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1 Anvil

The MTBF for the anvil is 566.4 hours. From Table XXX. it was noted that the reliability of the
anvil drops below 0.5 after 395 hours. The failure rate and standard deviation is not used for this
component since it follows a Weibull distribution and therefore, the failure rate is not constant.
The following failures occurred over a period of 3 years:

Trapped iron removed 3

Overload (Fuse, tripped) 8
Adjust anvil 9
Tensioner 3
Replaced pin 1

The total number of failures for anvil is 19 and the total downtime is 10.51 hours.

The following was considered and assumed when designing the maintenance strategies:

- Only the grid bars are checked and replaced when required on Sundays during the crop
- A general inspection of the anvil is carried out yearly, whereby it is dismounted and
thoroughly checked. This is carried out during the off-crop season, therefore there is no
- The anvil can fail anytime.
- According to the FMEA conducted, the anvil is considered as a critical component due to
the fact that its failure is completely random and this may cause severe injuries if not well
- Failure of the anvil may be due to heavy vibrations, overloading or failure in the linking
- In order to maintain the reliability of the anvil over 0.5, a maintenance has to be carried
out before 394 hours, which comes up to every 16 days. Preventive (Current maintenance plan)

The preventive maintenance will be carried out during the maintenance window available on
The following inspections will be carried out every 2 weeks:
o Cracks on tensioner using die penetration method
o Visual inspection to detect wear out of grid bars
o Inspect for sheared bolts
o Anvil supports
o Inspect for corrosion
o Position of anvil and re adjust if necessary
Daily preventive maintenance:
o Hourly check for foreign bodies stuck. It should be noted that this will be carried out
by the operator and will not induce labour cost for maintenance.
o Verify anvil settings prior to start up.
Eliminates loss caused due to maintenance being carried out during production time since the
maintenance will be planned for Sundays. Reactive

-Run to failure

Heavy losses in terms of production.

This method will lead to massive production time loss as the failure may happen
The parts will be replaced as they fail.


It is to be noted that for this method, most of the parts will be replaced upon
failure due to the items not being repairable.
However, the tensioner will be welded upon failure. Condition Based Monitoring (predictive and real time monitoring)

The CBM will include vibration sensors and an online system which will continuously
monitor the vibration at critical locations on the anvil. This vibration sensor will be used
to predict and locate overloads and to be able to analyse the root cause of the overload.
For this purpose the J3 VIBRATING WIRE TRIAXIAL JOINTMETER is used.
The sensor will locate cracks at welded joints more easily. The cracks on the tensioner
will be welded.
Any failure due to overload will be nullified as the overload will be detected at an earlier
stage and eliminated.
Several power patches could be used to monitor the electrical circuit and this information
can then be used to control the current flow if required.
No production time loss as all maintenance will be planned during the maintenance
window. Redesign

A stronger welding technique such as gas tungsten arc welding may be considered.
Further, a screen may be used just above the anvil to reduce the speed and thus the
impact with which the load, i.e., the cane, falls on the anvil. This will be mostly used to
reduce the impact of foreign bodies on the anvil. This will reduce the risk of the anvil
falling down.
It is estimated that this will cost around Rs 30 000 40 000.
A second tensioner may be added to the anvil. This may help in maintaining the anvil in
position and reduce the amount of times the anvil needs to be re adjusted. It is estimated
that the number of anvil re adjustments will be reduced by half.

Table XXX: Costs for the different strategies for anvil

General cost of Production loss Labour
Maintenance Strategy Total (Rs)
anvil(Rs) (Rs) (Rs)
3 x 700 +
8 x 350 + 1 x 39 x 700 +
Preventive - 44400
1000 = 3800 16 x 700 =
8 x 350 + 1 x 0.5 x 19 x 374
Run to 19 x 700 3.58
1000 + 3 x 000 = 3.55
Failure =13 300 million
5200= 19 400 million
0.5 x 19 x 374
8 x 350 + 1 x 19 x 700 3.57
Repair 000 = 3.55
1000 = 3800 =13 300 million
3 x 700 +
Condition Based 8 x 350 + 1 x
- 16 x 700 = 17 100
Monitoring 1000 = 3800
13 300
30 000 +8 x 0.5 x 14 x 374
14 x 700 = 2.66
Redesign 350 + 1 x 1000 000 = 2.62
9800 million
= 33 800 million