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BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

Contents

Page Page
Foreword Inside front cover 5 In-situ corrosivity tests 35
Committees responsible Back cover 5.0 Introduction 35
5.1 Determination in-situ of the apparent
Methods resistivity of soil 35
5.2 Determination in-situ o f the redox potential of
Scope
In-situ density tests 3 soil 36
introduction 3
Sand replacement method suitable for fine-and Appendix
medium-grained soils (small pouring cylinder A Typical test data and calculation forms 55
method) 3
Sand replacement method suitable for fine-, Table
medium- and coarse-grained soils (large pouring 1. Dimensions and masses for the two types of
cylinder method) dynamic probing apparatus
Water replacement method suitable for
coarse-grained soils
Core cutter method for cohesive soils free from
-
1 Small pouring cylinder for the determination of
coarse-grained material
the density of fine- and medium-grained soils
Nuclear methods suitable for fine-, medium-
2 Scraper for tevelling surface of soil
and coarse-grained soils
3 Calibrating container for use with the small
In-situ penetration tests
pouring cylinder
Introduction
4 Large pouring cylinder for the determination of
Determination of the penetration resistance
the density of fine-, medium- and coarse-grained soils
using the fixed 60" cone and friction sleeve (static
5 Calibrating container for use with large pouring
cone penetration test CPV
cylinder
Determination of the dynamic probing resistance
6 Core-cutter apparatus for soil density
using the 90" cone (dynamic probing DPI
determination
3.3 Determination of the penetration resistance using
7 Modes of operation of nuclear surface density and
the split-barrel sampler (the standard penetration
moisture gauges
test SPTI
8 Examples of penetrometer tips with and without
4 In-situ vertical deformation and strength tests
a friction sleeve
4.0 Introduction
9 Permitted tolerances, including allowances for
4.1 Determination of the vertical deformation and
wear, sutface finish and typical manufacturing
strength characteristics of soil by the plate
dimensions for the standard cone for the cone
loading test
penetration test
4.2 Determination of the settlement characteristics
10 Permitted tolerances, including allowances for
of soil for tightly Icaded foundations by the
wear, surface finish and typical manufacturing
shallow pad maintained load test
dimensions for the standard friction sleeve for the
4.3 Determination of the in-situ California Bearing
cone penetration test
Ratio (CBR)
11 Alternative forms of 90" cone for dynamic probing
4.4 Determination of the in-situ vane shear strength
12 SpIit-barrel sampler assembly
of weak intact cohesive soils
13 Typical arrangement for in-situ CBR test apparatus
of soil for lightly loaded foundations by the
14 Typical CBR test resutts curves
shallow pad maintained load test
15 Force-penetration curves for a CBR value of 100 %
4.3 Determination of the in-situ California Bearing
and other CBR values
Ratio (CBR)
16 Typical arrangements for in-situ vane test
4.4 Determination of the in-situ vane shear strength
apparatus
of weak intact cohesive soils
17 Typical borehole vane and rod mounting
18 Typical vane protecting shoe 54
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

Methods

1 Scope [a] Five methodsfor the determination of the in-situ


density.

This Part of BS 1377 describes in-situ methods of test on soils (b) Three methods for the determination of penetration
for civil engineering purposes, i.e. tests made directly on the resistances.
soil in place as distinct from laboratory tests, described in (c)Four methods far the determination of the vertical
Parts 2 to 8 ofthis standard, forwhich samplesfirst need to be deformation and strength characteristics.
taken. The methods described in this Part of this standard (dl Two methods for the determination of the in-situ
have been arranged in groups either according to the corrosivity characteristics.
purpose of the test or the mode of execution. These groups NOTE. The titles of the publications referred to in this standard are
are as follows. listed on the inside back cover.
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

2 In-situ density tests

2.0 Introduction reasonably consistent. The grading of the sand shall be such
that 100 % passes a 600 prn test sieve and tOO % is retained
on the 63 pm test sieve. In addition itshall be free from flakey
This clause specifiesfive methods for determining the in-situ particles, silt, clay and organic matter. Before using, it shall
density of soil, four of which use the direct measurements of have been oven dried and stored in a loosely covered
mass and volume, thechoice of which depends upon thetype container t o allow its moisture content to reach equilibrium
of material, and one method uses gamma rays. The last with atmospheric humidity.
named also includes the measurement of moisture content NOTE. Generally a storage period, after oven drying. of about 7 days
with nuclear gauges that combine both facilities. is sufficient forthe moisture content of thesandto reachequilibrium
with theatmospheric humidity. The sandshouldbe mixedthoroughly
2.1 Sand replacement method suitable for fine and before use. If sand is salvaged from holes in compacted soils after
carrying out this test, it should be sieved. dried and stored again
mediumgninedsails (small pouring cylinder method) before it is used in further sand replacement tests.
2.l.t General. This method covers the determination in-situ 2.1.4 Calibrations
of the density of natural or compacted fine- and medium-
grained soils for which a 1f 5 m m diameter sand-pouring 2.1.4.1 Determination of the mass o fsand in the cone of the

r- -' cylinder is used in conjunction with replacement sand (see


note 1). The method is applicable t o layers not exceeding
pouring cylinder
2.1.4.1.3 f i l l the pouring cylinderso thatthe level of the sand
150 m m in thickness (see note 2). in the cylinder is within about 15 rnm of the top. Find its total
initial mass, m,, t o the nearest 1 g and always use the same
NOTE 1. With granular materials having little or no cohesion initial mass for every calibration. Maintain this constant
particularly when they are wet, there is a danger of errars in the
measurement of density by this method. These errors are caused by throughoutthetestsfor which the calibration is used.AHow a
the slumping of the sides of the excavated density hole and always volume of sand equivatent to thatof theexcavated holein the
result in an over-estimationof the density. soil (or equal t o that o f the calibrating container) to run out.
NOTE 2. For layers between 150 rnmand250mrn in thicknessthe test Close the shutter on the pouring cylinder and place the
described in 2.2 should be used.
cylinder on a plane surface, e.g. the glass plate.
The requirements o f Part 1 of this standard. where
appropriate, shall apply to the test methods described in this 2.1.4.1.2 Open the shutter onthe pouring cylinderand allow
clause. sand to run out. Do not tap or othetwise vibrate during this
period. When no further movement of sand takes placeinthe
2.1.2 Apparatus cylinder, close the shutter and remove the cylinder carefully.
2.1.2.1 A pouring cylinder, similar in detail to that shown in 2.1.4.1.3 Collect the sand on theglass platethat had filledthe
figure 1. cone of the pouring cylinder and determine its mass, m2.t o
2.1.2.2 Suitable tools for excavating holes in soil, e.g. a bent the nearest 1 g.
spoon dibber and a scraper tool. similar to that shown in 2.1.4.1.4 Repeat these measurements at least three times
figure 2, to make a level surface. and calculate the mean value of m2.
2.1.2.3 Cylindrical, metal, calibrating container, with a n 2.1.4.2 Determination o f the bulk density o f the send (A)
internal diameter of 100 2 2 rnrn and an internal depth of
150 k 3 mrn of the type iliustrated i n figure 3, fitted with a lip 2.1.4.2.1 Determine the internal volume, V(in mL),of the
50 mm wide and about 5 rnrn thick surrounding the open end. calibrating container.
NOTE. The following method for determining the volume of the
2.1.2.4 Balance, readable t o 1 g. calibrating container has been found both convenient and accurate.
2.1.2.5 Glass plate, a convenient size being one at least Place the empty container on the flat pan of the balance,
10 rnrn thick and about 500 mm square. ensuring that the upper rim of the container is horizontal, if
necessary by embedding the base in modelling clay or similar
2.12 . 6 Metal tray or containerto take excavated soil, a
material. Note the mass of the container, together with any
convenient size being one about 300 mm in diameter and modelling clay, to the nearest 1g (-).Thenfill thecalibrating
about 40 rnrn deep. container almost completely with water, taking cz 3 not t o
2.1.2.7 A cylindrica/,steel core cutterlfor fine-grained spill water upon the pan of the balance or the outside of the
+
cohesionless soils), 130 rnrn long and 100 2 mm internal container. Lay a straightedge across thetop of the container
diameter, with a watl thickness of 3 mm bevelled at one end. and add water slowly and carefully by means of a dropping
One suitabletype is illustrated in figure 6. This cuttershall be rod until the water just touchesthe straightedge. Removethe
kept lightly greased. straightedge and note the mass of the container pluswaterto
the nearest 1 g (ms).Repeat the measurement a number of
2.1.2.8 Apparatus for moisture content determination as times to obtain an accurate mean value of m,. For the repeat
specified in BS 1377 : Part 2 : 1990. tests it is only necessary to remove a smalt amount of water
2.1.2.9 A metal trayabout 300 mm square and about 40 m m by meansof the dropping rod and t o refill the containerto the
deep with a 100 rnm diameter hole in the centre. level of the straightedge. The volume of the calibrating
container, V(in rnL), is given by the equation:
2.1.3 Material.The replacement sand shall be a clean closely
graded silica sand which provides a bulk density that is
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

2.1.4.2.2 Placethe pouring cylinder concentrically on thetop 2.1.5.4 Place a representative sample of the excavated soil in
of the calibrating container after it has been filled t o the an airtight container and determine its moisture content, w,
constant mass, mt, as specified in 2.1.4.l.f. Keep the shutter as specified i n BS 1377 :Part 2 : 1990. Afternatively, the whole
on the pouring cylinder closed during this operation. Open of the excavated soil shall be dried and its mass, m,,
the shutter and allow the sand t o run out. Do not tap the determined.
pouring cylinder or otherwise vibrate it during this period.
2.1.5.5 Place the pouring cylinder, filled t o the constant
When no further movement of sand takes place in the
mass, m,,as specified i n 2.1.4.1.1 so that the base of the
cylinder, close theshutter. Removethe pouring cylinderwith
cylinder covers the hole concentrically. Ensure the shutter on
the sand remaining i n it anddeterminetheir combined mass,
th,e pouring cylinder isclosed during thisoperation. Open the
ma,to the nearest 1 g.
shutter and allow sand to run out; during this period do not
NOTE. The calibrating container should stand on a large tray during
this partof thetest proceduretocollectthe sand ovefftowing from the vibratethe cylinderorthe surrounding area. When no further
cone when the cylinder i s removed. movement of the sand takes place close the shutter. Remove
the cylinder and determine its mass, m4,t o the nearest 1 g.
2.1.4.2.3 Repeat these measurements at least three times
and calculate the mean value of m3. 2.1.6 Calculations*and expression o f results. Calculate the
NOTE. Since variations in atmospheric humidity affect the moisture mass of sand, m, (in g), required to fill the calibrating
contentofthe sand, and hence its bulk density, thecalibration should container from the equation:
be made. or at teast checked. during each day's work. To overcome
the effects of slight variations in grading and particle shape between
hatches of sand, each batch should be sampled and calibrated.
where
2.1.5 Procedure
ml is the mass o f cylinder and sand before pouring into
2.1.5.1 Expose a flat area, approximately 450 mm square. of calibrating container (in g);
the soil to be tested and trim it down to a level surface. m, is the mean mass of sand in cone (in g);
preferably with the aid of the scraper tool. Brush away any m, is the mean mass of cylinder and sand after pouring
loose extraneous material. into calibrating container (in gt.
2.1.5.2 Lay the metal tray o n the prepared surface with the Calculatethe bulk density of the sand, p,(in ~ g / r n ~ ) , f r othe
m
hole overthe portion of the soil to betested. Using this hole as equation:
a pattern, excavate a round hole, approximately 100 mrn in
diameter and the depth of the layer t o be tested up to a
maximum of 150 mrn deep. Do not leave loose material i n the
hole and do not distort the immediate surround t o the hole. where
Carefully collect atl the excavated soil from the hole and Vis the volume of the calibrating container (in mL).
determineits mass, G, t o the nearest 1 g. Remove the metal
Calculatethe massof sand requiredtofifl theexcavated hole,
tray before placing the pouring cylinder in position over the
mb(in g), f r o m equation:
excavated hofe.
N O E . Take care in excavating the hole to see that the hole is not
enlarged by levering the excavating tool against the side of the hole,
as this will result in lower densities being recorded. where
2.1 -5.3 Alternative method for fine-grainedcohesionless m,is the mass of cylinder and sand before pouring into
soils {see note). hole (in g);
Without using the metal tray. press the steel core cutter m2isthe mean mass of sand in cone (in g);
(figure 6) evenly and carefully intothe soil until its topedge is mdisthe mass of cylinder and sand afterpouring into hole
flush withthe levelled surface. Excavate the soil to a depth of (in g).
about 120 mm within the core cutter by means of suitable Calculate the bulk density of the soil, p (in Mg/m3), from the
tools. Carefully coIlect the excavated soil and determine its
equation:
mass, m,, to the nearest 1 g. Keep the core cutter in position
during the remainder of the testing procedure.
NOTE. The procedure specified in 2.1.5.3 should only be employed
when the fine-grained cohesionless soil is in such a condition that.
when uslng $heprocedure specified In 2.1.5.2, a cylindricai hole where
cannot be formed because of the instability of the sides of the hole.
The use of the core cutter will produce some disturbance in the soil m, is the mass of soil excavated (in g);
and. where this procedure is necessary, due allowance shoutd be m, is the mass of sand required t o fill the hole (in g);
made for a lower standard of accuracy than would normally be
expected with the sand replacement method. pa is the bulk density of sand (in Mg/m3).
Calculate the dry density, pd (in Pdglm3),from the equation:

'See form 9(a) of appendix A.


where 2.2.2.4 Balance, readable t o 10 g.
w i s the moisture content of the soil (in %I. NOTLThetotalmass of the pouring cylinder and sand is large so that
the methodoffilling and weighing isto weigh the sand in twoorthree
or containersandtip it intothe pouringcylinder before using.Takecare
to see thatthesame constant initial massas isused in calibratingthe
apparatus is used for each density measurement. Sufficient sand
should be used so that about 4 kg to 5 kg of sand is loft in the pouring
cylinder after the test is completed.
where
2.2.2.5 Aglassplate orotherplanesurface, a convenient size
m, is the mass of dry soil from the hole (in g); being one at least 10 mm thick and about 500 mm square.
mbis the mass of sand required to fill the hole (in g). 2.2.2.6 Metal trays or containersto take the excavated soil
2.1.7 Test report The test report shall affirm that the test was and to take the supply of sand t o f i H the pouring cylinder.
carried out i n accordance with this Part of this standard and 2.2.2.7 Apparatus for moisture content determinationas
shall contain the following information: specified i n BS 1377 : Part 2 : 1990.
(a) the method o f test used;
2.2.2.8 A metal tray about 500 m m square and about 50 rnm
(b) the in-situ bulk and dry densities of the soil (in Mg/m3) deep with a 200 m m diameter hole in the centre.
to the nearest 0.01 Mgim3;
(c) the moisturecontent, as a percentage to two significant 2.2.3 Material. The replacement sand shall be a clean
figures; closely graded silica sand which provides a bulk density that
is reasonably consistent. The grading of the sand shall be
(d) the information required by clause 9 of BS 1377 : such that 100 % passes a 600 p m test sieve and to0 % is
Part f : 1990. retained on a 63 p m test sieve. In addition it shall be free from
flakey particles, silt, clay and organic matter. Before use it
2.2 Sand replacement method suitable for fine-, rnediurn- shall have been oven dried and stored i n a loosely covered
and coarse-grained soils (large pouring cylinder method) container to allow its moisture contentto reach equilibrium
2.2.1 General. This method covers the determination in situ with atmospheric humidity.
ofthe density of natural or compacted soil containing coarse- NOTE. After oven drying, a storage period generhty of about 7 days
is sufficient forthe moisturecontent of thesandto reach equitibrium
grained particles which make the test described in 2.1 difficult with the atmospheric humidity. The sand should not be stored in
to perform. It is an alternative t o that test for fine- and airtight containers and should be mixed thoroughly before use. If
medium-grained soils and should be used instead of that test sand issalvagedfrom holes in compacted soilsafter carrying out this
test, it is advisable to sieve, dry and store this sand again before it is
for layers exceeding 150 mm, but not exceeding 250 rnrn in
used in further sand replacement tests.
thickness (see note).
With granular materials having little or no cohesion, 2.2.4 Calibrations
particularly when they are wet, there is a danger of errors in 2.2.4.1 Determination of the mass of sand i n the cone of the
measurement of densil-y by this method. These errors are pouring cylinder
caused by thestumping of the sides of the excavated density
hole and always result i n an over-estimation of density. In 2.2.4.1.1 Fill the pouring cylinderwith a given initial mass of
such cases the test described in 2.3 should be selected. sand, mi, weighed to the nearest 10 g and always use the
same initial mass for every calibration. Maintain this mass
The test described i n 2.3 should also be used when very
constant throughout the tests for which the calibration is
coarse-grained material is present.
used (see note to 2.2.2.4). Allow a volume of sand equivalent
NOTE. If for any reason it is necessary to excavate holes other than
250 rnm thecalibratingcontainer should be replaced by one with the to that of the excavated hole in the soil, or equal to that of the
same depth as the hole excavated, or its effective depth reduced to calibrating container, to run out. Close the shutter on the
that of the hole excavated. pouring cylinder and place the cylinder on a plane surface,
The requirements of Part 1 of this standard, where e.g. the glass plate.
appropriate, shall apply t o the test methods described in this
2.2.4.1.2 Open the shutter onthe pouring cylinder and allow
clause.
sand to run out. Do not tap or otherwise vibrate the pouring
2.2.2 Apparatus cylinder during this period. W h e n no further movement of
sand takes place in the cylinder, close the shutter and
2.2.2.1 A pouring ~ ~ l i n d e r s i k i lin
a rdetail to that shown in carefully remove the cylinder.
figure 4.
2.2.4.5.3 Collectthe sand on the plane surface that had filled
2.2.2.2 Suitable tools for excavating holes in compacted soit, the cone of the pouring cylinder and determine its mass, m,
e.g. a bent spoon dibber, large screwdriver andlor pointed to the nearest 10 g.
steel rod about 250 m m long and 7 mm to 10 rnrn in diameter
with a handle. 2.2.4.1.4 Repeat these measurementss at least three times
and calculate the mean value of m,.
2.2.2.3 Cylindrical metal calibrating containerwith an
internat diameter of 200 2 5 m m and an internal depth of 250
mrn (see note to 2.2.1 ), of the type shown in figure 5, fitted
with a lip about 75 mm wide and about 5 mm thick
surrounding the open end.
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

2.2.4.2 Determination of the bulk density of the sand (pap,) 2.2.5.3 Place a representative sample of the excavated soil i n
an airtight container and determine its moisture content, w,
2.2.4.2.3 Determine the internal volume, V ( i n mL), of the
as specified in BS 1377 : Part 2 : 1990.
calibrating container by the mass o f water required t o fill it.
{See note to 2.2.2.4.) 2.2.5.4 Ptace the pouring cylinder filled w i t h the constant
NOTE. The following method for determining the volume of the mass of sand (m,) as specified i n 2.2.4.1.1 so that the base of
calibrating container has been found both convenient and accurate. the cylinder covers the hole concentrically. Keep the shutter
Ptace the empty calibrating container on a Rat surface, ensuring that o n the pouring cylinder closed during this operation. Open
its upper rim is horizontal, if necessary by embedding the base in
modelling clay or similar material. Fill a suitable container (or the shutter and allow sand t o run out; during this period do
containers)with water and weigh [ng)to the nearest 10g and then fill not vibrate the pouring cylinder or the surrounding area.
the calibrating container almost completely with water from the When no further movement of the sand takesplace, closethe
weighed container. Lay a straightedge across the top of the shutter. Remove the cylinder and determine its mass (ma) to
calibrating container and add more water slowly and carefully from
the weighed container by meansof a dropping rod until the waterjust the nearest 10 g.
touches the straightedge. Take care that no water is spilled during
these operations. Then reweigh the water container lor containers) 2.2.6 Calculations* and expmssion of resuh. Calculate the
(md. mass of sand required to fill the calibrating container. m,
Repeat the measurement a number of times to obtain an accurate (in g), from the equation:
mean value for m,. Forthe repeattestsit isonly necessarytoremove
a small amount of water from the filled calibrating container by ma = m, - m, - m,
means of thedropping rod, return ittothe weighed container, and to
refill the calibrating container to the level of the straightedge. The where
volumeof thecalibrating container, Vin mL, is given by the following
equation: m,is the mass of cylinder and sand before pouring i n the
calibrating container (in g);
mzis the mean mass of sand in cone (in g);
2.2.4.2.2 Place the pouring cylinder concentrically on the top
of the calibrating container and fill with the constant mass of m,is the mean rnass of cylinder and sand after pouring
into the calibrating container (in g).
sand im,) as specified in 2.2.4.1.1. Keep the shutter on the
pouring cylinder closed during this operation. Open the Calculate the bulk density of the sand, pa (in ~ ~ / mfrom
~ )the
,
shutterand allowthe sand to run out. Do n o t t a p o r o t h e w i s e equation:
vibrate the pouring cylinder during this period. When no
further movement of the sand takes place i n the cylinder,
closethe shutter. Remove the pouring cylinderwith the sand
remaining i n it and determine their combined mass ( m 3 )to where
the nearest 10 g. Vis the volume of the calibrating container (in mL).
NOTE. The calibrating container should stand on a large tray during
this part of the test procedure, to collect the sand overftowing from Calculatethe rnassof sand required to fit1 theexcavated hole.
the cone when the cylinder is removed. rnb(in gl, from the equation:
2.2.4.2.3 Repeat these measurements at least three times,
and calculate the mean value of m.,
where
NOTE. Since variations in atmospheric humidity affect the moisture
contentofthe sand, andhence its bulk d e n s i t y . r a t i o n should mi isthe rnass of cylinder and sand before pouring into the
be made. or at least checked, during each day's work. To overcome hole (in g);
the effects of slight variations in grading and particle shape between
batches of sand, each batch should be sampled and calibrated. m,is the mean mass of sand i n the cone (in g);

2.2.5 Procedure m,is the mass of cylinder and sand after pouring into the
hole (in g ) .
2.2.5.1 Expose a flat area, approximately 600 m m square, of
Calculate the bulk density of the soil, p [in Mg/rn3),from the
the soil to be tested and trim it down to a level sudace. Brush
equation:
away any loose extraneous material.

