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Table of Contents

Natural S c ie n c e .......................... ..................................................2 1 6
E N G L IS H Dr. Leticia V. Catris
Study and Thinking Skills 7
Prof, Merry Ruth M. Gutierrez SOCIAL SCIEN C E
Prof. Ma. Jhona B. Acuna Politics and Governance
A cadem ic W ritin g ................................. .............................................. 2 4 with the Philippine Constitution................................................. 2 4 4
Dr. Benjamin C. Domingcil Jr.
Prof. Ma. Concepcion Y. Raymundo
Philippine History ........................ ...... ..................... ...... .........2 7 1
Prof. Ali G. Anudin Prof. Remedies C. Ong
Speech and Oral C o m m u n ic a tio n ................................................. 4 3 Basic Economics with Agrarian Reform .............................. 2 8 4
Prof. Alice M. Karaan Prof. Jerick C. Ferrer
Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio Dr. Benjamin M.Domingcil Jr.
Philippine L itera tu re .............................................................................6 9 Society and Culture with Family P la n n in g ............................. 2 9 9
Prof. Victor Rey Fuinar Dr. Diony V* Varela
W orld Literature..................................................................................... 9 4 Prof. Minda I. Valencia
Dr. Ma. Antoinette C. Montealegre Rizals Life and Works and other Heroes and Heroines . . 3 1 3
Dr. Evangeline L. Martin
P hilosophy......... ............. .............................................................. 3 2 5
Prof. Michael M. Nael
Kom unikasyon sa A kadem ikong Filipino 123
Introduction to Humanities: Appreciation of the A r t s .......3 6 3
Dr. Arscnia R. Emperado Dr. Anita Navarro
P agbasa at Pagsulat tungo sa Pananaliksik. 140 P sychology.................................................................................. . . 3 7 7
Dr. Arsenia R. Emperado Dr. Priscilla B. Dizon
Masining na P agpapahayag ........................... 166 Dr. Teresita T. Rungduin
Dr. Arsenia R. Emperado
M A T H E M A T IC S Introduction to Com puters..........................................................4 0 3
Fundam entals o f M athem atics 188 Dr. Alice D. Dioquino
Atty. Antonio V. Ferrer
C ontem po rary M athem atics 203
Dr, Gladys C. Nivera

W M pnU LET Reviewer

English - Study and Thinking Skills
General Education _ _ _ _ _ ______ -*<xm . ~ .IM
P A R T I -.C O N T E N T U P D A T E

Study and I. S tu d y S tra te g ie s a n d T h in kin g S kills

Study skills according to Graham and Robinson (1984) are specific abilities
which students may use alone or in combination to learn the content of the

Thinking Skills curriculum on their own.

Harris and Smith (1986) state that study skills are those that enable a
person to gather information and to organize it in such a way that requires
analysis, interpretation, and evaluation.
Prepared by:
Klein, Peterson, and Simington (1991) claim that study skills are skills
Prof. Merry Ruth M. Gutierrez and Prof. Ma. Jhona B. Acuna
necessary for acquiring critical information from a variety of texts and
media sources for differing purposes and uses
Study skills are skills related to gathering and using information.
A. Remembering Information
General: 1. Repetition - saying or writing information a number of times
2. Mnemonics - a technique to remember details such as:
Comprehend written text in English a. Acronyms are words that are formed by combining some parts
(usually the first letters) of some other terms. The term is also
Specific: used to refer to initialisms, which are combinations of letters
representing a longer phrase.
Use strategies to efficiently search b. Abbreviations (from Latin brevis short) is strictly a shorter form of
for information and learn from a word, but more particularly, is a letter or group of letters, taken
written texts in English from a word or words, and employed to represent them for the
sake of brevity.
c. Pegwords are words that rhyme with numbers and are used to
Apply study and critical reading skills build associations with the information to be remembered.
in comprehending English texts d. Keywords are familiar words that lead the reader to the new
words to be learned. They can be used to create mental images to
Prof. Merry Ruth M. Gutierrez and Prof. Ma. Jhona B. Acuna remember new words and definitions.

PNU LET Reviewer M W

General Education
English - Study and Thinking Skills
C. Notetaking While Reading
e. Rhymes are words with similar sounds usually found in poetry and Note taking is the practice of writing down pieces of information in a
songs. systematic way. It involves using your own words and a separate notebook
f. Graphic Organizers - are visual representations that show how
to condense the key ideas you have marked in your text while annotating.
information is organized.
1. SQ3R (Rowntree, 1976:40-64)
a. Survey - flip through the chapter or book and note the layout,
B. Underlining/Highlighting
first and last chapters or paragraphs, look at the headings used,
Highlighting and underlining engage the reader to select words, phrases
familiarize yourself with the reading.
and sentences, as well as, selecting the most important ideas and details
b. Question - Ask questions about the way the reading is structured
in a reading. It makes information stand out so that you can find it easily
and think about the questions you will need to keep in mind while
when you go back to the text to study for a test. Systematically using
different colored highlighter pens can make the review process even
reading. Think about whether or not you think the book is relevant
easier. Familiarity with the techniques is helpful to find rapidly what the or if its current and if it suits the purpose of your study.
reader needs when rereading the passage. c. Read - read actively but quickly, looking for the main points of the
Method for Underlining/Highlighting reading - dont take any notes - you might want to read through
1. Mark the main ideas and the major details differently. Underline the twice quickly.
main ideas with a double line, and the major details with a single line. d. Recall - Write down the main points of the reading and any really
Or use a different color high-lighter pen for each. important facts, and opinions that help support the main points.
2. Find main-idea sentences. Underline the sentences or parts of Also record the bibliographic details.
sentences that state the main idea of a paragraph. If the main ideas e. Review - repeat the first three steps over and make sure you
are only implied, write your own main-idea sentence in the margin. havent missed anything. At this point you might like to finalize
Find major details and underline these. your notes and re-read your notes or write down how the material
3. Circle key words. Use brackets [ ], asterisks (*), or any other symbol to youve just covered relates to your question or task.
mark parts that are especially interesting or important to you. 2. The PQ5R Study Method
4. Write notes or comments to yourself in the margin. The margins are PQ53 is the mnemonic for an effective student regulated approach
good places to put down your own thoughts as you read. Margin notes to studying the kind of material assigned every day - textbooks.
can help you connect ideas from different parts of the selection. They Gaining new information and ideas from a variety of different textbooks
can also help you connect a passage with other material you have demands a balanced and flexible network of study strategies.
read, comments your teacher has made, or your own experience. a. Preview - Know where youre going first. You would never plunge
in and try to cross rugged territory if you could have in advance
an accurate map of the region. Here is your mental map of a
textbook chapter: Examine the title. Read the introduction. Glance

8 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Merry Ruth M. Gutierrez and Prof. Ma. Jhona B. Acuna
English - Study and Thinking Skills
General Education
Look away from the book while you self-recite, or cover the
at the pictures, charts, and diagrams. Read the wrap-up of the
passage with your hand or with a convenient card (such as 5x8
chapter the summary and review questions.
b. Question -Work through the chapter - one manageable section at index card). Can you recite the important points to yourself in your
a time. A section marked off with a boldface or italic sideheading own words? Now look back at the column of print, whenever you
is likely to be the right size bite for you to digest. need to, and check your accuracy. Knowing youre going to self-
Be a human question mark. Go into each section with a question recite when you finish a section forces you to concentrate while
in your mind. Turn headings, and sometimes topic sentences, into youre reading.
questions. These should guide you to the main points. t. Review - Add a last quick run through. Can you recall the broad
c. Read - Read to find the answer to your question and other chapter plan? Run through the chapter to recall that plan. Next,
important content. Unknown terms say, STOP! LOOK UP! LEARN! run through it section by section, checking yourself once more on
Remove these roadblocks. Each pictorial aid is saying, This is the main points and the important subpoints. Use your cover card
clearing up something important." Shift into back-and-forth again. Make some quick reviews later on from time to time. Long
reading for pictures, diagrams, and charts. Shift your eyes (and term memory does improve grades,
thoughts) back and forth as needed from the printed words to the g. Reflect -As you read a passage, turn on your critical thinking. Ask
pictorial aid. yourself: What does this all mean? Is it true? How can I apply it?
Speed up and slow down as needed within the passage. Do stop- Reading and reflecting should be simultaneous and inseparable -
and-go reading. Thought time is needed in addition to reading built right into every step of PQ3R.
time. Reread as often as necessary. Do stop-and-go reading. 3. Annotating - is a system of marking that includes underlining and
d. Record -Jot down or mark important ideas. Make the key ideas notations. A notation system is used for selecting important ideas that
stand out in some way so they will "flag you later. Use any
goes beyond straight lines and includes numbers, circles, stars, and
combination of devices. Jot mini notes on a memo slip to be
written comments such as marginal notes, questions and keywords.
inserted between related pages or in the books margin. Draw
Annotations are comments, notes, explanations, or other types of
vertical lines in the margin just to the left or right of important
external remarks that can be attached to a document or to a selected
content. Bracket key ideas. Underline or color-accent selectively.
Now you won't have to reread the entire chapter when you return
part of a document. As they are external, it is possible to annotate any
to review it later. Make key ideas flag you. document independently, without needing to edit the document itself.
e. Recite - Students exclaim, I ve read that chapter twice, but From a technical point of view, annotations are usually seen as metadata,
I still cant remember it. Solve this problem by using the most as they give additional information about an existing piece of data.
powerful technique known to psychologists - the technique of How to use annotation:
self-recitation. As you complete a section or a paragraph, ask a. Underline important terms.
yourself, Just what have I learned here? b. Circle definitions and meanings.
c. Write key words and definitions in the margin.
Prof. Merry Ruth M. Gutierrez and Prof. Ma. Jhona B. Acuna
PNU LET Reviewer 9
English - Study and Thinking Skills (cncral ducation

d. Signal where important information can be found with key words e. Review On a frequent basis, review your past notes by reciting
or symbols in the margin. and reflecting upon them,
e. Write short summaries in the margin at the end of sub-units. t. Recapitulate After you have reduced, recited and reflected upon
f. Write the questions in the margin next to the section where the your note, you should recapitulate each main Idea using complete
answer is found. sentences at the bottom of the key word column.
g. Indicate steps in a process by using numbers in the margin. 5. Concept maps and Mind maps - The idea Is to map out concepts,
4. The Cornell Method M ------------------------- 8. 5 either as they are found or received or during the Review process in
This notetaking method has I the Cornell or SQ3R method. Mind maps (i.e. hierarchical trees) can
been devised 40 years ago be used to take lecture notes in real time, but more often to organize
by Walter Pauk, a lecturer at 2 .5 * < ---------- 6 -------- concepts into a hierarchical tree. Concept maps allow to visualize
Cornell University. This method c more complex relationships between different concepts. They allow
is used by dividing the paper in E
D . for example to integrate old and new knowledge and to construct a
two columns. The first column 1 O representation of a complex concept. Finally, concept maps also can
O Note-Taking
is used to enter key or cue 3 be used a design tool. For example, after the initial literature review for
words while the second is the o a paper or a thesis, a student may create a conjecture map that relates
notes column (for recording theory to design to observable process to outcomes.
ideas and facts). 6. Charting - is method that helps to summarize the most important
There are six steps to Cornell
2 Summaries concepts found in articles and to identify implicit relations (what
note-taking: 1f t concepts go together and which authors). This concept charting
a. Record During the lecture, record as many facts and ideas as technique uses a table with columns representing concepts and rows
possible in the notes column. representing a text.
b. Reduce After the lecture, read through the notes taken and 7. Outlining -is a short verbal sketch that show in skeleton form the
reduce to key words and phrases, or questions. The key words pattern of ideas in text or a draft prepared for speaking or writing
and phrases are used as cues to help recall the ideas and facts. often with main and sub-ideas highlighted by numbers and letters.
The questions are to add clarity to the facts and ideas. It is a form of notetaking that gives a quick display of key issues and
c. Recite Using only the key words, phrases and questions in the cue essential supporting details. It shows indentions, numbers, and letters
word column recite the ideas and facts in the notes column. It is to show levels of importance.
important that you are not just mechanically repeating, but using
your own words.
with what you already know, and how this knowledge can be applied.

10 PNU LET Reviewer Prf. Merry Ruth M. Gutierrez and Prof. Ma. Jhona B. Acuna
General Education English - Study and Thinki ig Skills
T W O A C C E P T E D O U T L IN E F O R M A T S d. Red slowly the part of the line or sentence that tells yoi what you
want to know.
R om an and A rabic N u m b e r D ecim al N u m b e r S ystem e. Think about the question you were trying to answer.
and Letter S ystem f. Does the information you found answer the question? If r ot, quickly
read the passage again to look for the information you n ;ed.
Title Title g. Jot down the answer to the question youve asked.
I. 1. 2. Scanning - involves looking quickly through a text to find a specific
II. 2. word or piece of information. Instead of reading every word in a page,
A. 2.1 readers move eyes quickly, searching for what is needed.
1. 2.1.1 Guidelines for Scanning
2. 2 .1 .2 a. Understand the organization of the material.
a. 2 .1 .3 b. Stay focused on what you are looking for.
b. 2.2 c. Use whatever clues are available to speed your search
3. 2.2,1 d. Confirm your information.
B. 2 .2 .2
1. 2 .2 .3 E. Summarizing - is a method used in stating the main idea and significant
2. 2 .3 supporting details into short, concise statements about the rraterial you
III. 3. have read. Summaries are are full pieces of writing that fit together a
selections facts and ideas in readable sentences and paragr; phs which
D. Skimming and Scanning are shorter versions of the original.
1. Skimming - means reading only small parts of a text in order to get
an overview of the organization of the text and its main ideas. When F. Test-taking Strategies
skimming a paragraph or a page, you are searching quickly among the 1. Read to comprehend - concentrate on the main idea of t! e passage
sentences for the answers to your questions. and avoid fixating on details
Here is how to skim: 2. Interact with the passage - predict the topic and activa e schema;
a. Make sure that you know what information you are looking for, ask monitor and self- correct
yourself a question, and look for a key word. 3. Anticipate - read first sentence carefully, it usually gives cl tes of what
b. Move your eyes quickly from line to line and from sentence to is to come
sentence. 4. Relax - plan your time and concentrate
c. When you think you have found what you are looking for, stop. 5. Recall - remind yourself of the authors main point
6. Understand major question types - testy questions foi ow certain
predictable patterns ________ ______ ______
Prof. Merry Ruth M. Gutierrez and Prof. Ma. Jhona B. Acuna PNU LET Review r 11
English - Study and Thinking Skills General Education

a. Main Idea Questions - ask to identify the authors main point II. R e a d in g C o m p re h e n s io n
b. Detail Questions - check your ability to understand material that
is directly stated in the passage A. Critical Reading
c. Implied Meaning Questions - deals with the attitudes and 1. Recognize the authors purpose or intent
feelings of the writer that emerges behind or between words a. To inform. Authors use facts to inform, to explain, to educate, and
wherein favorable and unfavorable descriptions suggest positive to enlighten.
and negative opinions towards the subject b. To persuade. Authors use a combination of facts and opinions to
d. Purpose Questions - the purpose of the passage is not usually persuade, to argue, to condemn, and to ridicule.
stated but implied and is related to the main idea c. To entertain. Authors use fiction and non-fiction to entertain , to
e. Vocabulary Questions - tests general knowledge as well as the narrate, to describe, and to shock.
ability to figure out meaning by using context clues 2. Recognize the authors point of view or bias
7. Multiple-Choice and True-False Tests a. Point of view refers to the opinions and beliefs of the author or of
a. Read all options the reader, and a critical reader must recognize how those beliefs
b. Predict the correct answer influence the message.
c. Avoid answers with 100 Percent Words b. Bias is a word closely related to point of view but tends to be
d. Consider answers with qualifying words associated with prejudice, and thus it has a negative connotation.
e. Do not Overgeneralyze It is an opinion or judgment that may be based on solid facts or on
f. True statements must be true without exception incorrect information but leans to one side, unequally presenting
g. If two options are synonymous, eliminate both evidence and arguments.
h. Figure out the difference between similar options 3. Recognize the authors tone
i. Use logical reasoning when two answers are correct The authors tone describes the writer's attitude toward the subject. To
j. Look suspiciously at directly quoted pompous phrases determine the tone, pick up clues from the choice of words and details.
k. Simplify double negatives by canceling out both As a critical reader, tune in to the authors tone by letting attitude
I. Certain responses are neither true or false become a part of evaluating the message.
m. Validate true responses 4. Distinguishing fact from opinion
n. Recognize flaws in test taking a. Fact is a statement that can be proven true or false. It is an
Grammar observation that can be supported with direct evidence and is
Clues from other parts of the test something own by actual experience.
Length b. Opinion is a statement of feeling that cannot be proven right or
Absurd ideas and emotional words wrong. It can be a commentary, position, or observation based

12 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Merry Ruth M. Gutierrez and Prof. Ma. jhona B. Acuna
English - Study and Thinking Skills
General Education
3. Word Charts - presents information in summary form to make
on fact but represents a personal judgment, belief, feeling or
material easy to find. Instead of using sentences in a paragraph, a
interpretations of these facts,
writer can present complex information in chart form.
c. Recognize valid and invalid support for arguments
4. Statistical Tables - present numbers in chart form. Often, the
Fallacy is an error in reasoning that can give an illusion of support.
numbers appear in columns with headings to explain what the
On the surface it appears to add support but closer examination
numbers represent.
shows it to be unrelated and illogical. They are particularly present
5. Graphs - present statistics visually with lines, bars, or circles that
in propaganda, a form of writing designed to convince the reader
show how statistics compare with each other.
by whatever means possible. The following list describes some
6. Maps - visually condense material to show relationships. It is a diagram
propaganda techniques:
that places important topics in a central location and connects major
Testimonials: celebrities who are not experts state support.
points and supporting details in a visual display that shows degrees of
Bandwagon: you will be left out if you do not join the crowd.
importance which uses space in a free and graphic manner.
Transfer: a famous person is associated with an argument.
7. Charts - give information in an abbreviated outline form
Straw Person: a simplistic exaggeration is set up to represent
the argument.
Misleading Analogy: two things are compared as similar that C. Active Reading
are actually distinctly different.
1. The main idea of a passage is the core of the material, the particular
Circular Reasoning: the conclusion is supported by restating it. point the author is trying to convey. The main idea of a passage can be
stated in one sentence that condenses specific ideas or details in the
B. Functional Reading passage into a general, all-inclusive statement of the authors message.
Readings often contain more than just words. Graphics accompany the text Steps in determining the main idea
and knowing how to read these visual aids help the reader how to relate it a. Recognize general and specific words - look for specific ideas
to the ideas of the selection. presented in the sentences and decide on a general topic or
1. Photographs - to interpret photographs, you need to be able to subject under which ideas can be grouped. The general term
identify what is being represented and then to infer moods, attitudes, encompasses or categorizes the key ideas and is considered the
and relations that help give life to the pictures, particularly if they are of topic of the list.
people. b. Recognize general and specific phrases - topics of passages are
2. Diagrams - are drawings with labeled parts. Notice what the separate more often stated as phrases rather than single words.
parts represented and see how they work together. Labels and captions c. Recognize the General Topic for Sentences - study paragraphs are
usually point out the key features and explain how the parts relate to composed of sentences that develop a single general topic.
each other. d. Recognize General and Supporting Sentences - sentences are
related to a single subject, with two of the sentences expressing

Prof. M erry Ruth M. Gutierrez and Prof. Ma. Jhona B. Acuna PNU LET Reviewer 13
( Education
English - Study and Thinking Skills
d. How do these subsections support the whole?
specific support and one sentence expressing the general idea e. What is the overall topic?
about the subject. f. What point is the author trying to convey?
e. Differentiate Topic, Main Idea, and Supporting Details 5. The supporting details develop explain, and prove the main idea.
f. Questioning for the Main Idea They can be facts, descriptions, and reasons that convince the reader
Question: Who or what is this about? and make the material interesting. Details answer questions and paint
Question: What are the important details?
visual images so the reader has an experience with the author and
Question: What main idea is the author trying to convey about
sees what the author sees and understands.Details can be ranked by
the topic?
their level of importance in supporting a topic. Some details offer major
2. Stated Main Ideas - are directly stated, particularly at the beginning
support and elaboration, whereas others merely provide illustrations
of a passage. Such an initial main idea statement, thesis statement,
to relate the material to the readers prior knowledge and make
or topic sentence is a signpost for readers, briefing them on what to
expect. This thesis or main idea statement provides an overview of the visualizing easier.
author's message and connects the supporting details. How does a reader grasp the main idea of a selection?
3. Unstated Main Ideas - When the main idea is not directly stated, a. Determine the topic of the text. Use the title to predict the topic.
it said to be implied, which means it is suggested in the thoughts b. Ask yourself, "What about the topic is discussed? to point out the
that are revealed. In this case, the author has presented a complete focus of the topic.
idea, but for reasons of style and impact has chosen not to express c. Review the title to hypothesize about the writer's pattern of text
it concisely in one sentence. As a reader, it is your job to connect the organization. Generally, the rhetorical pattern chosen showcases
details systematically and focus the message. the main idea and the supporting ideas.
4. Getting the Main Idea of Longer Selections - longer selections
have several major ideas contributing to the main point and many Doing the three steps given will help the readers to come up with a
paragraphs of supporting details. To pull the ideas together under one main idea even prior to the reading of the actual text. The formula to
central theme, an additional step is necessary: Simplify the material construct or state the main idea is:
by organizing paragraphs or pages into manageable subsections and
then deciding how each subsection contributes to the whole. mi = p + f + 1
The following questions can help you determine the central theme
for a longer selection: Where
a. What is the significance of the title? What does the title suggest mi = main idea
about the topic? p = pattern of organization
b. How do the first paragraphs suggest the topic or thesis? f = focus of discussion
c. Under what subsections can the paragraphs and ideas be grouped? t = topic

14 PNU LET Reviewer

Prof. Merry Ruth M. Gutierrez and Prof. Ma. Jhona B. Acuna
General Education English - Study and Thinking Skills
Read the entire selection to confirm if the main idea you have predicted
matches the writers main idea. If there is a match, the purpose of your P A R T II - A N A L Y Z IN G T E S T IT E M S
reading is to look for the support ideas. Jot down all the important
notes that relate to the main idea. However, if there is a mismatch
A. S a m p le Test Ite m s
between your main idea and the writers main idea, revise or change
your hypothesis before you gather the support ideas.
Directions: Read the portion of a proposal on smoking written below. Then decide
who could have written each proposal. Choose and copy the letter of the best
Evaluate the notes you have written, and synthesize the ideas you
answer for each item.
gathered from steps 1-4 to summarize the informational text in two or
three sentences. The formula for summary of an expository text is:
1. Proposal A:
I strongly propose that colleges and universities allow smoking among students in
S e t = m i + si + (sd)
the campus during break as a way of easing pressure and tension caused by heavy
academic demands.
A. a psychologist C. a student who smokes
Set= summary of expository text
B. a parent D. a student leader
mi = main idea (p + f + 1)
si = support idea This is a question on critical thinking, specifically on noting point o f view. The
sd = support detail proposal requires sensitivity to the speaker's word choice and stand on the issue. The
words campus, break, academ ic pressure and tension suggest that a person is very
familiar with college life, and the stand is not against, but for smoking. Although choices
A, B, and D are also familiar with university life, not all o f them would fight for smoking.
The best answer is C - the one who is a university student and who smokes would be
the mostlikely to propose the idea.

2. Proposal B:
Smoking increases the chances of having fire accidents not only in schools but
also in all public places - parks, hotels, markets, and villages. It could be a way of
endangering the lives of people whose interest the government has promised to
serve and protect.
A. a physician C. a fire chief
B. a store owner D. a teacher

Prof. Merry Ruth M. Gutierrez and Prof, Ma. Jhona B. Acuna PNU LET Reviewer 15
English - Study and Thinking Skills General Education
B. P ra c tic e Test
The analysis done in 1 can be used here, too. Word choice will give a clue as to who
is speaking - words such as accidents, places, markets, hotels, government, serve,
and protect. Take note that the person's stand is not for, but against smoking. Choice
Read the selection and answer the questions that follow. Write only the letter of the
A, physician will not talk about the risks o f smoking in this manner and perhaps would best answer for each item.
not encourage smoking. Choice B, store owner, might cite other reasons and might be
ambivalent about the issue - either to fight for or against smoking. A teacher, choice 1 Forjail his ability to travel over a sandy desert without water, the camel has a nasty
D, might not advocate smoking, but will offer different explanations. The best answer is temper and the spirit o f revenge. He's not happy until he pays back a wrong, actual or
choice C. Among the choices, only a fire chief would explainreasons the way it was done seeming. Knowing this, camel drivers and others who use camels a lot have devised an
in the proposal because o f which smoking is not viewed positively. interesting way o f letting the camel settle his scores without the person getting hurt.
2 When a driver has made a camel angry in some way or other, he immediately runs
3. How would a tobacco grower explain the reason of the proposal for smoking? out o f sight. He hides near the road on which the camel will pass. He then takes off his
A. Smoking indirectly boosts the countrys economy. clothes and throws them down on a heap, which vaguely resembles a sleeping person.
B. Smoking relaxes the nerves and this helps control negative emotions. 3 Along comes the camel. He sees and smells the clothes o f the one who hurt him. Then
he pounces upon the pile, shakes every piece and tramples ail over everything. Satisfied, he
C. Smoking has always been a part of male identity and superiority over
walks away. The driver comes out of hiding, mounts the avenged beast, and rides off.
women. 4 It makes one think of the baby who bumps its head against the leg o f the table, turns
D. Smoking benefits the people who consider the plant as their source of around, and hits the leg in punishment.
-from 1000 Stories You Can Use by Frank Mihalic
This is a thinking skill question which requires an analysis o f the person's character
as basis for identifying perspective and point o f view. Notice that the person involved 1. What is the passage mostly about?
is a tobacco grower who would encourage smoking for business reasons. Choice A is A. a camel and his driver
perhaps from an economist's view, while Choice B could be made by a plain smoker B. a drivers way to trick an angry camel
trying to justify the act. Choice C might be a statement by a sociologist talking about u a camels attitude when angry
gender issues. Choice D is the correct answer because the tobacco grower depends on
the plant for a living, and so he/she airs a view from a business or labor perspective.
D. a driver's device to control anger
2. Who is referred to by the pronoun he in paragraph 1, sentence 2?
A. driver 6. camel C. person D. cloth
3. Who is referred to by the pronoun he in paragraph 2?
A. driver / B. camel C. anger D. sight
4. How does the writer regard the camel?
A. with respect and care with humility and love
B. with feaF and love ( J p with contempt and criticism

16 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Merry Ruth M. Gutierrez and Prof. Ma. Jhona B. Acuna
General Education English - Study and Thinking Skills
5. What does the writer think about the camels driver? 9. According to the selection, what is true about an inventor?
( K ) The driver is wise and clever. , A. An inventor succeeds in all endeavors.
~ B. The driver is a fool. B. An inventor always succeeds in the first attempt.
C. The driver is loving and kind. C. An inventor gives up on the first failure of the experiment.
D. The driver is a friend of a camel. D. An inventor experiences failures several times before he/she succeeds.
6. What is implied by the statement, "Hes not happy until he pays back a wrong, 10. How are the ideas mentioned in this statement connected, If education is an
actual or seeming? inhibition to invention, it is due entirely to the form by which we rate things ?
A. The camel does not forgive any offense. A. The sentence enumerates reasons for invention.
B. The camel never stops seeking revenge. B. The sentence conveys the result of being uneducated.
C.. The camel pays for his happiness by doing the right thing. The sentence compares education and invention.
C ^ T h e camels happiness is making right the wrong done against him. D. The sentence gives cause-effect relationship between education and
7. What haDDens after the camel has trampled all over the clothes of the driver? invention.
11. What is the writers view about failure?
B. The camel smells the clothes. A. It is disastrous.
C. The driver comes out of hiding. B. It is an inhibition to invention.
D. The driver walks away form the camel. C. It hinders ones desire to succeed.
D. It helps people learn and get near their goal.
A study made a number of years ago said the more education a man has, the less likely
12. What could be the message of the selection?
he is to be an inventor. Now, the reason for that is quite simple. From the time the boy or girl
starts in school, he or she is examined three or four times a year, and of course, it is very, very A. Success comes to those who persevere.
disastrous if he/she fails. An inventor fails all the time and it is a triumph if he succeeds once. Failure reflects ones limited intellect.
Consequently, if education is an inhibition to invention, it is due entirely to the form by which C. Success brings pride to ones country.
we rate things and not because of any intellectual differential. D. Failure stops people from inventing things.
I can take any group of young people any place, and teach them to be inventors, if I can
get them to throw off the hazard of being afraid to fail. You fail because your ideas are not
right. You should not be afraid to fail, but you should learn to fail intelligently. BY that I mean, It is said:
That there is hardly a bar o f music which Beethoven did not rewrite a t least a dozen
when you fail, find out why you failed, and each time you fail it will bring you nearer to the goal.
-from 100 Stories You can Use by Frank Mihalic times.
That Bryant rewrote THANATOPSIS a hundred times.
8. What relationship is shown between education and invention? That Gibbon rewrote his AUTOBIOGRAPHY nine times.
That Plato wrote the first sentence o f his REPUBLIC nine times.
A. The former is the cause of the latter. That Virgil spent 12 years writing his AENEID.
B. Education is not useful for the inventor. - from 1000 Stories You Can Use by Frank Mihaiic

C. One's education guarantees an invention.

/B ) Education does not encourage a person to be an inventor.

Prof. Merry Ruth M. Gutierrez and Prof. Ma. Jhona B. Acuna PNU LET Reviewer 17
English - Study and Thinking Skills General Education

13. What does the word bar mean in the selection? The Cook's Prayer
A. A vertical line drawn to show division of notes
B. A strip of wood used for obstruction Lord o f all the pots and pans and things,
C. A gate closing a road Since I ve no time to be
A saint by doing lovely things,
D. A railing in a court
Or watching late with Thee,
14. What could be the reason for capitalizing some words in the selection? Or dreaming in the dawnlight,
A. They show the importance of greatness. Or storming heaven's gates,
B. The reflect insights on human nature. Make me a saint by getting meals
C. They stand for concepts difficult to understand. And washing up the plates.
- From 1000 Stories You can Use by Frank Mihalic
D. They represent great works of persistent people.
15. What could be inferred about the people mentioned in the selection?
A. They are gifted with power. 17. Who is speaking in the poem? ,
B. They are admired for who they are., A. A saint B. The Lord C. A cook ^ D. A wife
C. They are born to succeed in life. 18. Which of the following tells what the speaker does?
(JP They are recognized in their discipline. A. Watches late at night
16. Which is the best statement that tells the main idea of the selection? B. Dreams in the dawnlight
A. One's greatness is the product of brilliance. C. Storms heavens gate f
B. Perseverance makes one reach his or her goal. D. Washes up the plates
C. Success is measured by ones effortless creation. 19. How does the speaker in the poem regard the saints?
D. Success is for every person who waits for it patiently. 7 S j With admiration
a. With compassion !
C. With Understanding
Q j ) With Sympathy
20. what do the last two lines mean? The speaker is saying that he
A. Be given patience so he can do his work
B. likes his job and praying to his saints
C. wants to be a saint of pots and pans
D. does not like to work at night

18 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Merry Ruth M. Gutierrez and Prof. Ma. Jhona B. Acuna
General Education English - Study and Thinking Skills
22. What would most likely happen to Chance if he were to venture outside the
Chance walked through the rooms, which seemed empty; the heavily curtained
windows barely admitted the daylight. Slowly he looked at the large pieces o f furniture house?
shrouded in old iinen covers, and a t the veiled mirrors. The words that the Old Man A. He would be locked up in a cell and forgotten.
had spokeh to him the first time had wormed their way into his memory like firm roots. B. He would end up in a special home for the insane.
Chance was an orphan, and it was the Old Man himseif who had sheltered him in the C. He would develop a successful gardening business.
house ever since Chance was a child. Chance's mother had died when he was born. No D. He would not understand the world around him.
one, not even the Old Man, would tell him who his father was. While some could learn to
read and write, Chance would never be able to manage this. Nor would he ever be able 23. Which of the following paragraph details does not support the conclusion that
to understand much o f what others were saying to him or around him. Chance was to Chance is very limited in his abilities?
work in the garden, where he would care for plants and grasses and trees which grew A. While some could learn to read and write, Chance would never be able to
there peacefully. He would be as one o f them: quiet, open hearted in the sunshine and manage this.
heavy when it rained. His name was Chance because he had been born by chance. He B. Nor would he ever be able to understand much of what others were saying
had no family. Although his mother had been very pretty, her mind had been as damaged
as his; the soft soil o f his brain, the ground from which his thoughts shot up, had been ... around him.
ruined forever. Therefore, he could not look for a place in the life led by people outside Chance was to work in the garden, where he would care for plants and
the house or the garden gate. Chance must lim it his life to his quarters and to the grasses and trees.
garden; he must not enter the other parts o f the household or walk out into the street. D. ... he must not enter other parts of the household or walk out into the
His food would always be brought to his room by Louise, who would be the only person streets.
to see Chance and talk to him. No one else was allowed to enter Chance's room. Only
the Old Man himself might walk and s it in the garden. Chance would do exactly what he 24. From the details of the passage, what type of person may Chance be compared to?
was told or eise he would be sent to a special home for the insane where, the Old Man A. an insane adult C. an ungrateful son
said, he would be locked in a cell and forgotten. Bj, an unhappy teenager (? an obedient child
Chance did what he was told so did black Louise. 25. What is the overall purpose of the passage from this novel?
A. compare and contrast the characters of the Old Man and Chance
-Excerpted from Being There byJerzy Kosinski
B. provide a background description of Chance and his life
C. explain the heredity (similar disabilities) of Chances mother
21. It was the Old Man himself who had sheltered him in the house since Chance D. promote the health benefits of peaceful gardening
was a child. What does this suggest about their relationship?
The Old Man was Chance's
A. guardian C. father
B. brother D. landlord

Prof. Merry Ruth M. Gutierrez and Prof. Ma. Jhona B. Acuna PNU LET Reviewer 19
English - Study and Thinking Skills General Education

i 1. What was the selection mostly about?

