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21st January 2017

Describe the effects of too little and too much exercise on


health(10)
Ref. pg 168-171

An average amount of exercise improves a persons well being and


health. It also increases the fitness of ones heart as well as the
capacity of their lungs.

Inadequate exercise can have adverse effects such as:


Obesity, increased risk of CHD, Diabetes and Muscle Atrophy.

There is a strong correlation between the levels of exercise in


a population and obesity levels. Due to a lack of exercise, there is
greater energy intake than output and hence the body stores it as
fat, leading to obesity(r.
The lack of exercise can also cause fatty deposits to develop
around the heart and in arteries and as a result increasing the
chances of developing CHD. The fatty deposits can also enter the
valves or chambers of the heart, leading to heart failure or a
myocardial infraction.
There is a correlation between low levels of exercise and Type
2 Diabetes. The body is no longer able to produce enough insulin
and body cells cannot respond to the insulin made and therefore
leads to Type 2 Diabetes.
The muscles are not being exercised to their full capacity and
hence they begin to breakdown. This causes a loss of lean muscle
mass and fatty tissue develops around the muscles. Without the
muscles burning fat during exercise, the metabolism is slow down
and weight gain increases.

However, over exercising can result in injuries, increased


infection rate, suppression of the Immune system and irregular
sleep cycle and fatigue.

There is a correlation between intense exercise and the risk of


infections such as colds and sore throats. This many be due to a
exposure of pathogens, for example being in close proximity with
thousands of people in a marathon, making the spread of viruses
fated.
The suppression of the immune system is due to decreased activity
of T killer cells, T helper calls, B cells and phagocytes after vigorous
exercise to allow the body to recover. (elaborate on how decrease in
each of these cells affects immnunity) These particular cells are
required to fight off pathogens that attack the body.
Decrease in cell count causes:
T killer cells causes a decrease in the ability to fight
intracellular pathogens such as viruses
Phagocytes- decreased processing in antigens.
21st January 2017

B cells- less antibody production and secondary immune


system declines.
T helper cells- antibody production decreases-less
cytokines. Reduction in inflammation.
Too much exercise results in adrenaline being constantly
pumped around the body with the mind racing fast, and thus
making it difficult to fall or stay asleep at night. This upsets the
sleep cycle and causes fatigue as one feels they are not getting
enough sleep.

LITTLE EXERCISE:
Increase in BMI- energy intake is greater than energy
expenditure. REF. ENERGY BUDGETS (UNIT 2)

Obesity- Associated with BMI above 30. Increase in plasma


cholesterol, increased plaques. increased risk of CVD.

Type 2 Diabetes- reduced response to insulin so receptors on


liver cells are less responsive. No conversion of excess glucose into
glycogen.

correlation between low exercise, obesity and health risks.

EXCESSIVE EXERCISE:
Increase in respiratory tract infections (flu, sore throat) this
suppresses the immune system. Exercise will lower the cell count
T killer, T helper and phagocytes and B cells and the decrease
causes:
Reduced T killer cells cause a decrease in the ability to
fight intracellular pathogens such as viruses.
Phagocytes- decreased processing in antigens.
B cells- less antibody production and secondary immune
system declines.
T helper cells- antibody production decreases-less
cytokines. Reduction in inflammation.