2.2.52 Lay the metal tray on the prepared surface with the
hole over the portion of the soil to be tested. Using this hole as
a pattern excavate a round hole. approximately 200 m m in where
diameter and the depth of the layer t o be tested up to a m,., is the mass of soil excavated (in g);
maximum of 250 m m (see note to 2.2.11. Do not leave loose
m, is the mass of sand required to fill the hole { i n g);
material in the hole and do not distort the immediate
surround to the hole. Carefully collectthe excavated soil from pa is the bulk density of the sand (in Mg/m31.
the hole and determine its mass (m,) to the nearest 10 g. Calculate the dry density, p, (in Mgirn3),from the equation:
Remove the metal tray before placing the pouring cylinder i n
position over the excavated hole.
NOTE. Care should be taken in excavatingthe holeto seethatthe hole
is not enlarged by leveringthe excavatingtool against theside of the where
hole, as this will result in lower densities being recorded. w is the moisture content of the soil tin %).

"See form 9(a)of appendix A.


BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

2.2.7 Test report Thetest report shall affirm thatthetest was .232.2 Rigidstraightsdgesufficiently long to levelthe area of
carried out in accordance with this Part of this standard and the density ring to be used.
shall contain the following information.
2.3.2.3 Spirit levelof suitable length to use with the
(a)The method of test used. straightedge in order to level the density ring.
(b)Thein-situ bulk and dry densities of thesoil (inM@rn3)
2.32.4 Pointer gauge assemblyconsisting of an adjustable
to the nearest 0.01 Mg/m3.
vertical painterthat can be tockedin afixed position,which is
(c) The moisture content, as a percentage, to two mountedon a datum bar that is removableduringthetest and
significant figures. can be replaced precisely so that the pointer is in the same
(d) The information required by clause 9 of BS 1377 : position. The tip of the pointer is usedto judge the final water
Part 1 : 1990. levet.
NOTE. For the smaller density rings the pointer may be mounted on
2.3 Water replacement method suitable for coarse-grained a datum bar supported on legs which remain in position throughout
thetest and aredriven into the ground outside the ring. Forths larger
soils
rings, which aregenerallymote stable, it is usual forthedatum bar to
beslightlylonger than the diameterof the ring and for itto rest on the
23.1 General. This method covers the determination in-situ rim of the ring, marking the position so that it can be returned
of the densify of natural or compacted coarse-grainedsoil preciselytothesarne position. In thiscase the pointeris in thecentre
using a circular density ring on the ground surface and a of the datum bar with a clamp for adjusting *e height
flexible plasticssheet to retain watertodeterminethe volume
2.3.2.5 Calibrated water containers (seealso 2.3.4.1), of
of an excavated hole. The method is used in coarse and very
suitable capacity for the water supply, each with a volume
coarsesoils when theother methodsfor determining the field
measuring gauge and a suitable delivery hose which shall be
density are unsuitable because the volume excavatad would
fitted with a valve close to the exit in order to facilitate close
be unrepresentative.
control of the water flow into the flexible plastics sheet
Alternative density determinations may be made as follows: Graduationson the measuring gauges shall be clearly
(a) for the totat material within the hole excavated (see marked and shall permit measurementsto be made within
2.3.5.1): 0.3 % of the volume of the hole excavated.
(1) to an unspecified depth: 2.3.2.6 Balance or balances readable to 700 g.
(2)to a specified depth;
2.3.2.7 Sample containers, suitable for holding the
(3) in successive tests as a hole is progressively excavated soil and for the measurement of its mass.
deepened in ordertodetermine thevariation of density NOTE. Soils and absorbent rocks holding significant amounts of
with increasing depth, e.g. when placing and water require containers with close-fitting lids. For material
compacting material in specified stages. consisting of predominantly hard, non-absorbent rockof negligible
moisture content open containers are satisfactory.
(b) forthe proportion ofthe soil finerthan a specified size,
normally not less than coarse gravel (see 2.3.5.2). 2.3.2.8 Digging tools for excavating and removing material
from the hole, e.g. pick, shovet, vibrating hammer and chisel
The requirements of Part 1 of this standard, where
point, crowbar, broom, handbrush and scoop.
appropriate, shall apply to thetest methods described in this
NOTE. When vsry coarse material may be encountered in the
clause. excavation it is advisable to provide mechanical exunrstionand lifting
2.3.2 Apparatus. The following fist of apparatus applies to equipment.
both procedures (a) and ( b ) .(See2.3.5.1 and 2.3.5.2 2.3.2.9 Self-priming pump with suction and delivery hosefor
respectiveIyJThe number and size ofthe itemswill varywith removing water from within the flexible plastics sheet.
the type of material present and the size of the hole to be
excavated. 2.3.2.10 Mixingequiprnentfor the quick-setting plaster, such
as a bucket and a perforated disc on the end of a pole.
2.3.2.1 Densiiy ring of rigid construction providing an
unobstructed inner surface that is of a right cylinder 2.3.2.11 Apparatus for moisture content determination as
approximately 100 mm high for rings up to 500 mm nominal specified in BS f 377 : Part 2 : 1990.
internal diameter and 200 rnm high for larger diameters. The 2.3.2.12 Test sieves, if required.
ring shall be provided externally with a meansfor securing its
position on the ground surface, e.9. metal spikes. The ring 2.3.2.13 Apparatus for dry density determination as
diameter shall be several times larger than the largest-sized specified in clause 7 of BS 1377 : Part 2 : 1990, if required.
particle (see note).
NOTE. As a general guide the ring diameter should be at least five
times the size of the largest particle in well-graded soil but more if
uniformly coarse. Diameters usually range from 500 mm to 2.5 m.
Ring sizes iarger than 500 rnm nominal diameter are usually
constructed in several segments which can be assembled at the site.
If necessary to ensure rigidity of the ring it should be fitted with an
external flange.
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

2.3.3 Materials 2.3.5.1.6 Select a suitable size of the plastics sheet or liner
2.3.3.1 Flexiblepl8stics sheet that will mould t o the shape of and checkthat it is undamaged and without punctures. Place
the hole yet issufficiently thick not t o be punctured by angular the plastics sheet over the ring and prepared surface ensuring
material. that it closely conforms t o the surface of the soil and the
NOTE. Blackpolyethylenesheet0.1 mmthick in 2 rn to4m squaresis
inside of the ring. Replacethe datum bar and locked pointer.
suitablefordensity rings up to 1.5 m nominaldiamcter.Alternatively
a prefabricatedcylindrical Liner 0.1 m m thick may be used with
2.3.5.3.7 Fill the space contained by the plastics sheet up to
density rings 500 rnm diameter and smaller. Polyethylenesheet the precise level of the tip of the locked pointer with water
0.2 rnm thickin 6 rnto 8 r n squares issuitablefor density ringsabove from a calibrated container. While filling ensure that the
1.5 rn and up to 2.5 rn nominal diameter. plastics sheet makes full contact with the prepared surface
The use of transparentflexiblesheetingaids identificaionof leaks in and the inside of the density ring.
relatively dry materials and can assist when mouldingthe sheeting to
fit the shape of the hote. After filling observe the water level at the pointer tip for
several minutes in order to determine whether water is
2.3.3.2 Plaster of Paris. leaking through the plastics sheet. If leaking occurs or is
2.3.3.3 Clean water. suspected replace the plastics sheet with a sound piece and
repeat the volume measurement.
2.3.4 Calibration
The measured volume of water used shall be within 0.7 % of
2.3.4.1 Calibrated water containers. Calibrate each the total volume being measured. This volume is the initial
container, fitted with its delivery hose and control valve, by reading (Ri) which shall be recorded in litres.
locating it on a level base and filling with clean water t o the
2.3.5.1.8 Remove the datum bar and locked pointer t o a safe
top graduation on the volume measuring gauge. Then drain position. Remove the water and the plastics sheet, checking
via the hose successive volumes into a separate container so the prepared surface for indication of leakage. If leaking is
that the water level drops t o each graduation in turn. found t o have occurred repeat stages 2.3.5.1.6 and 2.3.5.1.7.
Calculate each successive volume of water in litres as it is
drained into the separate container by weighing or volume 2.3.5.1.9 Excavatewith the digging tools a hole within the
measurement. Plot the actual cumulative volume of water in density ring as nearly cylindrical as practicable taking care
each calibrated container against the graduation scale. not to displace the ring or the plaster filling. With non-
cohesive soil, particularly when wet, the sides of the
2.3.5 Procedure. Since there are stages in both test excavation will need t o be inclined t o prevent slumping.
procedures which cannot be repeated, all observations and Carefully collect all the excavated material i n suitable
recordings shall be independently checked as the test containers, which shall be fitted with lids for soils and
proceeds. absorbent rock fragments, and number them consecutively.
2.3.5.1 Procedure for determining the density of the total As the hole is deepened avoid undercutting the ring and use
material within the hole excavated mechanical lifting devices if necessary for removing very
Large material clear of the hole and over the ring. Leave in
2.3.5.1.1 Select a suitable size of density ring such that its
place any large rocks that protrude when forming the hote
internal diameter exceeds by fivetimes the size of the largest
boundary.
particle expected to be present.
Keep the floor and wall of the hole flat and free from sharp
2.3.5.1.2 Prepare a horizontal flat area, sufficiently large to protrusions which may puncture the plastics sheet. Cease
accommodate theselected density ring, and remove all loose excavating when the depth ofthe haleis more or Iessequaf t o
material and sharp projections from the surface. its diameter, except when specified otherwise such as when
testing particular layers.
2.3.5.1.3 Mix the plaster of Paris with water into a thickquick-
setting paste sufficient to bed the density ring. Mark the Ensurethe hole is finally cleared of all loose material with the
position to be occupied by the density ring. Place a thin layer wall and base left undisturbed.
of the plaster paste over the area to be covered by theannulus
2.3.5.1.10 Weigh each container of excavated material, as
of the density ring.
well asany separate verycoarse-sized material, to the nearest
2.3.5.1.4 Bed the density ring on the plaster paste ensuring 100 g and record the result with the container number. After
that there are no voids remaining between the ring and the deducting the masses of the containers, sum the individual
prepared surface of the ground. Securethe ring in place using masses of the material i n order t o obtain the totat excavated
the spikes. Trim away any surplus plaster paste from inside mass {m,).
rhe ring.
2.3.5.1.1 1 When moisture or absorbent material is present in
2.3.5.1.5 Set u p the pointer gauge assembly so that the all or partof the excavated soit and rockwhich may affectthe
datum bar can be removed from the test area between dry density determination, determinethe moisture contentas
readings and thetip atthe lower end of the adjustablevertical specified in BS 1377 : Part 2 : 1990.
pointer can be returned to a fixed position below the top of
The moisture content shall be representative of the whole of
the ring.
the material excavated, therefore collect a representative
Remove the datum bar and locked pointer to a safe position portion forthis moisture content determination i n a separate
away from the test area, leaving the support in place if this is airtight container by incrementally sampling each individual
part of the assembly. portion of the excavated material after determining the total
mass (m,).
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

2.3.5.1.12 Select a suitable size of the plastics sheet and 2.3.6 Calculations* and expression ofresults
check that it is undamaged and without punctures. Place the
plastics sheet over the ring and down into the hole gently, 2.3.6.1 For the total material in the hole excavated.
ensuring that there is sufficient t o conform to the wall and Calculate the volume, y, (in m3), of the hole from the
base of the hole. Replace the datum bar and locked pointer. equation:

2.3.5.1.13 Fill the space contained by the plastics sheet with


water from the calibrated containers u p t o the precise level of
the tip of the locked pointer, as set for the initial volume where
measurement (see 2.3.5.1.7).
R, is the initial volume of water i n the density ring and
While filling, loosely supportthe plastics sheet away from the above the prepared surface (in L);
holewall i n the upper partin orderto allowthe risingwaterto
form the lining t o the shape of the hole and the inside of the
Rf is the final volume of water in the hole and density
ring. ring (in 1.t.
NOTE. For the larger test holes it may be convenient initially to use a Calculate the bulk density, p (in Mg/m3), of the soil from
large tank for the bulk of the filling and finish by drawing from a the equation:
srnallertanktobring the water level moreslowlyup to the level ofthe
(-
%. ._ tip of the locked pointer.
After filling observe the water level at the pointer tip for
several minutes i n orderto check for feaksas during the initial
where
volume measurements, replacing the plastics sheet and
refilling if necessary. The total measured volume of water m, is the wet mass of all the material from the hole
used for the filling shali be within 0.1 % of the total volume {in kg).
being measured. This volume is the final reading fRf) which Calculate the dry density, pd (in Mglm3),of the soil from
shall be recorded in litres. the equation:
2.3.5.1.14 Remove thedatum bar and locked pointerto a safe
position. Remove the water and plastics sheet, checking the
hole for indications of leakage. If leaking is found t o have
where
occurred repeat 2.3.5.7.12 and 2.3.5.1.13.
2.3.5.1.15 Dismantle the apparatus and backfill the hole. w is the moisture content (in %) of the soil, determined
as specified i n BS 1377 : Part 2 : 1990.
2.3.52 Procedure for determining the density ofthe
proportion of the soil finer than a specified size 2.3.62 For the proportiono f the soil finer than a specified
sire
2.3.5.2.1 Proceed as specified in 2.3.5.1.1 to 2.3.5.1.9.
(a) Where the oversize material has been replaced in the
2.3.5.2.2 Separate all the material larger than the specified hole, calculate the dry density, p,, (in Mg/m3),of the

C sizewhich has been excavated from the hole using test sieves
where appropriate and if grading is required. Determine and
record the total mass Im,) of this oversize material i n kg.
remaining proportion of the soil from the equation:

2.3.5.2.3 Determine the moisture content {w,) of the


proportion remaining represented by the material finer than
the specified size, as specified in BS 1377 : Part 2 : 1990. is the wet mass of all the material from the hole
(in kg);
2.3.5.2.4 Determine the volume of the proportion of the soil
is the mass as excavated of the oversize material
finer than the specified size by one or other of the following
methods.
(in kg);
is the final volume of water in the hole containing
(a) Proceed as spec~fiedin 2.3.5.7.12 and 2.3.5.1 .I3 except
the oversize material (in L);
that the oversize material shall be placed i n the hole after
positioning the plastics sheet and before filling with water isthe initial volume of water in thedensity ring and
to obtain the volume in litres (R,). above the prepared surface (in L);
Take special care to avoid puncturing the plastics sheet is the moisture content (in %) of the proportion
when replacing the oversize material. remaining determined as specified i n BS 1377 :
(b) Complete 2.3.5.7.12 and 2.3.5.1.73 to determine the Part 2 : 1990.
totat volume of the hole. Determine the volume of the
oversize material (vJ, for deduction, either by water
displacement as specified in 7.4of BS 1377 : Part 2 : 1990
or by calcuiation from the mass and apparem densiry of
the material.
2.3.5.2.5 Proceed as specified in 2.3.5.1.14and 2.3.5.1.15.

* See foml 9(b) o fappendix A.


BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

(b) Where the volume of oversize material has been 2.4.2.6 Steel rule, graduated to 0.5 mm.
separately determined calculate the dry density, pa
2.4.2.7 Grafting tool, or spade, and a pickaxe.
(in Mg/m3),of the remaining proportion of the soil from the
equation: 2.4.2.8 Straightedge, e.g. a steel strip about 300 m m long, 25
m m wide and 3 mm thick, with one bevelled edge.

2.4.2.9 Apparatus for moisture content determinetion, as


specified in BS 1377 : Part 2 : 1990.
where, in addition to the above table of symbols,
v, is the volume of the hole (in m3)(see 2.3.6.11; 2.4.2.10 Apparams for extracting samplesfrom the cutter
(optional).
v, is the vofume of the oversize material (in m3).
2.4.3 Procedure
2.3.7 Test report The test report shalt affirm that the test was
carried out in accordance with this Part of this standard and 2.4.3.1 Calculatethe internal volume of the core cutter in
shalt contain the following information. cubic centimetres from its dimensions which shall be
(a) The method of test used. measured to the nearest0.5 m m [V,).
(b)The in-situ bulk and dry densities of thesoil (in Mg/m3), 2.4.3.2 Weigh the cutter to the nearest 1 g (m,).
to the nearest 0.01 Mg/m3
2.4.3.3 Expose a small area, approximately 300 rnrn square.
(c) The moisture content, as a percentage, to the nearest of the soil layer to be tested and level it. Remove loose
0.5%. extraneous material. Place the care cutter with its cutting
(d) The fraction of the soil for which the density has been edge on the prepared surface. Place the steel dolly on top of
determined (if appropriate]. thecutter, and ram the latter down into the soil layer until only
(el The grading analysis (if appropriate). about 10 mm of the dolly protrudes above the surface, care
being taken not to rock the cutter. Dig the cutter out of the
(f] The approximate diameter and depth of the hole, and surrounding soil taking care to allow some soil to project
whether either was specified or not.
from the lower end of the cutter. Trim the ends of the core flat
(g)The methods of determining the mass and volume of to the ends of the cutter by means of the straightedge.
coarse and oversize material if carried out separately. NOTE. Where drivina causesshorteninsof the sample in thecutter, or
(h)The information required by clause 9 of BS 1377 : rhere is difficulty in &ging outthecutt&, it may be found preferable
to removethe soil from around the outside of thecutter and slightly in
Part 1 : f 990. advance of the cutting edge as it is driven down. Care needs to be
taken not to causevoidsinsidethecutter by trimming away the soil a
2.4 Core cutter method for cohesive soils free from coarse- short distance outside the wall of the cutter.
grained material Jacking the cutter down against a fixed reaction instead of using the
rammer may also assist in ensuring that it is driven more precisely
2.4.1 General. This method covers the determination of the and straight than by using the rammer.
density of natural or compacted soil insitu. 2.4.3.4 Determine the mass of the cutter containing the core
NOTE. This method may be less accurate than the sand replacement to the nearest 1 g (m,}.
mathod test (see 2.2) and is not recommended unless speed is
essential, or unlessthe soil is well compacted but sufficiently soft for 24.3.5 Removethecore from the cutter. crumble it and place
the cutter to be driven easily.
a representative sample in an airtight tin and determine its
The requirements of Part 1 of this standard, where moisturecontent, w, usingthe method specified i n BS 1377 :
appropriate, shatl apply to the test methods described in this Pan 2 : 1990.
clause.
2.4.4 Ca/culations* and expression of results. Calculate the
2.4.2 Apparatus
bulk density of the soil, p (in Mglm3),from the equation:
2.4.2.1 Cylindrical steel core cutter, 130 mrn long and of
100 k 2 mm internal diameter, with a wall thickness of
3 mm bevelled at one end, of the type illustrated in figure 6.
The cutter shall be kept greased. where
NOTE. If the averagedensityover asmaller depth is required, then the m,is the mass of soil and core clrtter (in g);
appropriate length of cutter should be used.
m,is the mass of core cutter (in g);
2.4.2.2 Steel dolly, 25 mm high and of I00 mm internal V, is the internal volume of core cutter (in mL).
diameter, with a wall thickness of 5 mm, fitted with a lip to
enable itto be located on top of the corecutter (seefigure6). Calculate the dry density, pd (in M g h 3 ) ,from the equation:

2.4.2.3 Steel rammerof the type illustrated in figure 6.


2.4.2.4 Balance, readable to 1 g.
where
2.4.2.5 Palette knife, a convenient size is one having a blade
wis the moisture content of the soil (in %).
approximately 200 mrn tong and 30 mm wide.

' See form 9IcL appendix A.