P A R T III - E N H A N C IN G T E S T T A K IN G S K IL L S A. remembering George Bush
B. processes in human memory
Read the selection and answer the questions that follow. Copy the letter of the besl C. processing information using computers
answer for each item. D. steps in improving retention
2. What rhetorical pattern was used in the selection?
1 What must occur to enable us to remember a friend's name, a fact from history, A. chronological ' C. cause-effect
or an incident from our past? The act o f remembering requires the successful completion B. comparison-contrast D. enumeration
of three processes: encoding, storage, and retrieval. The first process, encoding, involves 3. What do you think was the purpose of highlighting some words in the selection?
transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory. Sometimes we encode A. to enumerate effects of memory
information automatically, without any effort, but often we must do something with the
B. to discuss reasons of the process
information in order to remember it. For example, if you met someone named George at a
party, you might associate his name with George Washington or George Bush. Such simple C. to emphasize the processes involved
associations can markedly improve your ability to recall names and other information. The D. to relate the information to prior knowledge
careful encoding o f information greatly increases the chance that you will remember it. 4. Which of the highlighted words is not a major process in memory?
2 The second memory process, storage, involves keeping or maintaining information in A. retrieval C. storage
memory. For encoded information to be stored, some physiological change in the brain must
B. encoding ? 0. consolidation
take place - a process called consolidation. Nonnally consolidation occurs automatically,
but if a person loses consciousness for any reason, the process can be disrupted and a 5. Which of the processes in memory should happen first?
permanent memory may not form. That is why a person who has been in a serious car A. retrieval C. storage
accident could awaken in a hospital and not remember what has happened. B. encoding D. consolidation
3 The final process, retrieval, occurs when information stored in memory is brought to 6. What type of change in the brain is needed for the storage of information?
mind. Calling George by name the next time you meet him shows that you have retrieved
A. psychological
his name from memory. To remember, we must perform all three processes - encode the
information, store it, and then retrieve it. Memory failure can result from the failure of any B. psychosocial
one o f the three. 7. Why does memory fail, according to the selection?
4 Similar steps are required in information processing o f computers. Information is A. when encoding does not happen
encoded (entered in some form the computer is able to use), then stored on disk, and later *B. when any one of the three fails
retrieved on the screen. You would not be able to retrieve the material if you had failed to
C. when consolidation does not take place
enter it, if a power failure occurred before you could save what you had entered, or if you
forgot which disk or file contained the needed information. Of course, human processing D. when retrieval is impossible
is far more complex than even the most advanced computer systems, but computer
processing provides a useful analogy to memory if not taken too literally.

-from Steps to College Reading by Dorothy U. Seyler

20 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Merry Ruth M. Gutierrez and Prof. Ma. Jhona B. Acuiia
General Education English - Study and Thinking Skills
8. Which of the following statements can be deleted from the selection? 10. The writer discusses
A .' JTyou meet George at a party, you might associate his name with George A. the causes of music therapy C. the music in Biblical times
Washington. the effects of musicD. the music for life
B. Encoding involves transforming information into a form that can be stored
in memory. 11. The ideas are arranged using______ as a pattern of organization.
C. Storage is the second memory process. A. enumeration C. cause-effect
D. Retrieval is the final process in memory. B. problem-solution D. chronological
Which of the following could be the best title for the selection? 12. The writer defines a concept/term in paragraph
A. Human Brain and the Computer A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 ' D. 4
B. The Three Processes in Memory 13. Accordingto the selection, the following are the effects of music except
C. Improving Ones Memory A. emotional healing
D. My Memory and I B. pain tolerance
* C. academic excellence
D. behavioral change
Music Can Heal Mental Wounds but Only in the Right Hands
By Eva DorotheeSchmid 14. There are____ effects of music mentioned in paragraph 3.
A. 2 B. 3 0 ) 4 D. 5
1 Human beings have known about the healing properties o f music since Biblical 15. The writerwants to explain
times - according to the Old Testament for example. David soothed King Saul's aching A. that music can replace medicine
brow by reaching for his harp. how music can be useful for well-being
2 There are also many references to the healing potential o f music in texts left
behind by the ancient Greeks.
when music can complement medicine
3 The same properties are not put to good use in the modern field o f music therapy. D. why music is popular
Music therapy is psychotherapeutic procedure which does not compete with traditional
medicine but rather tries to complement it.
4 Music arouses emotion, soothes, comforts and can lead to changes in behavior. It
can also encourage the healing process, increase a person's ability to tolerate pain and
help them overcome their fears.
5 A ll o f this can result in changes in the body's chemistry.
6 Studies show that the right sort o f music causes the body to release an increased
amount o f so-called endorphins with the results that the person becomes less sensitive
to pain and feels much better.

- from Manila Bulletin, August 2007

Prof. Merry Ruth M. Gutierrez and Prof. Ma. Jhona B. Acuna PNU LET Reviewer 21
English - Study and Thinking Skills General Education

The Dangers o f Acid Rain 19. What are free hydrogen ions?
A. electrically-changed ions
Acid rain refers to all types o f precipitation - rain, snow, sleet, hail, fog - that is j B . electrically-charged atoms
acidic in nature. Acidic means that these forms o f water have a pH lower than 5.6 C. water measured on a scale
average o f rainwater. Acid rain kills aquatic life, trees, crops and other vegetation,
D. electronically-charged atoms
damages buildings and monuments, corrodes copper and lead piping, damages such
man-made things as automobiles, reduces soil fertility and can cause toxic metals to 20. Which is not directly stated as an effect of acid rain?
leach into underground water sources. A. death of marine life
Rain is naturally acidic because carbon dioxide, found normally in the earth's atmosphere, B. damage of monuments
reacts with water to form carbonic acid. While pure" rain's acidity is pH 5.6 to 5.7, C. reduction of soil fertility
actual pH readings vary from place to place depending upon type and amount o f other
D. extinction of human race
gases present in the air, such as sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxides.
The term pH refers to the free hydrogen ions (electrically charged atoms) in water
and is measured on a scale from 0 to 14. Seven is considered neutral and measurements
Not much is known about the early history o f printing with movable type. There
below seven are acidic while those above it are basic or alkaline. Every point on the pH
is evidence, however, that hand-set printing with movable type was first invented in
scale represents a tenfold increase over the previous number. Thus, pH 4 is 10 times
China and Korea. A t a later time, it was developed in Europe. In the 1400s, Laurens
more acidic than pH5 and 100 times more acidic more so than pH 6. Similarly, pH 9 is
JanzoonKoster o f Holland, and Panfilo Castaldi o f Italy, are thought to have made the first
10 times more basic than pH 8 and 100 times more basic than ph 7.
European use o f printing with movable type. It is Johann Gutenberg's name, however,
that is now associated with the invention of the movable type printing press. Although
- from Manila Bulletin, October 2007 the separate elements o f printing (the type, the ink, the press, and the paper) were not
Gutenberg's own invention, his contribution was that he printed a large quantity o f work
16. What is the average pH of rainwater? o f high quality.
Born in Mainz, Germany, in about 1397, Gutenberg was trained as a goldsmith,
A. 5.6 B. 14 C. 100 D. 10 but he became a partner in a printing office in about 1436. It was in his hometown o f
17. Why is rain naturally acidic? Mainz that he began the project he is most famous for: printing o f the Mazarin Bible. To
A. because water reacts with atmosphere finance this great project, he borrowed money from a lawyer named Johann Fust and
B. because of carbon dioxide's reaction with water form a printer. He was unable to pay back the money, however, and as a result lost both
C. because of acid his printing press and the types to Fust, who carried on Gutenberg's work.
Gutenberg's method dominated the printing industry for almost 400 years. It
D. because of the atmosphere required hand-setting particular pieces o f type, locking them into place, and then printing
. What affects the variation in the actual pH readings? on wooden flatbed handpresses. The rate was slow compared to modern printing; 300
A. the type of gases to 500 sheets a day printed on a single side was considered a good rate production.
B. the amount of gases Though not much is known about Gutenberg's life, his name lives on as a person who
rC. the type and amount of gases contributed significantly to the technology o f human communication.
D. the kinds of plants in the area

22 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Merrv Ruth M. Gutierrez and Prof. Ma. Jhona B. Acuna
General Education English - Study and Thinking Skills

21. What is the main topic of this passage?

At A history of early printing
B. Gutenbergs contribution to printing
C. The printing of the Mazarin Bible
D. Gutenbergs life in Germany
22. The author infers that the most significant aspect of Gutenbergs work in
developing the art of printing is:
{A / The large number and quality of copies that he printed
,J3. The printing of the Mazarin Bible
* fe. The fact that he developed a new techniqueusingknown elements
D. His inventive spirit and tenacious approachtohis work
23. Why did Gutenberg borrow money from Fust?
A. In order to fund his printing of the Bible
B. In order to pay back loans for buying movable types
C. In order to expand his printing ability
D. In order to go into partnership with another printer
24. According to the author, which of the following did NOT precede Gutenberg in
the use of movable type printing?
1C Fust C. Castaldi
B. Koster D. The Chinese
25. Why does the author mention Koster and Castaldi?
A. To bring out the superiority of previous inventors
B. To show that Gutenberg had rivals
C. To demonstrate that historians disagree
(tT ) To broaden the scope of this discussion

Prof. Merry Ruth M. Gutierrez and Prof. Ma. Jhona B. Acuna PNU LET Reviewer
English - Academic Writing General Education
ip' - ' *3?



Writing A. Fragments
SENTENCE FRAGMENT fails to be a sentence in the sense that it cannot stand
by itself. It does not contain even one independent clause.

Prepared by: There are several reasons why a group of words may seem to act like a
Prof. Ma. Concepcion Y. Ray in undo and Prof. Ali G. Anndin
sentence but not have the wherewithal to make it as a complete thought.

1. It may locate something in time and place with a prepositional phrase

Competencies: or a series of such phrases, but its still lacking a proper subject-verb
relationship within an independent clause:
In Japan, during the last war and ju st before the armistice.
Use English accurately,
2. It describes something, but there is no subject-verb relationship:
meaningfully, and appropriately Working far into the night in an effort to salvage her little boat.
in written discourse
3. It may have most of the makings of a sentence but still be missing an
important part of a verb string:
Some of the students working in Professor Espinozas laboratory last

4. It may even have a subject-verb relationship, but it has been

subordinated to another idea by a dependent word and so cannot stand
by itself:
Even though he had the better arguments and was by far the more powerful

24 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Ma. Concepcion Y. Raymundo and Prof. Ali ( I. Anudin
General Education English - Academic Writing
Dependent-Word Fragments 3. Divide the sentence into two.
Some words that begin with a dependent word are fragments. Following is a list of Jim's father passed the board exam for merchant marine officers. He will
common dependent words. Whenever you start a sentence with one of these words, be the captain of the ship next month.
you must be careful that a fragment does not result.
A comma splice is committed when a writer uses a comma without the
Dependent Words proper connective. This, according to Tiempo and Tiempo, "destroys the
after if, even if when, whenever even though unity of the sentence". (Tiempo & Tiempo, 1980) The sample sentence
although, though in order that where, wherever until below looks almost the same with the sample run-on sentence. The
as since whether who, whose only difference is the fact that the sentence uses a comma to divide
because that, so that which, whichever how the two independent clauses.
before unless while /- what, whatever
The crowd cheered loudly when the band emerged from the backstage,
Eric stood quietly.
B. Run-on Sentences and Comma Splice
A run-on is two complete thoughts that are run together with no adequate sign Fused Sentences
given to mark the break between them. Some run-ons have no punctuation at The bus stopped suddenly. I spilled coffee all over my shirt.
all to mark the break between the thoughts. Such run-ons are known as fused Mario told everyone in the room to be quiet his favorite show was on.
sentence: they are fused , or joined together, as if they were only one thought. In other run-ons, known as comma splices, a comma is used to connect, or splice"
together, the two complete thoughts. Some stronger connection than a comma
Three ways to correct run-on sentences: >alone is needed.

1. Place a semi-colon in between the two sentences Comma Splices

Jim's father passed the board exam for merchant marine officers; he will The bus stopped suddenly, I spilled coffee all over my shirt.
be the captain o f the ship next month. Mario told everyone in the room to be quiet, his favorite show was on.

2. Add a transitional marker: a subordinating conjunction, or a coordinating C. Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers
conjunction (it depends upon the nature of the sentence) between the We often use phrases to describe words within sentences, and we determine
two sentences the meaning of our sentences by placing these descriptive phrases next to the
Jim s father passed the board exam for merchant marine officers, and he words they point to or modify. For example, the sentence, I saw a boy running
will be the captain of the ship next month. down the street, indicates that the boy" was doing the running. However, if
we wrote, Running down the street, I saw the boy, we would be suggesting to
readers that I was doing the running.
Prof. Ma* Concepcion Y. Raymundo and Prof. Ali G. Anudin PNU LET Reviewer 25
English - Academic Writing General Education
Misplaced Modifier Revision
Sometimes we become careless and place descriptive phrases far away from the 3. After seeing the benefits of reduced employee turnover, absenteeism, and
words they modify, making our sentences unclear or inaccurate. We call these lateness, more and more companies are providing onsite daycare as a perk for
phrases misplaced modifiers. For example, in I was told that I had been awarded working parents.
the scholarship by my professor," does the underlined phrase mean that the
professor did the telling or the awarding? If the professor did the telling, we could (Onsite daycare is not seeing the benefits of reduced turnover, absenteeism, and
make the meaning of this sentence clearer by repositioning the phrase: I was told lateness; companies are seeing these benefits as a result of onsite daycare.)
by my professor that I had been awarded the scholarship. 4. An author who did not receive much attention until after her death, readers of
all ages enjoy Emily Dickinsons poetry today.
Dangling Modifiers or
Other times we write descriptive phrases that point to or modify words that are Readers of all ages enjoy Emily Dickinsons poetry today, an author who did not
not clearly stated in our sentences, making our sentences illogical. We call these receive much attention until after her death.
phrases dangling modifiers. For example, in "Walking to college on a subzero Revision
morning, my left ear became frozen, the underlined phrase modifies "my left ear. Today, readers of all ages enjoy the poetry of Emily Dickinson, an author who
This doesnt make sense; some person must have been doing the walking. We can did not receive much attention until after her death.
clarify the sentence by putting a logical word after the phrase: for example, Walking
to college on a subzero morning, I froze my left ear. Or, we can change the phrase (The phrase, an author who did not receive much attention until after her death,
so that it has a logical subject and verb in it: When I was walking to college on a should modify Emily Dickinson rather than readers or Emily Dickinsons poetry.)
sub/ero morning, my left ear became frozen.'
5. Cost-efficient and convenient, many of todays corporate employees are being
Examples of Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers trained through computer-assisted instruction.
1. On July 20,1969, American astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz Aldrin Revision
landed on the moon, watched by nearly a fifth of the worlds population. Cost-efficient and convenient, computer-assisted instruction is being used by
Revision many companies to train employees.
Watched by nearly a fifth of the worlds population, American astronauts Neil
Armstrong and Edwin Buzz Aldrin landed on the moon on July 20,1969. (The descriptive words, cost-efficient and convenient, modify computer-assisted
instruction rather than today's corporate employees.)
( I he world was not watching the moon; the world was watching the astronauts.)
6. Having submitted the conference registration form after the deadline,
2. Attei seeing the benefits of reduced employee turnover, absenteeism, and lateness, special permission by the chairperson was needed before she could give her
onsite daycare, is being provided more frequently as a perk for working parents. presentation.

26 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Ma. Concepcion Y. Raymundo and Prof. Ali G. Anudin
General Education English - Academic Writing
Revision Nonparallel (Not Balanced)
Having submitted the conference registration form after the deadline, Susan The game -show contestant was told to be cheerful, charming, and with
needed special permission from the chairperson before she could give her enthusiasm.
presentation. Parallel/Balanced
The game -show contestant was told to be cheerful, charming, and
(The example doesnt make sense as it is written. Someone must have submitted enthusiastic.
the form late. According to the revision, Susan submitted the form late.) (A balanced series of descriptive words: cheerful, charming, enthusiastid)

7. When purchasing a cellular phone, the wide variety of calling plans and features Nonparallel (Not Balanced)
overwhelms many people. Grandmother likes to read mystery novels, to do needle point, and browsing the
Revision Internet on her home computer.
When purchasing a cellular phone, many people become overwhelmed by the Parallel/Balanced
wide variety of calling plans and features. Grandmother likes to read mystery novels, to do needle point, and to browse
the Internet on her home computer.
(The calling plans and features arent purchasing cellular phones. People purchase (A balanced series of to verbs: to read, to do, to browse)
cellular phones.)
Nonparallel (Not Balanced)
D. Faulty Parallelism We painted the trim in the living room; the wallpaper was put up by a
Words in a pair or series should have parallel structure. By balancing the items professional.
in a pair or series so that they have the same kind of structure, you will make Parallel/Balanced
the sentences clearer and easier to read . We painted the trim in the living room; a professional put up the wallpaper.

Nonparallel (Not Balanced) (Balanced verbs and word order: We painted. , . ; a professional put up. ..)
My job includes checking the inventories, initialing the order, and to call the
suppliers. E. Faulty Coordination
My job includes checking the inventory, initializing the orders, and calling the The Coordinating Conjunction
suppliers. Coordinating conjunctions connect words, phrases, and clauses.
(A balanced series of -in g wordsxhecking, initialing, calling And, but, for, nor, or, so, and yet these are the seven coordinating conjunctions.

Prof. Ma. Concepcion Y. Raymundo and Prof. Ali G. Anudin PNU LET Reviewer 27
English - Academic Writing General Education
Look at the examples that follow: Three patterns in writing use coordinating conjunctions. Add commas when
1. The bowl of squid eyeball stew is hot and delicious. required.
2. The squid eyeball stew is so thick that you can eat it with a fork or spoon.
3. Rocky, my orange tomcat, loves having his head scratched but hates getting his Pattern 1 Connecting two main clauses
claws trimmed.
4. Rocky terrorizes the poodles next door yet adores the German shepherd across When you connect two main clauses with a coordinating conjunction, use a comma.
the street. The pattern looks like this:
5. Rocky refuses to eat dry cat food, nor will he touch a saucer of squid eyeball
stew. m ain clause + , + coordinating conjunction + main clause
6. I hate to waste a single drop of squid eyeball stew, for it is expensive and time-
consuming to make. Here is an example:
7. Even though I added cream to the squid eyeball stew, Rocky ignored his serving, While I am at work, my dog Floyd sleeps on the bed , and my cat Buster naps
so I got a spoon and ate it myself. in the bathtub.

F. Subordination Pattern 2 Connecting two items

Subordination, however, emphasizes the idea in the main clause more than the
one in the subordinate clause. Generally, the patterns look like these: You can also use a coordinating conjunction to connect any two items. These items
can be any grammatical unit except main clauses. The pattern looks like this:
m a in c la u s e + 0 + s u b o rd in a te c la u s e

s u b o rd in a te c la u s e + , + m ain c la u s e item + 0 + coordinating conjunction + item

Punctuate coordinating conjunctions correctly. Here are some examples:

My dog Floyd has too many fleas and too much hair.

My cat Buster has beautiful blue eyes but a destructive personality.

Pattern 3 Connecting three or more items in a series

When you have three or more items in a series, you generally use a comma before
the coordinating conjunction. Some handbooks and style guides will tell you that this
comma is optional, but my advice is to put it in. The pattern looks like this:

28 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Ma. Concepcion Y. Raymundo and Prof. Ali G. Anudm
General Education English - Academic Writing
A topic sentence has two parts:
item + , + item + , + coordinating conjunction + item A topic (key word or phrase)
Here is an example: A direction or general word, which may be a conclusion an opinion, or a
Swatting olives off the kitchen counter, dragging toilet paper streamers through statement about the topic.
the house, and terrorizing Jacques Cousteau, the parakeet, have consumed For example, the following sentences could be topic sentences:
another of Busters days. Doing housework can be very boring.
Browsing in a library is an exciting experience.
Subordinating Conjunctions My trip to the botanical garden taught me a lot.
A subordinating conjunction joins a subordinate clause to a main clause.
You could use each one of these sentences as a topic sentence because each main
An adverb clause is always introduced by a subordinating conjunction. idea is limited to and focused into two essential parts: a topic (key word or phrase)
A noun clause and adjective clause sometimes are. and a general direction (conclusion or opinion) about the topic:
Adverb clause: Before you go, sign the log book. Topic Direction or General Word
Noun clause: He asked if he could leave early. Doing housework is very boring.
Adjective clause: That is the place where he was last seen. Browsing in a library is an exciting experience.

A subordinating conjunction is always followed by a clause. The paragraph

Many subordinating conjunctions can be other parts of speech. A paragraph has three parts:
Adverb:Jill came tumbling after. 1. a topic sentence
Preposition: Jill came tumbling after Jack. 2. support sentences *
Subordinating Conjunction: Jill came tumbling after Jack had fallen. 3. a conclusion

The following is an example of a paragraph that has these three parts.

My blind date last night was a disaster.l got wet because just as I stopped
II. T H E T O P IC S E N T E N C E A N D T H E P A R A G R A P H to pick up my date, it started raning, and she borrowed my raincoat.At dinner,
she ate so much that i had to use my next days lunch money to pay for her
A good paragraph contains several related sentences that support one main meal. I had a terrible time because she could not dance. To make matters
idea, which is limited to and focused in one sentence. This sentence helps worse, I had a cut on my lip that hurt when I kissed her.Thats the last blind
guide the reader through the related sentence in the paragraph. The term used date I w ill ever have.
to identify this main idea is topic sentence.

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English - Academic Writing General Education
Elements of a Strong Paragraph Illogical Order
Strong paragraphs need to have the following elements: completeness, logical or I opened the front door of my house and went inside.
sensible order, unity and coherence. I walked up the front steps to my front door.

Completeness Logical Order

A paragraph must have enough information in it to give the reader a clearer picture I walked up the front steps to my front door.
or a full discussion of its main idea ( the topic sentence). A paragraph without I opened the front door of my house and went inside.
details or examples will be vague and unconvincing . A paragraph that does not
have enough information is called incomplete or undeveloped. Unity
All sentences in a good paragraph relate to the topic sentence (main idea). When
Example of an undeveloped paragraph. any idea doesnt relate specifically to the topic sentence, then that paragraph lacks
unity or is not unified.
Dancing can be good exercise. It can be entertaining. It can be lots of fun as
well. Dancing can be very beneficial to everyone. Example of a unified paragraph:

Example of a complete paragraph: American scientists are working hard to gather facts about sea turtles
called leatherbacks. The observers work, no matter what the weather is like-
Dancing can be good exercise. The constant arm and leg movements are on clear days or in pouring rain. They count the turtles as they come ashore.
like aerobics. They can be a really good workout if the dance lasts long enough. When the turtles lay their egg, the scientists walk up and down the beaches
If the dance requires lots of quick movements, many calories can be used up, for many hours at a time. They count the eggs in the sand. Then, later,they
and more fat will be burned. Some dances require movements that are like count the eggs that hatch. These biologists know that they are collecting
stretching, so flexibility and muscle tone will be increased. Dancing can help information that will someday be important to other scientists.
maintain weight and can be beneficial exercise to everyone.
Logical Order One of the most important considerations in writing a paragraph is coherence-
All the support sentences should be in clear, logical order. Sometimes the order the way all the sentences should be clearly connected to each other. Without
of these supporting details does not matter. Other times, however, it does matter connecting words or phrases , supporting ideas may be hard to follow and
because if the sentences are not in logical order, the reader misses the main point sometimes may even seem to be unrelated to the topic sentence and to each other.
of the paragraph.

30 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Ma. Concepcion Y. Raymundo and Prof. Ali G. Anudin
General Education English - Academic Writing
The following paragraph has all the coherence it needs:
To summarize, repeat, or all in all, all together, as a result, as had been
conclude noted, basically, finally, in brief, in conclusion,
When Sue was a child, she learned from her dad how to be a hard worker.
in other words, in particular, in short, in simpler
For example, she always helped in the yard. Many times they mowed the lawn
terms, in summary, on the whole, that is,
together. Sue emptied the grass catcher ( which her dad did not overfill), and
therefore, to put it differently, to summarize
he did the heavy part by lifting the barrels full of grass. Working together,
they did not quit until the job was done. She and her dad worked even after To indicate place above, adjacent to, below, elsewhere, farther on,
the sun was gone, making sure the edges of the lawn were n ea t. In this way, here, near, nearby, on the other side, opposite to,
Sue learned to stay with a job until she had done well and could feel proud there, to the east, to the left
of her effort. To indicate time after a while, afterward, as long as, as soon
as, at length, at that time, before, currently,
Table of Transitional/Cohesive Devices earlier, eventually, first (second, third, etc.),
Function Transitional/Cohesive Device finally, formerly, immediately, in the meantime,
in the past (future), lately, later, meanwhile, now,
To show addition again, also, and, and then, besides, equally
presently, shortly, simultaneously, since, so far,
important, finally, first, further, furthermore, in
soon, still, subsequently, then, thereafter, until,
addition, in the first place, last, likewise, moreover,
until now, when, while
next, or, still, then, too
To indicate cause and accordingly, as a result, because, consequently,
To compare also, in comparison, in the same way, likewise,
effect for this purpose, hence, otherwise, since, so, then,
therefore, thereupon, thus, to this end, with this
To contrast although, and yet, at the same time, but, object
conversely, despite, even so, even though,
for all that, however, in contrast, in spite of,
nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, The Thesis Statement
on the contrary, on the other hand, otherwise,
regardless, still, though, yet In a nutshell, a thesis statement:
To give examples or after all, as an illustration, certainly, even, for tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter
intensify example, for instance, indeed, in fact, it is true under discussion.
that, namely, of course, specifically, that is, to be is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect
sure, to illustrate, to tell the truth, truly from the rest of the paper.

Prof. Ma. Concepcion Y. Raymundo and Prof. Ali G. Anudin PNU LET Reviewer 31
English - Academic Writing General Education

directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a Broadly, thesis statements can be divided into 3 categories:
question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay Analytical: An analytical thesis basically provides a comprehensive insight
might be on Poverty or a movie analysis; a thesis must then offer a way to to some important issue and the tacts that are related to the issue plus the
understand the issue or the the movie. analytical aspects of the same.
makes a claim that others might dispute. For example, An analysis of the ferruginous hawk reveals two kinds of
is usually a single sentence somewhere in your first paragraph that presents flight patterns: patterns related to hunting prey and patterns related to
your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, courtship.
gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of
your interpretation. Expository: This is the simplest of all types of thesis, the expansionary thesis
principally puts forth some facts and simplified explanations regarding a
You can tell if your thesis is strong if you can answer the following: specific idea, in front of the people.
Do I answer the question? Re-reading the question prompt after constructing Example: Watching too much television may lead to physiological and
a working thesis can help you fix an argument that misses the focus of the psychological problems.
Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? If your thesis Argumentative: The third type is that of the argumentative thesis and presents
simply states facts that no one would, or even could, disagree with, its arguments between two view points.
possible that you are simply providing a summary, rather than making an Example: Smoking should be banned in all public places.
Is my thesis statement specific enough?Thesis statements that are too vague
often do not have a strong argument.
Does my thesis pass the "So what? test? If a reader's first response is, So
what? then you need to clarify, to forge a relationship, or to connect to a
larger issue.
Does my essay support my thesis specifically and without wandering? If your
thesis and the body of your essay do not seem to go together, one of them
has to change.
Does my thesis pass the how and why? test? If a readers first response is
how? or why?" your thesis may be too open-ended and lack guidance for
the reader.

32 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Ma. Concepcion Y. Raymundo and Prof. Ali G. Anudin
General Education English - Academic Writing
III. PA TTE R N S O F P A R A G R A P H D E V E L O P M E N T Descriptive Essay

There are various Writing Genres or Patterns of Paragraph Development, and each The descriptive essay reties on concrete, sensory detail to communicate its
pattern or genre has a specific function. Often, these genres are merged with each point.
other to make the written output more effective. When writing a descriptive essay, writers should have a broad fund of modifiers,
i.e., adjectives. Moreover, writers should be specific in using adjectives and
Narration other words that would describe the topic, i.e., beautiful may be different from
pretty, cute, gorgeous, etc.
Use narration to establish a series of events that tells the reader what happened.
Narration follows a chronological pattern of development. It is a convincing
Sample Descriptive Paragraph
mode of paragraph development to the extent that it tells a coherent story.
The Blond Guitar
Larry suddenly woke up from a deep sleep. The sun was dazzling his half-open by Jeremy Burden
eyes, and he couldn't figure out what time it was. The door to his room was closed; the
house was immersed in some sort o f reckless silence. He slowly got out o f his bed and My most valuable possession is an old, slightly warped blond guita r-the first
approached the bench right next to the window. For a moment, he thought, he heard a instrument I taught myself how to play. It's nothing fancy, just a Madeira folk guitar,
tapping sound coming from the attic. Then again he heard the sound only this time it all scuffed and scratched and finger-printed. A t the top is a bramble o f copper-wound
seemed to be somewhat closer. He looked outside the window and saw a man going by strings, each one hooked through the eye o f a silver tuning key. The strings are stretched
the left side o f the road. On seeing Larry, the man approached his garden's fence and down a long, slim neck, its frets tarnished, the wood worn by years of fingers pressing
whistled. A t this point, Larry recognized Nick and waved his hand. He quickly got dressed chords and picking notes. The body o f the Madeira is shaped like an enormous yellow
and was about the get down to open the gate, but he again heard someone murmuring pear, one that was slightly damaged in shipping. The blond wood has been chipped
in the other part o f the house. Larry decided to go to the attic and see what was causing and gouged to gray, particularly where the pick guard fell o ff years ago. No, it's not a
this, now buzzing, sound. He got to the second floor o f his house and looked toward the beautiful instrument, but it still lets me make music, and for that I will always treasure it.
attic. He quickly opened its door and looked inside. Nothing was found. He was about to
turn back and attend to his guest when he, suddenly, slipped on the stairs and fell. He
called out to Nick to help him get up.

