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Course contents (2 credit hours)


Engineering Materials
Introduction to the engineering materials
Introduction to various physical, mechanical and thermal
properties of Engineering Materials
Introduction to Metals, Composites, Ceramics and
Polymers
Application of the engineering materials (Iron, steel,
stainless steel, nickle, copper alloys, aluminum and its
alloys, lead titanium and tantalum, PVC, Teflon, polyolefins,
polytera flouro ethylene (PTFE) glass, stone ware, acid
resistant bricks and tiles)
Biomaterials and advance materials
Introduction to corrosion

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Learning objectives Books


Smith, William Fortune (1990), Principles of
Materials Science and Engineering 2nd Ed. New
To learn about the materials used for various York: McGraw-Hill.
engineering purposes, and study of their
suitability for a specific end use. William D. Callister. Jr., (2002), Materials Science
and Engineering, 6th Edition, Wiley & Sons.

Srivastava C.M., Srinivasan C. (2000) Science of


Engineering Materials 2nd Ed. New Age
International Limited, Publishers.

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Engineering materials Examples


Materials are the substances of which
anything is composed of.
Engineering materials are the substances
used to produce society beneficial products or
technical products.
There is no distinguishable line between both
?
Materials and Engineering Materials, and they
can be used interchangeably.

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Engineering Materials Classifications of Engineering Materials

What is Materials Science? Engineering


Why should we know about it? Materials
Materials drive our society
Stone Age
Bronze Age Metals Ceramics Composites
Iron Age
Now?
Silicon Age? Electronic Polymeric
Polymer Age?

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Classifications of Engineering Materials Engineering materials


Include both pure metals and combinations of metallic elements.
Engineering Metals (Cu, Al etc.). Used where better electrical or strengthened
materials are required. Automobile engine blocks, electrical
Materials conductor wire etc.
SiO2-Na2O-CaO, SiO2, MgO, Barium titanate, etc. used as
Ceramics window glass, refractories, transducers (due to piezoelectric
behavior)

Metals Ceramics Composites PET, PVC, Epoxy etc. used in food packaging, adhesives for
Polymers joining plies in plywood, encapsulation of integrated circuits

Composed of two or more individual materials. The design goal


Electronic Polymeric of a composite is to achieve a combination of properties
(Semiconductors) Composites Examples include plywood, concrete, fiber glass, carbon fiber
reinforced polymer etc.
These materials have electrical properties that are intermediate
between the electrical conductors (metals and metal alloys) and
Advance Electronic
Biomaterials insulators (ceramics and polymers). Semiconductors have
Materials 9 revolutionized the electronics and computer industries. 10

nanotechnology and biomaterials are


providing materials scientists with an
entirely new palette of molecular,
organic, biological and inorganic
Engineering materials building blocks to design and
assemble nano-engineered materials
Biomaterials are mostly employed in the human body for
Biomaterials replacement of diseased or damaged body parts. with unique functionalities.
Advance Nano-engineering materials, optical fibers, For Revision of Previous
microelectromechanical materials.
materials
Concepts

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Atomic Structure & Interatomic Bonding-Revision Atomic Structure -Revision

Atom, Neutrons, electrons, protons, atom electrons 9.11 x 10-31 kg


protons
atomic number, atomic mass, mole, }
neutrons 1.67 x 10 kg
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crystal structure, unit cells, Primary


atomic number = # of protons in nucleus of atom
bonding, secondary bonding, what = # of electrons
promote bonding and what properties atomic mass unit = amu = 1/12 mass of 12C
are inferred from bonding etc. Atomic wt = wt of 6.022 x 1023 molecules or atoms
1 amu/atom = 1 g/mol

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Atomic Structure -Revision Electronic Structure-Revision


Some of the following properties are determined by electronic Electrons have wavelike and particulate properties.
structure
Two of the wavelike characteristics are
Chemical
electrons are in orbitals defined by a probability.
Electrical
each orbital at discrete energy level is determined by
Thermal quantum numbers.
Optical

Quantum # Designation
n = principal (energy level-shell) K, L, M, N, O (1, 2, 3, etc.)
l = subsidiary (orbitals) s, p, d, f (0, 1, 2, 3,, n-1)
ms = spin , -

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Electron Energy States-Revision Electronic configuration -Revision

Electrons have discrete energy states and tend to occupy lowest Valence electrons in outer shells
available energy state.
Filled shells more stable
4d Valence electrons are most available for bonding and
4p N-shell n = 4 tend to control the chemical properties
3d
example: C (atomic number = 6)
4s

Energy 3p M-shell n = 3 1s2 2s2 2p2


3s
valence electrons
2p L-shell n = 2
2s

1s K-shell n = 1
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Adapted from Fig. 2.6, Callister & Rethwisch 9e.