2.4.5 Testrepo*. Thetest report shall affirm thatthetestwas Theterms bulkdensity and moisture density have been used
carried out in accordance with this Part of this standard and throughout this standard when describing the
shall contain the following information: measurements in orderto distinguish them from thederived
(a) the method of test used; values of dry density and moisture content. Many gauges are
microprocessor-controlled and are able t o provide derived
(b) the in-situ bulk and dry densities of the soil (in Mg/m3)
values of dry density and moisture content.
to the nearest 0.01 Mg/m3;
The test is suitable for most fine-, medium- and coarse-
(cl the moisture content, (in %).totwosignificantfigures; grainedsoits wherethe areaof thegauge sfi,
(dl the information required by clause 9 of BS 1377 : a reoresentative sarn~le.The
a sufficient size to ~ r o v i d e
Part 1 : 1990. presenceof occasional coa me gravel-sbed particles or larger
material completely surrounded by fine-, and medium-
2.5 Nuclear methodssuitablefor fine-. medium-, and coarse-
grained soil should be revealed by tests giving unusually
grained soils
high-density results. Where the soil is composed mainly of
2.5.1 Safetyprecautions.The nuclear equipment used in this coarse particles their maximum nominal size should not
test method utilizes radioactive materials emitting ionizing exceed 37.5 mm.
radiations which may be hazardous to health unless proper Bulk density measurements may be made using these
.A.d precautions are taken. Therefore beforetesting commences it gauges in two different modes. These modes of operation are
is essential that users of this equipment are aware of the referred to as:
potential hazards and comply with all applicable government
(c) direct transmission; and
regulations concerning the precautions to be taken and
routine procedures to be followed with this type of (d) backscatter.
equipment. The principles upon which each is based are shown in
Keep time spent near the gauge to a minimum in order to figure 7. Direct transmission is the preferred type fora density
minimize radiation effects. measurement and should be used where possible because of
~ t deeper
s zone of influence.
NOTE. The following documents regulate the use etc of nuclear
gauges in the UK. Moisture density can be determined only by using the
la1 Radioactive Substances Act 1960.
(bj Radioactive ~ubsfances(Carriageby Road) (GreatBritain) backscatter type of transmission (see figure 7a). However,
Regulations1985 and associated Code of Practice. some gauges permit measurement of mdsturedensitywhite
(c) lonising RadiationsRegulations 1985 with the associated at the same time measuring bulk density by either mode of
Approved Code of Practice- 'The protection of persons operation.
against ionising radiation arising from any work activity'
(ACoP). Part 2, section 8, of ACoP is relevant. The zone of influence including the depth below the surface
(d) Secibn 6ofthe Health and SafetyatWork, etc.. Act, 1974, HSW for eithertype of measurement is not precise and wiII depend
74, (as amended by the Consumer Protection Act. 1987, and
on thedesign of the gauge and, in the case ofthe bulk density
modifiedby Regulation 32 of the lonising Radiations
Regulations, 1385, IRR 85). determination, wilt vary with the type of transmission.
Advice regarding (a), (b) and ( c )may be obtained from the National Typically the measurement depthfor bulkdensity is between
fit Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, Oxon. OX11 ORQ. 50 mm and 300 mm. In the case of a moisture content
L4 Advice regarding (d) may be obtained from the Health and Safety
Executive, MagdalenHouse, Stanley Precinct, Bootie, MerseysideLZO
determination about half of the measured count rate may
30.2. refer to the uppermost 50 mm; the overall depth tests will
vary with the moisture density.
2.5.2 General. This method covers the determination in situ
NOTE. Test resultsfor bothtypes of transmission may be affected by
o f t h e density and moisture content of natural or compacted a number of factors.
fine-, medium-, and coarse-grained soils by means of a
(el Both measurements:
nuctear gauge designed to operate on the ground surface.
(1) heterogeneity of the soil which may cause a bias to
The method is indirect for both measurements and does not
particu tar parts within the zone of influence;
necessarily provide the average value within the zone of
influence of the test. (21surface texture of the soil, the effect of which should
be minimized by ensuring maximum contact between
The standard means of measuring density and moisture
the gauge and soil being tested.
content with nuclear gauges have been taken together
because the gauges normally combine both facilities. Hence (f) Density measurements:
such gauges provide a rapid non-destructive technique for (1 layers of compacted soil can contain significant
determining in-situ bulk and dry density as well as the vertical gradients of density such that the state of
moisture content. However gauges capable only of compaction at the top may bear littte relation to the
measuring bulk density may be used to carry out this test average density conditions throughout the layer. The
method. backscatter test, by its mode of operation, is
The direct measurements made with the nuclear gauge concentrated on soi! c10seto the surface. Direct
consist of: transmission is preferred as it largely eliminates these
effects by its ability to test equally all parts of the layer
(a) bulkdensity, i.e. the combined masses of solids and
to the total depth to which the source is inserted;
water per unit volume of the soil; and
(2) chemical composition of sail, such as blast furnace
(b) moisturedensity,i.e. the massof water per unitvolume
slag, which makes it unsuitable for testing.
ofrhe soil. Notethat this value is not the same as moisture
content.
1
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

(g) Moisture density measurements: A manufacturer's handbook and current certificate of


(1) Constituent material containing hydrogen which is calibrations, and an approved transport case, shall also be
not removed during the oven-drying process. provided.
Examples of such soils would be those containing A nuclear gauge limited t o bulk density measurements may
organic matter or chemically bound water such as be used provided it complies with this specification i n all
gypsum of a sufficient amount to affect the result. relevant respects.
(2) Some elements such as cadmium, boron and The gauge shall be recalibrated as in 2.5.5 andlor 2.5.6 as
chlorine can have an effect on the measurement of appropriate after any repair or overhaul involving change of
moisturecontentsincatheyhave high thermal-neutron the sources,detectors or reference blocks.
capture probabilities. When these elements are present or if asource isdarnaaedor
NOTE. If defectsin a source aresus~ected
this method has to be used with caution. thought to be damaged the equipment should be Isft in its storage
box and the manufactureror an authorized agent
- notified
(3) Where the soil contains constituent material that immediately.
affects moisture content measurements made with Handlingand repair should beundertakenonly by suitably equipped
nuclear gauges, if this proportion is sensibly constant and properly trained personnel.
then it may be possible to adjust the calibration curve
2.5.4.2 Reference blockof suitable material for checking the
as described i n 2.5.6.3.3.
gauge operation and toestablish conditionsfor reproducible
Variations in the design of the nucleargauges are such that in standardcount rates. The reference blockshall have the same
describing this method it has not been possible to detail fully serial number as the gauge and shall not be interchangeable
the operation of the gauge and reference is made t o the between gauges.
manufacturer's handbook. NOTE. The reference block should be kept clean and free from
adhering particles, which may cause a poor contact with the gauge
2.5.3 Principles and result in an erroneous standard count rate.
2.5.3.1 Bulk density. The method uses the attenuation of
2.5.4.3 Gamma radiation monitor.
gamma rays from a gamma source (usually in a maveable
probe) due to Compton scattering and photo-electric 2.5.4.4 Test area preparation equipment, i.e. suitable tools
absorption. The intensity of radiation arriving at the detector forlevellingtheground atthesiteofthetest,such asshovel,
(usually fixed in the gauge base) which is directly reiated to trowel, brush and straightedge.
the electron density provides an indication of the bulkdensity
2.5.4.5 Steel drive pin and hammer andor suitable auger
by comparison with an appropriate calibration.
with templateto form and position thetest hole forthedirect
2.5.3.2 Moisture density. The method uses the moderation transmission test for bulk density measurements, The drive
(slowing down) of neutronsfrom afast neutron sourcedue to pin should produce a hoie upto 3 mm largerthan the external
collisions principally with hydrogen nuclei. The intensity of diameter of the gauge probe.
radiation reaching the detector, which is directly related t o 2.5.4.6 Gauge log to record standardization (see 2.57) and
the rate of arrival of moderated neutrons, provides an stability (see 2.5.8) test results.
indication by comparison with an appropriate calibration, of
theamount of moisture presentwithin the volurneaf the zone 2.5.4.7 Calibration results. These may be in the form of charts
of influence assuming that water represents the principal and may also be stored in the memory bank of the readout
source of hydrogen present in the soil. system.
NOTE. Both neutron source and detector are usually in fixed positions
2.5.4.8 Dry clean fine quartz sand for bedding gauge on
near to the gauge base and separate from the bulk densiw
measurements devices. Thus. although the moisture density test is uneven surFaces.
separate from the bulk density test, gauges with these facilities are
generally designed so that both determinations may be made at the 2.5.5 Calibration for bulk density measurements
same time, whetherthe bulk density is being determined by direct
transmission or backscatter. 2.5.5.1 Manufacturer's bulk density calibration. This
calibration shall initially be carried out in accordance with
2.5.4 Apparatus ASTM D2922*. Every 24 months the manufacturer's
2.5.4.1 Calibrated nuclear surface gauge suitable for bulk
calibration shall be checked using not less than three of the
standard density btocks as described in ASTM D2922.
density and moisture density measurements. It shall contain
sealed nuclear sources adequately shieldedfor safety during 2.5.5.2 Initial site calibration for bulk density. Calibrate the
storage and use, and suitable detectors and readout devices nuclear gauge in accordance with this clause for each mode
with electric batteries all within a housing of rugged of operation t o be used for the test and at each test depth if
construction that is water and dust-resistant. For the used in direct transmission. The calibration procedure wiH
determination of hulk density by direct transmission the depend upon the nature of the measurement application.
housing shall also contain an extendable probe for locating These categories are as follows:
the bulk density measuring gamma source in a preformed (a) ground investigation comparative tests:
hoie in the soil to be tested. The probeapenure shall befitted
with an automatic shutter and shield mechanism which (b) ground investigation absolute tests;
closes when the source is withdrawn into the safe position. (c) compliance tests for compacted material.

See reference list of standards on inside back cover.


-*
>.'
, ... - .. .LL,.: ti ..".. . .wyi
,
. , . ,..?;.;..A
,. . . .
9 '
4

BS '1377 : Part 9 : 1990

(IIGround investigationcomparative tests. Thesetests (b) Place the clean empty container on a level rigid base,
require noinitial site calibration, provided thatthe data measure the internal dimensionstothe nearest 1 m m and
obtained are used only for comparative purposes on calculate the internal volume. Determine the mass of the
the particular site. The test report shall ctearly state that empty container if this is to be used to obtain the tow1
thecomparativetest method has been used and that no mass of soil to be placed within the container.
initial site calibration was carried out. (c) Prepare a block of selected soil within the container to
(2) Ground investigation absolute tests. Carry out an a density within the required range (see note). Finish the
initial test before using the gauge at any location or top of the block level with the top of the container. From
when any significant change of soiltypeoccurs. Do this the known total mass of soil placed i n the container and its
by selecting a suitable location and performing a internal volume calculate the bulk density of the soil.
minimum of threeseparate nuclear density gauge tests NOTE.Care should betaken to avoid the occurrence of significant
followed by a series of suitable alternative in-situ test densitygradients when filling the container exceptwhenthedepthof
methods, such as sand/water replacement or core the container is matched to the sampling depth of the nuclear gauge
in the case of direct transmission testing. Variations inthemathodof
cuner methods as described in 2,lto 2.4. tf each of the preparation, other than of overall bulk density, may produce
field tests varies by iess than 3 % from the nuclear erroneous data and great care should, therefore, be taken in
density gauge result then adjustment of the preparation. Ifmere is any doubt the catibrationshould be checked
using an alternative approved method.
manufacturer's calibration is not necessary. Where
there is a difference of 3 % or greater then a soil (dl Within Ih of filling the container measure the bulk
calibration shall be made as described in 2.5,5.3 forthe density with the nuclear gauge in the same manner as
mode of operation to be used.Where this is to be by described for making site measurements of bulk density
direct transmission the gauge shall be calibrated at and according to the mode of operation for which the
each test depth. Two alternative calibration methods calibration is being made.
are given using either containers or in-situ tests. 2.5.5.3.2 Calibration by the in-situ method. Proceed as
Normally for both modes of operation calibration by follows.
the separate container method is preferred.
(a) Carefully select an area for a minimum of five
NOTE.The alternative in-situ methods may produce data with an calibration tests in orderto provide as close agreement as
inherent scatter which itself exceeds 3 %. It is important therefore to
cam, out sufficient in-situ tests to provide reliable data. Where there practicable to the range of dansities likely to be found at
is a doubt soil calibration using the container method should be the test location.
carried out. (See 2.5.5.3.1.)
(bl Measure the in-situ bulkdensitywith the nudear gauge
(3) Compliance tests for compacted material. Where
in the same manner as described for making site
the nuclear gauge isto be used for compliance tests on
measurements of bulk density and according to the made
compacted material, carry out the initial site calibration
of operation for which the calibration is being made.
using a single container test as specified in 2-5.5.3.1
prepared at the lower limit of compliance of bulk Ic) Carry out at each calibration test location an
density plus or minus 2 %. appropriate alternative in-situ test method, such as sand/
/" water replacement or core cutter method as described in
C, 2.5.5.3 Soilcalibration for bulkdensity Carry out a minimum 2.1 to 2.4 to determine an alternative bulk density
of five separate calibration tests o n the selected soil as measurement.
described below using a range of different bulk densities
which fully cover the span of expected use with as uniform a 2.5.5.3.3 Derivation o f the calibration. Proceed as follows.
spread as practicable. Two alternative methods are (a) Plotthe bulkdensitiesobtainedfrorn theatternative in-
described. situ tests or from the dimensions and masses of soil
placed in the container(s)againstthe nuclear bulkdensity
2.5.5.3.1 Calibration by the container method. Proceed as
follows.
measurements.

la) Select a suitable container (or containers) having (bl Calculate the least-square best fit line from the data and
sufficiently rigid walls and base notto deform when soil is obtain an adjusted bulk density from the equation:
placed and compacted within it, and a sufficient size not to Adjusted bulk density = bp, 4 a (in Mglm3)
change the observed count (orcount rate) if made larger in where
any dimension.
band aare the slope and intercept respectively as
NOTE. Containerswith internal plan dimensions of approximately
500 mm long by 380 rnm wide have proved satisfactory for equipment
determined in the least-square analysis;
presently available (1990).For direct transmission, the depth of the p, is the nuclear gauge bulk density (in Mg/rn3).
container can be matched to the sample depth for which the soil
calibration is required; in this case the depth of the container should Use the resuits of the analysis to adjustthe manufacturer's
be equal to the appropriate hole depth referred to in 2.5.9.1. For calibration where this is incorporated in the gauge
calibration with the backscatter modeof operation, a minimum depth electronics.
of 230 mm is adequate.
(c)Repeat the calibration every 3 months when testing is
to continue for a particular calibration for longer than this
period.
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

2.5.6 Calibration for moisture density measurements 2.5.6.3 Soil calibration for moisture density, The procedures
are similar to those described i n 2.5.5.3 except that a
2.5.6.1 Manufacturer's moisture density calibration. This minimum of three separate calibration tests shall be carried
calibration shall initially be carried out i n accordance with out on the selected soil using a range of different moisture
ASTM D3017. Every 24 months the manufacturer's densities which fully cover the span of the expected use. Two
calibration shall be checked by an authorized agent for the alternative methods are given.
nuclear gauge.
2.5.6.3.1 Calibration by the container method. Proceed as
2.5.6.2 Initial site calibration for moisture density. Calibrate
follows.
the gauge in accordance with thisclause depending upon the
nature ofthe measurement calibration. These categories are: (a) Select a suitable container (or containers) having
sufftcientty rigid walls and base not to deform when soil is
(a) Ground investigation comparative tests.
placed and compacted within it, and a sufficient size notto
(b) Ground investigation absolute tests. changethe observed count (or count rate) if made larger in
(c) Compliance tests for compacted material. any dimension.
( I ) Ground investigation comparative tests. These NOTE. Containers with internal dimensions of approximately
00 mm long by 460 mm wide by 450 mm deep have proved
tests require no initial site calibration provided that the satisfactory for equipment presently available (1990).
data obtained are used only for comparative purposes
on a particular site. The test report shall clearly state (b) Place the soil in the container(s) as described
that the comparative test method has been used and in 2.5.5.3.1 (b) and ic) in a manner t o provide a uniform
that no initial site calibration was carried out. bulk density and moisture density.

( 2 ) Ground investigation absolute tests. Carry out an (c) Carry out the nuclear measurement following the
initial test before using the gauge at any location or principles described in 2.5.5.3.1(d).
when any significant change of soil type occurs. Do this (d) Calculate the bulk density of the soil block from the
by selecting a suitable location and performing a internal volume of the container and the mass of wet soil.
minimum of two separate nuclear gauge tests Then take a representative sample of the wet soil in the
following the procedure as in 2.5.6.3, at different container and determine the moisture content by the
moisturedensities spanning the range of expected use. method described in BS 1377 : Part 2 : 1990.
For each nuclear gauge test determine the quantityof (e) Calculate the moisture density, Le. the mass of water
water present per unit volume of the soil from a present per unit volume of placed soil.
standard bulk density measurement other than the
nuclear gauge method, and the moisture content by the 2.5.6.3.2 Calibration by the in-situ method. Proceed as
method described in BS 1377 : Part 2 : 1990. follows, the procedure being similar t o that described in
Compare the alternative density and moisture content
2.553.2. After the nuclear measurement calculate the
moisture density of the soil in the same place b y an
results with the nuclear gauge moisture density
alternative in-situ bulk density test method such as sand!
measurements. I f each of the results of the alternative
water replacement or core cutter method, as described in 2.1
tests var~esby not more than 0.01 Mg/m3of water from
to 2.4, and the moisture content of the in-situ soil by the
the nuclear gauge result, and some of the alternative
method described in BS 1377 : Part 2 : 1990.
test results are greater and some less than the nuclear
gauge results, then adjustment of the manufacturer's 2.5.6.3.3 Derivation of the calibration. Proceed as fo!lows.
calibration is not necessary. Where the results of the (a) Use the two sets of data on moisture density, i.e. the
alternative tests all lie in one direction some gauges count ratio or moisture density measurement by the
include a facility for a constant adjustment. existing gauge calibration and the resultsof the ahernatbe
Where there is a difference between the previous test methods to obtain the required calibration.
calibration and the check points that is greater than (b) The retation of the best fit for moisture density is
0.01 Mg/rn3of water carry out a soil calibration as normally linear. Use the results of the analysis t o adjust
described in 2.5.6.3. Two soil calibration procedures
the rnanufacturer'scalibration when this isincorporated in
are given using either containers or in-situ tests. the gauge electronics.
Normally the container method is preferred.
NOTE.The alternative in-situtest methods may produce data (c) Where the new calibration porntsall lie uniformly on
with an inherent scaner which itself exceeds 0.01 Mg/m3of one side of the previous calibration, it may be due t o the
water. It is important therefore to carry out sufficient presence of chernical!~bound water i n the soil. Some
alternative tesrs to provide reliable data. Where there is a gauges include a facility to providea constant adjustment
doubt the full soil calibration should be carried out as given in
2.5.6.3. of the result to suit such cases.
(3) Compliance tests for compacted material. Where Id} Repeat soil calibrations for moisture density
the nuclear gauge isto be used for compliance testson measurements every 3 months when testing istocontinue
compacted material, carry out the initial site calibration for a particular calibration for longer than this period.
using a single container of soil as specified i n 2.5.6.3
prepared at the upper limit of compliance for moisture
content and a t the maximum achievable bulk density at
that moisturecontent, pluszero or minus 2 % of the wet
weight of the soil.
BS 1377 :Part 9 : 1990
".. "
,. *
. ;.

2.5.7 Gauge standardizationprocedure. Carry out the {el If N, is within the limits permitted above, the N. can
standardization of the gauge on the reference block for each be used to determine the count rate ratios for the
type of measurement atthe start and end of each day's use. current day's use of the gauge.
This procedure shall also be repeated after 8 h of continuous (ff If N, is outside the permitted limits repeat at least
use, but may be carried out more frequently if appropriate. twice more the procedure for determining the average
Retain a permanent record of these data. If the gauge is standard count rate. If at1 three or two of the three
switched off repeat the standardization procedure. determinations are outside the acceptable limits,
NOTE. All nuclear gauges are subject to long-term ageing of the withdraw the gauge from service until the fault is
sources (radioactivedecay), electronic components and the
detectors. Local geography may cause backgroundradiationto vary, rectified.
which can change the gauge performance. Gauges are therefore (g) If the standardization at the end of the working
calibrated in terms of a ratio of the measurement munt rate for each
radioactive source to a count rate made on a reference block.
period gives values ourside the permitted limits all
results within that working period are invalidated.
The procedure is as follows:
(a) Switch on the gauge and allow for normalization if
2.5.8 Gauge stability procedure. Carry out the gauge
required in accordance with the manufacturer's stability check for each type of measurement at least once
handbook.This period will usuelly be not less than 15 min. a month when in general daily usage and at least once
If the gauge is to be used either continuously or every 3 months otherwise.
intermittently during theday, do not switch the gauge off. The procedure shall be as follows.
Perform the test with the gauge located at least 7 m away (a) Follow the gauge standardization procedure in 2.5.7
from other nuclear gauges and at least 1.5 m from any except that a series of at least 76 repetitive readings of
large structure which may affect the gauge readings. the standard count rate, each of a 1 min period, are
When it is necessaryto usethegauge in a narrowtrench or carried out with the gauge on the reference block for
within 1.5 m of a building or other structure, the effects of each type of measurement Do not move the gauge
related radiation need to be taken into account, by during this process.
determining the standard count rate with the reference (b) Separately record each of the measurements for
blockwithin 10 m m of each of the proposed test locations each radioactive source in the gauge log with the date
priorto each such test. Use thesameorientation as forthe of the measurements.
test. Keep the gauge at least 150 mrn clear of any vertical
Ic) Determine the standard deviation E D ) and
projection.
determine the average value of each series of repetitive
(b) Placethe gauge on the reference blockand ensurethat measurements.
the butk density gamma source is correctly located. For
(dl Check that each stability ratio, expressed as the
each type ofmeasurement, i.e. bulk density and moisture
standard deviation divided by the square root of the
density, take at least four repetitive readings of the
average value, lies within the manufacturer's quoted
standard count rateeach of 1min period and calculate the
range for the gauge. Take into account any prescale
mean vatue. Alternatively if available on the gauge, one
value used and record the results in the gauge log.
measurernentovera period of 4 min or more is acceptable.
Either constitutes one standardization check. (el Where either of the stability ratios falls outside the
manufacturer's specified range or the trend in
(c) Make a record of the results of each standardization
successive checks is erratic withdraw the gauge from
checkwith the date of the measurements inthe gauge log
service until the fault is rectified.
in order to retain a continuity of the results.
(d) Check whether the arithmetical mean value in each 2.5.9 Test procedure. The following particulars are
case is within the limits set by the following equation and subdivided according to the mode of operation used for
record the value of N, inthegauge log, using the equation: bulk density measurements. The addition of moisture
density measurements, with gauges including this facility,
may be taken a t the same time as the bulk density
measurements in either bulk density mode of operation of
the gauge. Where moisture densiw, as the rr AS of water
where
per unit volume, is separately required follow the
is the average value of the current standard procedure for a backscatter test omitting the operations
count rate; concerning bulk density but return the bulk density
is the average of the past four values of N,taken measurement gamma source inside its shielded housing
prior to use; with the shutter closed.
is the amount of prescale applied to the detector
counts prior to display. The manufacturer should
supply this value. If no prescale is built into the
gauge the value is t ;
3s 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