Example taken from:

Prof. Ma. Concepcion Y. Raymundo and Prof. Ali Ci. Anudin PNU LET Reviewer 33
English - Academic Writing General Education

Process Essay
Point-by-Point or Alternating Arrangement
A process essay may either be How to do or How something works
I. Introduction in which you state your purpose
In a How to do essay the objective of the writer is to tell the reader how a
II. First difference
certain product is produced. Most often, this type of essay uses the first person
A. Topic 1
point of view because it demonstrates how something is does to the reader,
B. Topic 2
(e.g. How to apply for the Fulbright Scholarship Grant)
III. Second difference
A. Topic 1
Sample Process Paragraph
B. Topic 2
The writing process has four distinct phases. (2) The first is invention, which is IV. Third difference
aided by any number o f techniques, including free-writing, mind-mapping and outlining. A. Topic 1
(3) In this first stage, it's important for a writer not to edit but to let ideas flow and to B. Topic 2
simply get them down on paper. (4) After invention, comes the first draft the stage V. Conclusion
where the ideas start to take shape. (5) Many writers use a sentence outline at this stage
to see where they need to cut and where they need to add material. The first draft is
also where writers should develop a tentative thesis to guide the structure o f their essay.
In the block organization , the focus is on the two topics.
(6) The next stage o f the process is when both the second and third drafts are done.
(7) Here, ideas and structure are refined, and the thesis is revised until it becomes the
unifying idea o f the paper. (8) Finally, comes the last stage, that o f editing. (9) Writers Block Arrangement
should take care a t this stage that all sentence structure and punctuation is correct, and
they should make corrections to documentation format as needed. (10) Writers often I. Introduction in which you state your purpose
repeat these four phases more than once, or skip a phase and go back to it, making the
II. Topic 1
writing process more cyclical than linear.
A. Similarity/Difference or Factor 1
B. Similarity/Difference or Factor 1
C. Similarity/Difference or Factor 1
Comparison-Contrast III. Topic 1
A. Similarity/Difference or Factor 1
A comparison-contrast essay presents the relationship between two items; this B. Similarity/Difference or Factor 1
may be in the form of similarities and differences. C. Similarity/Difference or Factor 1
This essay may be organized by using either the point-by-point organization IV. Conclusion
or the block organization

34 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Ma. Concepcion Y. Raymundo and Prof. Ali G. Anudin
General Education English - Academic W riting

Sample Comparison-Contrast Paragraph because an argumentative essay shows evidences and support details, while
most opinions are based on beliefs and personal ideologies.
A scientist and a poet both strive for perfection: the poet refines his sensibilities, Premises are reasons that support conclusions, while a conclusion is the key
while the scientist reduces everything to precise measurements. Both share the beauty assertion, or claim.
o f a rainbow; but while the poet imagines a pot o f gold a t the end o f it, the scientist
wants to spell it out in angstrom units measuring wavelength. Sample Argumentative Paragraph

Because o f the pressing issues regarding global economic recession, it is high time
that the government support programs that would boost the countrys economy. We
Cause-Effect should set aside moral issues and start thinking of ways to curb to growing problems in
finance. One way to deal with this is by legalizing prostitution.
The cause-effect essay presents the reasons or results for something. We all know that this is the oldest profession and legalizing this will allow more
There are two possible ways to outline a cause-effect essay: (a) single cause, revenues. How? Well, basically, legalizing prostitution Is tantamount to taxation. Each
multiple effects or (b) multiple causes, single effect. prostitute will be taxed. Hence, a portion o f their profits will contribute to the needs of
the nation.
Sample Cause-Effect Paragraph

The tropical rainforests o f West Africa, Brazil, Latin America and Southeast Asia
are some o f the most important environmental regions o f the world because they hold
millions o f unique plants, animals, and people. However, they are being destroyed
rapidly for agriculture, mining and logging. This essay will examine the causes o f this
destruction and outline its effects on our lives.
One o f the main causes o f this is logging for timber. Millions o f hectares o f trees are
cut down every year, often illegally. The most valuable wood is taken and not replaced,
and landless people move in along the new logging roads.


An argumentative essay presents premises and conclusions regarding an

issue. It presents the writers stand-whether he/she agrees or not. However, it
should be noted that an argumentative essay is different from an opinion simply

Prof. Ma. Concepcion Y. Raymundo and Prof. Ali G. Anudin PNU LET Reviewer 35
English - Academic Writing General Education

P A R T II.- A N A L Y Z IN G T E S T IT E M S 3. All of the transitional/cohesive devices below may be used when writing a
. jsp . - ^
comparison-contrast essay, except
A. consequently C. conversely
B. nevertheless D. similarly
S a m p le T est Ite m s
The answ er is A. Consequently" would be more useful in a cause-effect essay. A ll the
1. Oliver jumps every New Year season. Believing that he will become taller. The other options may be used when comparing and contrasting.
error in these statements may be corrected using the following versions, except:
A. Because he believes that he will become taller, Oliver jumps every New
Year season.
B. Oliver jumps every New Year season, and he believes that he will become 1. What is the topic sentence for the following paragraph?
taller. 1. Visiting a dentist can be an uncomfortable experience. 2. One has to make
C. Oliver jumps every New Year season. He believes that he will become taller. an appointment with the dentist first. 3. The dentist normally examines the
D. Believing that he will become taller, Oliver jumps every New Year season. teeth first using terrifying instruments. 4. X-ray tooth frames cut into the
gums. Lights in a person's eyes are annoying. 5. Most people would rather do
The answer is B. Fragments may be corrected by making one o f the sentences a anything than go to the dentist.
subordinating clause (just like A & Dj. Fragments may also be eliminated by simply
(0Sentence 1 C. Sentence 4
making two sentences (just like C). B is not acceptable simply because it led to another
common sentence error: Faulty Coordination. V Sentence 2 D. Sentence 5
2. What pattern of paragraph development was used in the excerpt below?
A. Comparison-Contrast /^D e s c rip tio n
2. Which of the following will best complete the sentence below? B. Cause-Effect (^ P ro c e s s
The demonstrators were so enraged__________ 3. All of the following are fragments except:
A. because they threw tomatoes to the effigy and burned it afterwards. A. Dozens of young artists gathered for the concert,
B. since they threw tomatoes to the effigy and burned it afterwards. d ) Sipped at the steaming cup of coffee.
C. that they threw tomatoes to the effigy and burned it afterwards. The young boy impressed at the sight of the men marching off to war.
D. for they threw tomatoes to the effigy and burned it afterwards. D. A collection of quotations from famous contemporary politicians.
4. Which of the following is not a run-on sentence?
The answer is C. Options A, B, and D present subordination, i.e. the idea presented
is a reason." However, the sentence should present a result" idea, i.e. what the A. I play the piano for many musicals moreover I give lessons to twenty students.
demonstrators did because o f their anger. Jfr. The electricity went out I searched for the candles.
I lost the first chess game, but I won the second.
The first raindrops fell we raced for cover.

K t g j i PNU LET R eview er Prof. Ma. Concepcion Y. Raymundo and Prof. Ali G. Anudin
General Education English - Academic W riting

5. All of the following contain a dangling modifier except: 10. Which sentence in the paragraph does not support the main idea in the topic
A. To compete in the race, a form must be completed. _ sentence?
B. When the cat scratched at the door, we let her in. 1. Adult reentry students often have special needs. 2.They may have time
/u ) Wrapped in my blanket, the cold was no problem. restraints caused by families and jobs as well as by school. 3. Reentry students
JZ While taking the inventory, the store was closed. are willing to put in the extra time to be successful. 4. Since they sometimes
6. What pattern of paragraph development was used in the excerpt below? work slowly than younger students, they may require more time to complete
A. Comparison-ContrastC. Description tasks. 5. As adults grow older, their vision is not as keen so classroomsjneed
( b ) Cause-Effect J ) Process excellent lighting with little glare. 7. Also, reentry students may experience
7. which of the following sentence construction follows the rule on coordination hearing problems, making it hard for them to hear everything that is said in
and subordination? the classroom. 8.These problems, although not serious, do not need to be a
My father was upset all day he could not see his car keys. barrier to education.
Smoking has been proven dangerous to people's health, yet many continue to A. Sentence 2 < |2 se n te n c e 4
smoke for various reasons. For young people, smoking often represents maturity and B. Sentence 3 ' ndt Sentence 5
individuality. Many smoke as a way to reduce tension. In addition, the regular smoker 11. All of the following are parallel except:
becomes addicted psychologically and physically to the nicotine in cigarettes. A. She left me angry, frustrated, and wearing a frown.
A. My father was upset all day, but he could not see his car keys. B. We have things to do, people to see, and places that should be visited.
J3. My father was upset all day, yet he could not see his car keys. 0 I enjoy the job because of the opportunities it offers, the fringe benefits I
C. My father was upset all day, and he could not see his car keys. receive and I earn a good salary.
My father was upset all day because he could not see his car keys. D. My father prepared the main course and fixed the dessert.
. What makes the sentence below wrong? 12. "Which would be the appropriate subordinator to be used to complete this
Patrick bought a new car-a Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution Vlll-last week. sentence?
Q y The indefinite article V 'w a s overused. ______ _______she finally grew accustomed to the dark, she noticed a small
B. The verb bought should have been has bought. chest in the corner of the room.
. The verb bought should have been has been buying. @ When While
D. The writer should have used a dash instead of a hyphen. B. Where D. Because
All of the following have misplaced modifiers except: 13'. All of the following show faulty use of coordinating conjunctions except:
The pianist played a new composition sitting on the piano bench. A. Marian sings in the choir, for she is a soprano.
We heard the bus crashed on the radio. ( D The clock chimed nine times, but JC knew he had overslept.
C. We boarded the train with three suitcases heading toward our ancestral C. I studied the children, and they were watching in awe as theparade floats
home in llocos Sur. went by.
D. I arranged the flowers for my mother using the new vase. D. I tried to sleep, yet the thought of tomorrows math exam kept me awake.

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14. Which of the following is a comma splice? 18. Which is a sample of a proper use of ( )?
A. In the back of the room, Nina sat with her arms crossed, glaring at her ^ P' Irene laughed nervously and began, "Ladies and gentlemen.
English teacher, Mr. Reyes, she wanted him to realize that English was her Irene laughed nervously and began, Ladies and gentlemen.
least favorite. C. Irene laughed nervously and began, ladies and gentlemen.
j Mike loves to play computer games, especially Tomb raider. He imagines D. Irene laughed nervously and began, ladies and gentlemen."
that all of the villains are his problems, and he gets satisfaction blasting 19. All of the following proper subordination except:
them to bits. & The storm had passed and flood waters had receded as long as rescue
C. Michelle is terrified of spiders, so when she found one in the bathroom, she teams flew into the stricken valley.
panicked. Refusing to shower for three days to use the restroom, she drove & The mayor could not win the partys bid even though she was popular with
to her neighborhood Jolibbee. the people.
D. Rommel likes to put peanut butter on his pancakes instead of syrup. The We finally could sit down to dinner when the telephone rang.
smell is appealing, but I wouldnt want to eat anything so sticky that early Mature trees can survive almost any weather condition or change while
in the morning. saplings are much more vulnerable.
15. Which illustrates the proper use of a comma? 20. Which of the following is not a fused sentence?
When you call, and need someone, Rommel will come A r Cecille is a real hypochondriac when her stomach hurts, she is certain that
When you call and need someone Rommel, will come. she has a bleeding ulcer, and if she has a backache, she starts to believe
C. When, you call and need someone Rommel will come. that she has cancer of the spine.
D. When you, call and need someone Rommel will come. B. Snoopy, my cat, loves to nap on warm appliances when he sleeps on top
16. Which illustrates the proper use of a (;) ? of the television, his tail swipes the screen like a windshield wiper.
A. JC knows every part of the game therefore; he should be made captain. C. When Jason shaved his head, his mother worried that he had joined a cult the
B^_ Harry is interested in business; John prefers medicine as a profession. real reason for the bald head, however, was that Matt could get more attention
C. After Jason had finished playing; he opened the door and looked at the and sympathy from the girls who thought he was sick with a dread disease.
~ glowing sky.
(" dJ Marla had planned exactly what she would say consequently; she held the
Mayangs mumbling often gets her in trouble.Just the other day, in fact, the
market vendor misunderstood Mayangs instructions and cut the fish in half
attention of the audience and made her point. when Mayang had asked her just clean the fish.
17. Which illustrates the appropriate use of an ( )? 21. If you are to arrange the following sentences, which sentence do you think tells
I saw a store window fillled with artists supplies'. why the topic on society is important?
Alices mother always goes with us. A. All societies are constantly changing - some rapidly and some very slowly
Do you spell this word with two rs ? It is passing through a period of extensive transitions that have far reaching
D. Youre not very helpful. social and cultural consequences.

38 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Ma. Concepcion Y. Raymundo and Prof. Ali G. Anudin
General Education English - Academic Writing
Jfr. Modern society is dynamic, constantly changing, and either progressing or
D. Social institutions, norms of behavior, and many other phases of the social
order are undergoing change.
22. Which is the best way to paraphrase the sentence?
Theresa was worried about passing the very difficult test.
A. Receiving a passing grade on the difficult exam concerned Theresa. 1. Which among the following may be used to fill in the blank?
( # ) Theresa was worried about receiving good marks on the test, which was One of the obvious differences between colleges and universities is the degree
very hard. programs they offer. Usually, colleges have limited course offerings.______________ universities
C. She is worried about the results of the test. offer a wide range o f degree-programs to choose from. They even offer graduate degree
D. The outcome of the test made Theresa so worried. programs, such as masters and doctorate.
23. Which among the following is not a type of thesis statement?
A. Analytical thesis statement C. Argumentative thesis statement A. Similarly C. Furthermore
B. Expository thesis statement T. Literary thesis statement B. Likewise ( I p On the other hand
24. The life of the typical college student is characterized by time spent studying, 2. When quoting a source, what should be done if a writer encounters an
attending class, and socializing with peers. This is an example of erroneous statement, such as the one below?
A. Analytical thesis statement C. Literary thesis statement This philosophies is very essential in curriculum designing, because they serve
%. Expository thesis statement D. Argumentative thesis statement as the guiding principle of curriculum designers.
25. Which two questions is essential in writing the supporting details of an Change philosophies into philosophy.
argumentative paragraph? B. Insert the Latin abbreviation sic at the end of the statement.
A. Why and So What? C. Where and When? C. Insert the Latin abbreviation sic after philosophies'
How and Why? D. When and Why? D. Insert the Latin abbreviation sic after philosophies enclosed in square
3. What should be done to correct the error in the sentence below?
In Middle Eastern countries Jor instance, women are required to serve the
grooms family.
A. Insert a comma after countries'
Insert a comma after instance
Insert a comma after countries and instance
D. Insert a comma after countries and women

Prof. Ma. Concepcion Y. Raymundo and Prof. Ali G. Anudin PNU LET Reviewer 39
English - Academic Writing General Education
4. The sentence below is wrong because
8. The hyphen is correctly used in all of the sentences below, except for:
Half of the applicants passed the exam the other half of them flunked the test.
A. The Democrats won a landslide election, 24-0.
A. It is a run-on sentence. l & k It is a faulty coordination.
B. I am looking for the editor-in-chief to submit my article.
B. It shows faulty parallelism. 0 It has a dangling modifier.
C. My father witnessed the signing of the Filipino-American treaty.
5. The transitional devices used in this paragraph shows____________ .
/ u l Vanessa acquired a second-hand-refrigerator lately.
After choosing the flavor that best suits your taste buds, the second step is making 9. VWnich among the following is a thesis statement?
sure that your kitchen houses some necessary equipment for making the Kool-Aid. Find / f t . ) Tarsiers are considered as the smallest species of primate, and they are
a two-quart pitcher. Plastic is nice, but glass pitchers allow the liquid to shine through ' ' - s also considered as one of the tourist attractions in Bohol.However, they
and add festive coloration to any refrigerator shelf. Next, find a long-handled wooden easily get stressed, making their lifespan shorter. Thus, they should be
spoon, a one-cup measuring cup, a water faucet that spouts drinkable water, usable returned to the wild.
white sugar, and an ice cube tray full o f ice. Then, you are ready to mix.
B. Tarsiers are considered as the smallest species of primate, and they are
also considered as one of the tourist attractions in Bohol. Because of this,
A. Comparison C. Addition
they should be returned to the wild.
B. Description D. Contrast
& Tarsiers, the smallest species of primate and one of the tourist attractions
6. All the options may be applied to correct the statement below, except
in Bohol, should be returned to the wild because they easily get stressed,
In the seventh grade every young boy goes out for football. To prove to himself
making their lifespan shorter.
and his parents that he is a man.
D. Tarsiers, the smallest species of primate and considered to as one of the
A. In the seventh grade, every young boy goes out for football to prove to
tourist attractions in Bohol, should return to the wild.
himself and his parents that he is a man.
10. All of the transitional/cohesive devices below may be used when writing/
To prove to himself and his parents that he is a man, every young boy goes
showing a process, except .
out for football in the seventh grade.
( Q nevertheless C. finally
C. Proving to himself and his parents that he is a man, every young boy goes
B. moreover D. next
~ out for football in the seventh grade.
11. Which word in this sentence needs to be capitalized?
D. Every seventh grade boy goes out for football to prove to himself and his
Whatever you do, father, will please me very much.
parents that he is a man.
A. you B. much C. will father
7. What error is committed in the sentence below?
12. Which sentence illustrates the proper use of ( : ) ?
Having eaten their supper, the cook told the men to clear the table.
There are three causes: poverty, indolence, and injustice.
A Fragment C. Faulty coordination
There are three causes poverty: indolence: and injustice.
Dangling modifier D. Faulty parallelism
C. There are three: causes poverty, indolence, and injustice:
D. There are: three causes poverty, indolence, and injustice.

40 PNU LET Reviewer

Prof. Ma. Conccpcion Y. Raymundo and Prof. Ali G. Anudin
General Education English - Academic Writing
13. In the group of sentences that follow, which illustrates the best way of sentence 18. Which is an appropriate title of thegassage based on its content?
construction? .. A. The Moon f c ) The Eclipses
The speaker was too excited to sit still and the announcer fumbled for his B. The Moon and Eclipses M l The Solar System
notes of introduction.
The moon both causes and suffers eclipses. When she passes exactly between the
B. The speaker was too excited to sit while the announce fumbled for his earth and the sun, the latter is hidden behind her opaque globe, and we have a solar
notes of introduction. / eclipse - one o f the most interesting o f all astronomical phenomena, on account o f the
Q. It was the cause of the speakers excitement fumbling for the announcers marvelous streamers of light, called the corona, which then appears surrounding the
notes of introduction. eclipsed sun, and extending away, in some cases, millions of mile, when the moon
D. The speaker he was too excited to sit while the announcer tumbled for his passes the earth, on the side opposite to the sun - in other words, when it is full moon -
notes of introduction. she comes at certain times almost exactly in like with the two, and then she enters the
shadow of the earth and is herself eclipsed. Eclipses of the sun are very rare phenomena
14. Which sentence shows the proper use of parallelisrrf?
a t any particular place on the earth because the moons shadow is reduced almost to a
A. Mahalia said she likes to swim, dancing, and cooking.
point before it reaches the earth, from her average distance o f239,000 miles and it is only
B. Mahalia said she likes to swim, to dance, and cooking. within the shadow that the sun appears eclipsed. The orbit o f the moon around the earth is
Mahalia said she likes to swim, to dance, and to cook. continuously shifting its place a little, and so the point of her shadow does not reach the
Mahalia said she likes swimming, to dance, and to cook. earth at the same place in successive eclipses. Eclipses of the moon are frequently seen
15. Which of the following shows how modifiers are placed correctly in a sentence? because the earth's shadow, being much larger than the moons, completely buries the
_A. A governess they selected for the child who spoke French fluently. latter when she passes into it, so the moon can then be seen eclipsed from all places in
B. The child they selected for a governess who spoke French fluently. the earth above whose horizon she happens to be at the moment.
G. P. Serviss
^ They selected a governess for the child who spoke French fluently.
11 They selected for the child a governess who spoke French fluently. 19. How is the following paragraph developed?
16. Which of the following connectives indicate addition of idea& A. By example X . By cause and effect
besides B. beside C. all in all D. for this purpose B. By details ( u ) By comparison and contrast
17. Which of the following shows consistency of point of view and tens&
The world has no use for excuses, only success is recognized. Until better sources of energy are found, nuclear power is the answer to our growing
Christian calls aloud to his mother and ran home at once. energy needs. Given the enormous demands by industry and private consumers for
electrical power, conventional means o f generating power are no longer adequate. Water
. If you should have an accident, dont hesitate to call the police. power and coal have proved too costly or clean as power sources, and in the foreseeable
D. Ms. Jacinto regrets that she is unable to accept Ms. Sevillano's kind future, the world's supply o f petroleum will be depleted. The use of solar energy and the
invitation because I have another engagement for Tuesday evening, development o f synthetic foods may prove valuable, but they are still in their infancy.
August 10. Nuclear power plants are available today. Although they are expensive to construct, they
are efficient and economical in the long run because breeder reactors can recycle nuclear
waste. Though everyone looks forward to safer and more efficient sources o f energy,
nuclear energy is the best choice for today.
------------------- ---------- ------------------------------------ ---- ../z.
Prof. Ma; Concepcion Y. Raymundo and Prof. Ali G. Anudin PNU LET Reviewer
English - Academic Writing General Education

20. Which sentence io4he following paragraph states the topic sentence? 24. Which one is the sentence that introduces the topic?
A. First ''(E p Second C. Third D. Fourth A. Changes in food preparation methods, for example, have improved our
lives greatly.
1 Dancing and chanting to the rhythmic beat o f the drums, Polynesian students give
visitors to the Polynesian Culture Center a glimpse o f Hawaii's past. 2 Through its B. The twentieth century has brought with it many advances.
exhibitions, the Polynesian Culture Center shows visitors the many elements o f Hawaiian C. In some ways life is worse, but mostly it is better.
culture brought to Hawaii by its inhabitants, the Polynesian. 3 For example, the Center D. With those advances human lives have changed dramatically.
shows the similarities between Polynesian and Hawaiian villages with life-size models.
4 In additbn, the Center dramatizes Hawaiian legends o f ancestors journeying across
25. If you are to arrange the sentences below to make a sound paragraph, which
the ocean in large canoes of hollowed logs, gardens o f bananas, sweet potato, taro, and
plants exhibit the food carried by the ocean travelers to their new home. sentence do you think should be the thesis statement?
A. A special concern is whether movies and television make children and
21. The topic of the paragraph below society more violent.
A. a psychologists view of life ( c j new beginnings in life B. I believe that movies and television do influence our behavior, both for the
iL . stages of life u. the importance of weddings better and for the worse.
C. Do movies affect our behavior?
1 A rite o f passage, according to psychologists, is an event that prompts movement
from one stage o f life to another. 2 Weddings and graduations are two examples of D. Noneof.above.
new beginnings that are considered significant rites o f passage. 3 For the bride and
groom, a wedding signifies the covenant o f fidelity and the couple's public declaration of
love. 4 Making the promise for life before loved ones is the first step to their new life
together. 5 Graduations also signify a rite o f passage. 6 Tests will not be scheduled, and
paperwork will no longer be graded on a curve. 7 Whether it is a high school or college
graduation, students acknowledge they are beginning a new path on their journey.

22. The main idea of the paragraph is found in

sentence 1 C. sentence 3
( \ l j sentence 2 D. sentence 7
23. Arrange the sentences in order to make a good and sound paragraph:
(1) Changes in food preparation methods, for example, have improved our
lives greatly.
(2) The twentieth century has brought with it many advances.
(3) In some ways life is worse, but mostly it is better.
(4) With those advances humanlives have changed dramatically.
A. 4 ,3 ,2 ,1 B.3 ,1 ,2 ,4 C. 2 ,3 ,4 ,1 D. 2 ,4 ,3 ,1

42 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Ma. Concepcion Y. Raymundo and Prof. Ali G. Anudin
General Education English - Speech and Oral Communication

Speech and Oral PART I - C O N T E N T U PD A TE


Communication I. T h e P a rts o f S p e e c h

The parts of speech fall into two categories: 1) the content words (also called
form classes because they are best identified by form rather than by functions)
Prepared by: are nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs; and 2) the structure words most
Prof. Alice M. Karaait and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio of which do carry some meaning but which also serve to form a structural
framework so that words can fit into sentences.

A. Aspect and Tenses of Verb

Use English accurately, SIMPLE PRESENT - expresses events or a. It snows in Alaska.
meaningfully and appropriately (verb + -s/-es) situations that exist
- singular subject always, usually and b. Edbert and Kyle
in oral discourse (verb, base form) habitually watch television
- plural subject every day.
SIMPLE PAST - an action happened at a. It snowed in
(Verb + -d/-ed) one particular time in Alaska last year.
the past.
b. Edbert and Kyle
- It began and ended at watched television
a specific time in the last night.

Prof. Alice M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio PNU LET Reviewer 43
English - Speech and Oral Communication General Education

PROGRESSIVE (also called continuous) The perfect aspects all give the idea that one thing happened before another
The progressive aspects give the idea that an action is in progress time or event.
during a particular time. It begins before, is in progress during, Present Perfect - an action happened a. Gary has already
and continues after another time or action. (has/have + V-en sometime before now eaten.
Present progressive - an action began in the a. Beth is sleeping (past participle) at an unspecified time
(am/is/are + V-ing) past, is in progress right now. in the past. The exact b. 1have been
at the at the present time is not important. here since seven
time, and probably will (Adverbs like ever, oclock.
continue never, already, yet, still
and just are frequently c. 1have known him
Past Progressive - an action began before b. Beth was
used with the present for many years.
(was/were + V-ing) and was in progress at sleeping when I
a particular time in the arrived.
NOTE the difference
- a situation that began in between since and for.
Future Progressive - an action will begin c. Beth will be the past and continues
(will/shall + be + before another action, sleeping when we to the present (usually FOR + a duration of
V-ing) and it will be in arrive. used with for or sinctf time
progress at a particular SINCE + a particular
time in the future time
NOTE: WILL vs. BE GOING TO Past Perfect - an action was a. Gary had already
To express a PREDICTION: Use either will or be going to. (had + V-en (past completely finished eaten when his
To express a PRIOR PLAN: Use only be going to. participle) before another activity friend arrived.
To express WILLINGNESS: Use only will. or time in the past.
e.g. 1. According to the weather report, it will be cloudy tomorrow. Future Perfect - an action will be b. Gary will already
According to the weather report, it is going to be cloudy tomorrow.
(will/shall + have + completely finished have eaten when
(Prediction) V-en (past participle) before another time in his friend arrives.
2. Why did you buy this paint? the future.
I am going to paint my bedroom tomorrow. (Prior plan)
3. I will do it for you. (Willingness)

44 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Alice M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio
General Education English - Speech and Oral Communication


The perfect progressive aspects give the idea that one event is in progress
immediately before, up to, until another time or event. MENTAL EMOTIONAL POSSESSION SENSE OTHER
Present Perfect - an event is in progress. a. Abet has been STATE STATE PERCEPTIONS EXISTING
Progressive It happened before now delivering the STATES
(has/have + been + up to now. speech for 30 know love possess taste seem
V-ing) minutes now.
understand like have smell look
Past Perfect - emphasizes the b. Abet had been
recognize appreciate own hear appear
Progressive duration of an activity delivering the
(had + been + V ing) that was in progress speech for 30 realize please belong feel sound
before another activity minutes before the believe prefer see resemble
or time in the past. President arrived. need hate look like
Future Perfect - an event is in progress. c. Abet will have suppose dislike cost
Progressive It happened before been delivering
(will have + been + another event in the the speech for 30 desire fear owe
V-ing) future and will last for a minutes by the feel envy equal
particular period of time time the President mind matter
B. Stative Verbs surprise
Describe states, conditions or situations that exist.
When verbs have stative meanings, they are usually not used in
progressive tenses, (e.g. This food tastes good. I like it very much. C. Dynamic Verbs, sometimes referred to as action verbs", express a wide
Tastes and like both describe a state that exists; therefore, it is incorrect range of actions which may be physical, mental or perceptual as opposed
to say This food is tasting good. I am liking it very much.) to a stative verb which purely expresses a state in which there is no obvious

Some examples of dynamic verbs are eat, drink, go, type, read, write, listen,
speak, watch, say, grow, melt, work, sleep, cook, talk, etc.
Prof, Aikv M. Kar, an and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio PNU LET Reviewer
General Education
English - Speech and Oral Communication
e.g. The politician, along with the newsmen, is expected shortly.
II. S u b je c t-V e rb A g re e m e n t
Excitement, as well as nervousness, is the cause of her shaking.
Rule 1: A compound subject joined by or, or nor requires a singular verb if each
Rule 6: The indefinite pronouns each, everyone, one, everybody, anyone,
part is singular; if the parts differ in number or person the verb agrees
anybody, someone, and somebody are singular and require singular
with the subject nearer to it.
verbs. Do not be misled by what follows of.
e.g. My aunt or my uncle is arriving by train today.
e.g. Each of the girls sings well.
The book or the magazines are on the shelf.
Everyone of participating teams is pleased about the judging.
NOTE: Everyone is one word when it means everybody. Every one is two
Rule 2: Two singular subjects connected by either-or or neither-nor require a
words when the meaning is each one.
singular verb, but when a singular and plural subject are connected, use
Every one of the items on sale is gone.
a plural verb.
e.g. Either John or Susan is available.
Rule 7: With words that indicate portions percent, fraction, part, majority,
Neither the teacher nor the principal is coming
some, all, none, remainder, etc. look at the noun in your of phrase
Either the house or the cars are for sale.
(object of the preposition) to determine whether to use a singular or
Neither Jenny nor the others are available.
plural verb. If the object of the preposition is singular, use a singular
verb. If the object of the preposition is plural, use a plural verb,
Rule 3: When one of your two subjects is I, put it second and follow it with the
e.g. Fifty percent of the pie has disappeared.
singular verb am.
Fifty percent of the pies have disappeared.
e.g. Neither she nor I am going to the festival.
All of the pie is gone.
All of the pies are gone.
Rule 4: Compound subjects joined by and require a plural verb, but when the
Some of the pie is missing.
parts refer to the same person or have some other close relation, they
Some of the pies are missing.
take a singular verb. Also, if the parts of the compound subject are
modified by each, or no, a singular verb is required,
Rule 8: When either and neither are subjects, they always take singular verbs,
e.g. Her professor and thesis adviser is here, (same person)
e.g. Neither of them is available to speak right now.
Every branch and twig was covered with dust.
Either of us is capable of doing the job.
No one is here.
Rule 9: The words here and there have generally been labeled as adverbs even
Rule 5: Sometimes the subject is separated from the verb by words such as
though they indicate place. In sentences beginning with here or there,
along with, as well as, besides, or not. Ignore these expressions when
the subject follows the verb.
determining whether to use a singular or plural verb.