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Periodic table-Revision Electronegativity-Revision


Columns: Similar Valence Structure Ranges from 0.9 to 4.1,

inert gases
give up 1e-

Large values: tendency to acquire electrons.


give up 2e-

accept 2e-
accept 1e-
give up 3e-

H He
Li Be O F Ne
Na Mg S Cl Ar
K Ca Sc Se Br Kr
Rb Sr Y Te I Xe
Cs Ba Po At Rn
Fr Ra

Electropositive elements: Electronegative elements: Smaller electronegativity Larger electronegativity


Readily give up electrons Readily acquire electrons
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to become + ions. to become - ions.
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Adapted from Fig. 2.8, Callister & Rethwisch 9e. Adapted from Callister & Rethwisch 9e.

Primary bonding-Revision Ionic bonding-Revision

Primary or chemical bonding Ionic bond metal + nonmetal


1. Ionic bonding
2. Covalent bonding
3. Metallic bonding
donates accepts
electrons electrons
Secondary bonding or physical forces
bonding Dissimilar electronegativities
1. van der Waals bond
2. Dipole bonding
3. Hydrogen bonding ex: MgO Mg 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 O 1s2 2s2 2p4
Mg2+ 1s2 2s2 2p6 O2- 1s2 2s2 2p6

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Ionic bonding-Revision Ionic bonding-Revision


Predominant bonding in Ceramics
Occurs between +ve and -ve ions. NaCl
Requires electron transfer. MgO
Large difference in electronegativity required. CaF 2
Example: NaCl CsCl

Na (metal) Cl (nonmetal)
unstable unstable
electron

Na (cation) + - Cl (anion)
stable stable Give up electrons Acquire electrons

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Covalent bonding-Revision Covalent


Covalent bonding-Revision
Bonding: Carbon sp3
Atoms with similar electronegativity share electrons Example: CH4
Example: H2
C: has 4 valence e-,
Each H: has 1 valence e-, H2 needs 4 more
needs 1 more. H: has 1 valence e-,
needs 1 more
Electronegativities are the H H
same.
Electronegativities of C and H
shared 1s electron shared 1s electron are comparable so electrons Fig. 2.15, Callister & Rethwisch 9e.
from 1st hydrogen from 2nd hydrogen are shared in covalent bonds. (Adapted from J.E. Brady and F. Senese, Chemistry:
Matter and Its Changes, 4th edition. Reprinted with
atom atom permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc.)

Fig. 2.12, Callister & Rethwisch 9e.


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Metallic
Covalent bonding-Revision
Bonding: Carbon sp3 Mixed primary bonding-Revision

Metallic bonding, the final primary bonding type, is found in Ionic-Covalent Mixed Bonding
metals and their alloys and is mainly due to delocalized or
free valence electrons. % ionic character = x (100%)

where XA & XB are electronegativities

Ex: MgO XMg = 1.3


XO = 3.5

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Secondary
Covalent bonding-Revision
Bonding: Carbon sp3 Secondary bonding-Revision

van der Waals forces are week in comparison to primary Arises from interaction between dipoles
bonding and arises due to attraction between molecules. asymmetric electron
clouds

+ - + -
secondary
bonding

Permanent dipoles-molecule induced


secondary
-ex: liquid HCl H Cl bonding H Cl

Adapted from Fig. 2.20, Callister & Rethwisch 9e.


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Secondary bonding-Revision Summary-Revision


Covalent Bonding: Carbon sp3
The strongest secondary bonding type, the hydrogen bond, Type Bond Energy Comments
is a special case of polar molecule bonding. It occurs Ionic Large Nondirectional (ceramics)
between molecules in which hydrogen is covalently
bonded to fluorine (as in HF), oxygen (as in H2O ), and
nitrogen (as in NH3 ). Covalent Variable Directional
large-Diamond (semiconductors, ceramics
small-Bismuth polymer chains)

Metallic Variable
large-Tungsten Nondirectional (metals)
small-Mercury
Directional
Secondary smallest
inter-chain (polymer)
inter-molecular
Hydrogen bonding in liquid water 31 32

Properties inferred
Properties from Bonding:
From bonding-Revision
T m
Summary: Primary
Summary-Properties due toBonds
bonding
Bond length, r Melting Temperature, Tm
Ceramics Large bond energy
Energy (Ionic & covalent bonding): large Tm
large E
r
Metals Variable bond energy
Bond energy, Eo ro moderate Tm
r (Metallic bonding):
moderate E
Energy smaller Tm
Polymers Secondary bonding dominates
unstretched length (Covalent & Secondary): small Tm
ro larger Tm small E
r
Eo = Tm is larger if Eo is larger.
bond energy

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Atomic Structure- Revision Atomic Structure- Revision


Unit cell: smallest repetitive volume which contains the
complete lattice pattern of a crystal.

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Atomic Structure- Revision Important terminologies-Revision

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Metals crystal structure- Examples

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