2.5.9.1 Direct transmission procedure for bulk density. (i)


Take the field readings of bulk density and moisture
Proceed as follows. density at the test location, and record them where
necessary.
(a) standardize the gauge as described in 2.5.7.
Adjust the field values if necessary using the calibration
(b) Select and prepare a test location at which the bulk
charts. Some gauges contain microprocessors capable of
density and moisture density are to be measured.
storing a user-determined calibration which automatically
Perform the test with the gauge located at least 7 m corrects the displayed data.
away from other nuclear gauges and normally at least
(j) Retract the extendable probe into the housing, ensure
1.5 m from any large structure which may affect gauge
the shutter is closed and checkthatthe radioactive source
readings.
is safely housed. Use the gamma radiation monitor to
When having to makea testwithin 1.5 m of a trench wall or establish thatthe radiation profile iswithin the limit set by
structure in orderto take account of the effects of reflected the manufacturer's handbook.
radiation, it is important that the gauge standardization
procedure (see 2.5.7) is made within 10 mm of the test 2.5.9.2 Backscatter procedure for bulk density and moisture
position for each such test and to use the same orientation content. Promed as follows.
as for the tests. Keep the gauge at least 150 rnm cfear of
any vertical projection. (a) Followthe procedure given in2.5.9.1(a), {b),(c) and (s).
(c) Remove extraneous material from the test position, (b)Followthegauge manufacturer's handbookto obtain a
which shall be essentially flat and free of depressions. gauge butk density reading and gauge moisture density
reading, both with a minimum test period of 1 rnin using
(dl Using the template as a guide, drill or drive a hole for
the built-in timer.
the probe to the appropriate depth. The depth of the hole
may naedto begreaterthan thedepthoverwhich the butk NOTE.In order to minimize radiation effects move away from the
gauge when not operating it and during counts.
density is to be determined. (Consult the manufacturer's
handbook for advice on the appropriate hole depth.) Mark If desired, the gauge may be rotated aboutthe axis of the
the soil surface in order to locate the gauge correctly with probe and further rneasurementsmade. Normally fortwo
respect to the position of the hole for the probe. determinations the gauge is rotated through 180" and the
two results averaged.
(e) Placethe gauge on the test location and ensure there is
good overall contact between the base of the gauge and Alternatively the volume of soil measured can effectively
the soil being tested. When in doubt, maximize contact be increased by repeating the test at immediately adjacent
between gauge base (which shall be keptclean and free of locations and averaging the two results.
adhering particles without bringing the hands in contact (c) fake the field readings of bulk density and moisture
with the base) and surface by using small quantitiesof fine density at the test location and record them where
drysand or fines of material undertestto fill srnatl surface necessary.
voids. This materiai shalt not form an added layer. Adjust the field vatues if necessary using the calibration
(f) Insert the probe to the selected depth according to the charts. Some gauges contain microprocessors capable of
manufacturefs handbook. storing a user-determined calibration which automatically
(g)Pull the gauge in thedirection thatwill bring the probe corrects the displayed data.
againstthe sideof the hote,closest to the detector location (d) Retract the extendable probe into its housing, ensure
in the gauge housing. the shutter is closed and check that the radioactive source
(h) Followthe gauge manufacturer's handbookto obtain a is safely housed. Use the gamma radiation monitor to
gauge bulk density reading. and if required a gauge establish that the radiation profile is within the limit set by
moisture density reading, both with a minimum test the manufacturer's handbook.
period of 1 min using the built-in timer. 2.5. f 0 Calculationsand expression of the results rn
NOTE. In orderto minimize radiation effects move away from the
gauge when not operating it and during counts. 2.5.10.1 Drydeosity. Calculatethe d r y d e n ~ i t y(in
, ~Mg/m3),
~
If desired, the gauge may be rotated about the axis of the from the equations:
probe and further measurements made. Normally fortwo (a) for nuclear gauge determinations
determinations the gauge is rotated through 180" and the
two results averaged. Alternatively the volume of soil
measured can effectively be increased by repeating the where
test at immediately adjacent (vertically or horizontally) is the bulk density of thesoil (inMg/rn3)determined
p
locations and averaging the two results. with the nuclear gauge;
If the test is repeated in a vertically adjacent location, and W is the moisture density, i.e. the mass of water per
the results are to be averaged, the top of the second test unit volume of soil tin Mgfrn3)determined with the
shall be a t the level of the depth selected for the insertion nuclear gauge.
of the probe in the first test.
.$;. - . .:< ... ..
.,..a
~%

BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

[b) for bboratory determinationof moismre content 2.5.11 Testreport.The test report shait affirm thatthetest
was carried out in accordance with this Part of this standard
fWp and shall contain the following information.
Pd = c w
( a ) Method of test used.
where (b) The in-situ bulk density of the soil (in Mg/m3) to the
p is the bulk dentisy of the soil (in Mglm3)determined nearest 0.01 ~ g l r nand
~ , mode of operation of the gauge.
with the nuclear gauge; (c) Where applicable, the moisture content (in 96)to two
w is the moisture content of the soil (in %) as significantfigures.
determined by the method given in (d)Where applicable, the drydensityofthe soil (inMglm31
BS 1377 : Part 2 : 1990. to the nearest 0.01 Mg/m3.
2.5.10.2 Moistwecontent. Calculatethe moisture content, w (elNature of measurementapplication (2.5.5.2 and/or
(as %),from the equation: 2.5.6.2).
(f) The model and serial number of the gauge.
(g) The information required by clause 9 of B 5 1377 :
\..:* Part 1 : 1990.
where
Wis the moisture density, i.e. the mass of water per unit
volume of soil (in Mg/rn3)determined with the nuclear
gauge;
p is the bulkdensity of the soil (in Mglrn3)determined with
the nuclear gauge.
I),

.,
" , I

BS 1377 : Part 9 : 7990

3 In-situ penetration tests

3.0 Introduction The gap width between base of cone and base of friction
sleeve shall not exceed 5 m m except when occupied by
This clause decribes methodsfor determining threedifferent another sensor in which case theoveralt width, including the
types of penetration resistance of soil. All are empirical sensor, shall not exceed I5 mm. The external diameter,
methods of testing the strength of soil at various depths except where seals are fitted, shall correspond to the
below a particular location. Thecone penetration test and the diameter of the cone base.
dynamic probing test are usually carried out independently Examples of suitable penetrometertipsare shown in figure8.
of the borehole and other tests; the former being the more NOTE. Where the ground conditions are e x w e d to cause the
precise while the latter uses much simpler apparatus. The penetrometertip to becoma inclined, or where penetrationsin excess
of about 20 m are to be made, it is desirable for a two-directional
standard penetration test is for use in a borehole. inclinometerto be incorporated inthe penetrometertip to indicateits
inclination.

3.1.2.2 60' cone. The cone of hard-wearing material shall


3.1 Determination of the penetration resistance using the
consist of a lower externally shaped conical part with a
fixed 60" cone and friction Jeeve (static cone penetration
nominal base diameter of 35.7 rnm (nominal base area
test CPT)
I000 mm2)and an apexangle of 60, with an upper cylindrical
3.1.1 General. This method covers the determination of the extension limited to 5 mm. Figure 9 shows the permitted
resistance of soils in situ to the continuous penetration at a tolerances including allowances for wear, surFace finish and
slow uniform rate of a seriesof push rods having a cone at the typical manufacturing dimensions.
base, and measuring continuousty or at selected depth
intervals the penetration resistance of the cone and, if 3.1.2.3 Friction sleeve. An independent cylindrical unit,
required, the local friction resistance on a friction sleeve and which shall nowhere be smaller than the externaldiarneier of
pore pressure in the vicinity of the cone and sleeve. the cone base or 0.35 m m larger than the external diamater
This method requires the use of a penetrometer tip with of the cone base. The length shall be such that its external
electrical sensors as defined in 3.1.2.4, thereby permitting peripheral area is 150 x 10' mm2. Figure 10 shows the
continuous readings and an instant read-out. This is not permitted tolerances, including allowances for wear, surface
intended to prohibit the use of the older type of mechanical finish and typicat manufacturing dimensions.
penetrometer, where readings are taken through inner push
rods thrusting against load capsules mounted on the thrust 3.1 -2.4 Cone and friction sleevesensors. The sensing devices
machine. It should be noted that the mechanical for measuring the cone and frictional resistance shalt be
penetrometer does not give precisely the same readings as constructed in such a way that possibte eccentricity of these
would be obtained by the electrical penetrometer tip, which resistances cannot influence the readings. The sensing
is now specified as standard. In submitting reports, the type device fitted to the cone shall measure only the axial force
of penetrometer and penetrometer tip which has been used imposed on thecone by thesoil below it.The device fitted to
should always be given. the friction sleeve shall measure only shear stresses and not
normal stresses. Electronic sensors shall be temperature-
The requirements of Part 1 of this standard, where
compensated.
appropriate, shall apply to the test methods described in this
clause. 3.1.2.5 Piezometric sensor. If required, pore pressures may
3.1.2 Apparatus. The complete apparatus, known as the be measured at the penetrometer tip. The sensor shall be
penetrameter, shall consist of the parts described in 3.1.2.1 capable of measuring water pressureto an accuracy of 5 % +
to 3.1.2.11. +
down to a limit of 0.2 m of water and shall be protected
against the entry of soil particles by a filter of wear-resistant
3.1.2.1 Penetrometer tip. The penetrometer rip shall material.
comprise a cylindrical terminal body which is mounted on the NOTE. The position and type of piezometric sensor has not been
lower end of the push rods. The tip shall contain: (ah the cone specified as these wili vary according to what ISto be measured and
at the base, (b)close above the base externally, the friction the soii type. Two sensors at different locations may be required.
sleeve, where fitted, (c) internally, the sensing devices for 3.1.2.6 Push rods. Push rods shall consist of steel cylindrical
measurement of the cone and sleeve resistances, tubes, each 1 m nominal effective length, screwed or
id) internally an inclinometer where fitted (see note) and attached together to bear against each other, and with
ie) piezometric sensors where fitted. sufficient wall thickness, t o form a rigid-jointed series with a
The axes of the cone friction sleeve, if included, and the body contii~uousstraight axis (seefigure 10). The minimum quality
of the penetrometer tip shall be coincident. of the steel shall correspond t o that specified for upset drill
The diameter of the penetrometer tip shall nowhere be rods in BS 4019 : Part 1.The bore of the rods may be used for
0.3 mm smaller or 1 mrn largerthan thediameter ofthe base conveying the measuring signalsfrom thesensing devicesto
of the cone. In the case of a penetrometer tip with a friction the measuring equipment at the surface.
sleeve, no part of the penetrometer tip shall project beyond
the sieeve diameter. Seals shall be fined a t the ends of the
sleeve and at the base of the cone to prevent entry of soil
particles.
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

The external diameter of the push rods shall be such that it 3.1.3 Calibrations
does not influence measurements at the penetrometer tip.
Normally the external diameter of the push rods is 3.1.3.1 Initial calibration before use and recalibration records
36 m m f 1 mm. Smaller external diameters may be used shall be retained inthe penetrometer calibrations registerfor
continuously or at intervals along the string t o reduce soil each individual item of measuring equipment, referred to by
friction acting on the push rods providing that the distance its reference number. A copy o f the current calibration
between commencement of the smaller diameter push rods certificates recording the calibration or recalibration results,
and the cone base shall be at least 1 m. and dates when made, shall accompany each measuring
device during its use o n site, and be available for inspection.
The deflection from a straight line through the ends at the
mid-point of a 1 m long push rod shall not exceed (a) 0.5mm 3.1.3.2 Measuring equipment for resistances. Calibration of
for the five lowest push rodsand Ib) 1 mm forthe remainder. each force-measuring instrument shall be made before and
For any pairs of joined push rods the deflection from a after every 2000 m of use, and after a repair or overhaul.
straight line through the mid-points of the rods at the joint
3.1.3.3 Grading of resistance-measuring equipment. Taking
shall also not exceed these limits. f he push rods shall be
into account all parts of the systems including the sensors,
checked after every test in ground conditions known to be
signal transmission, signal conversion, recording anddisplay
conducive t o rod bending, e.g. large depths of very soft soils
together with the maximum required compensations t o be
over hard layers, or soils containing cemented zones or
provided for temperature variations and eccentricity o f stress
coarse material. Rods with excessive deflections shall not be
on the cone or sleeve, the precision shall be not more than
reused until straightened.
the larger of the following values:
NOTE. Curvature and eccentricity may be simply observed by
coupling the rod with a straight rod and rollingthe latter on a plane 5 % of the actual applied resistance;
surface. 1 % of the maximum value that is permitted for the range
3.1.2.7 Friction reducer. A ring, fixed on the outside of the of the equipment.
push rods, with an external diameter largerthan the base of This overall grading shall be verified i n accordance with
the cone, to reduce soil friction acting on the push rods. BS 1610, but the grading limits specified therein shall be
The position of this ring on the push rods shall be more than disregarded.
4.00 m m above the base o f the cone and at least 200 mm 3.1.3.4 Piezomerric sensors. Calibrations shalt be made
above the top o f the friction sleeve. before and after every 2000 m of use, and after a repair or
3.1.2.8 Push rodguides. Guides shall be provided for the part overhaul. The precision requirements are as specified
of the push rods protruding above the soil, and forthe rod in 3.1.2.5.
length exposed in water, i n order to prevent buckling when 3.1.3.5 Linear recordings. Where equipment is incorporated
the required penetration pressure increases beyond the safe in the penetrometer for recording the penetration of the tip
limit for the exposed upstanding length of push rods. this apparatus shall be calibrated before and after every
3.3 .Z.9 Calibrated measuring equipment. Direct readings of 2000 m of use, and after a repair or overhaul. The precision
the resistance of the cone and local friction sleeve (if fitted), requirements shall be better than 0.1 m.
and of the piezometric sensor (if fitted) shall be available 3.1.4 Procedure
individually for display throughout a test and shall
supplement tape or other recording techniques where 3.1.4.1 The principle t o be followed shall be that of
provided. continuous testing in which the resistance measurements are
made while all elements of the penetrometertip are moving
3.1.2.10 Thrust machine. The thrust machine shall be downwards simultaneousty and at the standard rate of
constructed such that (a)the reaction providing the thrust penetration.
does not influence the resistance, by having the screw
anchors or ballast supparts at a sufficient distance from the 3.1.4.2 Pretestchecks. Makethe following inspections before
push rods. (b) the machine shall not move relative to the soil each test and replace defective items of apparatuswith others
surface by more than 0.5 m m per kN of thrust during the in sound condition.
pushing action, (c)the machine shall be capable of a (a) Push rods. Stand the push rod vertic. 'ly, spin it, and
continuous thrust stroke of at least 1 m, (d) the rate of observe whether it wobbles while it is rotating. If there is
penetration during driving of the penetrometertip shall be wobble discard the rod or check it for compliance with
capable of being controlled at a rate of 20 ?; 5 mrnis and 3.1.2.6.
thereafter maintained at a constant rate during the entire (b) Cone and friction sleeve. Check that the wear does not
stroke even if readings are taken intermittently. (see note at exceed the permitted tolerances (see 3.1.2.2 and 3.1.2.3).
end of 3.1.4.7), (elmeans shall be provided to thrustthe push
rods vertically into the ground and when necessary provide (c)Seals between different elements o f the penetrometer
support for the push rod guides. tip. Check for wear and remove any particles of soil
present that might interfere with the measurements.
3.1.2.1 f Spirit levelto observe verticality of the thrust (d) Electric cable for signal transmission from the
machine and the push rods and their deviation. penetrometertip. Check for sound outer cover and ensure
it is already threaded through sufficient push rods not to
affect continuous testing.
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

3.1.4.3 Selection of test location. In order to obviate Take a continuous series of measurements if possible, except
disturbance locate the test position at least 1 m from for the inclinometer, otherwise take readings at linear
previously petformed cone penetration tests not more than intervals that do not exceed 200 mm.
10 m deep or at least 1.5 m where the depth exceeded 10 m, NOTE. A presentation of inclinometervalues at Im intervalsshould
or 25 borehole diameters from previous boreholes. normally be adequate.

3.1.4.4 Piezometricsensors. Ensure that there is full Note sounds from, or unusual vibrations of, the push rods,
saturation of the filter and other spaces of the measuring (representing indications of the presence of coarse material
system prior to each test. or obstructions], and note the depths corresponding towhen
they occurred.
NOTE. Impregnationwith silicon oil, glycerine or glycerine and water
has been found to reduce rcentrv of air prior to oenetratina below the Record any unusual even?during the test including the
water table. depths at which the push rods may have been extracted over
3.1.4.5 Ver~icality.Erectthethrus machineto provide thrust a limited height in order t o break the lateral resistance, and
on the push rods in as near a vertical direction as practicable. then been pushed back into the soil.
The maximum deviation of the thrust direction from the 3.1.4.9 Post-test checks and records, Check and record the
vertical shall not exceed 2 %. following at the end of each test.
3.1.4.6 Penetration. After joining the penetrometer tip to the (a) lmmediatety upon completion of each test, when the
leading push rod placethem inthe machine so thattheir axis resistance measuring equipment is unloaded, record the
coincides with the thrust direction. reading for both the cone and friction sleeve if fitted and
Where a friction reducer is used ensure that it i s located as used.
described in 3.1.2.7. (b) Inspect the cone, sleeve, seals and piezometers where
Check that verticality is maintained throughout the test by fitted, for damage and wear since the commencement of
observing the verticality of the upstanding push rod the test.
immediately after adding an additional push rod. Discontinue Inspect the push rods for alignment and damage.
the test if it exceeds the specified limit. and recommence the Where wear of the sleeve or cone has taken place during
test at least 1 m from the discarded test jocation. the test such that either has reached a state where during
Use the push rod guides when the required penetration the test it should have been replaced,thetestshall remain
pressure begins t o exceed the buckling resistance of the valid but shall include in the reports a statement
upstanding length of the push rods and thereafter keep them describing the condition of the sleeveand cone attheend
i n use to the end of the test. of the test.
Complete each penetration test in one continuous operation [c) Record, where possible, the depth to the water level i n
to the full depth requited. Record the duration of abnormal the hole after withdrawal of the penetrometer tip, or the
delays beyond 30 min at the depths to which they depth at which the hoIe collapsed.
correspond. Stoppages in which the delay exceeds 2 h shall Id) Record whether the test hole has been backfilled, and
mean that the test is completed at that depth and a separate if so by which method.
test shall be used if a greater depth is to be tested.
(el Record the identification number of the penetrometer
3.1.4.7 Rate of penetration. The rate of penetration whether tip used for the test.
or not readings are being taken shall normally be ( f ) Record the dates and reference numbers of the
20 ?5 mrn/s. calibration certificates for the measuring devices.
NOTE. In hard or very compact ground, especially at depth. it may nOT (g) Record the name of the operator in charge of the crew
be possible to achieve the standard rate of penetration.
which performed the test.
3.1.4.8 Data for site record and the intervals of
3.1.5 Calculations and expression of the results
measurements. Measure and record the following:
either: 3.1.5.f Cone resistance. Calculate the cone resistance, q,
(in MPa), from the equation:
(a) the axial force (4)acting on the cone (in kN); and
[b) the frictional force (Q,) acting on the sleeve (in kN);
or direct measurements when machine facilities permit of:
where
(c)the cone resistance (q,) (in MPa) (see 3.1.5.1); and
(d) the local unit side friction resistance (f,) (in MPa)
a is the axial force acting on the cone (in kN):
(see 3.7.5.2); 4 is the area of the base of the cone (in mm2).
and when required: 3.1.5.2 Local unit side friction resistance. Calculate the local
unit side friction resistance, f, (in MPa), from the equation:
(el the pore water pressure (u)acting on the
piezometric sensor (in kPa); andlor
If) the inctinometer value (in degrees or radians). where
( g )the depth of thecone base belowthe ground surface Q is the frictional force acting on the sleeve (in kN);
corresponding to the above measurements. Measure
A, is the external surface area of the sleeve (in mrn2).
the depth to an accuracy of at least 100 mm.
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

3.1.5.3 Friction ratio and friction index. Calculate the friction 3.2 Determination of the dynamic probing resistance using
ratio (4)and the friction index (U for measurements of the the 90"cone [dynamic probing DP)
cone resistance (q,) and local unit side friction resistance (f,)
at the same depth i.e. when the cone was at the level 3.2.1 General. This method covers the determination of the
resistance of soils i n situ t o the intermittent penetration of a
corresponding to the mid-point of the sleeve.
90"cone when driven dynamically i n a standard manner. A
Frictionratio. Calculate the friction ratio, Rf (in %),from the continuous record is provided with respect t o depth ofthe
equation: resistance of the cone in contrast t o the standard penetration
R,= (a) loo test (see 3.31, but there are no sampling facilities. Two
different sizes of apparatus are specified.
Dynamic probing can be used to detect soft layers and to
3,1.6 Tesr report*. The report shalt affirm that the test was locatestrong layers, e.g. in cohesianlesssoilsfor end-bearing
carried out i n accordance with this Pan of this standard and
piles. The results of dynamic probing should normally be
shall contain the following information.
checked by boring in conjunction with sampling, particularly
(at The method of test used. with respect t o the competence of a bearing stratum.
(b) Graphic representations with respect to the depth of When interpreting the test results obtained in cohesive soils
the following measurements: and in soils at depth, caution has t o be taken when friction
cone resistance (q,) (in MPa); along the extension rods becomes significant.
local unit side friction resistance ( 6 )(in MPa]; The requirements of Part 1 of this standard, where
appropriate, shall apply to thetest methods described i n this
friction ratio (Rf): horizontal axis;
clause.
pore water pressure (u):horizontal axis, where
appropriate. 3.2.2 Principle. The basis of the test with either size of
apparatus consists of dropping with a free-fall a hammer a
(c) Aeadingsof the inclinometer, iftaken, beyond a Iirnitto
standard distanceon t o an anvil t o effectthesemi-continuous
be specified.
penetration, normally from the ground surface, of a series of
(d) The capacity and type of the penetrometer used. parallel-sided extension rods carrying a 90"pointed cone at
(e) The type of resistance-measuring system used. the lower end. At regular intervals, i n order to minimize rod
(f)Thetype ofthe penetrometertip and cone used and the friction and to keepthe holestraight andvertical, the rods are
capacities of the different resistance-measuring devices turned and the torque is measured. The results consist of a
used and their conditions with respect t o wear. plot showing the number of blows of the hammer to drive the
cone each 100 m m in depth and the values of thetorque (in
[g) If piezometric sensors are used, their position and the
N-m)at specified intervals.
type of filter.
(h)The depth over which a friction reducer or push rods 3.2.3 Apparatus
with reduced diameter has been used. 3.2.3.1 Dimensions of the parts of theapparatus that vary for
(i) The depth at which push rods have been partly the two types of equipment are given in table 1.
withdrawn in order to reduce the side friction resistance.
3.2.3.2 Requirements common to both sizesare as described
(j) Details of any unusual event or abnormal interrruption in 3.2.3.2.1 to 3.2.3.2.7:
to the test.
3.2.3.2.1 90' cone. The cone of steel or cast iron shall consist
(k) Observations on sounds from or unusual vibrations of
of a lower externally shaped conical part having a 90' apex
the push rodsand the depths corresponding to when they
anglewith an upper cylindrical extension (mantle)of a length
occurred.
equal to the diameter of the base of the cone. Between the
(I) The depth to the water level in the hole remaining after cylindrical part and the lowermost extension rod the
withdrawal of the penetrometer tip or the depth at which ttansition may beabrupt or conical with a length equal to the
the hole collapsed. diameter of the cone as shown in figure 11.
(rn)Whether or not the test hole was backfilled. The cone may be sacrificial or retained for recovery. In either
(n)Theinformation required by clause9of BS 1377 : Part 1 case the cone shall be anached to the push rod so that it
: 1990. cannot be moved laterally on the extension rod by more than
0.2 mm nor become inclined about its vertical axis.
When the cone is retainedfor repeated testing, the maximum
permissible wear shall be 2 mm with respect t o the diameter
of the cone, and 5 mm with respect t o the cone tip length.