Prof. Alice M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio

46 PNU LET Reviewer
General Education English - Speech and Oral Communication
e.g. There are four hurdles to jump 3. the number (singular or plural)
There is a high hurdle to jump. 4. the quantity or amount they indicate (collective or mass)
There sits the guest of honor. 5. the gender (masculine, feminine or n e u te rf ~
Here sleeps my baby brother.
A. What To Remember About Noun Possessives and Pluralization
Rule 10: Use a singular verb with sums of money or periods of time,
e.g. Ten dollars is a high price to pay. Possessives
Five years is the maximum sentence for that offense. 1. An apostrophe is added to form the possessive case of singular and
plural nouns ending in
Rule 11: Sometimes the pronoun who, that, or which is the subject of the verb in -s or -z; s to those not ending in -s or -z.
the middle of the sentence. The pronouns who, that, and which become 2. An of phrase is used after nouns not related to people..
singular or plural according to the noun directly in front of them. So if that e.g. the tires of the car the surface of the road
noun is singular, use a singular verb. If it is plural, use a plural verb, the roof of the house the leaves of the tree
e.g. Charlene is the scientist who writes the reports. 3. Nouns connected with people and human activity usually take the s
The word in front of who is scientist, which is singular. form.
Therefore, the verb writes is singular. e.g. Proper names: Abraham Lincolns speech
He is one of the men who do the work. Personal nouns: the girls dress
Men preceding who is plural. The verb do is likewise plural. Collective nouns: the teams success
Relating to human activity: the bodys ability
Rule 12: Collective nouns such as team and staff may be either singular or plural Institution: the museums members
depending on their use in the sentence, 4. Many phrases of time take th e s form.
e.g. The staff is in a meeting. e.g. a months pay two weeks vacation
The staff are in disagreement about the findings. a years work seasons greetings
5. Certain idioms take th e s form.
e.g. our moneys worth an arms length
Nouns 6. Higher animals can take th e s form.
e.g. a dogs life the kitten's cry
Nouns are names of anything that exists or that can be conceived, referring to a a birds nest the horses mane
person, place, thing or idea. They can also be categorized based on the following: 7. Double possessives using both of and the s form are common with
1. the kind of thought or perception they convey (abstract or concrete) proper nouns when reference is definite and personal.
2. the type of matter they name (common or proper) e.g. a novel of Conrads a painting of Picassos

Prof. Alicc M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio PNU LET Reviewer 47
English - Speech and Oral Communication General Education

B. Order of Determiners in a Noun Phrase

8. The plural of most nouns are generally formed by adding final -s when
the singular form can be pronounced without adding a syllable, or a Pre Core Post (Adjective) Noun
determiner Determiner determiner
final -es if the singular form ends in -s, -ch, -z, and -x that cannot unite
with s to form one syllable. A. Articles Cardinal
9. Plurals of figures, signs, and letters used as words add s. Numbers:
10. There are nouns generally used in the singular and therefore require a all a/an 1 ,2 ,3 ... red school
singular verb. Among these are beard, food, fish, fruit, grass, hair. both the Ordinal old college
11. The following nouns do not have their plural form: baggage, chalk, Numbers:
furniture, jewelry, scenery, information, machinery, pottery
half B. Possessive first, second... new dormitory
12. The following nouns are always plural: trousers, binoculars, scissors, Adjectives last
means, refreshments, forceps, pliers and falls
13. Nouns ending in -ic s are singular when they denote scientific subjects double her every big house
such as Physics, Mathematics, Linguistics his few high garden
14. Nouns ending in -ic s are plural when they denote activities or qualities its less tall fence
such as acoustics, acrobatics, athletics
my little (quantity) thick garage
15. Hyphenated nouns or compound nouns usually attach -s to the
element that is actually being pluralized: mothers-in-law, officers-in- our many (a) intellectual gate
charge, editors-in-chief, mayors-elect. their more thoughtful summer
16. Foreign plural:
your most excellent rock
C. Possessive of other Japanese wool
Foreign noun Plural Form Foreign noun Plural Form Names
larva larvae criterion criteria Ex. Johns same silken silk
vertebra vertebrae phenomenon phenomena D. Demonstratives several woollen steel
alumnus alumni automaton automata this single clay
bacillus bacilli libretto libretti that such (a) plastic
cactus cacti /cactuses tempo tempi these cloth
focus foci virtuoso virtuosi those leather

48 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Alice M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio
General Education English - Speech and Oral Communication

E. Indefinite brick PLURAL we us ours

you you yours
another paper
they them theirs
any, each coat
either skirt The noun being referred back to is called the antecedent (e.g I read a book. It
was good.) The pronoun it refers to the antecedent noun book)
Possessive pronouns are not followed immediately by a noun; they stand alone,
much (e.g. That book is hers.)
neither Possessive pronouns do NOT take apostrophes.
no Possessive determiners are followed immediately by a noun; they do not stand
alone, (e.g. Her book is here.)
some It has no apostrophe when used as a possessive determiner, (e.g. A bird uses its
what (a) wings to fly.)
which Its is a contraction of it is or it has.
Unlike the articles, possessives, and demonstratives, the indefinite forms
are not preceded by predeterminers.
A. Degrees of Adjectives
Only the comparative and superlative adjectives show degrees. We use the
comparative for comparing two entities and the superlative for comparing
three or more entities.
Gladys is a rich woman, but Josie is richer than Gladys, and Sadie is the
Pronouns are words that stand for a noun or noun phrase
richest woman in town.
Positive Comparative Superlative
SINGULAR 1 me mine rich richer richest
you you your lovely lovelier loveliest
he her hers beautiful more beautiful most beautiful
she him his
Certain adjectives ha ve irregular forms in the comparative and superlative degrees:
it it its

Prof. Alice M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio PNU LET Reviewer 49
English - Speech and Oral Communication General Education
Irregular Comparative Superlative Origin - e.g., French, American, Canadian
good better best Material - e.g., woollen, metallic, wooden
bad worse worst Qualifier - e.g., rocking chair, hunting cabin, passenger car
little less least
much, many more most C. Collective Adjectives
far further furthest
Adjectives that do not admit comparative degree according to Bryan Gamer: When the definite article, the, is combined with an adjective describing
absolute impossible principal a lass or group of people, the resulting phrase can act as a noun: the
adequate inevitable stationary poor, the rich, the oppressed, the homeless, the lonely, the unlettered, the
chief irrevocable sufficient unwashed, the gathered, the dear departed.
complete main unanimous
devoid manifest unavoidable The rural poor have been ignored by the media.
entire minor unbroken The rich of Connecticut are responsible.
fatal paramount unique The elderly are beginning to demand their rights.
final perpetual universal The young at heart are always a joy to be around.
ideal preferable whole
D. Irregular Comparisons
From The Oxford Dictionary o f American Usage and Styleby Bryan Garner. Copyright 1995
by Bryan A. Garner. Published by Oxford University Press, Inc.,, and used
with the gracious consent o f Oxford University Press.
A few of the comparatives and superlatives in English do not follow the
usual pattern. Here is a list of common exceptions:
B. The Order of Adjectives in a Series
Positive Comparative Superlative
The categories in the following table can be described as follows: bad worse worst
Determiners - e.g. this, that, these, those, my, mine, your, badly worse worst
yours, him, his, her, hers, they, their; or a, an, the far (distance) farther farthest
Observation/ Opinion - e.g. beautiful, interesting, polite, far (extent) further furthest
difficult, hardworking good better best
Size - e.g. tall, wide, large, high, narrow* thin ill worse worst
Shape - e.g. round, rectangular, circular late later latest or last
Age - e.g., young, old, new, ancient less lesser least
Color - e.g., red, black, pale little (amount) less least

50 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Alice M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio
General Education English - Speech and Oral Communication
VI. Adverbs
many more most
much more most
Adverbs are modifiers of a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or
well better best
a clause. They indicate manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers
questions such as how, "when, "where, how much.
E. Kinds Of Adjectives;
A. Types of Adverbs
1. Possessive Adjectives
1. Adverbs of Manner
modify a noun by telling whom it belongs to
provide information on how someone does something
answer the question W hose?"
placed after the verb or entire expression (at the end of the sentence).
include his, her, its, my, our, their, and your
e.g. Jack drives very carefully.
e.g.: You can share my rice.
Their teacher speaks quickly.
Have you seen their house?
2. Adverbs of Time
2. Demonstrative Adjectives
provide information on when something happens,
include that, these, this, those, and answer the question
e.g. Well let you know our decision next week.
3. Adverbs of Frequency
used to modify a noun or pronoun
provide information on how oftensomething happens.
e.g.: Im going to open that present.
placed after the verb or entire expression (at the end of the
Those socks look warm.
3. Interrogative Adjectives
e.g. They usually get to work at eight oclock.
include what and which used in a question.
4. Adverbs of Degree
may look like an interrogative pronoun, but it is used differently in
provide information concerning how much of something is done.
the sentence: it is an adjective used to modify a noun or pronoun,
placed after the verb or entire expression (at the end of the
e.g.: What movie do you want to see?
Which leaves turn color first?
e.g. They like playing golf a lot.
4. Indefinite Adjectives
Shell attend the meeting as well.
An indefinite adjective gives indefinite, or general information.
5. Adverbs of Comment
Often, it answers the question How much?"
provide a comment, or opinion about a situation.
Some common indefinite adjectives are all, any, each, every,
placed at the beginning of a sentence.
few, many, and some.
e.g. Fortunately, there were enough seats left for the concert.
e.g.: Many children like dinosaurs.
Luckily, I was able to come to the presentation.
Did you want some bananas?

Prof. Alice M. Karaan ant! Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio

PNU LET Reviewer 51
English - Speech and Oral Communication General Education
B. Adverb Placement e.g. Thomas was a highly respected member of the team.
Adverbs of frequency are placed after the verb 'to be when used as (Incorrect) Thomas was a highly-respected member of the team.
the main verb of the sentence. With words like well and fast (which are both adjectives and
e.g. Jack is often late for work. adverbs), a hyphen can be used to avoid ambiguity.
Some adverbs of frequency (sometimes, usually, normally) are also e.g. We will be visited by a well-known actress.
placed at the beginning of the sentence for emphasis. Usual word order when two or more adverbs modify a verb:
Adverbs can also modify an adjective. In this case, the adverb is placed MANNER- FREQUENCY-PLACE TIME-CAUSE/REASON
before the adjective.
e.g. She is extremely happy.
They are absolutely sure. V II. P rep o sitio n s
Do not use very with adjectives that express an increased quality of a
basic adjective Prepositions show relationships in time and space and relationships between
e.g. good - fantastic ideas (logical relationships).
Adverbs of frequency (always, never, sometimes) usually come before
the main verb. USES EXAMPLES
e.g. He is often late for class.
months, years, seasons in December
Do you always eat in a restaurant?
in 2009
They don't usually travel on Fridays.
in autumn
Adverbs of frequency expressing infrequency are not usually used in
the negative or question form. "Never, seldom", rarely"and other IN enclosure in a landmark in the box
adverbs of frequency with a negative sense are not usually used in the special expressions in the meantime
question form. When using adverbs of frequency in the negative form, in addition
put the adverb before the main verb. in contrast
e.g. Does she rarely eat fish? They dont. days of the week and dates on Wednesday
Adverbs of frequency are often placed at the beginning of asentence, on the fifth of July
e.g. Sometimes, he likes to go to museums.
Adverbs of frequency follow - come after - the verb to be, contact with a surface
e.g. He is sometimes late for work. time at six oclock
When an adverb modifies an adjective, there is no need to join the two AT
place as a point of orientation at the corner
with a hyphen.
FROM separation from a point of orientation away from me

52 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Alicc M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio
General Education English - Speech and Oral Communication
V III. C o n ju n c tio n s /C o o rd in a tio n
separation from contact with a line fell off the stem
or surface AND addition
OUT OF separation from inside of a landmark fish out of water BUT shows contrast
denotes the idea of connection or Stand by me YET but at the same time
BY SO therefore
FOR because
association and/or accompaniment dinner with friends
OR one or the other of two alternatives is true
WITH equal standing or ability rank with the best NOR conjoins two negative sentences, both of which are
manner spoke with ease
Correlative Conjunctions - pairs of conjunctions that are used together
structures space as a tunnel or through the woods
both... and
THROUGH either...or
duration through the years neither... nor
endurance through thick and thin not only...but also
spatial movement in any direction walked about the whether.. .or
ABOUT Correlative conjunctions must be followed by the same grammatical structures.
approximation aboutl 0 miles Incorrect: Either the meat (noun) was tough to begin with or overcooked,
concerning something about the book (adjective)
at a lower point than a landmark under the mango tree Correct: Either the meat (noun) was tough to begin with or it (pronoun) was
UNDER overcooked.
below under 18
OVER at a higher point than the landmark over the fence Subordinating Conjunctions - connect two complete ideas by making one of
ABOVE higher than above average the ideas subordinate to or less important than the other,
e.g. He ran steadily as though wolves were after him.
in front of before us
BEFORE (main idea) (subordinate idea)
earlier than before the year ends
at an intermediate point in relation to between you and me
two entities

Prof. Alice M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio PNU LET Reviewer 53
English - Speech and Oral Communication General Education

Frequently Used Subordinating Conjunctions Summary Chart of Modals and Similar Expressions

after because now that until AUXILIARY USES PRESENT/FUTURE PAST

although before since when polite request May 1borrow your pen?
as even if so that whenever (only with i or
as if even though than where we)
as long as if though wherever
in order that till while formal You may leave the room.
as soon as MAY
as though lest unless permission
less than 50% (Wheres John?) He may have
certainty He may beat the library been at the
IX. M o d a ls library.
less than 50% (Wheres John?) He might have
Basic modals: can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will, certainty He might be at the library been at the
would MIGHT library.
Phrasal modals: be able to, be going to, be supposed to, have to, have got to,
polite request Might 1borrow your pen?
used to
Modals do not take a final - s even when the subject is singular.
Correct: She can do it. advisability 1should study tonight. 1should have
Incorrect: She cans do it. studied last night,
Modals are followed by the simple form of the verb. (The only exception is but 1didnt.
ought, which is followed by an infinitive (to + simple form of the verb) 90% certainty She should do well on She should have
Correct: She can do it. (expectation) the test, (future only, not done well on the
Incorrect: She can does it. present) test.
advisability 1ought to study tonight 1ought to have
studied last night,
but 1didnt.
90% certainty She ought to do well on She ought to have
(expectation) the test, (future only, not done well on the
present) test.

54 PNII LET Reviewer Prof. Alice M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio
General Education English - Speech and Oral Communication

expectation Class is supposed to past ability 1 could dance

begin at 10:00. well during my
BE unfulfilled Class was younger years.
SUPPOSED expectation supposed to polite request Could you help me?
TO begin at 10:00,
suggestion You could talk to a You could have
but it didnt begin
COULD (affirmative doctor about your talked to your
until 10:15.
only) problem. doctor.
strong necessity I m ust go to class today. (I had to go to
less than 50% (Wheres Johnny?) He could have
class yesterday)
certainty He could be at home. been at home.
prohibition You must not open that
impossibility That couldnt be true! That could not
MUST (negative) door.
(negative only) have been true!
95% certainty Mary isnt in class. She Mary must
polite request Would you considerthe
m ust be sick. have been sick
(present only) yesterday.
preference 1 would rather go to the 1 would rather
100% certainty He w ill be here at 6:00.
park than stay home. have gone to the
willingness I w ill do that for you. park.
polite request Will you please close the repeated action When 1was
door? in the past a child, 1
ability/ possibility I can run fa s t I could run fast would viol my
when I was a grandparents
child, but now I every weekend.
cant. polite for 1 would like an apple,
inform al You can use my car want (with please.
CAN permission tomorrow. like)
inform al polite Can we talk? unfulfilled wish 1 would have
request liked a cookie,
but there were
im possibility That cant be true! That cant have none in the
(negative only) been true! kitchen.

Prof. Alice M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio PNU LET Reviewer 55
English - Speech and Oral Communication General Education

repeated action He used to drink Negative Sentence + Affirmative Tag -> Negative Answer Expected
in the past - beer every night. Beth isnt here, is she? No, she isnt.
past situation 1 used to live in You dont like coffee, do you? No, I dont
that no longer the province, but They havent left, have they? No, they haven't.
exists now 1live in the
X I. B asic V erb F o rm s U sed in C O N D IT IO N A L S E N T E N C E S
polite question Shall 1keep the secret?
to make a
suggestion SITUATION IF-Clause RESULT Clause Examples
future with We shall celebrate True in the simple simple present If 1have enough time, visit
i or we as after passing the present/ present simple future my parents every week.
subject examination. future (will + simple form) If 1have enough time, 1 will
visit my parents next week.
Untrue in simple past Would + simple If 1had enough time, 1
the present/ form would visit my parents
X . Tag Q u estio n s future now.

A tag question is a question added at the end of a sentence. It aims to seek Untrue in Past perfect would have + If 1had enough time, 1
the past past participle would have visited my
agreement or to ascertain correctness of information.
parents last month.
A tag question may be spoken (a) with a rising intonation if the speaker is truly
seeking to ascertain that his/her information, idea or belief is correct, (e.g.
Ann lives in an apartment, doesnt she?}, or (b) with a falling intonation if the
speaker is expressing an idea with which s/he is almost certain the listener will
agree (e.g. Its a nice day today, isnt it?).
Effective oral discourse means being able to use grammatical structures accurately;
Affirmative Sentence + Negative Tag -> Affirmative Answer Expected having the ability to express ideas, messages, and intentions meaningfully; and
observing rules of use appropriately when interacting with others in various social
Beth is here, isnt she? Yes, she is.
You like coffee, dont you? Yes, I do. contexts. In other words, a competent speaker has good pronunciation and correct
intonation, forms grammatical sentences, and uses language appropriately when
They have left, haven't they? Yes, they have.
communicating with others.
k f c S S i PNU LET Reviewer
Prof. Alice M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio
General Education English - Speech and Oral Communication
A. The Speech Mechanism
The important points o f articulation are the upper lip, the upper teeth, the
alveolar ridge (the gum behind the upper teeth), the hard palate (the bony
roof of the mouth) and again, the velum. Except for the velum, these parts
are non-movable. They are the parts of the speech apparatus near which
or against which the articulators are placed in the production of the various
speech sounds.
The vocal cords/bands. They are two short bands of elastic flesh and
muscle located inside the larynx (Adams apple). The opening between
them is called the glottis. The glottis may be opened so as to cause no
obstruction in the passage of air as in normal breathing, completely closed,
or partially closed. Speech sounds produced with an open glottis are said
to be voiceless. When the vocal bands are brought so close together than
the air passing through causes the glottis to vibrate, the speech sounds
produced are said to be voiced. When the vocal bands are pressed together
so tightly as to resist considerable air pressure from the lungs, the sound
produced is a glottal stop.

B. The Phoneme
The phoneme is a minimal significant or contrastive unit in a language. This
The speech-producing mechanism or vocal apparatus consist of the following
speech sound signals a difference in meaning, e.g., /p/, /b/, and /f/ as in
parts as shown in the figure:
pan, ban, and fan. Note that a phoneme is enclosed in slants / /.
The resonators or resonating cavities, the pharynx or pharyngeal cavity, the
A phoneme may be pronounced in different ways, depending on its position
nasal cavity, and the oral cavity. These cavities serve as the passage of the
in the utterance, and still remains the same phoneme. These variations in
moving stream of air. The pharyngeal cavity is a space formed by the root
pronunciation, called allophones, are enclosed in square brackets [ ]. For
of the tongue and the walls of the throat.
example, the phoneme /p/ is pronounced differently in the following words:
The articulators, lower lip, lower teeth, the tongue and its parts (the tongue
pin, spin, nip. It is aspirated in pin [p"in], unaspirated in spin [spin], and
apex is made up of the tongue tip and blade, the front of the tongue, and the
unreleased in nip [nip- ].
back of the tongue or dorsum), as well as the soft palate or velum with its
pear-shaped appendage called the uvula. Articulators are movable parts.

Prof. Alice M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio PNU LET Rewiewer H fc V J
English - Speech and Oral Communication
General Education
C. The Vowel Phonemes of English
The following statements show thenature ofvowels: with an accompanying puff of air. The sound M in cat and recount are likewise
1. Vowels are oral sounds. aspirated. The same is true with the /p/ sound in pen and append.
2. Vowels are voiced.
3. Vowels are characterized by a free flow of air through the oral cavity. The second set of sounds are the fricatives / f v 8 6 s z s z h/. They are
Using Trager and Smith and the IPA transcription systems, the following are produced by an obstruction of the airstream causing audible friction.
the simple and complex vowels of English with their corresponding keywords:
Further, English has two affricates /c/ and /j/, three nasals /m n r]/,a lateral /I/,
a retroflex /r/ and two semivowels /w v/. The retroflex and the semivowels are
Key Word Trager- IPA Key Word Trager- IPA
sometimes referred to as glides.
Smith Smith
bit i i pall 3 3 The following table shows the consonant sounds of English in two transcription
bet e e beat iy i: systems.
bat ae ae bait ey ex Key Word Trager- IPA Key Word Trager- IPA
just (adv) i - bite ay ai Smith Smith
ago 3 3 bout aw au pan P P sure s J
hut boat ow ou ban b b azure z 3
hot a a boy oy ten t t hat h h
pull u u boot uw den d d cat c
u: tj
cot k k job j d3
got g g mine m m
D. The Consonant Phonemes of English
fan f f nine n n
van V V
The first set of consonant sounds in English are the stops /p, b, t, d, k, g. They sing n n
are produced by a stoppage of air. The sounds /p, t, k/ are voiceless because thin 0 e lot 1 1
the vocal cords do not vibrate. On the other hand, /b, d, g/ are voiced. The /p, hen d a rot r r
t, k/ sounds are aspirated when they occur initially in a stressed syllable. For
so s s well w w
example, the /t/ sound in the words ten and attend are aspirated or produced
zoo z z yell y j
58 PNU LET Reviewer
Prof. Alice M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio
General Education English - Speech and Oral Communication

Awareness of certain sounds are crucial in pronouncing noun plurals, and noun E. S u p ra s e g m e n ta l P h o n e m e s a n d P ro so d ic P a tte rn s in English
possessives as well as the third person singular inflection of regular verbs.
Similarly, it is also significant in pronouncing the regular simple past inflection. Pronouncing consonant and vowel sounds correctly in an utterance is not enough.
To illustrate: As consequential are other phonemic phenomena labelled as suprasegmentals
which contribute to a meaningful interpretation of what is being said. These
Noun plurals are spelled a s -s or -es. This plural inflection can be pronounced phonemes consist of stress, pitch, and juncture. A combination of them makes
in three different ways, i.e., /- s/, /-z/, or I- qtJ as shown below up the prosodic patterns of spoken language or oral discourse.

-s/ /-z/ /-9Z/ 1. Stress

cats, ropes, beds, chairs, dishes, churches, Stress refers to the degree of prominence a syllable has. In the word
rocks, graphs seeds, stones, judges, garages, forgive, the syllable -give sounds more prominent than for-. There may
leaves, dolls buses be as many degrees of stress as there are syllables, but some of the
differences may be imperceptible.
For individual words, three stress phonemes are significant. These are:
/a z/ occurs after sibilants or s-like sounds such as /s, z, s z c j/ ' primary stress
/s / occurs after voiceless sounds except /s, s, c / ' mid stress
I tJ occurs after voiced sounds except /z, z, j/ weak stress (usually not indicated)
The word legendary illustrate all these stress.
The pronunciation rules defined for the plural above also apply to noun In words of more than one syllable, there will be one syllable which
possessives and third person singular forms of regular verbs. is more heavily stressed than the others. This syllable carries the
primary stress (eg. remedy, develop, understand). In some longer
Likewise, the regular simple past tense inflection -ed has three variants, words, other syllables may carry secondary stress, e.g. legendary. The
namely /t, d, ad/ most important thing is to recognise where the primary stress is. The
/9 d / ocurs after N and /d / as in planted, hated, needed, and raided assignment of primary stress can change between words derived from
N occurs after voiceless sounds except /t/, e.g., liked, surprised, the same base (eg. photograph, photographer, photographid.
realized, and cooked In word groups and sentences, there are four degrees of stress:
/d / occurs aftervoiced sounds as in loved, played, owned, and primary stress
belonged " secondary stress
' tertiary stress
- weak stress (usually not indicated)

Prof. Alicc M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio PNU LET Reviewer 59
English - Speech and Oral Communication General Education

Note the words intellectual and curiosity. 3. Pitch Levels and Terminals
In isolation each word gets a primary stress; however, when put Although many degrees of pitch are employed in speaking, only four
together to form the phrase intellectual curiosity, the primary stress levels of relative pitch are used as phonemes. These are:
in one is reduced to secondary stress. A word group carries only one 4 extra high
primary stress. 3 high
Note that the last content word generally is assigned the primary stress in 2 normal
a phrase or sentence unless contrastive meaning is desired in which case 1 low
there is a shift of stress, Pitch is relative. The normal pitch of every individuals speaking voice,
e.g. a black dog whatever its actual height (some speakers tend to be either high
a black dog (not white or brown) pitched or low pitched), is called level 2. From this level, one makes
departures either upward (level 3) or downward (level 1). We begin on
2. Grammatical Stress Patterns level 2, our natural normal level, and remain there until we reach the
Grammatical patterns are accompanied by regular stress patterns. primary stress.
Sometimes such stress patterns are the sole means of differentiating one Pitches combine into patterns to make meaningful melodies over the
grammatical pattern, with its concomitant meaning, from another. The whole phrase or sentence, e.g. 231,233, or 232. In 231, a statement
common ones include: or proposition is being uttered.
Compound noun These melodies have three methods of closure called terminal
e.g. rocking chair, postman junctures or simply terminals. As the name suggests, these terminals
Modifier + noun * occur at the end of the sentence. Oftentimes, they are marked with
e.g. black bird, long hand arrows as follows:
Verb + noun object ' I = fading terminal
e.g. Carabaos eat grass. t = rising terminal
He is watching a movie. = sustained term inal
Verb + adverbial The fading terminal as in 2311 is characterized by a rapid fadeaway of
e.g. This information is not to be handed but. the voice into silence. It closes a statement.
My boyfriend called up. e.g. 2lm going to 3school! t
The rising terminal as in 233t is a short, slight rise in the pitch from
the last level heard, but it does not go all the way up to the next level.
This terminal commonly occurs at the end of a yes-no question.
e.g. 2Are you 3happy3t

60 PBU LET Reviewer Prof. Alice M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio
General Education English - Speech and Oral Communication

The sustained terminal as in 232 is characterized by a slight O R A L C O M M U N IC A T IO N a n d L A N G U A G E F U N C T IO N S

lengthening of the preceding pitch 3 word (i.e., the word that gets the
primary stress. It may be heard at the end of a long sentence subject, There are three elements in oral communication: the speaker, the message,
e.g. 2AII of the members of the 3team? look confused. and the audience. The purpose of the speakers message must be appropriate
Patterns of pitch, with their accompanying terminals such as 231 i, to the occasion and the intended audience. Oral communication process may be
2 3 3 t, and 232 are called intonation contours. illustrated as one-way or two-way as shown below.

4. Commonly Used Intonation Contours

231 i This contour occurs in:
Public Speech Conversation
1) Statement or declarative sentence
Storytelling Discussion
e.g. ^We watched a 3movie' 1
Announcement Interview
2) Command
e.g. 2Read the announcement' i
3) Wh- or information question (a question that begins with words
like who, what, where, when, why, which, and tm /j
e.g. t h a t s your 3name'
233t This contour commonly occurs at the end of yes-no questions.
1) Yes-no question in statement form
e.g. 2Hes an 3actor3t
2) Yes-no question in question form A. Group Communication
e.g. 2Are you doming3!
3) Initial grammatical unit (phrase, clause, or sentence segment) The Four Criteria that Determine a Small Group
e.g. 2lf youll 3notice3t (Morreale, Spitzberg, & Barge, 2007)
232 This contour signals incompleteness. 1. Includes Three or More People
1) Initial grammatical unit (an alternate for 233) 2. Includes Shared Perception
e.g. 2lf youll 3notice2 3. Emphasizes Interdependence
2) Statement to indicate the speaker has more to say; often the word 4. Requires Communication
following this contour is but.
e.g. 2Shes a bright 3girl2 b u t . . .

Prof. Alice M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio PNU LET Reviewer 61
English - Speech and Oral Communication G e n e ra l l iliu m iix i

B. Public Speaking as Communication (O'Hair, Stewart, & Rubenstein, 2001) o Speech of Introduction prepares or warms up the audience tor the
speaker. It aims to motivate audience members to listen to what
In public speaking, a speaker delivers a message with a specific purpose to he or she has to say.
an audience of people who are present during the delivery of the speech. o Speech of Acceptance aims to express gratitude for the honor
Public speaking always includes a speaker who has a reason for speaking, an bestowed on the speaker,
audience that gives the speaker its attention, and a message that is meant to o Eulogies and Tributes celebrate and commemorate the life the
accomplish a specific purpose. deceased while consoling those who have been left behind
o Speech of Inspiration aims to uplift the member of the audience
1. Special Speaker Considerations and to help them see things in a positive light.
Context - The speech context includes anything that influences the
speaker, the audience, the speech, the occasion, or the situation.
Goals - A clearly defined goal is a prerequisite for an effective speech. C. Language Functions and Useful Expressions
What is it that you want the audience to learn or do or believe as a
result of your speech? How much ground do you want to cover? What Expressions of Advice
do you personally want to achieve by delivering the speech?
Outcome - A speech is not truly complete until its effects have been Asking Giving Accepting Rejecting
assessed and you decide whether you have accomplished what you
set out to do. Usually this assessment is informal, as in listening to Can you give me You should + verb Thanks for the Thanks, but 1
audience reactions. Constructive feedback is an invaluable tool for any/some advice? 1advise you to + advice dont think thats
self-evaluation and improvement. What should 1do? verb That sounds like a good idea.
What do you 1suggest that you a good idea. Thanks. Ill think
2. Types of Speeches suggest/ + verb Thank. Ill do about it.
An informative speech increases the audiences understanding or recommend/ You can/could + that. Thanks, but Im
awareness by imparting knowledge. It provides audience with new advise? verb not so sure.
information, new insights, or new ways of thinking about a topic, and What do you think Why dont you +
introduces new ideas, events, people, places, or things. 1should/ought to verb?
A persuasive speech attempts to influence the attitudes, beliefs, do? Verb/Dont + verb
values, and acts of others. It limits alternatives, seeks a response, and (Tanka & Baker, 2 0 0 7 p, 59}
respects audience choices.
Special Occasion Speeches I

62 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Alice M. Karaan anti Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio
General Education English - Speech and Oral Communication

Asking for a Favor Responding Expressions for Telephone Conversations

Yes No
Can/could you do me a Sure./Yes./OK./Yeah./ I'm sorry but... Answering the phone Finding out who is calling
(small/big) favor? Of course. Id like to, but... Hello, (when answering home phone) May I ask whos calling?
Can/could I ask you for a Sure, what do you I wish I could, but...
Full Name/Company Name (for business people) Can I tell him whos calling?
favor? need? Let me think about it.
May I tell her who's calling?
Will/can/could you + verb? Id be glad to. I really cant.
Taking a phone message Asking for clarification
(Tanka & Baker, 2007 p. 107)
Hes not here right now. Would you like me to Excuse me?
give him a message? What was that again?
Asking for Directions Giving Directions
She just stepped out. May I take a message? Could you please repeat that?
Could you tell me where... is? Go straight.
GostraightfortwoblocksonAvenue/Street/Road. (Hartmann & Blass, 2000, p .21 1,213)
Where i s ...?
Do you know how to get to...? Go past (the market).
How do you get to ... Go north/south/east/west. Turn-taking and Turn-giving Expressions
Im looking for... Turn right/left.
Im trying to find... Make a right/left. Introducing the Today we are here to discuss...
Cross the street.
topic The goal of our discussion today is ...
Youll see it on your right/left.
Bringing in other What is your opinion, M r.___ ?
(Tanka & Most, 2 0 0 7 p. 77)
people Do you agree with Mr.___ 's opinion, M s.__ ?
Keeping the Let's go on to another point.
Expressing Agreement Expressing Disagreement
Discussion Moving Next, lets talk about...
I agree. Im not sure about that.
Giving an opinion In my opinion...
I agree with that. I disagree.
I agree with you. I dont agree. Personally, I believe that...
Im with you. I disagree with that. Getting further Would you mind explaining that a little more, please?
Youre right. I disagree with you. information Could you explain that more fully?
I couldnt agree more. I completely disagree. Could you tell us a bit more about that?
I completely agree. You're wrong.
(Hartmann & Blass, 2000, p. 45)

Prof. Alicc M. Karaan anti Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio PNU LET Reviewer 63
English - Speech and Oral Communication General Education

Interrupting Excuse me for interrupting, but...

Sorry to interrupt, but...
Seeking What do you mean?
clarification Sorry, Im not quite sure what you mean.
DIRECTIONS: Write the letter that best completes the sentence.
Do you mean that...?
Im sorry, 1dont quite follow.
1. Gabriel slept_________________________________________ .
1dont quite understand what you're saying.
A. last night in his air-conditioned room soundly.
Closing the In conclusion, the purpose of this discussion... B. soundly last night in his air-conditioned room.
Discussion We have concluded th at... C. in his air-conditioned room soundly last night.
D. soundly in his air-conditioned room last night.
Adverb in a series should follow this sequence: Manner - Frequency - Place - Time
- Cause/Reason. Choice A is incorrect because last night is an adverb o f time. Choice
B is also incorrect. Even if the choice begins with an adverb o f manner, what follows
somehow is an adverb o f time. Choice C is not the correct answer because it obviously
does not begin with an adverb o f manner. The correct answer is D because it follows
the proper order o f adverbs in a series.

2. At this time next week, I _

A. will walk
B. will have been walking
C. will be walking
D. will have walked
Future progressive aspect denotes an action which will be in progress at a specific
time in the future. The given statement is an indication o f future progressive aspect,
and Choice C best completes the sentence. Choice A only suggests futurity and is not a
logical choice. Choice B is incorrect because it is in the future perfect progressive aspect
and the given sentence does not say that the action is in progress. Choice D will suggest
an action that should have been completely finished before another time in the future,
therefore it is also incorrect. Choice C is the correct answer.

K^SSHIp WU LET Reviewer Prof. Alice M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio
General Education English - Speech and Oral Communication

3. You watched the concert last night, didnt you? The correct response would be B E G IN HERE:

A. Yes, I wasnt C. Yes, I was. 1. Which sound is not a realization of the simple past tense?
B. Yes, I didnt D. Yes, I did /T V d / B. /a d / C. N D. /ed/
2. In'the noun Jesus's, the possessive is pronounced a s ______ .
Choices A and C are incorrect because the tag question made use o f a do form. A. Is/ B. Is/ (Q. /az/ D. /z/
Choice B is also not correct because o f a mismatch, "yes is affirmative and didn V is
3. Would you mind^ ______ me tomorrow?
negative. Therefore, the best answer is D.
A. meet (& ) to meet C. meeting D. if we meet
4. The doctor recommended eating healthier meals and___________ 4. Which of the following shows the correct stress pattern for a compound
A. to do exercise noun?
B. doing exercise A. blackbird B. blackbird C.blackbird D. blackbird
C. exercise 5. For thousands of years, rice_____________ a for many people.
D. to exercise A. is B. had been C. was t>. has been
6. Beths new digital camera is more user-friendly than________I. have seen.
Parallelism must be observed in the given statement. Eating healthier meats
A.., any one else C. another
would be parallel with doing exercise", therefore Choice B is the correct answer.
Choices A and D are both infinitives while Choice C does not imply whether exercise is 3 / any other D. others
used as a verb or as a noun. 7. The twins look
A. equal fB.) identical C. similar D. synonymous
5. Ross is French but Gerald isnt; hes Mexican. Based on the sentence, which 8. Neither of the accdsed officers decided to q u it_____ position.
one is true? K their B. his C. its D. its
A. Gerald is French. 9. which of the following plural forms ends in /-az/?
B. Ross isnt Mexican A. giraffes B. means{ ' C S garages D. handcuffs
C. Gerald isnt Mexican. 10. This car wont start. Lets call Danny because hes an old hand at repairing cars.
D. Gerald and Ross are both Mexican. An old hand means__________ .
A. a reliable person C. a trustworthy person
Gerald is obviously not French, therefore Choice A is incorrect. Choice B is true (W an experienced person D. an industrious person
because Ross is French. Choice C is false because Gerald is Mexican. Choice D states
11. T il see you soon, she said. But we didnt see each other for a long time. She
that both Gerald and Ross are Mexican, which isn 't true. The correct answer then is
Choice B.
A. she will see me soon C. I would see her soon
B. she would see me soon D. she sees me soon

Prof. Alice M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio PNU LET Reviewer 65
English - Speech and Oral Communication General Education

12. Can you tell me wtiat tim e____________ ? 19. Suppose that you are introduced to a co-worker in an office or establishment.
A. the train arrives C. the train does arrive The person being introduced is approximately of the same age as you. Which of
B. does the train arrive D. arrives the train the following would you say to her?
13. The air around u s ___________ A. I am honored to meet you.C. How do you do?
A. both contains oxygen and water B. Im pleased to meet you.D. It is an honor to meet you.
B. both contain oxygen and water 20. Which line is produced with a sustained intonation?
C. contains both oxygen and water A. What brings you here?
D. contain both oxygen and water B. Is the conference room ready?
14. Which sentence does not have the same meaning as the others? C. We won the game!
A. The athletes are observing rigid diet rules in the training. f f r To tell you the tru th ,....
B. Rigid diet rules are observed by athletes in the training. 21. Which of the following words is not correctly stressed?
C. In the training, the athletes observe rigid diet rules. A. secondary
6 ., The athletes are training rigid diet rules observer. B. engineer
15. Which while expresses a contrast? & spiritual
A. While waiting for them, lets have some coffee first. J ). afternoon
B. The farmers are very hopeful while walking from the province to the city. 22. Which word best completes this sentence: I always feel_____ when the stars
C. She's taking a shower while her mother is preparing breakfast. fill the sky.
D. I am a pessimist while he is very optimistic. . A. happy B. happily C. am happy happiness
16. Which of the following words has a different vowel sound? 23. The connection between time spent in social networking sites and poor
A. clear B. meet C. ease D; hes academic grades_.
17. The teacher needs some colored chalk for th e _____ !" Which of the following are alarming C. has alarmed
words completes the sentence correctly? B. is alarming D. alarms
A. blackboard C ., black board 24. Neither of the suspects admits______ the crime.
B. blackboard D. black board A. their B. our C. his D. us
18. Suppose that while waiting for someone, you talk with friends in the lobby of a 25. The actress signed the contract a few days after the talent management
building. Somebody says something that you did not quite hear. Which of the
following would you say? A. sent it B. send it C^) had sent it D. will have sent it
A. Please repeat that. C. Sorry, I didnt hear you.
B. Please speak louder D. May I request you to repeat that?

