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Stars and Galaxies Review (Unit 4.

2 Test)
1. What term refers to matter that emits no light at any wavelength? Dark
2. What term refers to clouds of gas and dust where stars form? A nebula.
3. Approximately what is the age of the universe? 13 to 14 billion years old.
4. What is an object whose gravity is so great that no light can escape? Black
5. Scientists classify stars by their spectra.
6. On what day of the year is the number of daylight and dark hours equal? The
7. Blue-white stars have the most mass.
8. What are the main gasses that make up most stars? Hydrogen and helium.
9. What is the phrase given to the combination of several atomic nuclei into one
large nucleus? Nuclear fusion.
10.The Moon orbits Earth and Earth orbits the Sun. What does the Sun orbit?
The center of the Milky Way galaxy.
11.What are the characteristics of an irregular galaxy? They have an odd
shape from the gravitational pull from neighboring galaxies, contain
many young stars, and have areas of intense star formation.
12. Know how to use the HR Diagram. Refer to the HR Diagram on this
website under projects.
13.By studying a stars spectra, scientists can determine the gas and dust
found in the stars atmosphere.
14.What holds planets, stars, gas, and dust together in a galaxy? Gravity.
15.What instrument can be used to analyze the composition of stars? A
16.What distance is an AU based on? The distance between Earth and the
17.Draw a cross section of a star and label all of the layers.
Stars and Galaxies Review (Unit 4.2 Test)
18.Describe what happens in the Suns convection zone. Hot gas moves up
toward the surface and cooler gas moves deeper into the interior.
19.What color of stars tend to have the most mass? Blue-white colored stars.
20.Apparent Magnitude It is a measure of how bright stars appear from
21.Luminosity It is the true brightness if an object.
22.Spectroscope A device that spreads light into different wavelengths.
23.Light-year It is the distance light travels in 1 year.
24.Nuclear Fusion It is a process that occurs when several nuclei of
several atoms combine into one larger nucleus.
25. Nuclear Fission A nuclear reaction where a large nucleus splits
and releases energy on impact with another particle.
26.Radiative Zone It is a shell of cooler hydrogen above a stars core.
27.Chromosphere It is the orange-red layer above the photosphere.
28.The Doppler effect tells us that when something moves toward us the waves
are compressed, and when they move away the waves are stretched. How
does this relate to light from stars and galaxies? The brighter the star is
the closer it is, and the dimmer it is, the farther away it is. The
farther away a galaxy is, the faster it moves away from Earth and
the more it is red-shifted.
29.What does a high absolute magnitude tell you about a star? The actual
brightness of the star is high.
30.If a star has a high apparent magnitude, would it appear very bright or very
dim in the night sky? The star would appear very bright in the sky.
31.What part of the electromagnetic can we see with the naked eye? We can
see the visible light section on the electromagnetic spectrum.
32.What happens to the hydrogen in the core of a star? Hydrogen fuses and
forms helium. The core will contract and heat up because of gravity.
33.The Milky Way galaxy is a spiral galaxy, around 100,000 light years
across, and the galaxy we live in.
34.The Milky Way is a member of the Local Group which is a cluster of about how
many galaxies? 30 galaxies.