See form 9fd) of appendix A .

27
---- ---
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

Table 1. Dimensions and masses for the two types of dynamic probing
apparatus* I
Part Type of probing apparatus

Dynamicprobing Dynamic proMng


(heavy) (super hoary)
DPH DPSH
Driving device
Hammer: Mass(kg)
Standard drop (mm)
Length t o diameter (breadth
ratio
Anvil: Diameter (mm)
Massof anvil and guide rod (kg)(max.)

90"Cone
Nominal area of cone (cm2)
Cone basediameter (Dl new (mm)
Cone basediameter, worn (mm) (min.)
Conernantie length (mm)
Conetaper angle upper (deg.)
Conetip length (L)new (mrn)
Conetip permissiblewear (mm) (max.)

Extension rods
Massof rod (kglm){rnax.)
Diameter 0.D(4nominal (mm) (max.)
Effective length (mm)

"See figure 11

3.2.3.2.2 Extensionrods. Extension rodsshall havea uniform 3.2.3.2.3 Driving device. The driving device shall comprise
external diameter that can be screwed or attached together the following.
to bear against each other and with sufficient wall thickness (a) A hammer made of steel and provided with an axial
to form a rigid and flush jointed series with a continuous hole with a diameter which is 3 m m to 4 mrn larger than
straight axis. Each rod or coupling shall contain at least one that of the guide rod.
pair of flats suitable for use with the torque wrench and for
(b) A pick-up and release mechanism t o ensure thatthe
connecting and disconnecting the rods.
hammer has a free fall throughout the full range of its
The steel shall be of a quality of at least that specified for
standard drop and shall not inftuence the acceleration and
upset dritl rods in BS 4079 : Part 1. Permanent deformations
deceleration of the hammer orthe rods. Thevelocity of the
shall be capable of being corrected. hammer shall be negligible when the hammer is released
Thedeftection at the mid-point of an extension rod measured at its upper limit.
from a straight line through the ends shall not exceed (a)
( c )A guide arrangement to permit the hammer to drop
0.5 mm per 1 m of rod for the lowermost 4 m of rods and (6)
with minimal resistance, and to ensure the hammer strikes
1 m m per 1 m for the remainder. For any pairs of joined the anvil squarely.
extension rods the deflection a t the joint from a straight line
(d)Ananvil made of steel with an integral threaded portion
through the mid-pointsof the rodsshalt also notexceed these
to connect squarely and rigidly on to the top of the
limits.
uppermost extension rod. The axis of the anvil, guide
Rods shall be checked visually for straightness before use in arrangement and extension rods shall be straight with a
each test and, if a deflection is suspected, a measurement maximum deviation of 5 mmim.
shall be made (see note). Where the limit is exceeded the NOTE. A damper may be incorporated in the anvil to minimize
deflection shall becorrected orthe rod discarded. Afterevery damage to the equipment. When fitted ~tshould be reported. The
20 uses the rodsshalt bechecked by rolling the rodsthrough effect of dampers may vary with age and design, hence caution
360'on a flat surface. Defective rods shall not be reused until should be used when correlating results.
stra~ghtened.
NOTE. Curvature and eccentricity may be simply obsewed by
couwiing the rod wirh a straight rod and rolling the lamer on a plane
surface.
3s 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

3.2.3.2.4 Probingrig.The probing rig shall consistof astable 3.2.4.4 Rotation. Rotate the extension rods with the torque
frame for driving the extension rods and cone vertically with measuring wrench at a rate of 1?4turns every metre in order
(a) a guide to provide lateral support for that part of the to observe the friction and record the maximum torque
extension rods protruding above the soil, (b) a means for required to rotate the rods at each test level t o the nearest
handling and operating the driving device and (c) a means for 5 N-m.
extracting the rods and a retained cone. NOTE. It shouldalsa be recordedif separateprecautionsaretakento
minimize rod friction, such as the use of casing behindthe cone and
The supports of the rig shall be sufficiently far from the cone around the extension rods, or if drilling mud or water is poured
not to influence the results. aroundthe rods at thesurface or ejectedfrornwithin the rods behind
fheguide for supporting the protruding part of theextension the cone.
rods shall be such that not more than 1.2 m of rod is 3.2.4.5 Post-test check. Examine for straightness and wear
unsupported atany timeduring thetest. Further, if the driving the cone and extension rods used for the test before reuse.
deviceis not separately provided with a guide, then not more
than 0.6 m of rodshall be unsupported where the blow count 3.2.5 Test report*. The test report shall affirm that the test
is in excess of five btows per 100 mm. was carried out in accordance with this Part of this standard
and shall contain the following information.
3.2.3.2.5 Torque measuring wrench suited to the width (a) The method of test used.
between flats on the extension rods and with a capacity not
(b) Graphic representation with respect t o depth of the
less than 200 N m . The graduations shall not exceed 5 N m .
following measurements:
3.2.3.2.6 Wrenchesfor connecting and disconnecting the
(1I the number of standard biowsto drive the coneeach
joints i n the rods.
100 mm increment;
3.2.3.2.7 Spirit levelto observe verticality of the extension (2) the maximum torque required to rotate the
rods and their deviation. extension rods at each test level {in N-m)and the useof
any separate precautions against friction such as
3.2.4 Procedure
casing, drilling mud or water.
3.2.4.t Selection o f test location. In order to obviate (c) The type of dynamic probing used for the test.
disturbance locate the test position at least 1 rn from
previously performed cone penetration or dynamic probing
(dlThe type o f rod used.
tests not more than 10 m deep or at least 1.5 m where the (e) Whether a damper was fitted t o the anvil and if so its
depth exceeds 'I0 m,or 25 borehole diarnetersfrom previous tvpe.
borehoies. (f}Theduration of individual delaysin minutesandthetest
levels at which they occurred.
3.2.4.2 Verticality. Erect the probing rig to drive and guide the
extension rods and cone in as near a vertical direction as (g) Details of any unusual event during driving, e.g.
practicable. The maximum acceptable deviation from the penetration without blows, temporary obstructions,
vertical at the ground surface when setting up the cone and artesian conditions.
lowermost extension rod shall be 2 %. Guide the cone and (h)A note if the cone has been left buried in the ground and
extension rods at the beginning of the test. the elevation.
NOTE. Preboring with a hole slightly larger than the cone may be
(i) Whether or not the dynamic probing was backfilled.
used.
(j)The information required by clause 9of BS 1377 :
3.2.4.3 Driving. Ensure the connections between the cone Parc 1 : 1990.
and lowermost extension rods, between the successive rods,
and between the uppermost rod and the driving device are 3.3 Determination of the penetration resistance using the
made tight. When removing the driving device ensure that split-barrel sarnfler (the standard penetration test SPT)
the extension rods are not turned.
3.3.1 General. This method covers the determination of the
Lower the pick-upassembly so as t o avoid significant impact
resistanceto soils atthe base of a borehole to the penetration
on the hammer. Raise the hammer slowly t o ensure that the
of the split-barrel sampler when driven dynamically in a
inertia of the hammer does not carry it above the defined
standard manner, and the obtaining of a disturbed sample for
height on the driving device.
identification purposes.
Drive continuously as far as this is practicable. Record any
The test is used mainly in sands.
interruptions which are longer than 5 min in the site log.
NOTE. The test can also be used in gravels or gravelly sand in which
When using a sacrificial cone ensure that the cone cannot case thedrive shoe may be replaced by a solid60acone,butwhen this
becomedetached from the extension rods prematurely when accessory isused in any typeof ground the result should be reported
separately from thestandard test using the opendrive shoe, andwith
the rods are being driven or rotated. the preface: SPf(C).
Drive the cone at a rate of 15 t o 30 btows per minute. Record
the number of btowsfor each 100 mrn increment of
penetration.
The deviation of the extension rods from the vertical during
driving shall not exceed 5 %.

* See form 9(el, of appendix A.


BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

3.3.2 Principle. The basis of the test consistsof dropping with 3.3.3.4 Drive assembly. The drive assembly of an overall
a free fall a hammer of mass 63.5 kg on t o a drive head from mass not exceeding 115 kg shall comprise the following.
a height of 760 mm. The number of such blows (Mnecessary (a) A hammer made of steel and weighing 63.5 + 0.5 kg.
to achievea penetration of the split-barrel sampler of 300 mm
(b) A pick-up and release mechanism which shall ensure
(after its penetration under gravity and below the seating that the hammer has a free fall of 760 r 20 mm, and shall
drive) is regarded as the penetration resistance ( N ) .
not influence the acceleration and deceleration of the
The requirements of Part 1 of this standard, where hammer or the rods. The velocity of the hammer shall be
appropriate, shall apply to the test methods described in this negligible when the hammer is released at its upper limit.
clause. (c) A guide arrangement which shall permit the hammer
3.3.3 Apparatus to dropwith minimal resistanceand t o ensurethe hammer
strikes the anvil squarely.
3.3.3.1 Boring equipment The boring equipment shall be
(d) A drive-head (anvil) made of steel, with a mass
capable of providing a clean hole before insertion of the
between 15 kg and 20 kg, which shall betightly screwedto
sampler and shall ensure that the penetration test can be
the top of the drive rods.
performed in relativety undisturbed soil. When wash boring,
a side-discharge bit shall be used and not a bottom-discharge 3.3.4 Procedure
bit. The process of jetting through an open tube sampler and NOTE. The reliability of the test result is very dependent upon
then testing when the desired depth is reached shall not be rigorous attention being given to ensure that the several manual
permitted. When shell and auger boring with temporary operations required for the test procedure are correctly executed.
casing, the drilling tools shall have diameters not more than 3.3.4.1. Preparing the borehole. Clean out the borehole
90 % of the internal diameter of the casing. When boring in carefully to the test elevation using equipment that will
soil that will not allow a hole to remain stable, casing and/or ensure the soil to be tested is not disturbed. When boring
mud shall be used. below the groundwatertable or sub-artesian conditions
The area that is exposed i n the base of the borehole prior to maintain at all times the water or mud level in the borehole at
testing may influence the result and consequently the a sufficient distance above the groundwater level t o minimize
borehole diameter shall always be reported. Where the disturbance of the soil at the base of the borehole. Maintain
borehole diameter has been reduced with increasing depth the water or mud level in the boreholethroughoutthetestto
the lowermost size shall have been continuedfor at least 1 m ensure hydraulic balance at the test elevation (see note].
before commencing the test. Withdrawthe drilling tools slowly frornrhe ground and upthe
NOTE. The test was originally made in washborings 65 mm to borehote (when filled with water) to prevent suction and
100 mmdiameter.Asignificant effect on the result may begin to occur
when the diameter is 150 mrn or more. consequent loosening of the soil to betested. When casing is
used, do not drive it below the ievel at which the test is t o
3.3.3.2 Split barrelsamplerassembly. The sampler assembly commence.
shall have the shape and dimensions shown in figure 12. NOTE.Particularattention should be given wheregroundwater under
Thedrive shoe and split barrel, both having a uniform boreof excess pressure is encountered. as sometimes found when
penetrating through an impervious layer into a pervious layer below
the same diameter. shall be made of steel with a smooth groundwater level. Any operationsthat give an opportunity for an
surface externally and internally. The drive shoe shall be upward flow of water to loosen the soil should also be retarded.
made of hardened steel. tt shall be replacedwhen it becomes
3.3.4.2 Executing the test Lower the sampler assembly t o
damaged or distorted to avoid the test result being affected.
the bottom of the borehole on the drive rods with the drive
The coupling shall contain a 25 mm nominal diameter bail
asernbly on top. Recordthe initial penetration underthis total
check valve seated in an orifice of not less than 22 mm
dead-weight. Where this penetration exceeds 450 m m omit
nominal diameter which shall be located below the venting.
the seating drive and test drive and record the 'N' value as
The ball and its seat shall be constructed and maintained to
zero.
provide a watertight seal when the lampler is withdrawn.
Alternative designs of check valves are permitted provided After the initial penetration, carry out the test in two stages:
they give equal or better performance. ( a ) Seating drive: Using standard btows the seating drive
shall be a penetration of 150 mrn or 25 blowswhichever is
3.3.3.3 Drive rods. The rods used for driving the sampler
first reached.
assembly shall be made of steel of a quality and have a
stiffness equal to or greater than type AW drill rods (b) Test drive: The number of blows required for a further
complying with BS 4019. For holes deeper than 20 rn, rods penetration of 300 mm and this is termed the penetration
with a stiffness equal to ar greaterthantype BWdriII rods and resistance (Nl. If the 300 mm penetration cannot be
complying with BS 4019 shall be used. Rods heavier than achieved in 50 blows terminate the test drive.
10.0 kg /m nominal shall not be used. Only straight rods shall The rate of application of hammer blows shall not be
be used and periodic checks for straightness shall be made excessivesuch thatthere isthe possibility of not achieving
on site, including the threaded connections between the standard drop or preventing equilibrium conditions
consecutive rods. prevailing between successive blows.
When measured over the whole length of each rod the NOTE. For test driving in soft rock the test drive should be
relative deflections shall not be greater than 1 in 1000. terminated after 100 blows if a penetration of 300 m m has not
been achieved.
The rods shall be tightly coupled by screw joints.
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

Recordthe number of blows requiredto effect each 75 rnm of 3.3.5 Testreport The test report shall affirm that the test was
penetrationfor both the seating and testdrives. If the seating carried out in accordance with this Part of this standard and
or test drive is terminated before the full penetration, record shall contain the following information.
the depth of penetrationforthe corresponding25 blows and/ (a) The method of test used.
or 50 blows respectively.
(b)The penetration resistance of the test drive N(number
3.3.4.3 Removal of the sarnpie and labelling. Raise the drive of blows).Tests made with the solid 60"wne to be
rods and open the sampler. Place a representative portion of prefaced SPT(C1.
the soil core from the bottom 300 mm drive in an airtight (c)The depths between which the test drive was made.
containerto prevent loss of the soil moisture. If more than
one type of soil is encountered in the drive use a separate (d) The number of blows for the seating drive and the test
container for each type of soil and recordthe depths between drive.
which each portion was taken. (4If required, the number of blows per 75 mm
Fix labels to the containers with the following information: penetrationfor the seating and test drives.
(f) T he depth to the bottom of the borehole before the test
(a) site;
and the initial penetration of the sampler.
(b) borehole number;
( g ) The further penetration achieved if the test drive was
(c) sample number; limited to 50 blows.
(d) depth of penetration; (h)The boring method, internal diameter of boreholefrom
(e) length of recovery; which the test was made and if temporary casing or mud
(f) date of sampling; was used.
(g) standard penetration resistance ( N )and borehoie ii) The drive rod type and size used.
diameter. (j) Information on the groundwater level and the water or
mud level in the borehofe at the start of each test.
ik) Observations concerning the stability of strata tested
or obstructions encountered during the tests which will
assist the interpretation of the test resutts.
(I) The information required by clause 9 of BS 1377 :
Part 1 : 1990.
4.1.3 Apparatus

4.1.3.1 General. The particular form of each item i n the


This clause decribes four methods for investigating in-situ foltowing list of apparatus is not fixed and shatl be
strength and toad settlementcharacteristicsofsoil. The plate determined in accordance with the degree of precision
loading test (4.3)and the shallow pad maintained load test required and the considerations given in 4.12.
(9.2)are particularly suited for the design of foundations or
footings for buildings where it is considered thatthe mass 4.1.3.1.1 A Ioading plateofrigid construction.The plate shall
characteristics of the soil would differ significantly from the be rigid and nominally flat on the underside. The top shall
results of laboratory tests, or where more precise values of contain a guide to locate the loading column, particularly
settlement are required. The in-situ CBR (4.3) is generally where the test is to be in a borehole. The longitudinal axis of
concerned only with pavement design and the control of the loading column and the centre of the plate shall be
subgrade construction of soils with a maximum particle size coincident and thecontact shall be such that any tendency for
not exceeding 20 mm. The determination of the vane shear the plate to tilt is resisted. A ball seating shall not be
strength of weak intact cohesive soils is described in 4.4. permitted.
The plan area of the plate shatl be determined within + 1 %.
4.1.3.1.2 Reaction loading system. Provision of the reaction
4.1 Determination of the verticai deformation and strength
load may be made in several different ways including by
characteristics of soil by the plate loading test
kentledge, such as water in tanks or concrete blocks, by
4.1.1 General. This method covers the determination of the tension piles or by jacking against an existing reaction such
vertical deformation and strength characteristics of soil in as a structure. In all cases the reaction load or its supports
situ by assessing the force and amount of penetration with shall be piaced sufficiently far from the proposed test position
time when a rigid plate is made to penetrate the soil. Uses are so as to reducethe influence on the resultstoa tolerable level.
to evaluate the ultimate bearing capacity. the shear strength (See note 1.)
and deformation parameters of the soit beneath the plate Care shall be taken to ensure that the reaction toad remains
without entailing the effects of sample disturbance. The stable throughout the test without the possibility of load
method may be carried out at the ground surface, in pits, tilting or collapsing. (See note 2.)
trenches or adits, and at depth in the bottom of a borehole.
The loading column shall be of sufficient strength to prevent
The requirements of Part 1 of this standard, where undue buckling under the maximum load and in the case of
appropriate, shall apply to the test methods described in this borehote tests shall be well clear of the borehole walls.
clause. NOTE 1. In the case of tension piles the normal practice is for their
4.1.2 Preliminaryconsiderations. The form of apparatusand centresto be at least three times the platediameterfrom thecentre of
the plate.
the testing procedure selected shall provide a safe method
NOTE 2. In addition to the reaction load it will normally be necessary
for conducting the test. Before it is possible to select the to provide a loading frame, a loading column and a hydraulic jack or
apparatus and plan the test procedure the following other appropriate type of load measuring device.
information is required:
4.1.3.1.3 Calibrated force measurement system. f o obtain
la) an estimate of the expected strength and deformation the required accuracy it may be necessaryto have morethan
characteristics of the soil to be tested in order to judge the one force-measuring device to cover the load range desired
required toading and the size of the apparatus; up to the defined maximum reaction toad. (See4.1.2. (el.)
[h)the elevation of the loading plate with respect to the
4.1.3.1.4 Deformation measurement system. The
loading frame and whether the plate is to be in an open
deformation measurements shall be made to the required
position or in a borehole;
accuracy, independentiy of the loading column and from a
(c}the parameters to be determined and their required datum independent of the other components of the test
precision (see4.1.6.4.1 and 4.1.6.4.2). In the case of a apparatus. Where a dial gauge or other measuring device is
constant rate ~f penetration test the rate of penetration used in the centre of the plate, a reference beam may serve as
and its tolerance limits; the datum. Alternatively, levetling directly on to the plate may
Id) the size of loading pIate to be used. The plate size shall be adopted. When the test is in an excavation or barehole a
be as large as practicable taking into account the soil fabric separate reference column or invar tape shatl be used to
and having regard tothe arnountof reaction required and project the measurements to the ptate.
the means of mobilizing it, the magnitude of the other All settlement devices. e.g. dial gauges, shall be readable to
apparatus and the size of pit or borehole required; z 3.05 mm.
hOTE. When evaluating the shear strength of fissured c i a y s i h e
plate d~arnetershould beat least 300 mm and morethanfwetimes
the average spacing between fissures where practicable. When
testing granular sol1the plate diameter should exceed a t least five
times the nominal size of The coarsest mareria! generally present.
lei the maximum reaction ioad, the range of loads to be
measured and how the totai load is to be provided:
(f) the settlement range to be measured and the accuracy
required.
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