66 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Alice M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio
General Education English - Speech and Oral Communication

7. I was simply making a tonoue-in-cheek remark. I didnt mean to offend her. The
underlined idiom means____ .
A. impossible $ !) joke C. lie D. sketch
8. How did the students react when the teacher _ _ _ _ _ the mistakes on
DIRECTIONS: Write the letter of the word or phrases that best completes the their test papers?
sentence. A,_ provided for C. picked out
ffr . pointed out D. gave away
1. What intonation contour or pattern applies to the question Who will join the 9. This book concludes with pages___________useful hints to correcting common
parade? errors in English.
A. 232 B. 2231 C. 231 i D. 233t ^ that contain C. that is containing
2. Which sentence is marked as 2331231 i ? '\B. 1that contains D. that are containing
A. Do you like to join torch parade 10. All political parties promise to turn the economy_____ if elected, but they
B. We want peace, good health, and a happy family life never do.
C. Diane, as well as her friends, are planning a trip to the north A. over B. around C. in D. on
D. Do you prefer to go swimming or jog in the park 11 . ________I prefer to live in an apartment, my husband wants to buy a house.
3. Which of the following sounds in the Trager and Smith Transcription System A. Until . B .) Because C. Whereas D. When
would you consider a critical sound for Filipino learners of English? 12. If you had come'to'the theater last night, you_____________ the play.
A. /a/ B. /iy/ C. I\l D. /uw/ A. would enjoy C. will have enjoyed
4. Every woman, man or child____________the right to live. B. will enjoy ( 1 x ) would have enjoyed
A. have f B. has C. had D. do have 13. The students never cheated on the examination,__________
5. The excellent speaker can____________ even the most complicated ideas. A. is there? C. do they?
A. get across '67? get through B. didn't they? B' did they?
B. getaway D. get along 14. More of our teammates now __________ with the new policies.
6. I drive mv neighbors up a wall with the loud banging of my new set of drums. (A. are agreeing C. agree
The underlined phrase means______ B. agrees D. is agreeing
A. bump into my neighbor's fence 15. By this time tomorrow, w e ________________________________ the meeting.
B. make them envious A. shall have C. would have
C. annoy B. will have had D. have had
D. let them listen and enjoy

Prof. Alice M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio PNU LET Reviewer 67
English - Speech and Oral Communication General Education
16. The class decided to give their teacher aIn _________________ handbag on 20.-Which of the following would be inappropriate in making complaints?
_ her retirement. Ah Excuse me but Im afraid you are out of line.
A. latest long-wished black leather Louis Vuitton elegant K Dont get me wrong, but I think we should discuss theissue.
B. black latest long-wished Louis Vuitton elegant leather X . Maybe you forgot to check the item.
C. long-wished elegant latest black Louis Vuitton leather ( D. How could you be so forgetful?
0. latest elegant black long-wished leather Louis Vuitton 2}? Which of the following expressions can help you involve other members of the
17. The instructor expects students_________ ________________ _ group in the discussion?
A. to attend every class, to be doing all the assignments; and hand in i'A^Y Do you agree with his opinion?
homework on time. B. What do you mean?
B. to be attending every class, to do all assignments, and hand in homework C. Lets go on to another point.
on time. D. Personally, I believe that...
, C .; to attend every class, to do all the assignments and to hand in homework 22. Mathematics____ __ to be one of the least popular subjects among students.
'~on time. A. appear \ B y r appears C. appeared D. hasappears
D. to attend every class, to do all the assignments; and to be handing in 23. Technology_________classroom teaching and learning in the last decade.
homework on time. A. changed B. changes C. will change D. haschanged
18. Which sentence contains an error? 24. Dr. Day is one of the language teaching experts________.
A. The card catalogue has a subject listing for reference purposes. A. who advocates reading for pleasure.
B. There are certain books that can be found without using the library card B. who advocate reading for pleasure.
catalogue. C. who advocated reading for pleasure.
If a student cannot find any information lead in the author listing of the card D. who will have advocated reading for pleasure.
catalogue, they should ask the librarian. 25. Maria wishes to say no to a friend who is asking for help in their homework.
D. Every book in the library has a call number. What should she say?
19. Which of the following does not have the same meaning as the other sentences? A. Id be glad to help.
A. The problems about marriage and married life are what a young wife B. Can you repeat what you said?
should know in this book. C. Im with you.
B. What a young wife should know about marriage and the possible problems D. Im sorry but Im busy.
of married life are contained in this book.
C. This book contains what a young wife should know about marriage and the
possible problems of married life.
D. Contained in this book are information about marriage and possible
problems of married life which a young wife should know.

68 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Alice M. Karaan and Prof. Maria Teresa L. Manicio
General Education English - Philippine Literature

Philippine P A R T l-A - C O N T E N T U P D A T E

I. E arly literary historians d iv id e d Ph ilip p in e literatu re in English

Literature into fiv e p eriods.

A. Period of Orientation (1898-1090)
B. Period of Imitation (1910-1924)
C. Period of Growth and Experimentation (1925-1941)
Prepared by:. D. Period of Propaganda (1941 -1944)
Prof. Victor Rey Fumar E. Post-Liberation Period (1945-onwards)

The Period of Orientation (1898-1909)

began with the Occupation of Manila by the American forces on August 13,
Competencies: 1898. It extended to the publication of the College Folio in 1910 when Filipino
writers made their first attempts at expression in the new language.
1. Trace the development of Philippine The nationalistic and rebellious spirit against the American occupation also
found expression in the Filipino literature in English of this period. It consisted
Literature in English from the early mostly of articles dealing with patriotism and nationalism.
American Period to the contemporary However, only El Renacimiento and the Free Press published writings in
times. English.
2. Highlight the historical influences that The Period of Imitation (1910-1924)
inform Philippine literary productions. began in 1910 when the College Folio made its appearance in the University
3. Analyze the recurrent themes, of the Philippines.
This period was characterized by a strict adherence to the conventional forms
pervading thought and styles in English
of literature as exemplified in the works of Longfellow, Hawthorne, Emerson,
literary productions of Filipino writers. Tennyson, Thackeray, and Macaulay; and by a careful observance of the rules
4. Interpret and analyze some literary of grammar and rhetoric.
The publication of magazines and newspapers in English gave budding writers a
texts of representative writers.
chance to see their compositions in print. Ex. Philippine Review, Independent,

Prof. Victor Rey Fumar PNU LET Reviewer 69

English - Philippine Literature General Education

Rising Philippines, and Citizens, in addition to the Philippine Collegian, the Let me hold the bucket while you drink," she offered.
UP student organ. Philippines Herald became the pioneer Filipino newspaper He flashed her a smile over his shoulder as he poured the water into her jar, and
in English in 1920. again lowered the bucket.
Paz Marquez Benitez gained some measure of mastery far ahead of the period No, no, you must not do that." She hurried to his side and held one o f his arms. 7
as exemplified in her short story Dead Stars. This story was, for a long time, couldn't let you, a stranger..."
Why not?" He smiled down at her, and noticed a slight film o f moisture clinging
considered a model of perfection in character delineation, local color, plot, and down her upper lip and experienced a sudden desire to wipe it away with his forefinger.
message. He continued to lower the bucket while she had to stand by.
The first book of poems and the first novel in English written by a Filipino
were published during this period: Procopio Solidum's Never Mind and Other Midsummer" - Manuel Arguilla
Poems and Zoilo M. Galangs A Child o f Sorrow.

It is the theme that poets sing about and glorify in sublime and immortal poetry. It is Filipino writers were influenced by Sherwood Anderson, Ernest Hemingway,
the wine that intoxicates. It is one o f the greatest events in life - when two passionate lips William Saroyan, and Dorothy Parker.
dip into the sweet realm o f the cup o f love, while Cupid stands smiling and the angels in
Marcelo de Gracia Concepcions Azucena became the first book of Filipino
heaven sing o f the faith o f two loving souls, blessing them with ineffable happiness.
verse to be printed in America. Other poets were Amador T. Daguio, Angela
"A Child o f Sorrow" - Zoilo M. Galang Manalang Gloria, and Luis Dato.
In 1940, through the initiative and efforts of the Philippine Writers' League, the
Commonwealth Government started a yearly literary contest.
Period of Expansion and Experimentation (1925-1941) The first Filipino biographer to write in English is Carlos Quirino with his The
Filipino writers mastered, not only the fundamentals, but also the nuances of Great Malayan. I,V. Mallaris The Birth of Discontent showed his mastery of
the'English language sufficiently to be able to write in it with more confidence. the art of irony as well as of the English language.
They tried all forms of writing including the novel and the drama. In the essay, the notable writings included Salvador P. Lopez prize-winning
A deep attachment to the soil and a strong spirit of liberalism took possession collection Literature and Society and Francisco P. Icasianos Horizons from
of the writers. My Nipa Hut.
Some critics considered this period from 1930 until 1940 as the Golden Era of Filipino playwrights flourished during this period: Augusta C. Catanjal (The Oil
Filipino writing in English. Lamp), Vidal A. Tan (The Husband of Mrs. Cruz), Severino Montano (The Land
Jose Garcia Villa (aka Doveglion) excelled as a critic, short story writer, and poet of Our Fathers), and Wilfrido Ma. Guerrero (13 Plays), who became the most
and tremendously influenced Filipino writing. A number of short story writers prolific dramatist.
arrived with Villa - Manuel Arguilla, Paz Latorena, Loreto Paras, Arturo B.
Rotor, and Alfredo E. Litiatco.

70 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Victor Rev Fumar

General Education English - Philippine Literature

RODOLFO: Did you come here to insult me, Mr. Bruno? Father and I hastened to the hut. He was proud o f me, but he had no intention of
BRUNO: No, indeed Kindly listen for a moment. I know also that my election is assured, making me marry that girl, he explained. He had better hopes for me. He opened his coconut
and your efforts wasted. shell in which he kept his money and tool out all he had saved for years. Then we ran to
BRUNO: Just a moment, please. I am giving you a chance to cut down your losses. Ten town, where my mother lived with my two sisters. Father explained what had happened.
thousand pesos if you withdraw from this fight.
RODOLFO: Mr. Bruno, you don't understand me. I entered this fight to support The Laughter o f My Father - Carlos Bulosan
certain principles. And those principles are not for sale! If this is the purpose of your
(sarcastically) kind visit, (standing) I wish you goodnight.
Stevan Javellana published his novel W ithout Seeing the Dawn, a war novel
"The Husband of Mrs. Cruz' - Vidal A. Tan
comparable to Rizals masterpieces.
Her words felt like a bolt o f thunder in his ears and he could not think clearly for
some time. The boy, how had he looked? Did he ever come to learn to call his name,
Period of Propaganda (1942-1944) saying, Tatay - Father?" He wanted to ask her but he did not. He had come home
The war dampened the literary enthusiasm of the preceding period. expecting to find peace in the bosom of his family. Peace did not welcome him, but Grief
The writing of this period was largely journalistic, and the literary output was sat there on its haunches at his doorstep.
negligible for two reasons: (1) it was, in the main, insincere, and (2) there was
Without Seing the Dawn - Stevan Javellana
very little opportunity for publication.
This period saw the rise of Carlos P. Romulo, the first Filipino writer and
journalist to win international recognition. He won the Pulitzer Prize; and his Jose Garcia Villa's collection of poems Have Come, Am Here revealed great
I Saw the Fall o f the Philippines, I See the Philippines Rise, and Mother power both in thought and expression and elicited the warmest praises from
America became best sellers. American and English critics.

Post-Liberation Period (1945-)

The militancy which might be expected as a result of the war was very evident II. P h ilip p in e C o n tem p o rary Literature in English: T rad itio n a n d
among journalists and editors. C h a n g e by Ophelia A. Dimalanta and Virginia M. M ata (1985)
The most significant achievement of this period was the recognition afforded to outlined Philippine literary history into three periods.
Filipino writers abroad.
Carlos Bulosan put out a book of poems called Voice of Bataan immediately A. The Pre-War Years from the 20s to 1941
after the outbreak of World War II. This volume was followed by The Laughter Philippine literature in English began with the coming of the Americans
of My Father, a collection of humorous short stories and America Is in the in 1898. Spanish continued to dominate the circle of the elite, but
Heart, an autobiography. in the 30s it began to give way to English. Vernacular languages
continued to be used in homes.

Prof. Victor Rcy Fumar PNU LET Reviewer 71

English - Philippine Literature General Education
UP was established in 1908, a landmark in the literary development Literary models were mostly Romantic and Victorian 19th century
of the country along the lines of Western traditions. It triggered the Anglo-American poets. The 20s and on to the 30s saw the profusion
development and flowering of Philippine literature in English. of romantic poems, effusive personal expression of all kinds of
With American textbooks, American instructors, American writers as emotions, specifically love, love lost, love betrayed, love unrequited, or
models, the Filipinos started to learn not only a new language and a love triumphant.
new way of life alien to their traditions: the start of Western education Summarizing, pre-war poetry underwent three important phases:
or mis-education, the start of colonial orientation or dis-orientation. 1. poetry used as vehicle for mere rhetorical exercises in the service
of language-learning rather than literature
Pre-War Poetry 2. poetry used as vehicle for mere self-expression , personal and
S.P. Lopez, prophet of socially committed literature, influenced as he uncontrolled outpourings.
was by the social protest movement sweeping the USA at about that 3. poetry as vehicle for a dawning nationalistic fervor in the wake of
time in the wake of the great economic collapse and the depression the great S.P. Lopez versus Villa debate and the establishment of
wrote: the Commonwealth in 1935.

The real artist has a deep compassion for the suffering o f the oppressed and anger at Pre-War Fiction
the oppressors. The highest form o f art is that which springs from the wells o f man's Prior to the 20s, Leopoldo Yabes said, the short stories are better
deepest urges and longings ... his love o f his own kind and his longing to be free... of
all the ends to which he (the artist) may dedicate his talents, none is more worthy than classified as tales rather than stories."
the improvement o f the condition o f man and the defense o f freedom. The Philippine Free Press encouraged writers through its short story
contest involving a cash award of one hundred pesos for the winning
(Literature and Society, 1939) piece, aside from the regular twenty-peso publication royalty.
By the end of the 30s, Filipino short stories written in English already
showed more carefully crafted pieces:
Jose Garcia Villa, on the other hand, believed in "art for arts sake : that a. the unified single impression or effect through atmosphere, tone,
in art, craft comes before meaning, that poetry should never be useful and style
and propagandistic, that it must only arouse pleasure in the beautiful, b. plausible characterization
must lead to contemplation, not action. c. a well-defined plot structure
Prior to the 20s, the poems that were written were nothing more d. control of language as medium
than mere versifications, exercises in rhetoric, using specific classical e. interesting situation and a significant theme
moulds or patterns and poetic forms more for discipline than for art.

72 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Victor Rey Fumar

General Education English - Philippine Literature
B. The Post-War Years from the Late 40s to the 70s Modern poets were influenced by modern or western schools: (1)
On July 4, 1946, the US granted the Philippines its political imagism, (2) metaphysical school, (3) impressionistic-symbolistic
independence. Yet many features of colonialism remained. school, and (4) new criticism.
Petronilo Daroy noted that indeed, the national sensibility after World
War II is characterized by indignant perceptions which often manifest Post-War Fiction
themselves in stories which base their claim to realism on the mere Carlos Bulosans Am erica Is in the H eart pursued literatures
fact of their brutal treatment of evil. At any rate, this attention to commitment to social problems in the choice of subject matter, the
the unsmiling aspects of Philippine life liberated our literature from peasants, the laborers, the interface of economic conditions and
maudlin emotionalizing and excessive sentimentalism. politics.
In 1949, the National Teachers College offered a 3-unit course in NVM Gonzales published Seven H ills Aw ay in 1947.
Contemporary Philippine Literature in English to stimulate interest in Francisco Arcellana joined the ranks of the finest writers with his
our own literature. Divide By Two by showing his artistic ingenuity in point of structure,
The Bureau of Civil Service included Philippine Literature as a subject emotional impact, subtle manipulation of symbols, and the powerful
to be covered in the Civil Service Examination for Teachers in 1951. rhythm of his language.
The Carlos Palanca Sr. Memorial Awards for Literature started the most Bienvenido Santos wrote You Lovely People, his first book of short
prestigious annual literary contest sponsored by a liquor manufacturer, stories about Filipino exiles in America.
a magnate, and patron of the arts.
The P hilippine Free Press revived its annual award of P1,000 for the Look, I said it, one o f these days, very soon, I hope, I'll be going home. I could go
best short story. Writers guilds were reorganized among them being to your town.
the Philippine Writers Union (later the Philippine Writers Association) No," he said softly, sounding very much defeated but brave, Thanks a lot. But,
and the Philippine International PEN (poets, essayists, and novelists). you see, nobody would remember me now."
In 1960, the Republic Cultural Heritage Awards for literature was Then he started the car, and as it moved away, he waved his hand.
Goodbye," I sa id , waving back into the darkness. And suddenly the night was
created the purpose of which was "to initiate a movement for greater cold like winter straying early in these northern wood lands.
and more dedicated efforts in cultural advancement, to complement
the countrys program of economic development. 'Scent o f Apples - Bienvenido N. Santos

Post-War Poetry
Modernism in poetry started in the 1950s. The modem poet Nick Joaquin stood above his contemporaries which included Kerima
experimented in techniques of versification, rhythm, music, and Polotan Tuvera, Gilda Cordero Fernando, Aida Rivera Ford, Estrella
Alton, Rony Diaz, Lilia Pabloc Amansec, and Gregorio Brilliantes.

Prof. Victor Rey Fumar PNU LET Reviewer 73

English - Philippine Literature General Education

The short story achieved a degree of mastery and became preoccupied Travel essay became popular with Cristina Pantoja Hidalgo leading the
with form: (1) emphasis on key moment or moment of illumination pack.
usually at the end of the story, (2) use of consistent point of view, (3) Literary critics wrote reviews and became members of the Manila
use of symbols, the story existing in more than one level, (4) evocative Critics Circle, among them Isagani Cruz, Alfred Yuzon, Alfrado Salanga,
use of language and tone, and (5) overall structural unity, blending of Alice Guillermo, Doreen Fernandez, Rio Alma, and Ophelia Dimalanta.
form and content.
In the novel form, Nick Joaquins The Woman Who Had Two Navels 1shall lose them all again, or perhaps, possibly, yes,
as 1 was w ont,,losing all death will be kinder and ho, yes
showed a new way of presenting the subject matter, employing rich multi
in this final irretrievable allow me at last this
layered meanings, and incorporating a sense of history and tradition. loss of my deathtime. lowing final find.
Francisco Sionil Jose started his Rosales saga with The Pretenders,
an indictment against the modern illustrados and social injustice. Finder Loser - Ophelia Alcantara Dimalanta
Kerima Polotan, writer-tumed-publisher, showcased herartisticsensibility
and social conscience and portrayed the yearnings and frustrations
of a Flaubertian heroine in The Hand o f the Enemy, a novel that is The More Recent Times from the 70s up to the Present
naturalistic in its pessimism, but romantic in its style and presentation. The immediate post-war years were years of conformism. It was
not until the early 1960s that the students began to unite and hold
Its bad enough having poor around us all the time, but not use them their loyalty, mass protests and demonstrations against the evils that gnawed the
to fail to harness them for a man or a cause that can bring the country and themselves
much good - A ll right, we pander to their greed but if you want to ensnare people's
government. Most of these rallies ended in violent dispersals of the
minds, you must dangle a bit o f bait before them. police and the military.
Using the pretext of saving the country from the threat of subversion
The Hand o f the Enemy - Kerima Polotan Tuvera and communist takeover, Ferdinand Marcos declared Martial Law in
September 1972.
During the 1960s some writers exhibited the western trends of
The Essay naturalism and surrealism (the use of stream-of-consciousness to
The political essay became popular and most suited for the discussion depict states of the subconscious). Language had also become more
of ideas and timely issues. Nationalist writers included Renato dense, more elaborate.
Constantino, Petronilo Daroy, Luis Teodoro, Jose Lacaba, Bienvenido Writers' personal commitment was questioned in terms of their choice
Lumbera, Epifanio San Juan, and Dolores Feria. of medium.
Nick Joaquin as Quijano de Manila (his pen name) wrote many essays. Cirilo Bautista completed his triology of poetry books: The Cave, The
Archipelago, and Telex Moon, a project epical in scheme, historical
in perspective, and surrealistic in style.

74 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Vi. tor Rey Fumar

General Education English - Philippine Literature

10 Compute the square o f guilt against an integral B ien ve n id o L u m b e ra an d C y n th ia N o g ra le s L u m b e ra in

11 his age built when he was young P h ilippine Literature: A H isto ry an d A n th o lo g y (!982, revised
12 axiomatic; the sum stands th u s : Along 1 997)) ch ro n ic le d P h ilip p in e literatu re in English into:
13 the curve x (none noticed the leap; what they saw Literature during Pre-colonial Times (_-1564)
14 was the red imprint) by which we know
Literature Under Spanish Colonialism (1565-1898)
15 the nothing particular, the momentum
16 carried him to the point beyond the dictum - Literature Under American Colonialism (1898-1945)
Literature Under the Republic (1946-1985)
A Man Falls to His Death" - Cirilo F. Bautista Literature After EDSA (1986-1995)

III. T h e D e v e lo p m e n t o f P h ilip p in e L iterature in English (S in c e 1 900)

by Richard Croghan, S.J. (1975) divided Philippine literature in
English into three periods.
A. The Early Period (1900-1930)
B. The Middle Period (1930-1960)
C. The Modern Period (1960-1975)

IV. J o s e p h in e S e rra n o a n d T rin id a d A m e s in A S u rv e y o f

L iteratu re in English h a d th e fo llo w in g divisions:
A. The Apprenticeship Period (1910-1935)
B. The Emergence Period (1935-1945)
C. Contemporary Period (1945-present)

V. S ilverio B a lta z a r e t al in L ite ra tu re P a s t a n d P re s e n t (1981)

d e s c rib e d P h ilip p in e L ite ra tu re in E nglish a s
A. Period of Transition and Learning (1900-1935)
B. Period of Emergence and Recognition (1935-1960)
C. Period of Diversity and Re-examination (1960-present)

Pi of. Victor Rcy Fumar PNU LET Reviewer 75

English - Philippine Literature General Education

Literatura P A R T l-B - C O N T E N T U P D A T E

ng Pilipinas I. A ng L iteratu ra ng Pilipinas

Sumasaklaw sa pasalita o pasulat na pagpapahayag ng mga damdaming
ukol sa mga gawi at kaugaliang panlipunan, paraan ng pamumuhay,
kaisipang pampulitika at mga kapaniwalaang pangrelihiyon, ang mga
adhikain, ang mga pangarap - mula pa sa bukangliwayway ng kanilang
Inihanda ni kabihasnan hanggang sa kasalukuyan
Prof. Victor Rey Fumar Maaring naisulat o naisalimbibig sa ibat ibang wikain sa Pilipinas o mga
salin sa panitikang banyaga o naisulat ng Filipino sa wikang dayuhan

Competencies: A. Dalawang anyo ng Panitikan

1. Tuluyan - nasa anyo ng karaniwang pagpapahayag - malaya at
madaloy na pagbuo ng mga salita. Halimbawa: maikling katha,
1. Mabalangkas ang kasaysayan ng kathambuhay o nobela, dula, salaysay, talumpati, talambuhay o
bbiography, ulat, sanaysay at iba pa.
literature ng Pilipinas
2. Matukoy ang ibat ibang anyo ng 2. Patula - mga pahayag bna nagtataglay kadalasan ng sukat at tugma
literature na gawa ng mga manunulat sa mga pantig ng taludtod o ang mga salita at paraan ng pagbuo
sa Tagalog at ibat ibang rehiyon ng pahayag ay piling-pili, matayutay, at masining bukod sa pagiging
3. magpakita ng kakayahan na magbigay
kahulugan at magsuri ng mga teksto Ang sukat ay bilang ng mga pantig sa isang taludtod samantalang
4. Maipaliwanag at madalumat ang ang tugma ay ang pagkakasintunugan ng mga huling pantig sa bawat
taludtod ng saknong.
ibat ibang tema, paksa, estilo at
ang kaugnayan nito sa ibat ibang Mayroon ding mga tula na may sukat at walang tugma (blank verse) at
panahon ng panitikan sa Pilipinas, mayroon pa ring walang sukat at walng tugma (free verse).

76 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Victor Rev Fumar


General Education English - Philippine Literature

B. Mga Uri ng Tula TOMIN: Uban, kung ibig mo sana, / dinggin mo kung mabuti na ang itatapat kong kanta
1. Tulang Liriko - mahimig, may musika, at puno ng damdamin /k a y Menanggeng aking sinta.
Kantahin - binubuo ng mga payak na salita at sukat UBAN: Kanta yata sa ambahan / di ko na ibig pakinggan.
TOMING: Marikit na kantang bayan / bago kong pinag-aratan
Oda - may marangat na uri at matinding damdamin, at karaniwang
UBAN: Baya! Kantahin mo agad, / totonohan ko ng lundag
isang apostrophe o patungkol-sabi sa isang kaisipang binigyan ng Mahiwalay man sa kumpas / magagamot na ng tuwad.
personipikasyon, o pagpapahayag ng pangmadlang damdamin sa
isang mahalagang pangyayari. La India Elegante y el Negrito Amante" - Francisco Baltasar
Elehiya - nagpapahayag ng pagninilay sanhi ng isang pangyayari o
guniguni hinggil sa kamatayan. Melodrama - Plaridel" ( J. Sevilla), Katipunan, (G.B. Francisco)
Soneto - may labing-apat na taludtod at may ibat ibang kahatian
C. Ang Tanaga - tulang palasak nabago pa man dumating ang mga KastHa.
2. Tulang Salaysay - pagsasaad ng isang pangyayari na maaaring Binubuo ito ng apat na taludtod na may sariling pantigan.
totoo o guniguni.
Epiko - mahabang salaysay tungkol sa kabayanihan ng bida, kung D. Mga Uri ng Akdang Tuluyan
minsay hango sa mga karaniwang pangyayari ngunit kadalasa'y 1. Ang nobela o kathambuhay - nagtataglay ng maraming likaw ng mga
ukol sa mga di karaniwang tao na may mga pambihirang katangian. tagpo at sumasaklaw sa mahabang kawing ng panahon.
Awit at korido - karaniwang pagsasalaysay ng kagitingan, Nobelang makabanghay- binibigyan diin ang pagkakabalangkas ng
pagkamaginoo at pakikipagsapalaran ng mga prinsepet prinsesa, mga pangyayari
ng mga kabalyerong mandirigma sa layuning pagpapalaganap ng Nobela ng tauhan- mga hangarin at pangangailangan ng mga tauhan
relihiyong Kristiano. ang nangingibabaw
Karaniwang tulang salaysay- tungkol sa mga karaniwang takbo ng Nobela ng romansa- itoy tungkol sa pag-iibigan
buhay at maaaring mga nobelang isinalaysay na patula lamang. Hal. Nobela ng kasaysayan - nasasalig sa kasaysayan ang ibinubuhay
Ang Lumang Simbahan" (Collantes), Ang Pangginggera (Santos) Nobela ng layunin- nagbibigay diin sa mga simulain at mga laytsiing
mahahalaga sa buhay ng tao
3. Tulang Pandulaan - itinatanghal at ang mga tauhang gumaganap ay Nobelang masining - mahusay na pagkakatalakay at pagkakdtanay
may kani-kaniyang bahaging binibigkas nang patula. ng mga pangyayari
Saynete - La India Elegante y El Negrito Amante
2. Maikling Kuwento - maiksi, may sadyang pangunahing tauhan, at
may kaisahang kintal sa isipan ng bumabasa

Prof. Victor Rey Fumar PNU LET Reviewer 77

English - Philip ine Literature General Education

Sala sayo sketch- hindi nagmamalabis bagamat masaklaw, timbang P a rsa - may layuning magpatawa sa pamamagitan ng kawil-kawil na
na tir ibang ang mga bahagi mga pangyayaring nakakatawa at mga bukambibig at pananalitang
Kuw nto ng katutubong kulay - binibtgyang diin ang tagpuan, katawa-tawa.
kapa giran ng isang pook, pamumuhay at kaugalian ng mga tao S aynete- ang paksa ay naglalarawan ng mga karaniwang ugali.
Kuw nto ng madulang pangyayari - pangyayari ay kapansin-pansin
at ne jbubunga ng isang bigla at kakaibang pagbabago sa kapalaran 4. Alamat - kathang ang pinakadiwa ay mga bagay na makasaysayan
ng rr ja tauhan subalit ang ibang pangyayariy likhang isip na lamang ng maykatha.
Kuw 'nto ng pakikipagsapalarang maromansa - ang kawilihan ay
nas baiangkas sa halip na sa mga tauhan 5. Pabula - kuwento na may tauhang mga hayop at may layuning
Kuw, mto ng kababataghan - mga bagay na hindi kapani-paniwala at makapagbigay aral sa mga mambabasa lalo na sa mga kabataan
salui gat sa hustong bait, kaisipan at karanasan
Kuw mto ng katatawanan- kahawig lamang ng isang salaysay kaysa 6. Sanaysay - isang anyo ng paglalahad na kinapapalooban ng
isang tunay na maikling kuwento pangmalas, pananaw, pagkukuro at damdamin ng may-akda
Kuv wtong sikolohiko- ang tauhang nasa harap ng isang pangyayari
o ka agayan ay inilalarawan sa mga pag-iisip ng mga mambabasa 7. Talambuhay -kasaysayan ng buhay ng isang nilikha: (1) talambuhay
Kuv ento ng tauhan - binibigyang diin ang tauhan o mga tauhang na pang-iba, (2) talambuhay na pansarili
gurr igalaw sa kuwento.
Kuv ento ng katatakutan - damdaming makapigil hininga ang 8. Talumpati - salaysaying inihanda upang basahin o bigkasin sa harap
pint )ukaw sa kawilihan ng mambabasa ng mga taong handang makinig.
Ku\i ento ng talino- ang mahusay na pagkakabuo ng baiangkas ang
urn? akit sa kawilihan ng mga mambabasa
II. B a h ag in g S a k la w ng P anitikang Filipino
3. Dul s- ang kaisipan ng sumulat ay inilalagay sa bibig ng mga tauhang
gun aganap sa tanghalan o dulaan. A. Panahon ng Katutubo / Bago Dumating ang Mga Kastila (mula Simula
Tra edya - nagtataglay ng mahigpit na tunggalian, ang mga tauhay hanggang 1565)
ma mapupusok at masisidhing damdamin at humahantong sa 1. Panahon ng Kuwentong-Bayan
pac <apahamak at pagkasawi ng pangunahing tauhan o ng iba pang a. kuwentong bayan (folklore)
mg i tauhan m ito - Simula ng daigdig, ng tao, ng kamatayan, diyos at diyosa
Koi ledya - masaya at nagwawakas ng kasiya-siya sa mga manonood
Me odrama - may malulungkot na sangkap ngunit nagwawakas na
kas ya-siya at masaya para sa mabuting tauhan ng dula

78 PNU Li T Reviewer Prof. Victor Rcy Fumar

General Education English - Philippine Literature

alam at- 1} etiological nagpapaliwanag kung paano pinangalanan Bugtong Salawikain

ang mga bagay o pook, 2) non-etiological nauukol sa mga dakilang Ang kalabaw na apat ang paa, nadudulas pa.
Langit sa itaas,
tao at sa pagpaparusa ng malaking kasalanan. Hal. aswang, Langit sa ibaba,
tikbalang, engkanto. Tubig sa gitna. Ang unti-unting patak,
salaysayin (fo lk ta le s )- Juan Tamad, Pilandok Sa bato nakaaagnas.
Bongbong kung liwanag,
Kung gabi ay dagat. Madali maging tao,
Ako'y maharlika," ang sabi ni Somusun sa Alongan kay Pilandok. Ako ang anak
Mahirap ang magpakatao.
ng Solotan sa Agama Niyog. Kung pababayaan mong patunugin ko ang batingaw ay
Itinanim ng gabi
bibigyan kita ng isang sakong ginto. "
Sa umaga inani.
Tatanggapin ko iyan kung pababayaan mo muna akong makaalis bago mo
patunugin ang batingaw."
Sige, sabi n i Somusun sa Alongan. Ibinigay niya kay Pilandok ang sako ng ginto d. bulong - ginagamit na pangkulam o pang-engkanto
at nagtatakbo si Pilandok paalis.
Si Pilandok at ang Batingaw"- Abdullah T. Madale
2. Panahon ng Epiko
a. Microepic - kumpleto at maaring matapos sa isang upuan lang
b. Macroepic - ipinakikita lamang ang particular na batiagi, nag-
pabula (fa b le s )- Ang Pagong at ang Matsing iisang awit
c. Mesopic - maraming masalimuot na insidente
b. kantahing-bayan d. Epiko ng mga Kristiano - Lam-ang, Ibalon, Labaw Donggon
oyayi o holoborin - awit pampatulog ng sanggol e. Epiko ng mga di-Kristiyano - Alim, Tuwaang, Darangan, Agyu,
diona o ihim an - awit pangkasal Sandayo, Bantugan
soliranin o ta lin d a w - awit pamamangka
kundim an - awit ng pag-ibig Lahat sila ay tinungo ang kanilang vinta at nagtayag
tagumpay, kum intang, o tikam - awit-pandigma A t nagmadali patungo sa Bayang-Nakapagitna-Sa-Dalawang-Karagatan.
Samantala, ang pinakamamafial na mga kaibigan ni Prinsipe Bantugan,
Sina Mabaning a t Madali, ay bumuo ng isang mapangahas na balak
c. karunungang-bayan Na sakyan ang kanilang mahiwagang kalasag patungo sa langit
bugtong at palaisipan At hingin sa anghel ng mga patay na ibalik sa kanila
salawikain at kasabihan Ang kinuha nitong kaluluwa ng kanilang mahal na kaibigan.

