical and experimental values of
impact force were compared. The error was found to be 41.3%.

1. The flow rate should be maintained at a value where the vane and flow remain in
equilibrium, so that the vane indicates a constant head. The height shouldnt have too
large or too small values.
2. Parallax error must be avoided while measuring the height of water level and vane.