4.1.3.1.5 Temperature gauge and thermo-couple system. be recorded during these calibrations and the effects of
When temperature measurements are specified a variations shall be recorded within the range of temperature
thermometer readable t o 0.5 "C with the equivalent accuracy to be expected during the test.
andcovering thetemperature range expectedduring thetest
shatl be provided. When, due to the duration of the test, 4.1.5.2 Deformation measurement. Instruments, used for
changes in temperature occur which couid affect the level of measuring deformations, such as levelling equipment shall
the deformation measuring systems, such as i n the case of be maintained i n adjustment according to manufacturer's
incremental or maintained load tests, a thermo-couple instructions.
system shall be provided t o monitorthe temperature of the 4.1.6 Procedure
reference beam and its other components likely to be
affected. 4.1.6.1 Primaryexcavetion.Excavate to the test level as
quickly as practicable t o minimize the effects of stress relief,
NOTE. The effects of temperature on the distortionof the reference
system are particularly importantwhere it is requiredto measure particularly when i n cohesive soils. install temporary ground
small settlernems.Preciso levellingmay be batter when temperature support as necessary, particularty if persons are t o enter the
effwcts are likely to be significant. The effect of different air excavation to work (see note 1). Where thetest is t o bemade
temperatures on the load masuremem devices also needs to be
taken into account. belowthegroundwater level in permeableground, installthe
.=." equipment for water lowering and lower the water level
4.1.3.3.6 Test area preparation equipment. Suitable primary before the excavation reaches the water table i n order to
excavation equiprnentto penetrate rapidly close to the test prevent ground disturbance. (See note 2.1
level, such as mechanical diggers or boring equipment,
Review the method o f excavation when within about 0.5 rn of
including the casing. will be required. Temporary ground
the test level in order to ensure that the remaining soil is
support may be necessary. When the test is t o be carried out
removed by careful means to minimize local disturbance at
below groundwater level in permeable ground a system of
the test level prior t o its preparation.
wells outside and below the test position wiH usually be
NOTE 1. Theobject is to placethe plateand makethetestonsoit that .
necessary. is as undisturbed as possible and not significantly affected by
NOTE. In favourable circumstanceswhen the seepage is small and opening of discontinuities, wening or climatic change such as frost
the test is to be made in a borehole it may be possibleto use a system action.
of seals in the casing. NOTE 2. When forming the primary excavation in boreholes, casing
For exposing undisturbed soil at the test level select suitable is normally essential especially near the surface to keep debris and
hand digging tools such as a sharp-edged spade, trowel, water out of the hole. Were the ground at depth is setf-supporting
deeper casing may be omitted for constant rate of penetration rests
hand brush anddust pan. Also provide a straight steel cutting subject to safety requirements. but for incramentat loading tests,
edge, spirit level and measuring tape for preparing a flat level where the duration is generally ionger, casing should sxtond to the
test area of sufficient size for the loading plate. bottom of the hob in order to minimize inward seepage of
groundwater with consequent weakening of the soil conditions. Use
4.1.3.1.7 Mixing equiprnentfor quick setting plaster if used. preferablyan auger in borehoteswithclayswhanwithinabout0.5 m
of the test level and then change to a flat-bottomed bucket auger to
4.1.3.1.8 Levelling equipment, readable to 0.1 m m and a produce a Rat-bottomedhole at the test level. The diameter of the
borehole for a depth equivalent to one plate diameter should
stable datum when specified. The levelling staff shall have a aptoximate to the diameter of the plate.
bubble attached t o it so that the verticality of the staff can be
checked. 4.1.6.2 Preparation at test level. Carefully trim off and
remove all loose material and any embedded fragments so
4.1.3.1.9 Field dry density test apparatus, when specified, that the area for the plate is generally level and as
complying with clause 2 of this standard and suitable for the undisturbed as possible. Hollows shall not be infilled with
soil type expected t o be tested. soil.
4.1.3.t.10 Containers for disturbed and undisturbed For tests on cohesive soils proceed as soon as possible
samples, suitable for the soil type expected to be tested. thereafter to pour and spread the paste of the quick-setting
plaster to obtain a level surface not more than 15 m m to
4.1.4 Materials
20 m m thick. Immediately the paste is spread, bed the plate.
4.1.4.1 Quick setting gypsum plaster for tests on cohesive Fortests on granufar soilsfill any hollows wit'. clean dry sand
soils. to produce a level surface on which to bed the plate.
NOTE. Highstrength gypsum plasterisneeded.A suitable plaster mix The finaf preparation of the test level in boreholes shall be
consists of 21h parts by weight of quick setting gypsum plaster of the
alpha hemi-hydratetype to 1 part of cold water. This may be poured done if possible by hand for deformation modutus
from a bucket. The initial set occurs after about 15 min from first measurements.
mixing. A wet strength of about 30 000 kPa is reached in about 1 h.
When carrying out manual operations in a pit orthe base of a
Normally w o or three buckets full are required per test depending
upon the plate size. borehole comply with BS 5573.
4.1.4.2 Clean drysand for tests on granular soils. When lowering the plate down a borehole take care not to
scrape clay from the side of the borehole.
4.1.5 Calibration
Protect the test area and the apparatus from moisture
4.1.5.1 Calibrated force measurement. For high precision changes, sunlight and the effectsof adverse weather assoon
tests reverification of the calibration shall be carried out as the test level is exposed and throughout the test.
before and after each usage in the field. The temperature shall
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

4.1.6.3 Preparation and erection of loading and measuring Record the load for each increment and ensure that the load
apparatus. Place in a convenient position the reaction is kept constant. Record the settlement under each load
loading, force measurement and deformation measurement increment against time, commencing with the aplication of
systems ready for immediate erection as soon as the plate is the load. Mate frequent measurements i n the early stages
in position. When tension piles areto be used forthe reaction and increase the time interval between measurements as the
install these ready for use before the test area is exposed. settlement rate decreases. Measurements of the load and
Take care not t o preload the test plate during erection of the settlement shall be to the required accuracy.
reaction loading and force measurement systems. Position NOTE. The load should preferably be maintainedat each increment
the loading column centrally over the plate and make it until the penetration of the plate has ceased. This time will depemd
upon the soil type and the permeability. Tests on cohesivesoils
vertical so that the reaction load is applied direct t o the plate should be continued at least until all the primary consolidation is
without eccentricity. complete, judged according to the settkrnent versus fog time plot.
Take check levels on the test datum or reference beam before When specified, to obtain the required precision during the
the testcommences and referthe level to a stable benchmark incremental loading tests record temperatures regularly.
clear of the load site. When changes in temperature occur make additional level
NOTE. Erection of the deformation measurement system measurements referred t o the stable benchmark and correct
independent of the other apparatuswill usually be the last operation. if necessary the settlement readings taken from the reference
beam.
4.1-6.4 Test loading and records of measurements. When
specified, note and record the local air temperature during 4.1.6.5 Record the reference datum level and airtemperature
testing and take this into account when recording the load to the required accuracy when specified immediately priorto
measurements. the release of all reaction load on the plate. Immediately upon
release of all the reaction load on the plate and before
4.1.6.4.1 Constant rate of penetration test. This test is
dismantling the apparatus relevel thetest datum or reference
suitable when the undrained loading characteristics of the
beam with respect t o the stable benchmark clear of tbe
soil are required.
loading area. Record this measurement alongside the initial
Apply the load in a controlled manner such that the selected measurement and thetime and date when rnade.The record
rate of penetration is uniform and continuous. shall also include the regular measurements of the air
Continue the test until the penetration reaches at least 15 % temperature throughout the test when specified.
of the plate width. Wherethere is no clear indication of failure
4.1.6.6 Density measurements. Where specified, make in-
prior to the 15 % penetration the ultimate load may be
situ density measurement tests on the soil immediately
defined by the load causing a penetration equivalent to
beneath the plate in accordance with clause 2 upon
approximately 15 % of the plate width.
completion of the test loading and when the plate is removed.
Intermediate cycles of unloading and reloading may be made NOTE, he type of density test depends upon the type of soil present.
during the constant rate of penetration test at various stages
to obtain an indication of the relative amounts of reversible 4.1.6.7 Sample record. Take samples of thesoil immediately
(elastic) and irreversible deformation that have occurred. beneath the plate and down to at least twice the plate width
in orderto examine the ground stressed by the loading and
Plot applied preSSUr8versus penetration as the test proceeds.
retain the samples in such a manner as t o preserve where
Record separately the value of the peak load recorded.
possible their structure and moisture content. Where
Measurementsof the applied load and penetration shall beto
possibletake undisturbed samples, otherwise take disturbed
the required accuracy.
samples i n order to carry out, where required, classification
4.1.6.4.2 !ncremental loading test. This test is suitable when tests including the determination of moisture content,
the drained loading characteristics of the soil are required. Atterberg limits and particle density i n accordance with test
In order to decide the loading for the increments make an methods specified in BS 1377 : Part 2 : 1990.
initial estimate of the likely maximum load t o be applied. 4. t .6.B Duration of the rest. Keep a record of the time and
Select at least five more or less equally spaced increments date when each stage ofthe procedure was commenced and
and apply the increments cumulatively to the plate. If the completed, together with details of any delays.
maximum load to be applied is that requiredforthe proposed
design bearing pressure apply the load in more or less equal 4.1.7 Calculation and expression of the results
cumulative incrementswhich give not morethan one-fifth of 4.1.7.7 Maximum appliedpressure. Calculate the maximum
the design pressure. applied pressure, q (in kPa), beneath the plate from the
Intermediate cycles of unloading and reloading may be made general equation:
during the incremental loading test at various stages to
obtain an indication of the relative amounts of reversible
(elastic) and irreversible deformation that have occurred. If
the period of time occupied by such cydes when testing
cohesive soil is sufficiently rapid so as not t o permit a
significant dissipation i n pore pressure, the slope ofthe load/
deformation curve may be used to determine the undrained
deformation modulus or an approximation to it.
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

where NO=. It is importantthatthe test resultsarenotconsideredto bethe


sole evidence on which to base the design of the foundations of the
W, is the total mass of the apparatus acting on the plate proposedstructure. Precautionsshould betaken by means of borings
before adding the appfied load, and including the or pitsto ensure thatthe test area is representativeoftheweakestpart
mass of the plate (in kg); of the site, ako that weaker ground does not exist within the zone of
influence beneath the complete structure.
P is the applied force to cause failure. When this is not
The requirements of Part 1 of this standard, where
clearly defined use the force causing a penetration of
appropriate, shall apply tothe test methods described i n this
15 % of the plate width (in kN);
clause.
A is the area of the base of the plate (in m2).
4.2.2 Apparatus
4.1.8 Testreport f hetest report shall affirm thatthe test was
carried out in accordance with this Part of this standard and 4.2.2.1 Rigid rectangularpadof suitable dimensions (see
shalf contain the following information. note 1) and known mass. The larger dimension (4)and the
smaller dimension ( 4 o )f the rectangular pad shall be such
(a) The method oftest used.
that &/& > 0.8. BZ shall be not smaIlerthan t m. The pad
(bl For the constant rate of penetration test, the graphic shall befitted with four levelling stations (see note 2) at is
representation between applied pressure and penetration. periphery equidistant from the centre of the pad and from
The rate of penetration shall also be given. each other. The levelling stations shall be accessible when
(c) For the incremental loading test, the graphic the pad is loaded.
representation between deformation and time from the NOTE I . The dimensions of the loading pad shautd be relatedto the
start of the test and, if required, graphic representations width of the footings of the structure to be built on the site.
Appropriate loading pad dimensionsaretabulatedbelow for different
between: footing widths.
(1) deformation and time from start of each lo8d Strip footing width (in mj 0.5 1.0 1.5
increment; Rectangulartestpad area tin mz) 1.0 2.25 4.0
(2)deformation and logarithm of time from star! of Ingeneralthegroundto a depth of not morethan 2 4 will beaffected
by the Loadingtest andthe propertiesof the ground at greater depths
each load increment; will have little influence on the test results.
(3) load and the final settlement at end of each load NOTE 2. The levellingstations should not be liable to accidental
increment. damage during loading or to damage by vandals.

Id) The maximum applied pressure (in kPa). 4.2.2.2 Kenlledge of known mass sufficient to provide the
(el The maximum deformation. required bearing pressure.
NOTE. It is recommendedthat the maximum net bearing pressure
(f) The in-situ density of the soil and its moisture content if applied to the ground during the loading test should be not lessthan
required. 1.2times as large as the maximum net bearing pressurewhich wilt be
applied by the foundation load or the design net bearing pressure
(g)The depth of the test level from ground level. whichever is the greater.
(h) A description of the reaction load.
4.2.2.3 Levelling equipment Surveyor's level with tripod and
P" (if The plate size. staff capable of measuring to a resolution of at least 0.1 mm.
'+ (j)The information required by clause 9 of BS 1377 : The levelling staff shall have e bubble attached to it so that
Part 1 : 2990. the verticality of the staff can be checked. The levelling
equipment shall be maintained in adjustment according to
4.2 Detetminationof the settlement characteristics of soil the manufacturer's instructions.
for lightly loadedfoundations by the shallow pad maintained
load test 4.2.2.4 Levelling darum stations which shall not move more
than 0.5 rnm during the course of the test.
4.2.1 General. This method covers the determination of the NOTE. A 1 rn length of 25 mrn diameter steel rod set vertically in
settlement characteristics of soil in-situ by a test in which a concrete with the top of the rod cut level and fixed close to ground
constant load is appfied t o the ground for a period of several level has been found to form s suitable datum.
weeks through a pad located at shallow depth. The test is 4.2.3 Procedure
suitable for estimating the settlement caused by structures
with lightly loaded shallowfoundations built on filled ground 4.2.3.1 Levelling datum stations. Establish two levelling
and on some types of soft natural soils where the weakest datum stationsforthe load test at a distance from each olher
ground in the profile is immediately beneath the test pad. of at least 38,.Locate the levelling datum stations at a
distance of at least 38, from the centre of the load test. The
The test should make it possible to estimate the settlement
datum stations shall be near enough to the load test so that
that will occur due to an appliedfoundation load. However, it
levelling observations have a closing error not exceeding
should be recognized that there may be other causes of
1.0 mm.
settlement besides weaker formations at depth, e.g. with
uncompacted fills settlement may occur due to self-weight.
collapse compression due to a rising watertabte and decay of
organic matter. The test is solely confined to providing an
indication of the magnitude of settlement of the ground
immediately beneath the test pad.
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

4.2.3.2 Preparation o ftest area. Excavatethe area of the load NOTE. It will facilitatethe plotting of the resultsif the further
measurements are made at the following intervalsof time after the
test t o the required depth and prepare a level surface. The
completion of loading: 5 min, 10 min, 30 rnin, 1 h, 2 h, 5 h, 10 h,
excavated area shafl be sufficiently large to make possible the 1 day, 2 days, 5 days, 10 days, 20 days, 30 days, 40 daysand50 deys.
installation of the loading pad but no larger. With fillmaterials a minimum period of 30 days is mommended for
NOTE. The depth of the pad below ground level should be the same the test and it is preferableto continue the test for at least 50 days.
as the foundation depth of the structure to be built on the site. With some soft naturalsoils the minimum test period may be even
longer.
4.2.3.3 Installationofpad.The pad shall beeither cast in situ
or prefabricated. 4.2.3.7 Unloading. Remove the load i n equal decrements
corresponding to the incremental application of load.
4.2.3.3.1 cast in-situpad. Place theconcrete directly onto the Immediately following each load decrement measure the
prepared surface of the soil. The upper surface of the pad vertical movement of the pad using the procedure specified
shall be flat and level. The pad thickness and the steel in 4.2.3.4.
reinforcement shall be such as to ensure that the pad behaves
in a rigid manner and does not crack under the load applied 4.2.4 Calculations and expression of the results
in thetest.Allow sufficienttime bemeen casting the pad and 4.2.4.1 Bearing pressure. Calculate the mean net bearing
starting the load test fortheconcreteto have gained adequate pressure, q(in kPa), applied totheground through the padat
strength. each stage of the loading sequence from the fallowing
4.2.3.3.2 Prefabricatedpad. Place a layer of sand, nowhere equations.
exceeding 100 mm in thickness, and with a level surface, on With the pad in position but no load increment applied:
the prepared soil surface.Bed the prefabricated pad onto the
sand.
NOTE. A simple method of carrying our the test involves the us0 of a
heavy-duty steet waste skip to form both the prefabricated loading With one load increment applied:
pad and a container to hold the kentledge. When the skip has been
bedded on the thin layer of sand it is fitled with sand of known bulk
density. A thin layer of concrete is placedoverthe sandto discourage
unauthorized removalof thesand. If a greater net bearing pressureis
required, a second skip can be ptaced onto the top of the first sand- With all the load increments applied:
filled skip before placing the concrete and after levellingthe sand to
provide a stabte base. The second skip is then filled with sand and
capped with concrere. The four lifting lugs on the skipcan be used as
the levelling datum stations. where
4.2.3.4 initial measurements. Using the levelling equipment W, is the weight of the pad (in kN);
establish first thedifference in height between thetwo datum W is the total load applied t o the pad in n equal
stations. Immediately prior t o the application of load t o the increments (in kN)
pad, measure the difference in height between each of the is the bulk density of the excavated soil determined
p
four levelling stations on the pad and the two levelling datum in accordance with clause 2 (in Mglm3)
stations, the round of observations starting and finishing at is the depth of the soil excavated (in m)
h
datum station 1. If the closing error is more than 7.0 mm
repeat the round of obsenrations. Take all observations with W, is the incremental load (in kN)
the staff placed on the levelling station or datum station and B,, B, are the lengths of the sides of the pad (in m)
held vertically. g is9.81m/s2.
4.2.3.5 Loading sequence. Apply the load so that it is evenly 4.2.4.2 Settlement Calculate the difference in height
distributed over the pad. Where the load is mobilized above between the centre of the loading pad and the levelling
the pad, and prior to its application, ensure that it is kept datums for each set of levelling observations. In a set of
stable sufficiently far from the test position so as to reduce levelling observations, the measurements on the levelling
the influence on the results to a tolerable level. Apply the load datum stations are 1, and I2 respectively and onto the four
in a number of equal increments. Use at leasttwo increments. a,
levelling stations are I,, /,and b.
Measure the settlement of the pad immediately following the
application of each ioad incrament using the procedure Calculate the difference in height, d (in mf, between the
centre of the pad and the datum stations by the equation:
specifjed in 4.2.3.4. Record the time at which each load
increment is applied and each set of levels is taken. d= -h _ 1, + 1, + 1, + 1d
intermediate increments of load need be maintained only for 2 4
the period corresponding to the immediate settlement. Calculate the settlement of the pad, s (in m), at each set of
4.2.3.6 Maintained load rest. When the final load increment leveiling observations by the equation:
has been applied and the immediate settlement has been
measured using the procedure specified in 4.2.3.4, take where
further measurements of settlement at suitable intervals of
time. do(in m I is calculated from the initial measurements taken
before the load is applied.
. "
. . . .. " I .i , . -.

BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

4.2.5 Test report The test report shall affirm that the test was 4.3.2.3 Metalextensimrodsfor coarse height adjustment of
carried out i n accordance with this Part ofthis standard and the plunger. The overall length will depend upon the height
shall contain the following information. of the reaction frame above the ground.
(a) The method of test used. 4.3.2.4 Adjustable metal extension rod, such as a screw
(b) Forthe maintained load test the graphic representation thread and bolt assernbly,forthe initial seating adjustment of
between settfernent and time elapsed since the the height of the plunger relative to the soil surface.
application of the load and between settlement and the
4.3.2.5 Reaction laad, The provision of the reaction load,
logarithm of the elapsed time.
incorporating the frame on which to attach the jack, may be
(c) For each intermediate incremental loadtestthe graphic in any convenient form such that it acts as a stable
representation between applied net bearing pressure and deadweight with its normal supports placed sufficiently far
settlement. This shall include the unloading aswell as the from the jack not to influence the results of the soil being
loading sequence. tested.
{d) The maximum applied net bearing pressure (in kPa). NOTE 1. The required reactionload will dependon thestrength of the
soil being tested and may be less than thecapacity of the jack.
(e) The maximum settlement (in m). Ballasted vehicles are commonly used.
(f) The type o f loading pad, its dimensions and mass. NOTE 2. Where the reaction load is on springs, as when using a
vehicle, in order to prevent upward movement during the tests
[g) The information required by clause 9 of BS 1377 : affecting the rate of penetration, separate jacks, to take the weight of
Part 1 : 1990. the vehicle, should be used to remove the load from the springs.