Bantugen" - Epikong Maranaw, isinapilipino n i Fanny A. Garcia

Prof. Victor Rey Fumar PNU LET Reviewer 79

English - Philippine Literature General Education

B. Panahon ng Kastila / Pagpasok ng Kristiyanismo (1565-1872) b. tulang pang-aliw

1. Panahon ng Panitikang Pansimbahan Arte Poetico Tagalo
a. dalit - ibat ibang santot santa ang pinagdadalitan
b. nobena - katipunan ng mga panalangin na kailangang ganapin sa loob c. tuluyang pang-aliw
ng 9 na araw Barlaan at Josaphat
c. buhay ng mga santot santa Mga Buhok na Nangungusap
d. akdang pangmagandang-asal Tandang Basio Macunat

d. dulang pang-aliw
Urbana a t Felisa n i Padre Modesto de Castro duplo - tagisan ng talino ng dalawang pangkat sa pamamagitan ng
pagtula at ang mga kaisipang taglay ng berso ay kadalasang buhat sa
Ang pagsasalita ay sasayahan, ilagay sa ugali, itunton sa guhit, huwag hahaluan mga awit, korido, salawikain, at kasabihan.
ng kahambugan, at baka mapara doon sa isang nagsalitang hambog, na isinagot ng
kausap: Fuu, Fuu, na ang kahulugan ay: habagat, habagat. Huwag magpalampas ng sabi
karagatan - mimetikong laro batay sa alamat ng bisang prinsesang sa
at baka maparis doon sa isang paiato na sinagot ng kaharap: hintay ka muna amigot hangad na makaisang dibdib ang binatang mahirap na kanyang iniibig
kukuha ako ng gunting a t gugupitin ko ang labis. ay ihinulog sa dagat ang kanyang singsing upang sisirin ng lahat ng
kanyang manliligaw.
Urbana a t Feiiza - P. Modesto de Castro pangangaluluwa -
tibag - paghahanap at paghukay sa krus na pinagpakuan kay Kristo
2. Panahon ng Awit at Korido santacruzan - marangyang parade ng mga sagala na kumakatawan
a. awit ay korido sa ibat ibang tauhan sa Bibliya
awit - binubuo ng 12 pantig sa loob ng isang taludtod, apat na taludtod moro-moro o komedya - paglalaban ng mga Kristiyano at mga Muslim
sa isang taludturan. Ang musikay madalang o andante. Ang paksa ay karilyo - binubuo ng mga papet na nilikha buhat sa ginupit na mga
tungkol sa bayani at mandirigma at larawan ng buhay. karton at pinagagalaw sa harap ng puting tabing kung saan makikita
korido - ang sukat ay walong pantig sa loob ng taludtod. Ang musika ang mga anino ng papet bunga ng ilawan sa likod ng talon
ay mabilis o allegro. Ang paksa'y pananalampalataya, aiamat o senakulo - pagsasadula ng buhay at kamatayan ni Hesus
kababalaghan. panunuluyan - ang paghahanap ng matutuluyan nina Maria at Jose
Pasyon - Gaspar Aquino de Belen, Don Luis Guian, Padre Mariano salubong - pagsalubong ni Maria at ng muling nabuhay na si Heus
Pilapil, Padre Aniceto de la Merced sarswela - dulang musical, binubuo ng pagsasalaysay na sinaniban ng
mga sayaw at tugtugin at may paksang mitolohikal at kabayanihan

k M PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Victor Rey Fumar

------------------------------------ 1
General Education English - Philippine Literature

C. Panahon ng Pagkamulat / Panahon ng Pagbabagong-isip 2. Emilio Jacinto - Kartilla ng Katipunan, Liwanag at Dilim
(1872-1896) 3. Pio Valenzuela - Catwiran
Mga Manunulat 4. Apolinario Mabini - El Verdadero Decalogo
1. Herminigildo Flores - Hibik ng Pilipinas sa Inang Espanya" 5. Jose Palma - Himno Nacional Filipino
2. Marcek) H. del Pilar - "Dasalan at Tocsohan, Caiingat Cayo,
"Sagot ng Espanya sa Hibik ng Pilipinas: , Ang Cadakilaan ng Diyos E. Panahon ng Amerikano (1900-1942)
Aba Guinoong Baria nakapupuno ka ng alcancia, ang Fraile ang sumasaiyo bukod 1. Panahon ng Paghahangad ng Kalayaan
ka niyang pinagpala'tpinahiguit sa lahat, pinagpala naman ang kaban mong mapasok. o Ginamit ang mga dula upang ipahayag ang paghihimagsik.
Santa Baria Ina ng Deretsos, ipanalangin mo kaming huag anitan ngayon ay cami o ipinatupad ang ilang mga batas upang supilin ang mga mamayan:
ipapatay. Siya naua. Sedition Law, Anti-Flag Law, Brigandage Act, Reconcentration Act.
Ang Aba Guinoong Baria"- Marcelo H. del Pilar
o Ginamit ang wikang Ingles sa mga paaralang pampubliko.
3. Jose Rizal - Sa Aking mga Kababata, Liham sa mga Babaeng o Mabisang kasangkapan ng Amerikano ang pagpapalaganap ng
Taga-Malolos, Juntoal Pasig, Noli MeTangere atEI Filibusterismo romantisismo sa kanilang lahatan at mabilisang pagbabago sa
4. Graciano Lopez Jaena - Fray Botod katutubong kamalayang Filipino.
5. Antonio Luna - Por Madrid, Impressiones, La Tertulia Filipina 2. Panahon ng Aklatang-Bayan (1900-1921)
6. Pedro Paterno - Ninay, Sampaguitas y Poesias Varias a. Maikling Katha
o Pasingaw - kadalasang tungkol sa mga dalagang
D. Panahon ng Himagsikan (1896-1900) hinahangaan, nililigawan, sinasamba nang lihim o
Mga Manunulat pinaparunggitan sa dahilang nais tawagin ang pansin ang
1. Andres Bonifacio - Katapusang Hibik ng Pilipinas, Pag-ibig sa kapintasan sa pag-uugali o sa hitsura
Tinubuang Lupa o Dagli - maikling salaysay na nangangaral, namumuna,
nagpapasaring at nanunuligsa
Kayong mga dukhang walang tanging nais
o Maiikling kasaysayang pampatawa - pinamahalaan ni Patricio
Kundi ang mabuhay sa dalitat hirap
Ampunin ang bayan kung nasa ay lunas Mariano sa Muling Pagsilang
Pagkat ang guinhawa niya ay sa lahat. b. Tula at Mga Makata
o Jose Corazon de Jesus - Huseng Batute, ang Makata ng
Ipahandog-handog ang buong pag-ibig
Hanggang sa may dugo'y ubusing itiguis
Puso, "Isang Punongkahoy
Kung sa pagtatanggol buhay ay kapalit
Ito y kapalaran a t tunay na langit.

Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa"- Andres Bonifacio

P ro f. Victor Rey Fumar PNU LET Reviewer 81

English - Philippine Literature General Education

Kung tumingala ka sa gabing payapa RELIGIOSO 1: Ah, si Capitang Luis. Ito tagaroon sa amin. Masamang tao ito.
at sa tangit namay may ulilang tala, MARCELO: Mason po yata among.
na sinasabugan ikaw sa bintana RELIGIOSO 1: Kun hindi man mason, marahil filibustero, sapagkat kun siya
ng kanyang malungkot na sinag ng tuba, sumulat maraming K, kabayo ka.
lya'yako, Mutya! MARCELO: Hindi po ako kabayo Among.
RELIGIOSO 1: Hindi ko sinasabi kabayo ikaw, hindi kun isulat niya an kabayo may
Kung ikaw'y magising sa dapit-umaga K, an lahat nan C pinalitan nan K. Masama tao iyan, mabuti
isang paruparo ang iyong makita Mamatay siya.
nasa masetas mong didiligin sana RELIGIOSO 2: Marcelo, si Capitan Piton si Capitan Miguel at an Juez de Paz, ay
ang pakpak ay wasak a t nanlalamig na; Daratdagan nan racion.
lya'yako, Sinta! MARCELO: Hindi sila makakain en.
RELIGIOSO 2: Hindi na racion ang sinasabi ko sa iyo na dagdagan ay an pagkain,
Kahit Saan"- Jose Corazon de Jesus Hindi, ano sa akin kundi sila kumain. Mabuti nga mamatay silan
lahat. An racion na sinasabi ko sa inyo ay an palo, maramin palo
o Lope K. Santos - Makata ng Buhay, manunulat, gobemadof, na kailangan.
senador, guro, Mga Hamak na Dakila, Puso at Diwa
"Walang Sugat" - Severino Reyes
o Benigno Ramos - Ang Bahag ng Diyos
o Pedro Gatmaitan - pinaksa ang lipunang feudal, Salamisim
o Inigo Ed Regalado - Ang Pinagbangunan o Hermogenes Itagan - Dalagang Bukid, Hagan Films
o Florentino Collantes - Ang Lumang Simbahan o Pascual H. Poblete - Amor Patria
o Julian Cruz Balmaceda - Kung Mamili ang Dalaga" o Juan K. Abad - Tanikalang Ginto
o Valeriano Hernandez Pena - Luha ng Panulat o Jose Ma. Rivera - Ang Mga Kamag-anak
o Juan Crisostomo Sotto - Ang Kasalanan ng Patay
c. Nobela o Kathambuhay o Juan Matapang Cruz - Hindi Ako Patay
o Banaag at Sikat ni Lope K. Santos o Aurelio Tolentino - Kahapon, Ngayon, at Bukas
o Pinaglahuan ni Faustino Aguilar o Balagtasan
o Pinuno ng Tulisan ni Patricio Mariano o Balagtasan-balitaw - dulang Cebuano, pinaghalong duplo at
o Bulaklak ng Kalumpang ni Roman Reyes balitaw
o Madaling-Araw ni Inigo ed Regalado o Batutian - mimetiko at satirikong pagtatalong patula
o Bukanegan - balagtasan ng mga llokano
d. Dula at Dulaan o Crissotan - balagtasan ng mga Kapampangan
o Severino Reyes - Mga Kuwento ni Lola Basyang, Walang
Sugat, Gran Compana de Zarsuela Tagala

82 , PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Victor Rev Fumar

General Education English - Philippine Literature

3. Panahon ng Haw at Panitik (1922-1934) c. Ganap nang nababakas ang tinatawag na katimpian sa larangan
o Nagsimula sa paglitaw ng magasing Liwayway. ng pagtalarawan at sa pagpapahayag ng nadarama.
o Panahon ng pagpapalaganap o popularisasyon. d. Nagsimulang gumamit ng unang panauhan sa mga kuwento.
o Sa pamamagitan ng Parolang Ginto ni Clodualdo del Mundo, e. Pagtalakay at paghahambing sa buhay- lunsod at buhay sa nayon.
pinipili ang pinakamagagaling na katha ng mga buwan at taon. f. Pinagbagong-bihis ni AGA ang tula sa paggamit ng malayang
o Talaang Bughaw" naman ang buwanan at taunang pamimili ni taludturan at modernong tema.
Alejandro G. Abadilla ng pinakamahuhusay na tula at katha. g. Nanlupaypay ang dula dahil nauso ang bodabil sa stage shows at
o Kinilalang Makata ng Manggagawa si Amado V. Hernandez. dumating ang mga pelikulang galing sa Amerika.
h. Mula sa gintong panahon ng nobela sa nakaraang panahon,
Nangagtigil nanlupaypay din ang nobela.
ang gawain
sa bukirin
napahinga F. Panahon ng Hapones (1942-1945)
ang makina a. Itinuturing itong gintong panahon ng maikling kuwento at ng dulang
sa pabrika. Tagalog.
Natiwangwang b. Ipinagbawal ang Ingles kayat nagtamasa ang mga vernacular na trita
angdaunga't c. Nabigyang-sigla ang Pambansang wika dahil sa pagtataguyod ng
A t sa madia mananakop
ay nagbanta d. Karaniwang damdaming makabayan ang mga naisulat ngunit ang mga
ang dalita. manunulat ay ingat na ingat na hindi ito mahalata
e. Nabigyan ng diin ang katutubong kulay, ang pananalat at kadafman
Ang Aklasan" - Amado V. Hernandez ng pang-araw-araw na buhay.
f. Isinaaklat ang mga itinuturing na pinakamahusay na Kathang RSpino
o Hinangaan ang karikyan ng pananalitang ginagamit at katayugan noong 1943 - 25 Pinakamabubuting kathang Pilipino ng 1943
ng diwang ipinapahayag ni lldefonso Santos. g. Namalasak ang haiku. Binuhay naman ni lldefonso Santos ang tufang
4. Panahon ng Malasariling Pamahaiaan (1935-1942) h. Naisulat ang mahuhusay na kuwentong Lupang Tinubuan ni Narciso
a. Pagsilang ng Panitikan, isang kapisanang itinuturing na siyang Reyes, Uhaw ang Tigang na Lupa ni Liwayway Arceo, at "Dugo at
Sakdakista at aristokrata ng panulaang Filipino. Utak ni Cornelio S. Reyes.
b. Sinunog ng mga kasapi ng Panitikan ang mga akdang itinuring
nilang basura na.

Prof. Victor Rey Fumar PNU LET Reviewer 83

English - Philippine Literature General Education

G. Panahon ng Republika (1946-1972) g. Nagkaroon ng mga pandulaang grupo:

a. Lumabas ang datawang uri ng maikling katha - (1) ang komersiyal, at Childrens Museum and Library, Inc. ___
(2) ang pampanitikan Philippine Educational Theater Association (PETA)
b. Sinimulan ang taunang timpalak sa Tagalog at Ingles ng Carlos Palanca U.P. Mobile Theater
Memorial Awards noong 1950. Arena Theater ni Severino Montano
c. Binigyang puwang ng maraming magasing komersiyal ang mga h. Nagkatoon din ng dalawang uri ng dula: (1) ang dulang romantiko, (2)
bagong mamunulat ng maikling kuwento. dulang mapanghimagsik.
d. Nagkaroon ng maraming paksain ang mga manunulat: ang mga G.l. at i. Ang mga mandudula ay gumamit ng ibat ibang pamamaraan
ang mga babaeng hanggang piyer lamang, mga suliraning panlipunan, ng Realismong Panlipunan at Sikolohikal, ng Ekspresyonismo, at
buhay-buhay sa mga barong-barong, sa mga estero, sa Tundo at sa Absurdismo.
Sapang-Palay. Ang Paglilitis kay Mang Serapio ni Paul Dumol
e. Nagkaroon ng tatak ng makabagong panahon ang mga akda: Moses, Moses ni Rogelio Sikat
Kalamnan o paksang-diwa
Pamamaran, porma ar estilo H. Panahon ng Bagong Lipunan / Panahon ng Batas Militar (1972-1986)
Paglalarawang-tauhan Kathang naisulat sa panahong ito.
Pananalita o lenggwahe
f. Ilan sa mga pagbabago sa pamamaraan at porma sa balangkas ng Buti pa sila at nakukuhang ngumisngis. Ako kaya, kangino puwedeng magreklamo?
kuwento: Sulatan ko kaya si Valencia? Baka naman sagutm ako nito ng "Uminom ka na tang ng
kape." Si Marcos kaya ? Santambak ang problema nito sa buhay, biro mong problemahin
o Uring may balangkas o bahagyang balangkas, ngunit ang tunay na
nito pati kapalaran ng Pilipinas, tapos ipasasagot pa ito sa kanya sa kasaysayan baling
dula ay wala sa mga pangyayaring nababasa kundi nasa paglalaro araw, paano ako nito mapapansin? Magreport kaya ako kay Carter, issue rin ito ng mga
ng mga damdamin sinadistang estudyante, pero mahirap naming umingles. Baka interesado lang ito sa
o Uring walang balangkas at tila sinasadyang guHihin ang giyera na naluluma na.
Utos ng Hari - Jun Cruz Reyes
o Uring ginagamitan ng daloy ng kamalayan (stream of consciousness)
o Uring pinuputol ang maikling kuwento pagkatapos na maihatid
ang mga tauhan sa bungad ng pinakasukdol na pangyayari
o Uring ang maikling kuwento ay binubuo ng pansariling ulat ng
bawat tauhan o pangyayari

LET Reviewer Prof. Victor Key Funiar

General Education English - Philippine Literature
I. Panahon ng Ikaapat na Republika / Panahon Matapos ang EDSA
(1986 - hanggang sa kasalukuyan) P A R T II - A N A L Y Z IN G T E S T IT E M S

Eksibit Big. 1: Patalim, baril

o kahit na anong sandala, Read the excerpt in the box to answer the item below. Choose the letter of the best
patunay ng pagbabanta. answer.

Eksibit Big. 2: Panty na may mantsa, The old people had ordered that the dancing should stop a t ten o'clock but it was
patunay ng kabirhenan ng dalaga. almost midnight before the carriages came lining up to the front door, the servants
running to and fro with torches to light departing guests, while the girls who were
Eksibit Big. 3: Sertipikasyon ng doctor, staying were promptly herded upstairs in bedroom...
patunay na - May Day Eve" - Nick Joaquin
a: sapilitan
b: lubusan 1. What Philippine literary period is used as context of the story?
ang pagpasok ng ari,
"Gahasa" - Joi Barrios A. American Period C. Spanish Period
B. Japanese Occupation D. Martial Law
Explanation: The correct answer is C, Spanish Period. This answer is hinted by
the use of carriages (instead of cars) and torches (instead of electricity), the end of
dance at 10 o'clock, the presence of servants, and the herding of girls. (A) American
Period had already electricity in the city and party goers would usually have cars.
(B) Japanese Occupation did not give the Filipinos the occasion to hold parties and
dances: (D). Curfews during Martial Law was at 8 oclock and private social dancing
was mostly done in the afternoons.

To say Look what Life has done" is wrong,

People and things are seldom
Done to. They mostly do.
Inside Job - Edith Tiempo

2. Which sentence best expresses the idea of the lines above?

A. Life is what we make it.
B. Life is too short to be wasted.
C. People must be responsible for others.
D. People seldom do things right.
Prof. Victor Rey Fumar PNU LET Reviewer 85
English - Philippine Literature General Education
Explanation. The correct answer is A, Life is what we make it. This is expressed by A \ allusion \l p * 7 c. irony
the last two lines. (B) Life is too short to be wasted, (C) People must be responsible foreshadowing D. sarcasm
for others, and (D) People seldom do things right are not mentioned nor implied in Which figure of speech is shownin the line below taken from Irwin Castillos
the given lines. Tomorrow Is a Downhill Place ?
3. The idea expressed in the box below belongs to what school of thought?
The trees along the way were ruffling their wet leathers tensing their green wings
A poem is not a thought but a grace. in anticipation o f the coming flight.
A poem has no meaning but loveliness.
A. personification C. simile
Proem - Jose Garcia Villa B. hyperbole D. metaphor
7. The narrative below is set during the
A. escapist art C. art with social consciousness A trio of planes roared dangerously low. Shakily Lina and I dived into a shelter where a
B. modem art D. art for arts sake Chinese consul and his family crouched and bitterly they reproached us for crowding them
Explanation. The correct answer is D, art for arts sake, the aesthetic idea advocated in the already cramped space. Mother had run into another hole and ran out screaming
and advanced by Jose Garcia Villa. (A) escapist art though may be considered an for there was in it a man with half his face shot off. Outside the shelter we could hear Boni
aspect of art for arts sake is not really an identified school of thought. (B) modem begging Please don't leave me... We were scattered in all directions.
"People in the War" - Gilda Cordero Fernando
art is a general term that covers many aesthetic sensibilities. (C) art with social
consciousness is directly opposed to the idea in the given lines. A. EDSA uprising
4. Which sound device is not used in the last stanza of Carlos Angeles poem B. Vietnam War
Dusk"? ^T ) Japanese Occupation
Far from the precinct o f some fatuous fire D. Philippine Revolution of 1896
Streaking across the avenues like faith What is being developed in the excerpt taken from Morning in Nagrebcan by
Which reaffirms man's genius or desire - Manuel Arguilla?
And calmly smiles, and moves. The hour is late.
Am bo was almost as tall as his older brother and he had a stout, husky legs. He ate
A. alliteration C. anaphora the banana without peeling it.
B. assonance D. rhyme You foolish boy, remove the skin," Baldo said.
5. What literary device is used in the closing paragraph of "Harvest, a short story I will not, "Ambo said. Its not your banana." He took a big bite and swallowed it with
exaggerated relish.
written by Loreto Paras Sulit?
But the skin is tart. It tastes bad."
He was speaking to Tinay jokingly Soon a ll your sampaguitas and camias will be "You are not eating it, "Ambo said. The rest of the banana vanished into his mouth.
gone my dear aunt because I shall be seeing Milia every night... and her father. He
watched Fabian cleansing his face and arms and later wondered why it took his brother A setting C. conflict
that long to wash his arms why he was rubbing them so hard as that... characterization D. dialogue

86 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Victor Rey Fumar

General Education English - Philippine Literature
9. In what part of the pyramid plot structure should the excerpt above belong? A. metonymy and apostrophe
A. exposition C. crisis ^ a llu s io n and assonance . 4 ju J
B. complication D. denouement fif)a n a p h o ra and synecdoche -
10. What point-of-view is employed in the narrative excerpt below? hyperbole and metonymy
Read the passage below to answer items 14 and 15.
Miss Mijares was quite sure she had boarded the right jeepney but the driver, hoping
to beat the traffic, had detoured down a side alley, and then seeing he was low in gas, he But in itself the laughter is a good thing. In the past it m s perhaps the only way our j
took still another shortcut to a filling station. After that, he rode through alien country. people could get back at the foreign ruler. For in the future it should insure us against
submission to a messianic despot.
The Virgin" - Kerima Polotan Tuvera What Are Filipinos Like - Leon Ma. Guerrero

A. first person C. third person omniscient 14. The excerpt belongs to what genre?
B. third person limited D. second person ( $ ) essay B. fiction C. memoir D. sermon
11. The narrative below belongs to what genre? 15. what Filipino value is referred to in the passage?
Juan dropped the axe and the robbers fled leaving their loot and their food. Then Juan A. comic flair C. sobriety
and Pedro climbed down the tree ate the food and went home with the sacks o f goods B. lightheartedness $ p sense of humor
that the robbers left. 16. What is presented in the passage below?
Juan Osong" - Bicol Literature
With confident imagination he sees a vision of Earth whole and entire the globe
A fantastic story C. tall tale revolving on its axis journeying around the sun through October and December and
( jj) folktale D. fable the months of the summertime. Earth: he pronounces the word to himself as if to
12. Which plot element is covered in the excerpt? savor its taste upon his tongue. Third planet from the sun... America Asia and Europe
westward... the cities and the towns and the villages and all the people millions o f them
A. initial incident (S) climax
living now on earth... And all the stars in the sky.
B. rising action 0. failing action
13. What two poetic devices are used in this stanza? The Distance to Andromeda" - Gregorio Brilliantes
Today she mourns in captivity,
Today she ails with tears falling; A. scientific observation
Today her hands are in chains. B. personal experience
And all her children are enslaved. metaphysical theme
Dl heavenly vision
Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow" -
Aurelio Tolentino (Lourdes Vidal, trans)

IVol. Victor Rey Fumar PNU LET Reviewer 87

English - Philippine Literature General Education
17. What tone is established in this story excerpt below? A. anOFWsson C. a photographers daughter
The letter announcing the visitation (a yearly descent upon the school by the B. an orphaned child D. a young housekeeper
superintendent the district supervisors and the division supervisors for purposes of 20. What sound device is employed in the excerpt below?
inspectb n and evaluation') had been delivered in the morning by a sleepy janitor to
the principal. The party was the attached circular revealed at a hurried glance now at so a ding-dong sell
Pagkabuhay would be in Mapili by lunchtime and barring typhoons floods volcanic and a ding-dong buy
eruptions and other acts o f God would be upon Pugad Lawin by afternoon. imported cars and buses
to transport the younger pop
The Visitation o f the Gods" - Gilda Cordero Fernando ulace to point of demonstration

A. ironic (JP humorous C. gloomy D. sarcastic RiotSong - Tita LacambraAyala

FLOR: Please ask her to come and I l l buy all the tickets she wants. I have an official
photographer and he could take my picture with the First Lady. She is such a sweet A. anaphora X . consonance
lady. Tell her I 'II buy ten tickets and sell twenty to my friends if only she 'd attend. B. assonance \T)) onomatopoeia
MATIL: I am sure she 'II be pleased. 21. What rhythmical device is used in this line from The Small Key? .. .even the
FLOR: But only on that condition. Ill buy as many tickets as she wants if she comes to
my house. After all, my heart bleeds for those displaced people in Sapang Patay.
low square nipa house that stood in unashamed relief against the gray green
I shall go there and visit them. I shall bring my photographer so I can send the haze of grass and leaves.
picture to the papers. But I will not reveal my name, I shall wear a black veil alliteration C. consonance
covering my face and bring them tuyo and tapa and dilis. I could buy some stale B. assonance D. anaphora
bread from the bakeries and bring them too. 22. A bamboo flute is heard far away. Once more we hear the turtle crying. What
sense imagery isused in this description of the scene?
Call Me Flory" - Wilfredo Ma. Guerrero
A. visual (ft) auditory C. tactile D. olfactory
18. This play exemplifies the characteristics of a 23. SABINA (Irt monotone)'. Outside love, nothing lives! . . . What does Sabina
A. romance C. tragedy mean by this line?
satire D. farce A. Her love for Mr. George is forever.
1GMwho is the persona in the poem below? B. Her relationship with a married man causes her humiliation and
Orphaned by distances but filial to a photo-
' Graph postmarked, overseas, thus did I began (fT ) It is better for her to die than to lose Mr. George.
My wellkept boyhood in a tidy house D. She hates Mr. George for lying to her.
a cozy house

Poems for My Father" - Federico Licsi Espino

88 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Victor Rey Fumar

General Education English - Philippine Literatare
24. Which comic technique is used in Aganas NewYorker in Tondcfi
A. mistaken identity P A R T III - E N H A N C IN G T E S T T A K IN G S K IL L S
B. physical blunder
reversal of fortune
ridiculous situation
DIRECTIONS: Read the excerpt, question, or incomplete statement after each
25. What does Gonzalo mean by a little longer in this excerpt from Guerreros number. Choose your answer to each question or incomplete statement from the
Three Rats? choices that follow. Write the letter of your answer on your answer sheet.
Adrian: (Laughing)-. I expect to live a little longer, Gonzalo.
Gonzalo: A little longer is right. (Adrians face slowly begins to get red. He feels 1. Ano ang inilalarawan sa dalawang linyang ito?
a giddiness in his head - he presses his temples.)
A_ He wants Adrian to apologize for his affair with Nita. Kahit na tanghali ay tila rin gabi,
( B y The cyanide in Adrians coffee is taking effect. ang Usang Haw ay ayaw magsindi.
C. Adrian is getting drunk and incoherent.
Bayang Malaya" - Amado V. Hernandez
D. His wife's infidelity makes him suffer in silence.
A. bayan C. brawnawt
B. bahay 0 bilangguan
2. Alin sa mga sumusunod ang hindilotoo hinggil sa sarswela?
A. isang dulang musikal
B. sinasaniban ng sayaw at tugtugin
(& ) karaniwang paksa ang pag-aalsa
W unang umunlad sa Espanya noong ik a -17 dantaon
3. Ang batutian ay isang mimetiko at satirikong pagtatalong patula na may
kayarian ng isang dula. Ito ay ipinangalan sa makatang si
A. Francisco Baltazar
< i> Jose Corazon de Jesus
C. Jose de la Cruz
D. Crisostomo Sotto

Prof. Victor Rey Fumar PNU LET Reviewer 89

English - Philippine Literature General Education

4. Sa anong panahon naisulat ang mga taludtod na ito? 7. Alin ang pinaka-angkop na buod ng halaw?
Wala nangpamana itong Pilipinas Ang pinakamabisang paraan ng paglupig sa isang bansa ay pagbihag sa kaniyang
na layaw sa ina kundi pawing hirap; kaisipan. Ang tagumpay ng military ay hindi nangangahulugan ay pagsakop ng bansa.
tiis ay pasuiong, patentey nagkalat,
rekargo't impuesto'y nagsala-salabat. Ang Mating Edukasyon ng mga Filipino" - Renato Constantino

