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Yusef Mohammed Rem D

Design and Technology

End of Year Revision

Types of metals and their properties

Ferrous Metal
All ferrous metals contain iron, ferrous metals are usually magnetic, this is useful when
throwing it away in the skip, these rust unless the metal is treated, and to do this you add
chromium and vanadium, to make it harder, you add carbon. Iron is heated with coke and
limestone, as a result, pig iron is produces. The next step is changing it into steel with a
Bessemer. This is called mild steel
Non Ferrous Metals
Non Ferrous do not have iron, and is not magnetic. Some example include are copper, silver
gold. These dont corrode as much
Other Metals
Aluminium is used for drinks can because, when recycling you can easily separate the drinks
can and steel
Carbon steel-steel with carbon added
Mild steel-a general engineering steel
Ore- a rock containing metal compounds
Alloys-a mixture of two or more metals
Thermoplastics and thermosets
Tools related to metalwork

Engineers blue- this is painted on the piece of metal so you can see things clearer
Scriber- this is used to indent anything you want in the piece of metal
Engineers square- this is used to draw parallel lines
Odd leg callipers- this is used to draw parallel lines to the edge of the piece of metal
Centre punch- this is used to indent a small circle
Ball pen- this is used to hammer down the centre punch
Dividers- you use dividers to indent circles in the metal
Pillar drill
Square file
Three square file
Round file
Flat file
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Half round file

Hand file
Warding file
Tennon saw

Printed circuit boards

Start with circuit diagram

Print out 1 piece of Acetate
Dont use PCB tank without supervision
Wear protective gear
Place Acetate on the photosensitive board
Expose to UV light box for 45 seconds
Varies with temperature and freshness
The acetate is placed under the copper board on this UV light box and the lid is
It can make double sided circuit boards-UV
The developer is Sodium Hydroxide-20/30 secs
Wash the board so no chemicals are left
To etch the board place it in the etching bath
The chemical Ferric Chloride will remove exposed copper-10/15 minutes
Wash with lots of water to remove excess etchant
The left tank contains the etchant ferric chloride
All of the exposed copper has gone
Rub down to remove the etch resist with wet or dry paper
The flux spray will prevent oxidation of the copper. Allow 1 hour to dry
The flux spray will also help the solder the flow when you attach the components
When the flux spray is dry you are ready to solder the components to the PCB


Collect a soldering Iron/stand/sponge/solder/side cutters and long nosed pliers

Check the tip of the soldering iron by touching it to the solder. This is called tinning
Select a component for soldering, make sure it is the right value and you know
exactly how it should be placed in the PCB
Place the component in the PCB, pass it through the non-copper slide of the PCB and
using the long nosed pilers bend legs slightly to about 45 degrees
Place PCB in the vice with the copper slide facing up. Place the tip of the soldering
iron on the pad where the leg of the component comes through. Soldering heat
Introduce end of solder to copper pad, allow solder to slow around pan. After 2-5
secs remove solder, then soldering iron
When you have finished cut of the legs of the components with side cutters
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Electronic components

Push to make switch


Moisture sensor




The basic is that it is an electronic switch

A basic function is that a small current goes through into the base then it amplifies the current

They are used in motors


Semi-conductors are important components such as transistors, diodes and LEDs. They decrease
resistance when hot so they can be damaged or destroyed as they heat up. Some needs to be fixed
to a metal heatsink to keep cool

Light Emitting Diodes are diodes which emit light when a current flows through them. They must be
used with a resistor in series with them otherwise they will be pass too much current and be
damaged. LEDs come in few colours and are used as indicator lamps. Some will flash automatically.
The value of a resistor is between 330 and 560 ohms for a 9 volt current.

Voltage dividers
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Orthographic Projection
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Types of motion

There are four basic types of motion in mechanical systems:

Rotary motion is turning round in a circle, such as a wheel turning.

Linear motion is moving in a straight line, such as on a paper trimmer.
Reciprocating motion is moving backwards and forwards in a straight line, as in cutting with a saw.
Oscillating motion is swinging from side to side, like a pendulum in a clock.