4.3 Determination of the in-situ California Bearing Ratia 4.3.2.6 Annular surcharge discs
{caw 4.3.2.6.1 Two discs suitably slotted or consisting of semi-
4.3.1 General. This method covers the determination of the circular segments. Each disc shaH have a mass equal to4.5 kg
California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of a soil tested in situ, with a + 100 g, an internal diameter between 52 rnm and 54 rnm
selected overburden pressure, by causing a cylindrical and a nominal external diameter of 250 mm.
plungerto penetrate the soil at a given rate and comparing 4.3.2.6.2 Two discs, each with a massequal t o 9.0 kg 200 g +
the relationship between force and penetration into the soil with a similar shape and the same diameters as specified
to that for a standard material. At certain values of in 4.3.2.6.1.
penetration the California Bearing Ratio (CBR)is defined in
the form of a percentage, as the ratio of the force exerted on 4.3.2.6.3 Discs with other masses and shape may be used t o
the soil t o a standard force that would be exerted on a represent the actual surcharge. The tolerance shall
specified crushed rock compacted and confined i n a given correspond to that specified above. The bottom disc shall be
manner. fhe CBR test may also be carried out i n the 250 m m i n diameter.
Laboratory on soil in a mould (see clause 7 of BS 1377 :
4.3.2,7. Calibrated force-measuringdevices.Three ranges
Part 4 : 1990). are required depending upon the CBR vaiue as follows:
(I
I On account of the plunger size the test is appropriate only to (a)for CBR values up to approximately 8 % a 2 kNcapacity
! material having a maximum particle size not exceeding force-measuring device readable t o 2 N;
20 mm. Hencewhere material of thissizeor larger is possibly
present beneath thetest surface thisshould bechscked after
(b)for CBR values from approximately 8 % to
making the test and reported. approximately 40 % a 10 k N capacity force-measuring
device readable to 20 N;
The requirements of Part 1 of this standard, where
(ci for CBR values above approximately 40 % a minimum
appropriate, shatl apply to thetest methods described i n this
of 40 kN capacity force-measuring device readable to
clause.
50 N.
4.3.2 Apparatus. The apparatus described in 4.3.2.1 to 4.3.3. The force-measurement devices shall each include a
is required, most of which is illustrated schematically and substantial purpose-made transit case i n order to prevent
assembled in figure 13.When assembled the overall rigidity damage when the devices are not in use.
shall be sufficient to suit the capacity of the jack.
4.3.2.8 Linear measurement system for determining the
4.3.2.1 Cylindrical corrosion-resistant metal plunger, the
verticaf penetration of the plunger and to enable the rate of
lower end of which shall be of hardened steel and
penetration to be controlled. consisting of a datum bar,
49.65 t 0.1 rnm in diameter {nominal cross-sectional area
supports and penetration measurement gauge. The datum
1935 mrn2).The minimum length shall be 100 mm.
bar shall be held firmly in position with the supports placed
4.3.2.2 Jackfor applying thetest force through the plunger at outside the area of influence of the test. The measurement
a controlled rate. The minimum capacity shalt be 45 kN. The gauge shall be readable to 0.01 mm over a range of a t least
minimum extension shall be 50 rnrn.The mechanism sl-lafl 25 mm.
suit a constant rateof extension of 1.0 t: 0.2 mmlmin. The jack NOTE. A dial gauge ~ndicating 1 mmlrev is convenient since the
specified rate of penetration of 1 rnmlmin can be controlled
shall be provided with a swivel head to connect with the
conveniently by keeprng the hand of the dial gauge in step with the
reaction frame for ease of alignment of the plunger. second hand of a watch.
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

4.3.2.9 Clockfor controlling the rate of plunger penetration 4,3.4.8 Startthe test so that the plunger penetrates the soil at
readable to 1 s. a uniform rate of 1 k0.2 rnm per minute, and at the same
instant start the clock.
4.3.2.10 Straightsteel cutring edge t o prepare a flat area for
thetest. Suitable dimensionsforthecutting edge are500 mm 4.3.4.9 Record the force measurement i n kN at intervals of
by 25 mm by 3 mm. penetration of 0.25 mm, t o a total penetration not exceeding
7.5 mrn.
4.3.2.1 1 Conrainerforsampleof sufficient size for laboratory
NOTE 1. If the operator plotsthe force penetrationcurve asthetest is
tests. being carried out, the test can be terminated when the indicated CBR
value falls below its maximumvalue. Thus iftheCBRat2.5 mrn were
4.3.3 Materials. Clean dry sand for placing beneath the seen to be 6 % but by 3.5 mrn penetration it could be seen to have
lowest surcharge disc on uneven surfaces. fallen below 6 %,the rest could be stoppedand the result reportedas:
2.5 mm penetration 6 %
4.3.4 Procedure
5.0 rnm penetration < 6 %
4.3.4.1 Remove from the test area any material which is not NOTE 2. Where the available reaction is found to be inadequate to
representative of the soil t o be tested, and prepare a circular achieve a penetration of 2.5 mm the maximum recordedfoce on the
area of about 500 mm in diameter such that it is flat and plunger and the corresponding penetration from the start of the test
(see4.3.4.8) should be reported.
horizontal, taking special care with the central area on which
the plunger will bear. 4.3.4.10 At the completion of the test and after removal of the
The minimum spacing between adjacent tests shall be surcharge; discs and any sand that may have been used, take
250 mm. a sample of about 350 g from beneath the central test area for
dispatch to the laboratory for determination of its moisture
4.3.4.2 Position the reaction load and its supports, such as content as specified in BS 1377 : Part 2 : 1990. Record a
the jacks when using a vehicle, so thatthe cylindrical plunger description of the soil and whether any soil particles greater
after assembly is directly over the central area to be tested. Fit than 20 mrn in size were present beneath the plunger.
the jack (inthe fully retracted position), extension rods, force-
measurement device and cylindrical plunger on to the 4.3.4.11 Where the bulk density has to be determined the test
reaction load frame such that the whole assembly hangs shall be made in an appropriate manner according to the
vertically with the lower face o f the plunger about 25 mm grading at a location just outside the area influenced by the
above the soil surface to he tested. CBR test.
4.3.4.3 Carefully lower the cylindrical plunger so that its 4.3.5 Calculations, plotting* and expression o f the results
lower surfacejust comes into contactwith the soil. Ensurethe 4.3.5.1 Force-penetration curve. Calculate the force applied
assembly is vertical. to the plunger from each reading of the force-measuring
4.3.4.4 Place a sufficient number of surcharge discs, one on device observed during the penetration test.
top of another, around the central test area and plunger to NOTE. Alternatively, readings of the force-measuring device may be
ploned directly against penetration readings. Forces are then
correspond with the specified overburden pressure for the calculated only at the appropriate penetration values as in 4.3.5.2
test. Select the number nearest to the specified value. [after correction if necessary).
NOTE. Use a thin layer of sand to seat the bottom surcharge disc on
uneven soil but keep the sand off the central lest area. Plot each value offorce as ordinate againstthecorresponding
penetration as abscissa and draw a smooth curve throughthe
4.3.4.5 Assemble and position the linear measurement points.
system as shown typically in figure 13.
The normal type of curve is convex upwards as shown by the
4.3.4.6 Apply a seating force to the plunger, depending on curve labelled test 1 in figure 14, and needs no correction.
the expected CBR value as follows. Ifthe initial part of the cuwe is concave upwardsas shown for
CBR value up to 5 % : 10 N test 2 [curve OST i n figure 14), the following correction is
necessary. Draw a tangent at the point of greatest slope, i.e.
CBR value from 5 % to 30 % : 50 N
the point of inffexion, S, and produce it to intersectthe
CBR value above 30 9b : 250 N penetration axis at Q. The corrected curve is represented by
Record the reading of the force-measuring device as the QST, with its origin at Qfrom which a new penetration scale
initial zero reading (becausethe seating force is nottaken into can be marked.
account during the test) or reset the force measurement If the graph continuestocurve upwards as fortest Jinfigure
device to read zero. 14, and it is considered that the penetration of the plunger is
4.3.4.7 Reset to zero the penetration measurement gauge o r increasing the soil density and therefore its strength, the
record i t 5 initial zero reading. above correction is not applicable.
4.3.5.2 Calculation of California Bearing Ratio. The standard
force-penetration curve corresponding to a CBR value of
100 % is shown by the heavy curve in figure 15. The forces
corresponding to this curve are: 11.5 kN at 2 m m penetration,
13.2 kN at 2.5 mm, 17.6 kN a t 4 mm, 20 kN at 5 mm,22.2 kN
.--- --. - - - - at 6 rnm and 26.3 kN at 8 mm.
See form 9(f) of appendix A.
BS 1377 : Part 9 : I990

TheCBR vatue obtainedfrorn a test isthe force read from the 4.4.2 Apparatus. The vane test apparatus shall be either the
test curve (aftercorrection and calcuhtion if necessary) at a borehole or penetration type (see figure 16).
given penetration expressed as a percentage of the force
4.4.2.t For tests from the bottom of a borehole. This type
corresponding t o the same penetration on the standard
consists essentiakly of the following apparatus described in
curve. Curves representing a range of CBR values are
4.4.2.1.1t o 4.4.2.1.4.
included i n figure 15.
Penetrations of 2.5 m m and 5 m m are usedforcalculatingthe 8.4.2.f .I A vaneofcruciformshslpe,preferably of highgrade
CBR value. From the test curve (with corrected penetration stainless steel. The length Hshall be twice the overall blade
scale if appropriate) read off the forces corresponding t o width D (see figure 17). Experience has shown that for soils
2.5 m m and 5 m m penetration. Expressthese as a percentage up to a shear strength of 50 kPa, a vane approximately
of the standard forces at these penetrations, i.e. 13.2 kN and 150 mrn long by 75 m m wide is suitable. For soits of shear
20 kN respectively. Take the higher percentage as the CBR strength between 50 kPa and 75 kPa a smaller vane
value. approximately 100 m m long by 50 mrn wide is satisfactory.

If the force-penetration curve is plotted on a diagram similar The design of the vane shall be such that it causes as little
to figure f 5, the CBR value at each penetration can be read remoulding and disturbance es possible when inserted into
directly without further computation if the correction the ground for a test. The b l a h s shall be as thin as possible,
described in 4.3.5.1 for test 2 is not required. The same consistent with the strength requirements, and have a cutting
diagram can be used for small forces and low CBR values if edge at the lower end. The rod on which thevane is mounted,
both the force scale (ordinate) and the labelled CBR values normally of high tensile steel, shall preferably not exceed
(abscissa)are divided by 10 asshown in brackets in figure 15. 13 rnm in diameter. T he area ratio of the vane, expressed as
a percentage, as given by the following equation, shall be
4.3.6 Testreport. The test report shall affirm that thetest was kept as low as possible and shaH not exceed 12 %.
carried out in accordance with this Part of this standard and
shall contain the following information. Area ratio = (~T(D;: +ad2)1m
(a) The method of test used.
4" where
(b) The California Bearing Ratio (CBRIto two significant
D is the overall blade width (in mm);
figures.
(c) The graphic representation of the relationship
f is the thickness of vane blades (in mm);
between applied force and penetration, showing d is the diameter of vane rod, belowthe sleeve, including
corrections if appropriate. any enlargement due t o welding (in mm).
(dl The moisture content of soil beneath the central test A diagram illustrating a typical design for a vane is given in
area. figure 17. The vane rod shall be enclosed by a suitably
designed sleeve from just above the blades and throughout
(e) If the reaction load was inadequate the maximum
the length it penetrates the soil t o exclude soil particles and
recorded force and the corresponding penetration from
the effects of soil adhesion. The sleeve shall be packed with
the start of the test.
grease. This sleeve shall commence above the biades at a
(f) The surcharge discs used and their equivalent distance equivalent to about two diameters of the vane rod.
overburden pressure.
4.4.2.1.2 Extensionrods about t rn in Length. These shalt be
(g) The presence or otherwise beneath the central test
sufficiently strong to be able to stand axial thrust, allow a
area of soil particles 20 rnm or larger in size and their size
reasonable amount of lack of linearity, and be fitted with a
and position with respect to the plunger.
coupling which makes it impossibleforthe rods to tighten or
(h) The information required by clause 9 of BS 1377 : twist relative to each other.
Part 1 : 1990.
4.4.2.1.3 Steady bearingsto keep the rods central inside the
4.4 Determination of in-situ vane shear strength of weak borehole.
intact cohesive soils 4.4.2.1-4 Calibrated torque measuringinstrumentpreferably
4.4.1 General. This method covers the determination in situ with height adjustment and capabte of being clamped i n the
of the shear strength of weak intact cohesive soils using a required position.The base of the instrument shall be capable
vane of cruciform section, which is subjected to a torque of of being fixed t o the ground. An apparatus in which the
sufficient magnitude to shear the soil. mechanism is rotated by a worm and pinion where theworm
is driven by a hand wheel has been found to be satisfactory.
The test is suitable for very soft to firm intact saturated
Moving parts shall be mounted in ball or roller bearings to
cohesive soils.
reduce friction to a minimum. The mechanism shall be
The requirements of Part 1 of this standard, where designed so that the backlash is small. The instrument shall
appropriate, shall apply to the test methods described in this have a torque capacity of approximately 100 N-rn and an
clause. accuracy of 7 % o r better ofthe indicated torque from 70 N m
to the instrument's maximum reading.
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

4.4.2.2 For directpenetration from groundsurface.This type .2 When the vane and protecting shoe have
consists essentially of the following: penetrated t o the required depth, push the vane steadily
(a) a vane as specified in 4.4.2.1.1; without twisting a distance of at least 0.5 rn into the
undisturbed soil below the protecting shoe.
(b) a vane protecting shoe for each size of vane (see
figure 18); 4.4.4.2.3 Position the torque head as specified in 4.4.4.1.3.
(c) extensio~rodsasspecifiedin 4.4.2.1.2 (seefigure 16); 4.4.4.2.4 Rotate the vane as specified in 4.4.4.1.4.
(d) extensiontubesabout 1 m in length with couplingson
4.4.4.2.5 Remove the torque measuring instrument and pull
the outer face to case the hole;
back the vane fully into its protecting shoe, before removing
{e) a calibrated torque measuring instrument as specified it from the ground.
in 4.4.2.1.4.
4.4.5 Calculation*. Calculate the vane shear strength of the
4.4.3 Pretest check. The apparatus shall be checked for
soil, rf(in kPa), from the equation:
satiskctory operation prior to each usage in the field.
4.4.4 Procedure

4.4.4.1 For tests at the bottom of a borehole where


4.4.4.1.1 Lower the vane, together with its extension rods, M is the torque t o shear the soil (in Nm);
into the boreholewhich shall normally becased for itswhole K is a constant depending on dimensions and shape of
depth.Take carethat the rodcouplings remain tight while the the vane.
vane is lowered. Place sufficient bearings to steady the rods -
laterally throughoutthe length of the rods. The spacing of the " See form 9(g)of appendix A.
bearingsshall depend uponthe rigidity of the extension rods, Assuming the distribution of the shear strength is uniform
and shalt normally be between 3 m and 9 m. across the ends of a cylinder and around the perimeter then:
4.4.4.1.2 With thevane resting atthe bottom of the borehole
and with the rods located centrally at thetop of the borehole,
push the vane steadily withouttwisting, a distance of not less where
than three times the diameter of the borehole into the
D is the measured width of vane (in mm);
undisturbed soil or at feast twice the length of the vane,
whichever is the greater. H is the measured height of vane (in mm).
Asthe ratioof lengthtowidth ofthevane is 2to 1thevalueof
4.4.4.1.3 Place the torque head over the top of the upper
K may be simplified in terms of the diameter so that it
extension rod and then adjust it to the required height.
becomes:
Couple the instrument to the extension rods. Fix the base of
the torque head firmly to the ground. Set the measuring K = 3.66@ x lo-"
gauge tozero taking care that any backlash in the torque head NOTE. It is important that these dimensions are checked periodically
has been taken up. to ensure the vane is not distorted or worn.

4.4.4.1.4 Rotate the torque head until the soil is sheared by 4.4.6 Testreport. The test report shall affirm that thetestwas
the vane. Read the gauge at maximum deflection, thus carriecl out in accordance with this Part of this standard and
indicating the torque required to shear the soil. shalt contain the following information.
(a) The method of test used.
Rotatethe torque head throughoutthe test at a rate within the
range O.loO/s t o 0.20O/s (6'lmin to 12*/min). (bl The vane shear strength (in kPa) to two significant
figures.
4.4.4.1.5 Remove the torque measuring instrument and
withdraw the vane f r o m the ground. ( c ) The type of vane test apparatus.
(dl The method of calculating the result when different
4.4.4.2 For direct penetration from ground surface
from that specified in 4.4.5.
4.4.4.2.1 Lock the vane in place inside the protecting shoe. ( e ) The information required by clause 9 of BS 1377 :
and jackordriveto the requireddepth using a light boring rig Part 1 : 1990.
or tripod. Take care that the rods remain tight while the vane
is lowered. Place steady bearings about every 3 rn to
centralize and reduce friction between the rods and extension
pipes.

See form 9 ( g ) of appendix A


BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

5 In-situ corrosivity tests

5.0 introduction 5.1.2 Apparatus


5.1.2.1 Calibrated earth impedance ohmmeter, suitable for
This clause of the standard describes two methods for measurements by Wenner equally spaced, four-electrode
determining in-situ the likelihood of underground corrosion configuration. The ohmmeter shall have a performance
o f buried metal structures. complying with class 2.5 of BS 89 and shall produce an
The results of these tests should be interpreted by a internally generated attenuating current supply of frequency
specialist. between 100 Hz and 150 Hz provided either by a rotating
generator or by an oscillator with a direct current supply. The
total measuring range shall be at least 0 R t o 1900 with a
readability to at leastthree significantfigures.The instrument
5.1 Determination in-situ o f the apparent resistivity of soil shall be recalibrated at intervals not exceeding 2 yrs.
A copy of the manufacturer's operating instructions shall be
5.1.1 General. This method covers the determination of the available at all times when i n use.
electrical resistivity of soil tested in situ for a selected depth
or a range of depths. (See note 1.) 5.1.2.2 Electrodes. Set o f four metal rods, each typically
The test is used to assess the corrosivity of the soil towards about 500 m m long and about 10 rnm to 20 rnm nominal
various metals. Resistivity is the electrical resistance of an diameter, with one end pointed for driving into the soil. The
elementof unit cross-sectional area and unit length. Its value electrodes shall be formed with a handle and have a low
indicates the relative capability of the soil t o carry electric electrical resistance contact point for wire connection. The
currents. Generally the severity of corrosion decreases as the rod material shall be a good electrical conductor and the
apparent resistivity rises. surface shall be clean and uncorroded. Suitable material for
the rods is stainless steel, brass or copper-plated steel rod$.
The method consists of passing a current (see note 2) into the
ground between two electrodes (A. B) and measuring the 5.1.2.3 insulated wire cable. Set of four reels of robust
&sequent apparent resistivity between another two insulated stranded copper wire suitable for use with earth
electrodes (C, D) situated at equi-distant spacings (AC, CD resistance meter, and each of sufficient fength depending
and DB) and coltinear between electrodes A and 0. This upon the maximum anticipated spacing of the electrodes.
arrangement corresponds t o the conventionaI 'Wenner', Cable complying with BS 6231, type BK PVC-insulated
equatly spaced, four electrode configuration. Two separate flexible cable, 1.5 mm2nominal cross-sectional area of
measurements of the resistivity are made for a test at each conductor has been found to be suitable. Each reel of wire
selected depth with the electrodesset at approximately right shall have fitted at one end a robust damp t o ensure low
angles for the two measurements. When testing in borrow electrical resistance contact with the electrode, and at the
areas one measurement may be made with the electrodes in other a suitable terminal t o fit the ohmmeter.
thesame line as the direction of the test locations and another
with the electrodes set at approximately right angles to the 5.1.2.4 Installation equipment, such as a 1 kg hammer for
tine of tests, inserting the electrodes into the soil.

Resistivity may also be measured in the laboratory {see 5.1.2.5 Linear measuring equiprnentfor setting out, such as
clause 10 of BS 1377 : Part 3 : 1990). a measuring tape.
NOTE 1. The resistivity measurement represents the average
resistivity of a hemisphereofsoil of a radius moreor lessequaitothe 5.1.3 Procedure. Tests shall not be made when the soil is
spacing between adjacent electrodes as used in the test. The selected frozen or flooded. At the site of each resistivity test proceed
depth of a test is therefore more or less equal to the spacing of as follows working at the ground surface or the bass of an
adjacenr electrodes and bears no relationto the embedment depth of
excavation.
the electrodes. The selected depth of a rest is commonly taken as
equal to the proposed depth of the buried metat inclusion, e.g. a NOTE. Safety precautions should be taken in accordance with the
pipeline. manufacturer'sinstructionswhen usingtheohmmeter, particular\yif
working near high-tensionsystems. In thiscase rubbcrglovesshoutd
NOTE 2. The test method specified is based on the use of alternating
be worn and the operator shoufd stand on a rubber mat or wear
current. Direct current rneasuremenrsare also made in resistivity rubber shoes.
tests but these are generally more concerned with geological
investigations.The use of direct current can cause polarization effects 5.1.3.1 Select the test location, the length of which shall be
and can thus lead to an uncharacteristically high resistance being
measured. For this reason direct current measurements are not three times the selected test depth, where the soil conditions
permissible in this type of test. are anticipated to be uniform and away from large non-
NOTE 3. The measurements are rendered unreliable if beneath the conductive bodies such as boulders or concretefoundations.
test tocation electrical conductors are present such as metal pipes, NOTE. Highly conductive bodies. such as existing metal pipes and
cables or other conducting objects, also ~fthe soil formation contains electriccablesshould not be within about one half theselecteddepth
highly conductive materiais such as ferruginous soii which is nor of the test unless they are at right anglesto the lineof the electrodes.
typical of the formation.
The requirements of Part 1 of this standard, where
appropriate, shalt apply to the test methods described in this
clause.
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