A. Panahon ng Amerikano A. Mas matindi ang pagkalupig ng isipan kaysa pagsakop sa teritoryo ng bansa.
C. Panahon ng Hapones / ^ ) Ganap ang pagsakop kung nagapi ng mga militar ang mamamayan.
(By Panahon ng Kastila C. Walang saysay ang lakas ng military sa tatag ng kultura ng bansa.
u. Panahon ng Batas ng Militar D. Nararapat labanan ang lahat ng uri ng pananakop ng nga dayuhan.
5. Mula sa anong mga mamamayan ang tulang ito? 8. Anong kaisipan ang ipinapahiwatig ng dalawang linyang ito?
Alam natin ang katotohanan
Sa gitna ng salon, ang boses ng tanso ay tumataginting,
tayo man ay nasaan:
Sinusundan-sundan ng apat na paang salit kung maglambing.
pagsapit ng hapon
iumulubog ang araw. Three O'clock in the Morning" - Cirio H. Panganiban
"Ambahan Tungkol sa Paggawa"
f f ij pagbabalatkayo C. pagtataksil
A. Tagalog C. Ivatan v . pagbabakasakaliD. pagmamahalan
H i) Mangyan D. tlocano 9. Sagutin ang bugtong.
6. Basahin ang mga linyang sumusunod._________ __________
Nang bata pa 'y paruparo
Huwag ninyo akong alukin Nang tumanda ay latigo.
ng mga taludtod
kung ang tula ay isa lamang A. saging C. singkamas
pumpon ng mga salita. B. sinturon D. sitaw
Basahin ang bahagi ng nobela at sagutin ang tanong 10 at 11.
Kung ang Tula Ay Isa Lamang -
Jesus Manuel Santiago Nang mag-aalas singko ay hindi makalakad si Atong kahit walang dala. Hindi niya
maitapak ang kaliwang paa niya nang dala ang buong bigat ng kanyang katawan.
Ang ninyo" sa unang linya ay tumutukoy sa mga ____ Pa'no kaya akong makakauwi nito?
A. manunulat C. manlilimbag ____ lhahatid kita, kung gusto m o, _____ sabi ni Julio.
B. ambibigkas <JT)makata _____Sige na nga, pakisuyo. Sa bahayka na tuloy tsumitsa.
Sa Mga Kuko ng Liwanag - Edgardo M. Reyes

f c t l B pMU LET Reviewer Prof. Victor Rey Fumar

General Education English - Philippine Literature

1 0 .M n a n g tumutukoy nang tarna sa mga tauhan at tagpuan? 15. Saan nagmula ang halaw na ito?
//m?\manggagawa sa lungsod __ Nakatagpo ni Baltog ang mga buwayang lumilipad sa Bicol a t mga baboy-ramdng
'e y tambay sa kanto kasintaiaki ng mga eiepante. Pinagpapatay niya ang mga ito.
C. puno sa tanggapan
D. magsasaka sa nayon ( } epiko C. kuwentong-bayan
11. Ano ang ibig sabihin ng huling salitang ginamit? B. koridoD. kuwento ng kababalaghan
A. magpahinga C. matulog 16. Anong uri ng sinaunang porma ng literatura ang nasa ibaba?
P B . kumain D. maghintay
Dagang malaki, dagang maiiit
1 2n\nong kaugalian o paniniwala ang nilalaman ng awiting-bayang ito? Heto ang ngipin kong sira at pangit
Sitsiritsit, alibangbang Bigyan mo ng magandang kapaiit.
Salaginto, salagubang
Ang babae sa lansangan
Kung gumiri parang tandang. A. awiting-bayan C. dalit
bulong D. bugtong
A. Ang mga Filipina ay parang mga paruparo.
B. Ang mabuting babae ay dapat nasa tansangan. Mahigit kang aba sa mapagpunuan
Ng hangat na puno a t masamang asal,
C. Masa loob dapat ng bahay ang kababaihan,
Sapagkat ang haring may hangad sa yaman
Ang nasa labas ng bahay ay haliparot. Ay mariing hampas ng langit sa bayan.
ang halaw upang masagot ang 13 at 14.
Fiorante at Laura - Francisco Battazar
Ang karangalan, sa karaniwan, ay may kalangkap na mabigat na katungkutan,
kaya bago pahikayat ang loob ng tao sa pagnanasa ng karangalan, ay ilingap muna
ang mata sa katungkulan, at pagtimbang-timbangin kung makakayang pasanin.
17. AHn ang tumpak na pagpapakahulugan ng siniping bahagi?
J k. Ang mga gahamang pinuno ay walang pinag-iba sa mga haring gahaman.
Urbana at Felisa - P. Modesto de Castro \B j Maiaking parusa sa bayan ang magkaroon ng punong gahaman at
duhapang sa kayamanan.
13 Ang karangalan na binabanggit ay tumutukoy sa C. Maituturing na sabwatan ang pagkakaroon ng mga hangal na puno at
A. pag-uugali ngitngit ng kalangitan.
B. karunungan D. Mas malubha ang kasalanan ng mga taong pinagkatiwalaang mamuno
14. Aling pelikula ang may katumbas o katulad na tema? ngunit naging gahaman.
A. Batman C. Zsa-Zsa Saturna
B. Superman 0 Spiderman

Ji o I. Vi* t o r K e y 1 u m a r PNU LET Reviewer 91

English - Philippine Literature General Education

18. Anong katotohanan hinggil sa kasaysayan ang ipinapakita sa tagpong ito ng 19. Ano ang pinupunto ng sanaysay?
nobela? fflpvAng dyipni ay bahagi ng pangkulturang pagkakakilanlan ng mga Filipino.
B r Ang dyipni ay nagtataglay ng kanluraning estilo kagaya ng baroque art.
Sa liblib na aking kinatataguan ay nagdaan ang dalawang Makabebe na kasama ang C. Ang dyipni ay pilit ginagaya ng ibang mga bansa pero pawang nangabigo
mga Amerikano, a t aking napakinggan sa kanila ang sumusunod na salitaan: sila.
UNANG MAKABEBE: Ito ang nuno ng tapang. Sino ang mag-aakalang makamatay D. Ang dyipni ay may tatak ng parehong katutubo at dayuhang sensibilidad.
pa ng walong Amerikano, ang koronel na itong halos ay naghihingalo na lamang?
Basahin ang halaw at sagutin ang huling tanong.
IKALAWANG MAKABEBE: Sinasabi ng Amerikanong manggagamot na kung sa
mga sugat daw lamang ay maaari pa siyang nabuhay, pagkat ang punglo 'y hindi naman Sa mga epiko nati'y wata ang phenomenon ng himagsikan. Ngunit kung hindi tayo
nakasira sa sangkap na mahahalaga sa loob ng katawan; ngunit, may kahirapan daw tututoi nang maiakas, kung hindi natin itataas an gating mga boses, kung hindi natin
siyang iligtas dahil sa lubhang kakulangan ng dugo, kaya nawawala tuloy ang pag-asa mauunawaan na ang salitang reconciliation ay matagal nang patay at ang salita dapat
dahil sa kahinaan ng katawan." natin ngayon ay registration, baka lumihis ng landas an gating bayan. Baka mawala sa
ating morpobhiya an gating kasaysayan. Sa halip na mapatay natin ang kontrabidang
Ang Singsing ng Dalagang Marmol - Isabelo de los Reyes pamahalaan ay baka tayo ang mapatay ng mga mahihirap. Sa kanila nanggaling an gating
mga epikot maaari rin nilang baguhin ang morpolohiya, balarila, a t gramatika ng mga ito.
C. Ang kabayanihan ng mga reboiusyonaryo. Si Lam-Ang, si Fernando Poe Jr., a t si Aquino: Hang Kuro-kuro
D. Ang karahasan ng mga kasali sa digmaan. Tungkol sa Epikong Filipino - Isagani R. Cruz
E. Ang pagtataksil sa bayan ng ilang mamamayan.
(FN Ang kalupitan ng Amerikanong mananakop. 20. Ano ang implikasyon ng kinatatakutan ng may-akdang kritiko?
Basahrn ang halaw. A. Ang masa ay karaniwang naaakit sa himagsikan.
B. Ang mga epiko ay sandata sa paglaban ng mamamayan.
lulad ng pista, ang dyipni ay bahagi ng buhay Filipino. Katunayan, ang Ford, Toyota,
Volkswagen, a t Chysler ay mga kompanyang multinasyonal na sumakay sa popularidad
C. Ang lipunan ay dapat sunud-sunuran sa mga epiko.
ng dyipni at lumikha ng ganitong sasakyan. Ngunit dahil nilikha nang maramihan, wala Ang mga mahihirap ang mapagpasyang uri sa lipunan.
sa mga ito ang sining o ang disenyong baroque. S a halip, isahang lagyan ng kulay na 21. Wnich story has a circular plot?
lamang. May ilang drayber ng Tamaraw na sumubok na lagyan ng makulay na disenyo Dead Stars C. Magnificence
ang kanilang sasakyan upang makopya ang magic ng dyipni. Masyadong diretso ang B. May Day Eve D. Harvest
linya ng mass produced na dyipni at hindi akma sa sensibilidad ng Pilipino. 22. But, alas, the heart forgets; the heart is distracted; and___________ passes;
summer ends, the storms break over the rot-ripe orchards and the heart grows
Alisin Ka Mo ang Dyipni? Teka Muna" - Valerio L. Notuente
old; . ..
A. May day eve C. May night
B. Mayday midnight D. May-time

92 PNU LET Reviewer Prof. Victor Rey Fumar

General Education English - Philippine Literature

23. Alfredo Salazar undergoes epiphany at the end of Marquez-Benitez story.

What does epiphany mean? _
A. regret ( insight C. freedom D. confusion
24. There was nothing to fear, for the man was always so gentle, so kind. What
Werary device is employed in this line from M agnificence
w foreshadowing C. symbolism
B. en medias res D. flashback
25. It was not quite five, and the bread was not yet ready. What does the bread
bolize in Bread o f Saif?

r The boys unreciprocated love for Aida.

The embarrassment of the boy in the presence of Aida.

C. The boys dream of becoming a famous violinist.
D. The differences in the social status between Aida and the boy.

Prof. V k tw Key I'umar PNU LET Reviewer I

English - World Literature General Education


Literature A . S u m e ria n ,E g y p tia n ,a n d H e b re w L ite ra tu re (3 0 0 0 B .C .-1 0 0 B .C .)

1. Gilgamesh. The epic poem Gilgamesh is the first great heroic narrative
of world literature. Its origins date back to the margins of prehistory, and
its evolution spans millenia. Tablets containing portions of Gilgamesh have
Prepared by: been found at sites throughout the Middle East and in all the languages
Dr. Ma. Antoinette C. Montcalegrc written in cuneiform characters, wedge-shaped characters incised in clay
or stone. The epic developed over a period of nearly a thousand years.
The version discovered in the city of Nineveh amid the ruins of the great
Competencies: library of Assurbanipal, the last king of the Assyrian empire - what modern
scholars call the Standard Version - circulated widely throughout the
1. s h o w k n o w le d g e o f th e different genres of ancient Middle East for a millennium or more.
literature a n d th e e le m e n ts a n d conventions
characteristic of e a c h genre The epic narrates the legendary deeds of Gilgamesh, the king of Uruk, but
2 . apply interpretive a n d analytical skills in it begins with a prologue that emphasizes not his adventures but wisdom
reading selec ted w o rk s in w orld literature he acquired and the monuments he constructed at the end of his epic
3 . display k n o w led g e a n d understanding of journey. It also tells us that Gilgamesh was endowed by his divine creators
figures o f s p ee c h a n d figurative language with extraordinary strength, courage, and beauty. He is more god than man
4 . point out th e literary techn iques a n d devices - 2/3 god and 1/3 human.
em p lo y ed by authors
5 . identify th e th e m e /s a n d /o r universal Gilgamesh is the epitome of a bad ruler: arrogant, oppressive, and brutal.
insights c o n v ey e d by different literary w o rk s The people of Uruk complain of his oppression to the Sumerian gods,
in w orld literature and the gods response is to create Enkidu as a foil to Gilgamesh. The
6 . define s o m e literary c o n c e p ts evident goddess Aruru creates Enkidu to contend with Gilgamesh and absorb his
in particular texts (e.g. in m ed ias res, energies. Gilgamesh and Enkidu fight savagely and for a long time, but
no one emerges as the winner for both are strong and a match for each
archetype, tragic flaw, etc.)
other. Later Enkidu becomes a faithful friend of Gilgamesh. Together they
94 PNU LET Reviewer Ur. M.t. Antoinette C. Montealegre
General Education English - World Literature
set off to destroy Hunnbaba, the giant who guards the cedar forest. Both Kingdom (ca. 2575-2130 B.C.). They include narratives, incantations, and
of them also kill the bull Ishtar sends to punish Gilgamesh for rejecting invocations designed to help the pharaohs soul on its journey to the other
her advances. Enkidu is destined to die for helping to kill the bull and world. There were also lyrics and devotional poems that were composed
Humbaba. When he dies, Gilgamesh is so grief stricken that he embarks on during the millennium that includes all the dynasties of the Middle and N * j
a quest not for glory but for everlasting life. The death of Enkidu reveals to kingdoms (ca. 2130-1200 B.C.). j
Gilgamesh the hollowness of mortal fame, and this leads him to undertake
a solitary journey in search of immortality. He travels far and wide in search The flowering of ancient Egyptian culture came between 1570 -1085 B.C,
of the plant of immortality. When he finally gets it, he loses it to a snake the time of the New Kingdom in Egypt. One type of poetry that emerged I
which ate it while Gilgamesh sleeps. in the New Kingdom is the pastoral poem which deals with the pleasure
of simple rural life or that treats the longings and desires of simple people.
From the Prologue The word pastoral comes from the Latin word for shepherd - p a s to r- bat
pastoral poetry is not merely about shepherds.
I will proclaim lo the world the deeds o f Gilgamesh. This was the man whom all
things were known; this was the king who knew the countries of the world. He was wise,
he saw mysteries and knew secret things, he brought us a tale o f the days before the Sample o f Egyptian poetry (excerpt only)
flood. He went on a long journey, was weary, worn out, returning he rested, he engraved
on a stone the whole story. When in splendor you first took your throne
high in the precinct of heaven, 0 living God, life truly began!
When the gods created Gilgamesh they gave him a pertect body. Shamash the Now from eastern horizon risen and streaming,
glorious sun endowed him with beauty, Adad the god of the storm endowed him with you have flooded the world with your beauty.
courage, the great gods made his beauty pedect, surpassing all others, terrifying like a You are majestic, awesome, bedazzling, exalted,
great wild bull. Two-thirds they made him god and one-third man. Overlord over all earth,
yet your rays, they touch lightly, compass the lands
to the limits o f all your creation.
2. Ancient Egyptian Poetry. The literature of ancient Egypt has survived There in the Sun, you reach to the farthest of those
you would gather in for your Son, 'whom you love;
only in scattered fragments, and because of the difficulty of the Egyptian
Though you are far, your light is wide upon the earth;
language and writing system (a complex system of stylized pictographs and you shine in the faces o f all who turn to follow your journeying.
called hieroglyphics), it is far less well known than either the art or the
architecture. *PharoahAkhenaiai
(Translated by John L Fosta)
The ancient Egyptians possessed a poetry that was rich and varied in
tath its subjects and its forms. The largest and earliest group of poems
comes from the pyramids that were constructed in the period of the Old

I>t. M.i. AntiMiuric (!. Montcalcgrc PNU LET Reviewer

English - World Literature General Education
The word B ible came from the Greek word biblia, meaning a collection of
What inferences do you make about the speaker? How does the speaker
writings. Despite the diversity of the Bible, it is unified by a few constant
portray God (line 3), the father of Pharaoh Akhenaten? What lines or words
themes. Among these are power, goodness, and mercy of one God; the
would support your answer? What figure of speech is used in you have
covenant, or solemn agreement, into which God enters with the Hebrew
flooded the world with your beauty? What does it mean?
people; the tendency of humans to commit sins; and the forgiveness they
win from God. The Bible has also been of major importance for Muslims
Below is an excerpt from an Egyptian love poem.
and Christians. One famous translation of the Bible was the English version
done by a committee of scholars for King James (1611).
[Love o f you is mixed deep in m y vitals]

Love o f you is mixed deep in my vitals, from Genesis 1

like water stirred into flour for bread,
Like simple compound in a sweet-tasting drug, In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And the earth was without
like pastry and honey mixed in perfection. form, and void; and darkness was upon the face o f the deep. And the spirit of God
Oh, hurry to look at your love! moved upon the face of the waters.
Be like horses charging in battle, And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. And God saw the light, that it
Like a gardener up with the sun was good: and God divided the light from the darkness. And God called the light Day,
burning to watch his prize bud open. and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.
High heaven causes a girl's lovelonging. And God said let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the
it is like being too far from the light, waters from the waters. And God made the tirmament, and divided the waters which were
under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. And
Far from the hearth o f familiar arms. God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day....
It is this being so tangled in you.
(from King James Version)
(translated by John L. Foster)

4. The Bible: The New Testament. The collection known to Christians as

Point out the lines that show the use of simile and metaphor. What do they
the New Testament was formed by combining the four gospels of Matthew,
mean? Why are they used by the speaker?
Mark, Luke, and John with another book by Luke, The Acts of the Apostles,
which is an account of Paul's missionary journeys to the cities of Greece
3. The Bible: The Old Testament. The religious attitudes of the Hebrews
and Asia Minor. The Gospel of John draws on different sources and also
appear in the story that they told of the creation of the world and humankind.
has greater theological density than the other three.
The most important example of Hebrew literature is the Jewish Bible (called
by Christians the Old Testament in contrast to the New Testament).

Dr. Ma. Antoinette C. Montealegre

96 PNU LET Reviewer
General Education English - World Literature

from Luke 15 from the Koran

Then drew near unto him all the publkans and sinners for to hear him. And the 1) 'God changes not what is in a people,
Pharisees and the scribes murmured, saying, This man receiveth sinners, and eateth until they change what is in themselves.
with them.
And he spoke this parable unto them, saying, What man of you, having a hundred 2) When the help o f God arrives and victory,
sheep, if he lose one o f them, doth not leave the ninety and nine in the wilderness, and And you see human beings entering Gods religion in hordes
go after that which is lost, until he find it? And when he hath found it, he layeth it on Then recite the praises for your Lord and seek forgiveness o f Him.
his shoulders, rejoicing. And when he cometh home, he calleth together his friends and Indeed, He is relenting.
neighbours, saying unto them, Rejoice with me; for I have found my sheep which was
lost. I say unto you that likewise jo y shall be in heaven over one sinner that repenteth,
more than over ninety and nine ju s t persons, which need no repentance. Persian Literature
The form of literature for which Persia is best known is poetry. In the 9th
and 10th centuries, several poets attempted to write epic poems describing
Persian history. The most famous of these poems is The Shah-nama, or " Epic
B. P e rsian a n d A ra b ic L ite ra tu re (c .a. A .D . 6 0 0 - A .D . 1 4 0 0 ) of Kings, by Firdawsi. This epic is still considered a national treasure in Iran.
The Shah-nama is presented as a history of Persia from the beginning of the
Arabic Literature world until the conquest of Iran by the Arabs. The most important hero is the
By the time of Muhammads birth, the Arabs already possessed a large body warrior Rustam.
of poetry. For centuries, poets from ail over Arabia had gathered to recite odes
from Firdawsis The Shah-nama
(qasidas) praising their own tribe or making fun of others. Even after the
rise of Islam, Arabs continued to appreciate poetry. Arabic prose also began From sunrise till the shadows grew they strove
to develop, although the earliest works were religious in nature and dealt, Until Suhrab, that maddened elephant,
directly or indirectly, with the text of the Koran. Islamic Arabs also enjoyed Reached out, upleaping with a lion's sp rin g . . .
listening to fables and folktales. The Thousand and One N ights (also known
as The Arabian Nights) is by far the most famous. This collection of stories puts Another Persian poet is Omar Khayyam, who is also a mathematician and a
together tales into one long narrative. One of the simplest and oldest tales in scientist. He is probably the best known Islamic poet in the West. A collection
The Thousand and one N ights is The Fisherman and the Jinnee." of poetry called 77?e Rubaiyat is attributed to him. His poems are written in a
literary form known as the rvbai. This form takes its name from the Arabic word
for four, because each poem consists of four lines, the first, second, and fourth
of which rtiyme with one another. The poet must use concise and vivid imagery
to convey his message to the reader through the use of elaborate metaphor.

Or. Ma. Antoinette C. Montealegre PNU LET Reviewer 97

English - World l iterature General Education

from The Rubaiyat o f Omar Khayyam XXVIII

With them the seed o f Wisdom did I sow, The M ahabharata is the worlds longest epic. The myths and tales in this
And with mine own hand wrought to make it grow; epic are woven into the fabric of its main story: the account of a fight over the
And this was all the Harvest that I reapd - rights to a kingdom. Two branches of a family, the Pandavas and the Kauravas,
"I came like Water, and like the Wind I go. are involved in this dispute. When the five Pandava brothers are banished or
exiled to the forest, they meet various characters who tell them instructive and
entertaining stories. One such story is Sibi about how righteous behavior is
C . In d ia n L iteratu re (c. 1 4 0 0 B .C . - c . A .D . 50 0)
The Panchatantra (The Five Books or The Five Strategies) attributed to
Ancient Indians had no literary genres like the novel or the short story. Except
Visnusarman, is the best known collection of folktales and animal fables in
tor poetry and drama, most Sanskrit texts imitated the R ig-veda in attempting
Indian literature. It aimed to teach the young princes of India in the ancient
to convey general and timeless truths.
times about political matters and interpersonal relationships in general.
Hinduism, an Indian religion, claims the Vedas as the source of all truth and
Each of the five books of the Panchatantra begins with a frame story, whose
the basis of its religious beliefs. The earliest and most influential of these
characters tell each other stories illustrating the conduct appropriate to diverse
sacred texts is the Rig-veda. Compiled around 1400 B.C., the Rig-veda is
social and political situations. The characters within the illustrative tales tell
a collection of 1,028 hymns composed by different authors at different times.
each other stories as well and so on, until the nested tales eventually lead back
It also contains poems like the Creation Hymn which speculates about the
to the frame story.
origin and nature of the universe.

from the Creation Hymn" o f the Rig-veda. From the Panchatantra - Book V
Ill-Considered Action
'/ There was neither non-existence nor existence then; there was neither the
realm of space nor the sky which is beyond. What stirred? Where? In whose Let the well-advised be done;
protection? Was there water, bottomlessly deep? Ill-advised leave unbegun:
2 There was neither death nor immortality then. There was no distinguishing Else, remorse will be let loose,
sign o f night and day. That one breathed, windless, by its own impulse. Other As with lady and mongoose
than that there was nothing beyond. How was that?" asked Jewel. And they told the story of

98 PNU LET Reviewer Dr. Ma. Antoinette C. Montealegre

General Education English - World Literature

The Loyal Mongoose cause the lovers to part. A sages curse and the loss of the kings signet ring
There was once a Brahman named Godly In a certain town. His wife mothered a result in the kings forgetting of his liaison with Bakuntala, and plunge her into
single son and a mongoose. And as she loved little ones, she cared for the mongoose further suffering, far away from her lover. The recovery of the ring jogs the
also like a son, giving him milk from her breast, and salves, and baths, and so on. But Dushyantas memory, and now it is his turn to suffer, not knowing where to
she did not trust him, for she thought: A mongoose is a nasty kind of creature. He might
find Sakuntala. With the intervention of the sages and gods, the two lovers are
hurt my boy. Yes, there is sense in the proverb:
reunited together with their young son.
A son will ever bring delight,
Though bent on folly, passion, spite,
Though shabby, naughty, and a fright. D . C h in ese L iteratu re (1 0 0 0 B .C . - A .D . 1890)
One day she tucked her son in bed, took a water-jar, and said to her husband: Now,
Professor, I am going for water. You must protect the boy from the mongoose." But In contrast to other ancient literary cultures, which begin with epics, prose
when she was gone, the Brahman went o ff somewhere himself to beg food, leaving the legends or hymns to the gods, the Chinese tradition begins with lyric poetry.
house empty. The Classic o f Poetry (also known as the Book o f Song^j is a collection of 305
While he was gone, a black snake issued from his hole and, as fate would have it, songs representing the heritage of the Chou people. The earliest in the collection
crawled toward the baby's cradle. But the mongoose, feeling him to be a natural enemy,
are believed to date from around 1000 B.C. and the latest from around 600 B.C.,
and fearing for the life o f his baby brother, fell upon the vicious serpent halfway, joined
the battle with him, tore him to bits, and tossed the pieces far and wide. Then, delighted at which time it seems to have reached something like its present form.
with his own heroism, he ran, blood trickling from his mouth, to meet the mother; for he
wished to show what he had done. There are temple hymns to the ancestors of the Chou ruling house, narrative
But when the mother saw him coming, saw his bloody mouth and his excitement, she ballads on the foundation and history of the dynasty, royal laments, songs of
feared that the villain must have eaten her baby boy, and without thinking twice, she
angrily dropped the water-jar upon him, which killed him the moment it struck. There
soldiers glorifying war and deploring war, love songs, marriage songs, hunting
she left him without a second thought, and hurried hom e,... songs, songs of women whose husbands had deserted them, banquet songs,
poems of mourning, and others. Many seem to have originated as folk songs,
but these are mixed together with poems from the Chou aristocracy.
Sakuntala by Kalidasa is the most beloved of Indian plays. Rooted in the values
of Indias classical civilization, and at the same time articulating a profoundly However simple the poems of the Book of Songs may appear on the surface,
human vision, the play about lovers parted and reunited transcends cultural they embody the central values (if not the realities) of early Chinese civilization.
particularities. The plot, adapted from an older epic tale, is simplicity itself. Again and again the poems return to a fascination with timely action, to the
need to speak out, to balances and exchanges, and to acts of explanation.
On seeing the lovely maiden Sakuntala in the enchanting setting of the
woodland hermitage presided over by the sage Kanva, Dushyanta inevitably For example, a young woman tosses a man a piece of fruit as a love gift, and
tails in iove with her. The young woman returns his passion. Circumstances the young man answers with an exchange:

I h, M.i. Antoinette C. Montealegre PNU LET Reviewer 99

English - World Literature General Education

#64 terse and sometimes apparently innocuous sayings as welt as a few longer
anecdotes. Throughout the Analects the reader is reminded that wisdom comes
She cast a quince to me, She cast a peach to me, in fragments and fractions; the burden of understanding is placed on the reader.
a costly garnet I returned; costly opal I returned; At the heart of the Analects is the hope that the members of society behave
it was no equal return, it was no equal return,
with a natural decency toward one another, respecting age and hierarchy and
but by this love will last. but by this love will last.
adapting to their changing roles.

The exchange is economically unequal, a jewel returned for fruit. But the young from The Analects o f Confucius
man acts at once to restore the exchange to balance, explaining that the jewel
was not given as an object of value, but as a token and message, just as the The Master said, At fifteen I set my heart on learning; at thirty I took my stand; at forty
fruit she threw had been a message. I came to be free from doubts; at fifty I understood the decree o f heaven; at sixty my ear
was atuned; at seventy I followed my heart's desire without overstepping the line. (from
Book II)
from the Book o f Songs The Master said, It is these things that cause me concern: failure to cultivate virtue,
#20 failure to go more deeply into what I have learned, inability, when I am told what is right, to
move to where it is, and inability to reform myself when I have defects." (from Book VII)
Plums are falling, Plums are falling, Plums are falling,
seven are the fruits; three are the fruits; catch them in the basket;
many men want me, many men want me, many men want me, What values or virtues are emphasized in the two teachings from the Analects?
let me have a fine one. let me have a steady one. le t me be bride o f one.

The Tao Te Ching is widely regarded to be the most influential Taoist text.
What do the plum s represent in the poem? What does each of the last line The title means The Classic o f the Way and Its Power o r Virtue. It is a
mean? What does each imply? foundational scripture of central importance in Taoism purportedly written by
Laozi. The earliest text of the Tao Te Ching that has been excavated (written on
Along with poetry, the most highly valued Chinese literary works are philosophical bamboo tablets) dates back to the late 4th century B.C. It has been used as a
texts. Of these books, the most notable are The A nalects of Confucius and ritual text throughout the history of religious Taoism.
the Tao Te C hingo\ Lao Tzu - the principal works of Confucianism and Taoism,
respectively. The Tao Te Ching is not thematically ordered. However, the main themes of the
text are repeatedly expressed using variant formulations, often with only a slight
The A nalects represents the memory of Confuciuss teachings and was difference. The leading themes revolve around the nature of Tao and how to
probably not written down until many centuries after his death. In its present attain it. Tao is said to be unnameable and accomplishing great things through
form the Analects consists of twenty books or chapters. It is a collection of small means.

too PNU LET Reviewer Dr. Ma. Antoinette C. Montealcgre

General Education English - World Literature

from the Tao Te Ching IX from the Manyoshu

R ather than fill it to the brim by keeping it upright I Loved Her Like the Leaves
Better to have stopped in time; Kakinomoto Hitomaro
Hammer it to a point
And the sharpness cannot be preserved forever; 'I loved her like the leaves,
There may be gold and jade to fill a hall The lush leaves of spring
But there is none who can keep them. That weighed the branches o f the willows
To be overbearing when one has wealth and position Standing on the jutting bank
Is to bring calamity upon oneself. Where we two walked together
To retire when the task is accomplished While she was of this world.
Is the way of heaven. My life was built on her;
But man cannot flout
The laws of this world.
What virtue or value is emphasized in this Taoist teaching? What metaphor is To the wide fields where the heat haze shimmers,
used in this text? Hidden in a white cloud,
White as white mulberry scarf,
She soared like the morning bird
E. J a p a n e s e L itera tu re (5 0 0 B .C . - A . D. 18 9 0) Hidden from our world like the setting s u n ....

Poetry is one of the oldest and most popular means of expression and
The above poem is an example of a choka, a poem that consists of alternate
communication in the Japanese culture. Poetry has already existed for centuries
lines of five and seven syllables with an additional seven-syllable line at the
as part of the oral tradition of the Japanese. The first anthology of Japanese poetry
end. Unlike other Japanese verse forms, there is no limit to the number of
is the Manyoshu, or the Book o f Ten Thousand Leaves. This anthology,
lines in a choka.
containing four thousand poems, includes the works by poets from a wide
range of social classes, including the peasantry, the clergy, and the ruling class.
Another Japanese poetic form is the tanka which consists of five tines of five,
seven, five, seven, seven syllables. This poetic form shows the Japanese
The poems of The Manyoshu were recorded using Chinese characters in three
preference for simplicity, suggestion, and irregularity. The most common
different ways: for meaning, for sound when read in Chinese, and for sound
subjects of a tanka are love and nature. Tanka poets generally exhibit restraint,
when read in Japanese. The anonymous poems in the collection, nearly two
relying on clear, powerful imagery to evoke an emotional response rather than
thousand, far outnumber those by any of the known poets. The collection
using abstract words to directly express their feelings. The Japanese place
includes poems that tell life in the wilderness, poems by fishermen, farewell
more emphasis on the imagery used and the emotions evoked by a tanka than
poems, even poems by travelers to Korea.
they do on the structure of the poems.
I)r. Ma. Antoinette C. Montealegre PNU LET Reviewer 101
English - World Literature General Education

Here is an example of a tanka: from Essays in Idleness by Kenko

A t the great sky 'How delightful it would be to converse intimately with someone o f the same mind,
I gaze all my life: sharing with him the pleasures o f uninhibited conversation on the amusing and foolish
For the rushing wind, things o f this world, but such friends are hard to find.'
Though it howls as it goes,
Can never be seen.'
The No, the classical theater of Japan, is the worlds extant professional theater.
- 0. Mitsune It is also among the worlds gravest and most stylized. The word no may be
translated as talent, skill, or accomplishment. Performed on an austere,
Still another Japanese poetic form is the haiku, which consists of three lines undecorated stage of polished cypress, with no scenery and virtually no props,
of five, seven, and five syllables. Originally it is the opening verse (the hokkdj the ritual-like poetic dance-dramas of the No have been described as a theater
of a renga, a form of collaborative poetry, but later the haiku developed into a free of the artifice of stagecraft. The small cast of actors, all males, wearing
distinct literary form. Reflecting the dominant tastes of the Japanese culture, masks is accompanied by a chorus, and because the stage is bare with no
haiku are characterized by precision, simplicity, and suggestiveness. Almost all trappings of representational theater, the actors own talent or accomplishment
haiku contains a kigo, a seasonal word, such as cherry blossoms, snow, falling (that is, his no) became paramount.
Two other forms of drama emerged later: the Jo ru ri (now called BunrakU) and
Here are two examples o f the haiku: Kabuki. Joruri is staged using puppets. Kabuki involves lively, melodramatic
acting and is staged using elaborate and colorful costumes and sets.
'Melting snow: An old pond:
And on the village a frog jumps in
Fall the children.' the sound of water.
- Issa - Basho F. G re e k L iteratu re (c. 8 0 0 B .C . - 3 2 3 B .C .) an d R om an L iteratu re
(c. 3 0 0 B .C . - A .D . 500)
Appearing in the early part of the 8th century, the first works of Japanese prose,
the K ojiki, or Record of Ancient Matters, and Nihon Shoki, or Chronicles of Greek Literature
Japan, focused on Japanese history. Before Lady Murasaki Shikibus Tale o f The stories told in the Homeric poems are set in the age of the Trojan War, which
G enji appeared, there was The Tale o f the Wez/rewriiten by an unknown author archeologists date back to the 12th century B.C. The poems preserve some of the
during the 13th century. Another important work of prose produced during faded memories of the Mycenean Age. This was the time of the final settlement
the age of feudalism is Essays in Idlleness, a loosely organized collection of of the Greek peoples, an age of invasion perhaps and migration which saw the
insights, reflections, and observations, written during the 14th century by a foundation and growth of many small independent cities. The geography of Greece -
Buddhist priest named Kenko. a land of mountain barriers and scattered islands - encouraged this fragmentation.