5.1 .3.2 Install the two electrodes for transmitting the a.c. 5.1.5 Testreport The test report shall affirm that the test was
current, A and 0, so that they are spaced apart a distance carried out in accordance with this Part of this standard and
equal to three times the selected test depth, and such that shall contain the following information.
each electrode penetrates into the soil at the ground surface
(a) The method of test used.
for a depth of at least 150 m m and over this length is i n full
contact with the soil. The maximum penetration o f the (b) The mean value of the apparent resistivity (in R m ) t o
electrodes beyond the minimum of 150 mmshall not exceed two significant figures.
one-twentieth of the selected test depth. The minimum (c] The two individual values of apparent resistivity and
spacing between these electrodes A and 3 shall be 3 m. their directions when more than 15 % different t o their
NOTE. Where topsoil is present at the test location the electrodes mean value.
should be driven through it to penetrate into the subsoil. (d) f h e distance between adjacent electrodes i n metres,
5.1.3,3 Install the other two electrodes, C and 0, directly and the selected test depth. If the spacing difference is not
between and in line with electrodes A and B, such that all equat to threetimes the test depth, the reason for that
three spacings between the four electrodes are equi-distant. difference.
The specifications for the penetration and contact of these (e) The information required by clause 9 o f BS 1377 :
electrodes shall be the same as for electrodes A and B. Part 1 : 1990.
NOTE. When thesoilaround the electrodes is relativelydry such that
there is poor conductivity between the electrode and the soil, it is
permissibleto wet the soil in the vicinity of the electrodes. 5.2 Determinstion in-situ of the redox potential of son
5.1.3.4 Connect the appropriate terminals on the ohmmeter
to the four electrodes with the insulated wire cable. 5.2.1 General. Tfiis method covers the determination of the
redox potential (reduction/oxidation) of soil tested insitu at a
5.1.3.5 Apply a stable a x . current to electrodes A and 8, selected depth by measuring the electrochemical potential
operating the ohmmeter in accordance with the between a platinum electrode and a saturated calomel
manufacturer's instructions, which may require the test reference electrode. The test is usedto indicatethe likelihood
current level t o beadjustedbeforetaking the measurements. of microbial corrosion of metals by suiphate-reducing
bacteria which can proliferate in anaerobic conditions.
5.1.3.6 Record the measurement of the soil resistance
between electrodes C and 0 when the instrument reading f he redox potential is principally related to theoxygen in the
becomes stable. Record values t o two significant figures. soil, and a highvalue indicatesthat a relatively large amount
is present. Anaerobic microbial corrosion can occur if a soil
5.t.3.7 Remove the electrodes and repeat the procedure has a low oxygen content and hence a low redox potential.
specified above, firstly for other selected depths if required at
This standard requires the use of a calomel refeience probe
the same test location, and secondly such that the line of the
as defined in 5.2.2.2, in order to be consistent with the
electrodes is approximately a t right angles to the line of the
laboratory test method (see clause 11of BS 1377 : Part 3 :
first measurement or series of measurements. If the two
19901. This is not intended to prohibit the use of the other
measurements at a selected depth differ by more than 15 %
established portable versions of reference probes, e.g.
of the mean value they shatl be repeated.
copperlcopper sulphate and silverlsilver chloride (see note).
5.1.4 Calculationand expression o f the results. Calculate the In submitting reports the type of reference probe used and
apparent resistivity, r, (in fl-m (see note)), for each the correction factor applied t o convert the measurement t o
measurement at the test location from the equation: the standard hydrogen electrode shall be given.
r, = 2 (na R) Redox potential may also be measured in the laboratory (see
where clause t l of BS 1377 : Part 3 : 1990).
NOTE. Where theothertypesof reference probes, e.g. copperlcopper
a is spacing between adjacent electrodes (in m); sulphate and sitverlsilver chloride. are used it is very impoftantto
R is measured resistance (in R). note that their preparationand storage procedures are different from
that requiredfor calomel probes and the manufacturer's instructions
The value of the apparent resistivity shall be reported to two should be followed. Moreover copperlcoppersulphate probes are not
significant figures. suitable in chloride contaminated soil or in alkaline environments
when silverlsilver chloride should be used. Copperlcopper sufphate
NOTE.This is toconform with St units.The customary unit. ohrn.cm, cells are also sensitive to heat, light and a wide variety of chemicals.
is equal to 0.01 n.m.
The correction factors for reference probes t o convert the
measurement to the standard hydrogen electrode are as
follows:
Mercurytmercuric chloride 240' mV

Silver/silver chloride 246rnvi I


The requirements of Part 1 of this standard, where
appropriate, shalt apply to thetest methods described in this
clause.
Thefactorof 240 IS normally rounded to 250for the purposes ofthls
tesr.
t i n 3 % s o d ~ u mchlor~de
solution.
,..

BS 1377 : Part 9 : 5990

5.2.2 Apparatus 5.2.3.2 Jeweller's rouge.


5.2.2.1 Platinum probe of a design having two separate 5.2.3.3 Colourlass methyleted spirits, 70 % by volume with
platinum electrodes embedded i n the nose piece. Also a 30 % by volurne distilled water, in a screw-topped wide-
means of protection when not in use. The probe shall have a mouth bottle. 500 m L is a suitable quantity.
connecting lead permitting the inclusion of each platinum
electrode individually in an electrical circuit. Each connection 5.2.3.4 Distilled water. Two differently marked wash bottles
shall be separately identified. full for cleaning platinum electrodes. 500 rnL is a suitable
quantity for each bottle.
5.2.2.2 Calomelreferenceprobe, having a rnercury/mercuric
chloride reference electrode which can be refilled and with a 523.5 Paper rissues and absorbenr-type surgical cotton
connection to a porous ceramic junction. The calomel wool swabs.
reference electrode shalt be kept clean when not in use by 5.2.4 Procedure
being stored in a sealed container. The precipitation of NOTE. Thorough cleanliness of the probes is essential for reliable
crystaisshall be prevented when not in use, particularly atthe results.
r, porous junction, by storing upright and closing the breather
5.2A.1 Assemble from the storage unit according t o the
'). .,, hole. manufacturer's operating instructions the calomel reference
NOTE. The platinum and calomel probes are often separate and the probe, ensuring that the unit is full of a saturated solution of
latter madeof glasswhich can make field use sometimes difficult.The
National Corrosion Service at the National Physical Laboratory potassium chloride and that this moistens the porous
(NPL)* has designed and supplies a robust redox probe that junction. Remove any air bubbles in the potassium chloride
combines both the pair of platinum electrodes and a calomel solution by gently tapping the probe and remove excessfluid
reference orobe mounted toaether behind a steel-timed nose cone
tfiat is fitt6d on the end of a ;eel tube which can be'driven into fine- from the porous junction.
and medium-srainedsoils. The NPL redox probe is supplied complete NOTE 1. During use on site it is important to prevent precipitationof
with ancil~ar~>~ui~ment for cleaning the electrodes. crystals at the porous junction. This may be done by keeping the
probe betweentests in distilled water in a wide-necked bottle with a
5.2.2.3 Calibrated millivoltmeter, having a performance rubber bung to ensure that the porous junction is kept moist.
complyingwith class 1.5of BS 89. Thetotat measuring range Clean and polish each platinum electrode. Initially smearthe
shall be at least0 V d.c. to 2 V d.c. with a readability at leastto surfaces lightly with moist jeweller's rouge and use gentle
10 rnV.The input impedanceshalt be notlessthan lo6 n a n d abrasive action with cotton wool swabs. Follow with a single
the polarity (positiveor negative) shall be marked on the two wash using the methylated spirits. Afterwards wash
input terminals. thoroughty with distilled water. Lastly dry each electrode with
The instrument shall include suitable insulated flexible clean paper tissues.
electric cable and connectors for use with the probes. NOTE 2. Where the platinum electrode is dipped into distilled water
forwashing, the bottleswit1 needseparateidentificationtoselectthe
The instrument shall be recalibrated at intervals not correct sequence when reused.
exceeding 2 yrs.
5.2.4.2 Connect the positive terminal of the millivoltmeter
fl 5.2.2.4 Installation equipment consisting of a soil auger, with the electric cable to one of the platinum electrodes and
iy spade and trowel to excavate soil to test level, and, where soil the negative terminal to the calomel reference electrode, but
is compact, a 1 kg hammer and spike. leave the circuit open. This circuit shall be considered togive
positive readings.
5.2.2.5 pH measuring apparatus as specified and calibrated
in accordance with clause 9 of BS 1377 : Part 3 : 1990. 5.2.4.3 Tests shall always be made belowthe level of organic
growth. Ahole not lessthan 150 m m in diameter is neededto
5.2.2.6 Disturbedsample containerof glass or dense plastic,
reach the selected level when using separate probes. A
that can be hermetically sealed.
combined redox probe may be driven from the surface t o the
NOTE. When a sample from the test location is required for
microbiological examination, a glass container of a size suitable to selected tevel in weak soil, otherwise it may be necessary to
hold about 500 mLwill need to have been cleaned and sterilized by auger or dig a hole part way.
scalding with boiling water beforehand. Alternatively medically
sterilized plastic bags may beused.Fill the container completely and 5.2.4.4 If the probesare separate install them about 100 mm
minimize air voids. apart in the hole. The platinum probe shatl penetrate at least
5.2.3 Materials
100 mm to ensure full soil contact below any disturbed
surface material. A combined redox probe shall be pressed
5.2.3.1 Saturated solution of potassium chloride in a screw- into position sufficiently to obtain full soil contact on the
topped plastic bortleeitherwith pouring tipsuitable forfilling electrodes.
the reservoir of the calomel reference probe or a separate
small dropper or syringe. 500 mL is a suitable quantity.

National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex 7W11 OLW.


BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

5.2.4.5 Rotate the platinum probe about a quarter turn 5.2.5 Calculationsandexpression of the results.The mean of
without letting air reach the probe. Close the electric circuit the two acceptable readings and their sign shall be recorded
thentake the reading assoon asthevoltage becomes stable. as the potential of the platinum probe, E, t o the nearest
It may he necessarytowait 30 sor more for stable conditions 10 mV. Calculate the redox potential, Eh ( ~ mV),
n to the
to be reached. Where the probes are separate turn the nearest f 0 mV from the equation:
platinum probe one revolution under firm hand pressure to E h = Ep+250+60(pH-7)
ensure good contact. Rotatethecombined redox probe a half
where
to one revolution.
E, isthe potential of the platinum probe (in mV) (may be
Record the reading to the nearest 10 mV when the voltage is
a positive or negative value);
steady and record whether it is positive or negative.
NOTE. Very occasionally the current between the platinum electrode pH is thevalue of theacidity of an aqueous solution of the
and the reference electrode will be in the reverse direction such asto soil a t the test position as determined by the method
require the connections to the millivoltmeter to be reversed. In this specified in clause 9 of BS 1377 : Part 3 : 1990;
case the reading should be considered to be negative.
250 is the correction factor for a calomel reference probe
5.2.4.6 Transfer the electric circuit to the other platinum to convert the measurement t o the standard
electrode, connecting it again to the positive terminal of the hydrogen electrode.
millivoltmeter, and repeat the procedure as specified in
5.2.4.5. Record the reading to the nearest 70 mV and its 5.2.6 Test report Thetest report shall affirm that thetestwas
polarity. carried out in accordance with this Part of this standard and
shall contain the following information.
5.2.4.7 If thetwo readingsdiffer by more than 20 mV remove
(a) The method of test used.
the probes, recleanthe platinum electrodes and re-install in a
different position at the test site. Do not install the probes in (6) The mean value of the potential (in mV1 of the TWO
the original position because oxygen will have penetrated platinum probes to the nearest 10 mV.
and a false reading could result. Repeat the procedures as (c) The redox potential (in mV) t o the nearest 10 mV.
specified in 5.2.4.5 and 5.2.4.6. id) The pH value.
5.2.4.8 Remove the probes and clean the electrodes taking (e) The type of reference probe used i n the test.
note of the requirements of 5.2.2.2 and 52.4.1. (f) The information required by clause 9 of BS 1377 :
5.2.4.9 Place a disturbed sample from the position of the test Part 1 : 1990.
in an hermetically sealed container.
5.2.4.10 Determine the pH of the sample by the method
specified in clause 9 of BS 1377 : Part 3 : 1990.
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

I Vofume : 3 litres approx.

Shutter to expose or close, as


required, the hale at the top o f
the cone. I t s action shall be
smooth, rapid and free from
becoming jammed by sand grains.

~ i a m e t e rto match flange on


calibration container (see Fia. 3 1

"See 4.1.3.1.1 of BS 1377 : Part 1 : 1990.


All dimensions are in mitlimetres
This design has been found satisfactory, but alternative
designs may be used provided that the essential
requirements are fulfilled.
Figure 1. Small pouringcylinder for the determinationof the
density of fine-and medium-grained soils
Section A - A

See4.1.3.1.1 of BS 1377 : Part 1 : 1990.


All linear dimensions are in miltimetres

This design has been found satisfactory, but alternative


designs may be used provided thatthe essential
requirements are fulfilled.
Figure 2.Scraper.for levelling surface of soil
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990
. >

Diameter to match base flonge of

surface

NOTE. It is importantthat metaljoints within thecalibrating container


do not form crevices because these will affect the accuracy of the
calibration.

*See 4.1.3.1.1 of BS 1377 : Part 1 : 1990.


All dimensions are in millimetres

This design has been found satisfactory, but alternative


designs may be used provided that the essential
requirements are fulfilled.

Figure3. Calibrating containerfor use with the small pouring


cylinder
,Volume : 15 litres approx.

j
\
Hole at top of cone
Shutter (see Fig.1
/

i .d. 215 2 2.0 m


Diameter t o match flange on cali b r
1

All dimensions are in miltimetres

This design has been found satisfactory, but alternative


designs may be used provided that the essential
requirements are fulfilled.
Figure4. Large pouringcylinder forthe determinationof the
density of fine-, medium- and coarse-grained soils
8s 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

Flat surface

Stiffening

NOTE. It is important that metal joints within the calibratingcontainer


do not form crevices because these will affect the accuracy of the
calibration.

'See4.7.3.1.1 of BS 1377 : Part 7 : 1990.


All dimensions are in miltimetres
This design has been found satisfactory, but alternative
designs may be used provided that the essential
requirements are fulfilled.
Figure 5. Calibrating container for use with large pouring
cylinder
Rammer

Corner rounded
off

Dolly

Hardened
edge
Core cutter

"See 4.1.3.1.1 of BS 1377 : Part 1 : 1990.


All dimensions are in millirnetres
This design has been found satisfactory, but alternative
designs may be used provided that the essential
requirements are fulfilled.

Figure 6. Core cutter apparatusfor soil density determination


Gamma
. source

surface

Depth o f
rneasuremenf

Source
( a ) Beckscatter
(b) Direct transmission

Figure 7. Modes of operation of nuclear surface density and moisture gauges


F r k t i o n sleeve

(a) without a friction sleeve (b) with a friction sleeve

See 4.1.3.1.1 of BS 1377 : Part 1 : 1990.

AII linear dimensions are in millimetres

Figure 8. Examples of penetrometer tips with and without a


friction sleeve

-
BS 1377 : Part 9 : I990

(a)Standard cone (b) Permissible limits


Nominal projected area 1000 mm2 of wear
All dimensions 1 Pem.med tolerances 1 T m i d dimension3

Base diameter (5)36.0 35.3(8,) 36.00 + 0.00


- 0.05
Cone height ( L ) 31.2 24.0fL2) 31.0 -1- 0.2

Cylindrical
extension (el 1 5.0 ( 2.0 (4 ( 4.80 f 0.15

NOTE 1. The cylindricat extension (e) may be increased up to 15 mm


where a piezometric unit is fitted in this position.
NOTE 2. Raughnessofthe conicat surface at manufactureshouldnot
exceed 1 pm.
NOTE 3. Cones with a visible asymmetrical weer should be rejected.

Figure 9, Permitted tolerances. including atlowances for


wear, surface finish and typical manufacturing dimensions
for the standard cone for the cone penetrationtest
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

Friction sleeve
nominal area 15000 mmz

heal and
gap

All dimensions Permittedtolerances Typical


in millirnetres dimensions
Maximum I Minimum for manufadum

area

External length
subject to
surface area
requirements 135.0 132.5 134.00 t 0.05

NOTE 1. dc= base diameter of actual attached cone.


NOTE 2. External surface roughness in the direction of the longitudinal axis
should be between 0.25 p m and 0.75 pm.

Figure 10. Permitted tolerances, including allowances for wear,


surface finish and typical manufacturing dimensionsfor the standard
friction sleeve for the cone penetration test

figure 11. Alternative forms of 90"cone for dynamic probing (for


dimensions see table 1)
Balt check valve,
\
Drive shoe Coupling
-----+
&4 vents P I 3 min
10 + 0.5
m
v!
0
+t
m
m
8

1.6 2 0.1 *

Ball check retainer

*See4.1.3.1.1 of BS 1377 : Part


All dimensions are in millimetres
Corners at A may be slightly rounded.
This design has been found satisfactory, but alternative
designs may be used provided that the essential
requirements are fulfilled.
Flgure 12. Splitebarrel sampler assembly
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

Force meosuremenf

Penetration measurement

Extension rod

Adjustable extension

50li

Figure 13. Typical arrangement for in-situ CBR test apparatus


BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

" 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Test 1 Penetrnt~on, mm
No correction necassary. No correction necessary.
I
I

CBR results

Test 2
Corrected Penetrahon, rnm
Figure 14. Typical CBR test results curves
BS 1377 : Part 9 : f 990

L.3

P e n e t r o t ~ o nof plunger, mrn

Figure
- 15. Force-penetrationcurvesfor a CBR value of 100 %
and other CBR values

I
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

Torque measuring
instrument

Extension rods

Intermediate steady
bearing

Extension tubes

Vane protect~ng shoe


[see separate detail

Vane r o d in sIeeve

See detail in Fig. 17


'

{a) Borehote vane test ( b ) Penetration vane test

Figure 16. Typical arrangements far in-situ vane test


apparatus
Connec hon for
ex tension pipe

Steeve
( packed with

Figure 18. Typical vane protecting shoe

Figure 17. Typical borehole vane and rod mounting


BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

Appendix

Appendix A. Typical test data and


calcufation forms
The following test sheets are given as examples; other
suitable forms may be used.

I Form 1 Tile 1
I Sand replacement methods
I
9 (c) In-situdsnsity test
Core cutter method
9 (dl Cone penetrationtest
1 9(e) 1 Dynamicprobingtest 1
9 (f) 1 In-situCBR test
9 (g) 1 In-situ vane shear strengthtest
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

In-situ density test (sand replacement method)

Location Job ref.


~,~>?:,l"~,, ,:
Test no.
Soil description Sample no.
Depth excavated mm

Test method 2.1 small pouring cylinder* Date


85 1377 : Part 9 : 1990 large pouring cylinder

Calibration

1 Volume of calibrating container ( W I

1 'Mean mass of sand (+cylinder) after pa


-
*Mass of sand t o fill calibrating container (ma= m~ m3 - m2) 9

Bulk density of sand p, = -


ma
V Mg/m3

Test number
1 I I
I I
1
Mass of wet soil from hole (&) 9 1
*Mass of sand (+cylinder) before pouring (ml) 9
+Mass of sand (+ cytinder) after pouring (ma) g
= m, - in4
"Mass of sand in hole (mb - m2) 9

m,
Ratio -
mb

m,
Bulk density p = - x .p Mg/m3
mb

Moisture content container no.


Moisture content (d %

100 p
Dry density pd = -
100 + w
Mglrn3

*Delete as appropriate

Operator Checked Approved


-
- - -

Soil descriptionand applicable test numbers. Sample no. I


Test method
BS 1377 :Part 9 : 1990 : 2.4
Date I
p~-

Length of core cutter: ..................... mm


Volume of core cutter ( VJ .................. cm3
Test number I 1
Mass of core cutter and wet soil (m,) 9
Mass of core cutter (m,) g
-
Mass of wet soil (m, m,) 9

Bulk density p =
ms - me
- Mglrn3
v. t I I I I

Moisture content container no. I I t


Moisture content {w) % I I 1
100 p
Dry density pd = -
loo+ w
,
I Operator
I

I
I

Checked
I

I
I

Approved 1

I Form 9 (c) 1
BS 1377 : Part 9 : I990

. 4

Static cone penetration test

Location .
, _ I ' ..'
. ... 1 Jobref. 1 1 Date 1
Ground levef
(ordnancedatum) I rnlTestno. I -
Test method
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990 : 3.1

Pore water pressure kfl in MPa ldurmg pmetrattn)

Cone resistance (qrl in Wa Local friction (f, I MPa Friction rafm %

Machinetype...................... Capacity ..................... Cone no....................... Capacity .............. Calib. ref .............
Measurement system: ElecVMech* Sleeve no. ......................................... Capacity .............. Calib. ref .............
Depth towater ..........m Piezocone no. ....................................................... Capacity .............. Calib. ref .............
Hole backfilled YesiNo* Type .......................................................................
'Delete as appropriate Filter position ........................................................
Operator Checked Approved

/ Form 9 Id) 1
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

Dynamic probing test

Location Jobref. Date


Ground level
(ordnance datum) m Test no.

Test method
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990 : 3.2

kpth Maws per 100 mm %low count Remarks


rn
I

Hammer: typeimass ............................................ kg Cone: typeidiameter ...................... Cone left behind: Yes/Not
Standard drop ............................................... mrn Rod: type/diameter ..................... ... Hole backfilted: Yes/NoX
Damper: YeslNo* Type ......................................
*Deleteas a.~ ~. r .o w i a t e
Operator Checked Approved

1 I
. .-
In-sit~CBR test

..... ;. ..J:.: .,.,.' 5" .....


Location ...,;.~*~;:&..:.. +<~< ;\;2- .. Job ref. I
Test no.
Soil description Sample no.

Test method Date


BS 1377:Part9: 1990:4.3
I I I
NOTE. Test applicable only when maximum particle size beneath plunger does not exceed 20 mm.

Area of annulus of disc used ..................................................... mm2 Jack/load ring no. .................................................
Mass of surcharge .........................................................................kg Calibration ref: ..........................................................
RECORDINGS Moisture content of sample ..................................................... %
NOTE. Penetration and force readings after seating load zeroed.

C I
Penetration Force Standard CBR

Penekation o f plunger, rnm

In-ritu CBRvalua I ........................ %(


Operator Checked Approved
I I
BS 1377 : Part 9 : 1990

In-situ vane shear strength test

Location Job ref.


I Boreholdrest no.*
Sheet no.
Test method Ground level: Weather:
BS1377:PartS: 9990:4.4 (Ordnancedatum) rn

Vane dimensions: height mm; Dia, mrn Instrument no. ................... Date I
Vane constant, K: mm3x IDb 1 Depth to ground water level:
Test record Rate of loading ...............radiandmin or degreeslmin*
1
7

Depth of Deptt4 Max. force applied Value of Torque, M Shear strength Remarks(soil description attest
frictional M/K levels, etc.)
force
ground tip
level
iin S.

*Delete as appropriate
Operator Checked Approved