102 PNU LET Reviewer Dr. Ma. Antoinette C. Montealegrt

General Education
English - World Literature
Greek literature begins with two masterpieces, the Iliad and the Odyssey
which are attributed to the poet Homer, about whom nothing is known except The Odyssey is concerned with the peace that followed the war and in particular
his name. Revered as statements of cultural identity, the Hiad and the Odyssey with the return of the heroes who survived to their own kingdoms. Its subject
center on heroes who embody the values of ancient Greek culture. is the long drawn-out return of Odysseus to Ithaca. He was destined to spend
ten years wandering in unknown seas before he returned to his own kingdom.
The Iliad recounts only part of a long series of events in the Trojan War, which It celebrates return to ordinary life after all the excitement, toil, and danger. The
was fought, according to the legend, because of a quarrel among the gods and Odyssey offers a more positive meditation on the nature of civilization and of
the resulting betrayal among mortals. All the action in the Iliad is, more or less the structure of political daily life as the Greeks experienced it. It does so by
directly, the consequence of Achilles anger at being dishonored. showing what a community has to lose by the absence of those structures and
to. gain by their affirmation.
From the Iliad by Homer
From the Odyssey - Book XXII
.. Achilleus of the swift feet spoke: (Death in the Great Hall)
0 wrapped in shamelessness, with your mind forever in profit,
how shall any one o f the Achaians readily obey you For they imagined as they wished - that it was a wild shot,
either to go on a journey or to fight men strongly in battle? an unintended killing - tools, not to comprehend
I for my part did not come here for the sake of the Trojan they were already in the grip of death,
spearmen to fight against them, since to me they have done nothing. but glaring under his brows Odysseus answered:
Never yet have they driven away my cattle or my horses,
never in Phthia where the soil is rich and men grow great did they "You yellow dogs, you thought I'd never make it
spoil my harvest, since indeed there is much that lies between us, home from the land o f Troy. You took my house to plunder,
the shadowy mountains and the echoing sea ; but tor your sake, twisted my maids to serve your beds. You dared
o great shamelessness, we followed, to do you favor, bid for my wife while I was still alive.
you with the dogs eyes, to win you honor and Menelaos Contempt was all you had for the gods who rule wide heaven,
from the Trojans. You forget all this or else you care nothing. contempt for what men say of you hereafter.
And now my prize you threaten in person to strip from me, Your last hour has come. You die in blood.
for whom I labored much, the gift o f the sons o f the Achaians.
Never, when the Achaians sack some well-founded citadel
o f the Trojans, do I have a prize that is equal to your p rize .. . . Not for the whole treasure o f your fathers,
a ll you enjoy, lands, flocks, or any gold
put up by others, would I hold my hand.
Why does Achilles refer to Agamemnon as shameless? What figure of speech There will be killing till the score is paid.
You forced yourselves upon this house. Fight your way out,
is evident in the line 'you with the dog's eyes'? there is much that lies between
or run for it, if you think youll escape death.
us/the shadowy mountains and the echoing sea? I doubt one o f you skins by.

I>r. Ma. Antoinette C. Aiontealegre

PNU LET Reviewer 103
English - World Literature General Education
What does the scene reveal about the character of Odysseus? What lines will from Oedipus Rex by Sophocles
support your answer? What figure of speech is used in Your last hour has
com e.'? Teiresias: Alas, how terrible is wisdom when
it brings no profit to the man that's wise!
The Greeks are also known for their ly ric poetry. One of the poets of the lyric This I knew well, but had forgotten it,
else I would not have come here.
is Sappho - singing or chanting poems to her own accompaniment on the lyre. Oedipus: What is this?
The musical quality of her poems heightens their emotional quality. How sad you are now that you have come!
Teiresias: Let me
go home. It will be easiest for us both
An example o f a lyric poem by Sappho: to bear our several destinies to the end
if you will follow my advice.
A wed by her splendor Oedipus: You 'd rob us
o f this your gift o f prophecy? You talk
Stars near the lovely moon cover their ownbright faces as one who had no care for law nor love
when shels roundest and lights earth with her silver. ' for Thebes who reared you.
Teiresias: Yes, but I see that even your words
miss the mark; therefore I must fear for mine.
Greek dram a reached its peak in the 5th century Athens. During that time, Oedipus: For God's sake if you know anything,
tragedies and comedies were performed in conjunction with the worship of do not turn from us; all o f us kneel to you,
Dionysus and fertility rituals connected with the seasons and the staple crops all o f us here, your suppliants.
of the community. Tragedies dealt with universal issues and indirectly with Teiresias: A ll o f you here know nothing. I will not
contemporary politics, but the plots were taken from the same cycle of legends bring to the light o f day my troubles, mine -
rather than call them yours.
found in the Homeric epics. Themes such as war, incest, and murder were Oedipus: What do you mean?
treated seriously. You know o f something but refuse to speak
Would you betray us and destroy the city?
One of the great Greek tragedians, aside from Aeschylus and Euripides, is Teiresias: I will not bring this pain upon us both,
Sophocles. He wrote the trilogy of Oedipus Rex, Oedipus a t Colonus, and neither on you nor on myself. Why is It
you question me and waste your labor? I
Antigone. will tell you nothing.

What does Teiresias really want to say in lines 1 -4? What is his attitude towards
Oedipus? What line/s will support your answer?

104 PNU LET Reviewer Dr. Ma. Antoinette C. Montealegre

General Education English - World Literature
Certain conditions must exist in tragedies. First, the character must be of high What do you infer about the value Virgil places on self-control as opposed to
birth or noble status in society. Second, they must experience a series of events passion? This situation shows the conflict Aeneas undergoes in being a dutiful
that threaten their positions. Finally, tragic character must suffer a tragic fall Roman and a husband.
through his/her own actions. The gods interfere to some extent, but they never
direct the plot or the characters actions. Characters are responsible for their
C onflict is a struggle between opposing forces. Sometimes this struggle
own actions - that is what renders tragedy tragic. Tragic characters choose
their destinies. It is their choices that cause their downfall. is internal, or within a character. At other times the struggle is external, or
between the character and some outside force.
Oedipus Rex is famous for its dramatic irony, which is the contradiction
between what the character thinks and what the audience knows to be true. Another Roman writer is C atullus who is known for his lyric poems. He is a
Sophocles use of dramatic irony brings out the plays knowledge motif. The poet whose polished verses rivaled those of his Greek predecessors, including
knowledge Oedipus relentlessly seeks causes his downfall. Sappho. A key element of Catullus literary expression is his ability to make the
emotions real in his lyric poems.
Roman Literature
Romans as well as Greeks venerated the Homeric epics, the most ancient texts
of Greek literature. To take his place alongside Homer, V irgil situates his story Here is a sample lyric poem o f Catullus:
at the time of the fall of Troy, and adopts conventions such as invoking the
muse, involving Olympian gods in the action, and beginning the story in medias I crossed many lands and a lot o f ocean
to get to this painful ceremony, my brother,
res. The Aeneid recombines and transforms the major works of Greek and
so I can finally give you gifts for the dead,
Roman tradition to make a new, original, and fundamentally Roman work. and waste time talking to some silent ashes
being that you're not here yourself with me.
from The Aeneid by Virgil
Fate did wrong, my brother, to tear us apart.
(This is the p a rt where Aeneas is about to leave Dido.
But I bring you these offerings now anyway,
Aeneas has to fu lfill the duty he is destined to do - to found Romej
after the old custom our parents taught us.
'At this abruptly she broke o ff and ran Take them, soaked with your brother's tears,
In sickness from his sight and the light o f day and forever more, my brother, goodbye.
Leaving him a t a loss, alarmed and mute
With all he meant to say. The maids in waiting
Caught her as she swooned and carried her
What is the overall mood of the passage? What lines or words will support your
To bed in her marble chamber.
Duty-bound, Aeneas, though he struggled with desire answer?
To calm and comfod her mind from grief,
And though he sighed his heart out, shaken still
With love o f her, yet took the course heaven gave him
And went back to the fleet. . . . '

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G . T h e M id d le A g e s (A. D. 4 5 0 - 1 3 0 0 ) 2. Francesco Petrarca or Petrarch was the greatest Italian poet of the 14th
century. He was both well-versed in Italian and Latin. He wrote lyric poems,
1. The Song of Roland (Chanson de Roland). This long historical poem especially the sonnet and the canzoni, lyrics with intricate stanzas. Majority
about a medieval knight, Roland who is the nephew of King Charlemagne, of his poems is dedicated to Laura. His poems contain a lot of oxymoron,
is by far the best known and the most studied of all medieval poems. a phrase that joins two logically contradictory terms like pleasant pain or
Central to the medieval epic are the deeds, or gestes, of heroic figures. cruel kindness. He also uses allegory, or extended metaphor; for instance,
The Song o f Roland is an example of a chanson de geste, or song of in one poem he compares his love to a dangerous voyage on a stormy sea,
deeds. This epic treats one of the greatest themes of medieval heroic guided by a blind pilot.
literature: the deeds surrounding Charlemagne and his court.
from a Petrarchan Sonnet

2. The Nibelungenlied is one of the great works of German literature. This She used to let her golden hair fly free
epic of murder and revenge highlights the relationship between Kriemhild and For the wind to toy and tangle and molest;
Siegfried. It is an epic which is a tragedy in two parts: the first describes the life Her eyes were brighter than the radiant west.
(Seldom they shine so now.) I used to see
and death of Siegfried and the secondfeatures thestory of the vengeful Kriemhild. Pity look out o f those deep eyes on me.
(It was false pity, "you would now protest.)
3. The Divine Comedy by Dante. This epic is a poetic journey of a man I had love's tinder heaped within my breast;
struggling to reconcile himself to a bitter political exile through the triumph of What wonder that the flame burned furiously?
love. It takes the reader to a journey that symbolically begins in a despairing 3. The Decameron by Boccaccio has delighted readers and inspired writers
world not yet redeemed by Christs Crucifixion and ends with the poets return for half a millennium. It is a 14th century medieval allegory told as a frame
as a man, renewed in hope, having beheld the beatific vision of divine grace. story encompassing 100 short prose tales or novelle (singular: novella)
by ten young people, three men and seven women, who are fleeing from
H . T h e R e n a is s a n c e (1 3 0 0 - 1 6 5 0 ) plague-ridden Florence to a villa in the countryside for two weeks. The
word decameron means ten days. Rather than telling the stories directly,
t . The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written in Middle English by Boccaccio creates a fictional background or frame for the book. One
Geoffrey Chaucer at the end of the 14th century. The tales, mostly in verse, famous story from this book is The Tale of the Falcon.
although some are in prose, are told as part of a story-telling contest by a
group of pilgrims as they travel together on a journey from Southwark to 4. The Adventures of Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra is
the shrine of St. Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral. The prize is a free one famous work from the Renaissance. Don Quixote and Sancho Panza,
meal at the Tabard Inn at Southwark on their return. Chaucer uses the tales the knight and the squire, ride from one ludicrous adventure to another in
and descriptions of the characters to paint an ironic and critical portrait of pursuit of the knights dreams of glory. The central concern of the novel is
English society at the time, and particularly of the Church. the relationship between reality and fantasy.

1.06 PNU LET Reviewer Dr. Ma. Antoinette C. Montcalegre

General Education English - World Litenmre

5. The most important figure of the Renaissance is William Shakespeare. He I. T h e A g e o f R ationalism (1 6 5 0 -1 8 0 0 )

wrote sonnets, comedies, tragedies, and historical plays. His major work
in the second half of his career included a series of tragedies from Julius The age was a time of progress and betterment in human affairs. Liteature
Caesar to Coriolanus. In the final phase of his career, he produced four profited from rationalism, which left its mark on poets, essayists, playwrights,
plays which are now called romances, works that blend the happy ending and journalists.
of a comedy with elements of tragedy.
1. Francis Bacon was an English essayist, philosopher, and statesm. His
from Hamlet
collections of essays are written in clear English, and contain menoable
William Shakespeare
maxims on such subjects as friendship, studies, truth, and adverse
To be, or not to be: that is the question:
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer from Of Studies
The slings and arrows o f outrageous fortune, Francis Bacon
Or to take arms against a sea o f troubles.
And by opposing end them? To die: to sleep; Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and tor ability. Their chief use tor tig h t,
No more; and by a sleep to say we end is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in im&nent
The head-ache and the thousand natural shocks and disposition of business. ... Some books are to be tasted, others to be svobned,
That flesh is heir to? 'Tis a consummation some few to be chewed and digested;. . . '
Devoutly to be wish'd. To die, to sleep;
To sleep: perchance to dream: ay, theres the rub;
2. Gullivers Travels is Jonathan Swifts famous work. Swift was a master
Sonnet XXIX craftsman of irony and satire. His other works are A Modest Proposal, A
When in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes Tale of the Tub, and The Battle of the Books.
I all alone beweep my outcast state,
And trouble deaf Heaven with m y bootless cries, Irony is the general name given to literary techniques that involve suprising,
And look upon m y self, and curse my fate,
interesting, or amusing contradictions. Satire is writing that ridcufes or
Wishing me like to one more rich in hope,
Featur'd like him, like him with friends possest. holds in contempt the faults of individuals or of groups.
Desiring this man's art, and that man's scope
With what I most enjoy contented least;
Yet in these thoughts myself almost despising
Haply I think on thee, - and then my state J. R om anticism , R ealism , a n d N atu ralism (1 8 0 0 - 1 8 9 0 )
(Like to the lark a t break o f day arising
From sullen eadh) sings hymns at heaven's gate; Romanticism was a literary movement that emerged in the late 1700s out
For thy sweet love remembred, such wealth brings, of the revolutionary spirit fueled by the uprisings in America and Frans. The
That then I scorn to change my state with Kings.
Romantics tended to be inspired by their imagination, inner feefcgs and

Dr. Ma. Antoinette C. Montealegre PNU LET Reviewer 1 0 7

English - World Literature General Education
emotions. They wished to discard the dominant forms and approaches of the 3. Henrik Ibsen, a Norwegian writer, was the creator of the modem, realistic
18th century writers. They also showed a deep interest in ordinary people and prose drama. He was also one of the first writers to make drama a vehicle
favored the use of simple, common language. for social comment. He wrote the following dramas: A DoHs House,
Ghosts, An Enemy of the People. The last one is about a man who comes
Realism and Naturalism emerged during the middle of the 19th century. into conflict with the people in the village because of a truth he wants to
Realism sought to depict life as faithfully and accurately as possible. The reveal, but he is pressured not to do it for political reasons.
Realists confronted many of the harsh realities of the 19th century world, often
presenting pessimistic visions of the world. 4. Leo Tolstoy was regarded as the greatest 19th century Russian writer. He
is remembered most for his novels War and Peace and Anna Karenina
Naturalism grew out of Realism. The Naturalists frequently depicted and for his short stories like God Sees the Truth but Waits; Where Love
characters whose lives were shaped by forces of nature or society they could is, There God is Also, and How Much Land Does a Man Need? which
not understand and control. The naturalists believed that a persons fate is probed human nature and its strengths and weaknesses.
determined by heredity, chance, and the environment.
5. Edgar Allan Poe is noted not only for being the greatest American short
1. W illiam Blakes poems have a charming simplicity that reveals his story writer, but also for having first standardized the short story as a
childlike imagination. He was a lover of flowers and animals as well as his literary type. His subjects were weird, often supernatural, with no bearing
fellowmen. Many of his poems show an appreciation of nature that marks whatever on life as it is normally lived. The Raven, The Bells, and Annabel
him'as a romanticist. Lee are some of his popular poems. His popular short stories are The
Cask of Amontillado, The Masque of the Red Death, Tell-Tale Heart, The
From Auguries o f Innocence Purloined Letter, and The Pit and the Pendulum.

To see the world in a grain o f sand,

And a heaven in a wild flower; K. T h e M o d e rn W o rld (1890 - 1 9 4 5 )
Hold infinity in the palm of your hand,
And eternity in an hour.
The time that ushered in the coming of modernism saw many changes
and developments: technological revolution (the airplane, the automobile,
2. The short stories of Guy de Maupassant show a realistic depiction of life, the radio and the television, electricity, movies, new medical remedies),
its underlying pessimism, inescapable irony, surprise ending. His more scientific breakthroughs (Mendel's work on heredity, Marie and Pierre Curies
popular works are The Necklace, A Piece o f String, The Jewels, and breakthroughs concerning radioactivity, Einsteins theories), World War I, the
Madame Sauvage. rise of Nazism, attack on Pearl Harbor, the Holocaust.

108 PNU LET Reviewer Dr. Ma. Antoinette C. Montealegre

General Education English - World Literature
Many writers turned away from the dominant literary forms and approaches
}. Robert Frost is ranked as one of the best modem American poets. His
of the past and began experimenting with new themes and techniques. The
popular poems are Mending Wall, The Road not Taken, Fire and Ice,
modernist writers tried to capture in their works the essence of modem life in
Birches, and Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening. His collection of
both the form and content of their works.
poems includes North o f Boston, A Boy's Will, and A Further Range.
1. Luigi Pirandello was both a dramatist and short story writer. His works
dealt with the difficulties of achieving identity and questioned the distinction Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
between appearance and reality. He is famous for his plays Six Characters Robert Frost
in Search o f an Author and It is So (If You Think So). His short stories Whose woods these are I think I know
include A Breath o f Air, The Jar, and War which particularly reflected his His house is in the village though
views on human nature and the emotional effects of war on people. He will not see me stopping here
To watch his woods fill up with snow.
2. Rabindranath Tagore showed a deep awareness of the poverty and other
My little horse must think it queer
hardships faced by so many of his people. He was also a voca! supporter To stop without a farmhouse near,
of human and personal freedom. He was best known for his collection of Between the woods and frozen lake
poems called the Gitanjali or Song Offerings. The darkest evening o f the year.

He gives his harness bells a shake

from the Gitanjali To ask if there is some mistake.
Rabindranath Tagore The only other sound's the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.
Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high;
Where knowledge is free; The woods are lovely, dark and deep,
Where the world has not been broken up But I have promises to keep,
Into fragments by narrow domestic walls; And miles to go before I sleep,
Where words come out from the. depth of truth; And miles to go before I sleep.
Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards pedection;
Where the clear stream o f reason
has not lost its way into the dreary desed sand o f dead habit;
Where the mind is led forward by thee into ever-widening thought and action
Why does the persona stop in the woods? What figure of speech is used in
Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake.' lines 5-6? What is the central irony of the poem?

Dr. Ma. Antoinette C. Montcaiegre

PNU LET Reviewer 109
English - World Literature General Education
4. Ernest Hemingways writings emphasize the disillusionment of American novel A Portrait o f the Artist as a Young Man (1916). Some of his
expatriates among whom he lived in Paris during the postwar period. popular short stories are Eveline, Araby, and Boarding House.
He was part of the so-called 'lost generation of writers who became"
preoccupied with the macabre, suffering, death, and loss of values. He From Eveline
wrote about peoples struggles to maintain a sense of dignity while living in
a seemingly hostile and confusing world. She sat at the window watching the evening invade the avenue. Her head was
leaned against the window curtains and in her nostrils was the odour o f dusty cretonne.
She was tired.
His works include novels such as Farewell to Arms, The Sun Also Rises,
Home! She looked round the room, reviewing all its unfamiliar objects which she
For Whom the Bells Toll, The Old Man and the Sea, and A Moveable had dusted once a week for so many years, wondering where on earth all the dust came
Feast. He also wrote numerous short stories like Hills Like White from. Perhaps she would never see again those familiar objects from which she never
Elephants, The Killers, A Clean, Well Lighted Place, Cat in the Rain, dreamed o f being divided.
and In Another Country. She had consented to go away, to leave her home. Was that wise? She tried to
weigh each side o f the question. In her home anyway she had shelter and food; she had
those whom she had known all her life about her. Of course she had to work hard, both
5. Anton Chekhov is considered one of the greatest writers of the short story. in the house and at business. What would they say o f her in the Stores when they found
He received a medical degree at the University of Moscow in 1884, but he out that she had run away with a feltow?
soon neglected his medical practice in order to write. His numerous stories
and plays gave him a commanding position in literary Russia. He gave What figure of speech is used in 1... the evening invade the avenue? What
a poignant illumination to such human experiences as loneliness, grief, is the mood of the persona? What words/passages point to this?
hunger, and misery.

Among his famous works are the plays The fiearand The Cherry Orchard, L T h e C o n te m p o ra ry W o rld (19 4 6 -to present)
and one of his most famous short stories is The Lady with the Dog which
depicts what at first seems a casual liaison between a married man and a 1. William Faulkner wrote from the background of his native Mississippi
married woman. Neither expects anything lasting from the encounter, but where he lived most of his life. He is generally regarded as the most
they find themselves drawn back to each other, risking the security of their innovative American novelist of his time. He experimented with narrative
family lives. chronology, explored multiple points of view, and delved deeply into the
minds of his characters. His more notable novels are The Sound and the
6. James Joyce was an Irish author of the 20th century. He is best known Fury, As I Lay Dying, and Sanctuary. His short story, A Rose for Emily,
for his novels Ulysses (1922) and Finnegans Wake (1939), as well as is one of his unforgettable works.
the short story collection Dubliners (1914) and the semi-autobiographical

110 PNU LET Reviewer Dr. Ma. Antoinette C. Montealegrc

Genera! Education English - World Literature
2. Gabriel Garcia Marquez, a Colombian writer, is one of the most innovative 4. Wole Soyinka is a Nigerian novelist, poet, and playwright. Some consider
writers of the time. His style combines realistic storytelling with elements him Africas most distinguished playwright, when he won the Nobel Prize
of folklore and fantasy. This style enabled him to depict the realities of for Literature in 1936, the first African to be so honored. He is known for
Colombia. He wrote many novels and short stories. Among his novels, the the following works: Telephone Conversation (a poem), Ake: The Years o f
most famous is One Hundred Years o f Solitude. His short stories include Childhood (a memoir), and The Interpreters (a novel).
The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World, A Very Old Man with
from Telephone Conversation
Enormous Wings, and Big M am as Funeral
Wole Soyinka

3. The Chilean poet Pablo Neruda drew the inspiration for some of his best The price seemed reasonable, location
poems from objects that others hardly notice. Much of Nerudas later work Indifferent. The landlady swore she lived
expresses political sentiments. In 1971 he received the Nobel Prize for Off premises. Nothing remained
But self-confession. Madam," I warned,
Literature. One of his famous poems is The United Fruit Co.
I hate a wasted jo u rn e y -I am African."
Silence. Silenced transmission of
from The United Fruit Co. Pressurized good-breeding. Voice, when it came,
Pablo Neruda Lipstick coated, long gold-rolled
Cigarette-holder piped. Caught I was foully.
When the trumpet sounded, it was HOW DARK?" . . . I had not misheard... ARE YOU LIGHT
all prepared on the earth, OR VERY DARK?" ...
and Jehovah parceled out the earth
to Coca-Cola, Inc., Anaconda,
Ford Motors, and other entities: Why does the persona have to confess over the phone that he is African?
The Fruit Company, Inc. Why is the landlady silent as soon as the persona confessed that he is
reserved for itself the most succulent, African?
the central coast of my own land,
the delicate waist o f America,
it rechristened its territories 5. The Indonesian writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer wrote novels, short stories,
as the "Banana Republics' essays, and histories of his homeland and his people. His works span
the colonial period, Indonesias struggle for independence, the Japanese
occupation during WW II, as well as post-colonial authoritarian regimes
Why does Neruda use a biblical allegory in the first three lines? What tone of Sukarno and Suharto. Two of his best known works are The F u rtive
does he want to achieve in using such allegory? (a novel) about how Indonesians lived and suffered during the Japanese
occupation, and the short story Inem is about the traditions of Indonesia.

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from A Question o f Dowry

from Inem
Siew Yue Killingley
Pramoedya Ananta Toer
There was much excitement in Mrs. Ramachandran's household. The daughter cf
Inem was my friend. She was eight, two years older than I was. She was ju st like
the house, Sivasothie, was going to be engaged. The festive air was laden with the spicy
all the other girls, except that she was thought to be rather pretty. People liked her. She
smell o f curries and wades sizzled in the kwaii saucepan. The young lady o f the hous;,
was polite, natural, intelligent and a good worker. Because of this she quickly became
as befitted her present condition, assumed a calm pose amidst the general bustle and
well-known in the village and people began to say: Inem would be a good daughter-in-
noise. Mrs. Ramachandran flew here and there, as fast as her hundred and sixty pouncs
law to have.
would allow her, and helped with her commanding suggestions.
Then one day, as she boiled water in our kitchen, she told me: Muk, I'm getting
Don't pu t too much coconut milk in at once, Ayah! It's got to go in by stages. Ti e
married. "
last bit - the richest part, must be kept to the last! Now, Tamby, go out and play - b i t
Really? I said.
don't dirty your shirt. What will Uncle Thiruchelvam think if youre dirty?'
Yes. Someone asked for me a week ago. My parents and kin have accepted him ."
Imagine being married!" I shouted.
We have to return the necklace.'
It was true. Her mother came one day and talked to my mother. Inem had been
'Return it? Why, what will Thiruchelvam's mother and
entrusted to my parents. She helped with the cooking and looked after me and the
Mr. Ramachandran raised his hand.
others when we played.
'There's something which I've wanted to tell you for some time, but I didn't want to
worry you. We can't pay for the necklace. Do you remember the land we were goinc, to
Mother tried to dissuade her, but Inem's mother had other reasons. Finally she said:
sell to get the dowry and money for the necklace?'
I'm glad someone's asked for her a t last. If we postponed this, perhaps no one would
'Oh, be careful, you old man! Do you want people to think that we have no moi ey
ask for her again. I 'd be ashamed o f her if she was an old maid. Perhaps she can make
for our daughter?' Mrs. Ramachandran hissed in fierce whispers....
things easier for me when I'm old."

How would you characterize Mrs. Ramachandran? What is l/lrs.

How would you characterize Inems mother? What is she really worried
Ramachandrans concern after learning they could not pay for the dow ry?

6. Siew Yue Killingiey was a Malaysian poet, dramatist, teacher, and linguist.
A Q uestion o f D ow ry and E verythings Arranged published in Twenty-
Two M alaysian S tories (1968) brought her immediate recognition and
probably urged her to cultivate a literary career alongside her professional
teaching and research duties.

112 PNU LET Reviewer Dr. Ma. Antoinette C. Monte: legre

General Education English - World Literature

Literary T e rm s /C o n c e p ts 16. Connotation - an association that a word calls to mind in addition to the
dictionary meaning of the word.
t . Allegory - a story or a tale with two or more levels of meaning - a literal 17. Consonance - the repetition of consonant sounds at the ends of words or
level and one or more symbolic levels. The events, setting, and characters in accented syllables.
an allegory are symbols for ideas and qualities. 18. Denotation - the objective meaning of a word, independent of other
2. Alliteration - is the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words associations that the word brings to mind.
or accented syllables. 19. Dialogue - a conversation between characters. Writers use dialogue to
3. Allusion - a reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or reveal character, to present events, to add variety to narratives, and to arouse
work of art. their readers interest.
4. Anaphora - a sound device that repeats a word or words at the beginning of 20. Elegy - a solemn and formal lyric poem about death, often one that mourns
two or more successive clauses or verses. the passing of some particular person.
5. Anecdote - a brief story about an interesting, amusing, or strange event. 21. Essay - a short non-fiction work about a particular subject.
6. Antagonist - a character or force in conflict with a main character, or 22. Fiction - prose writing that tells about imaginary characters and events.
protagonist. Not all stories contain antagonists. Short stories and novefs are works of fiction.
7. Aphorism - a general truth or observation about life, usually stated concisely 23. Figurative language - writing or speech not meant to be taken literally.
and pointedly. Often witty and wise, aphorisms appear in many kinds of 24. Figure of Speech - an expression or a word used imaginatively rather
works. than literally. Many writers use figures of speech - apostrophe, hyperbole,
8. Apostrophe - a figure of speech in which a speaker directly addresses an metaphor, simile, metonymy, synecdoche, personification, oxymoron.
absent person, or a personified quality, object, or idea. 25. Flashback - a section of a literary work that interrupts the chronological
9. Aside - in a play, it is a speech delivered by an actor in such a way that other presentation of events to relate an event from an earlier time.
characters on stage are presumed not to hear it. 26. Foil - a character who provides a contrast to another character.
10. Assonance - the repetition of vowel sounds in conjunction with dissimilar 27. Foreshadowing - the use of clues that suggest events that have yet to
consonant sounds. occur.
11. Ballad - a songlike poem that tells a story, often dealing with adventure and 28. Free verse - poetry that lacks a regular rhythmical pattern or meter.
romance. 29. Hyperbole - a deliberate exaggeration or overstatement, (e.g. There is a
12. Blank verse - poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter. An iamb is a garden on her face.)
foot consisting of one weak stress followed by one strong stress. 30. Image - a word or phrase that appeals to one or more of the five senses.
13. Caesura - a pause or a break in the middle of a line of poetry. 31. Imagery - the descriptive: or figurative language used in literature to create
14. Climax - the highest point of interest or suspense in a literary work. word pictures for the reader. These pictures are created by details of sight,
15. Conceit - an unusual or surprising comparison between two different things. sound, taste, touch, smell,'or movement.

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32. Irony - a contrast between what is stated and what is meant, or between 44. Satire - writing that ridicules or criticizes individuals, ideas, institutions,
what is expected to happen and what actually happens. In verbal irony, a social conventions, or other works of art or literature.
word or a phrase is used to suggest the opposite of its usual meaning. In 45. Simile - a figure of speech that makes a direct comparison between two
dramatic irony, there is a contradiction between what a character thinks and subjects using (ike or as.
what the reader or audience knows to be true. In irony of situation, an event 46. Sonnet - a lyric poem composed of 14 iambic pentameter lines focusing on
occurs that directly contradicts the expectations of the characters, of the a single theme.
reader, or of the audience. 47. Symbol - anything that stands for or represents something else.
33. Litotes - a figure of speech that makes a deliberate understatement to affirm 48. Synecdoche - a figure of speech in which a part of something is used to
by negating its opposite, (e.g. Barbara Streisand is not a bad singer.) stand for the whole thing, (e.g. No roving foot shall crush thee here.)
34. Local color - the use of characters and details unique to a particular place 49. Theme - a central message or insight into life revealed by a literary work.
or geographic area. 50. Tone - the writers attitude toward his or her subject, characters, or audience.
35. Lyric poem - a melodic poem that expresses the observations and feelings
of a single speaker.
36. Metaphor - a figure of speech in which one thing is spoken of as though it
were something else. It expresses an indirect or implied comparison of two
things which are not evidently comparable.
37. Metonymy - a figure of speech that entails using a word that closely relates
to a person or thing, (e.g. The pen is mightier than the sword.)
38. Mixed metaphor - when two metaphors are jumbled together, e.g. the
thorns o f life rained down on me.
39. Onomatopoeia - the use of words that imitate sounds, e.g. buzz, hiss,
murmur, hum.
40. Oxymoron - a figure of speech that combines two opposing or contradictory
ideas, (e.g. freezing fire, cruel kindness)
41. Paradox - a statement that seems to be contradictory but actually presents
a truth. It is surprising or shocking to draw the readers attention to what is
being said, e.g. Because I could not stop for death/He kindly stopped for me.
42. Parody - a humorous imitation of a literary work, one that exaggerates or
distorts the characteristic features of the original.
43. Personification - a figure of speech that gives human traits to inanimate
objects or ideas.

114 PNU LET Reviewer Dr. Ma. Antoinette C. Montealegre

General Education English - World Literature

Ismene: My poor sister, if things have come to this,

P A R T II - A N A L Y Z IN G T E S T IT E M S who am 1 to make or mend them, tell me,
what good am 1 to you?
' f i
Antigone: Decide.
Choose the best or correct answer. Will you share the labor, share the work?
Ismene: What work, what's the risk? What do you mean?
Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow. Antigone: [Raising her hands]
Will you lift up his body with these bare hands
and lower it with me?
from Antigone by Sophocles Ismene: What? You'd bury him -
when a law forbids the city?
Ismene: Whats the matter? Trouble, clearly... Antigone: Yes!
You sound so dark, so grim. He is my brother and - deny it as you will -
Antigone: Why not? Our own brothers burial! Your brother too.
Hasn't Creon graced one with all the rites, No one will ever convict me for a traitor.
disgraced the other? Eteocles, they say,
has been given full military honors,
1. What value is given importance by Antigone in wishing to give Poiynices a
rightly so - Creon has laid him in the earth
and he goes with glory down among the dead. proper burial such as the one accorded to Eteocles?
But the body o f Polynices, who died miserably - A. Filial piety C. Obedience
why, a city-wide proclamation, rumor has it, B. Love of country D. Humility
forbids anyone to bury him, even mourn him.
he's to be left unwept, unburied, a lovely treasure The best answ er is A Antigone clearly expresses the need to give her other brother
for birds that scan the field and feast to their hearts content. Poiynices a proper burial inspite o f the order from King Creon not to touch Poiynices'
corpse. She is willing to defy the order o f the king ju s t so she can do right by her brother.
Such, I hear, is the martial law our good Creon
lays down for you and me - yes, me, I tell you - 2. What would best describe the character of Antigone based on the excerpt?
and he's coming here to alert the uninformed A. sensitive and moody
in no uncertain terms,
B. brave and determined
and he won't treat the m atter lightly. Whoever
disobeys in the least will die, his doom is sealed: C. kind and forgiving
stoning to death inside the city walls! D. unfeeling and mean

There you have it. You'll soon show what you are, The best answ er is B. Antigone is ready to defy King Creon's orders even at the pain
Worth your breeding, Ismene, o ra coward- o f death. The punishment is nothing compared to what she will fulfill as a dutiful sister
For all your royal blood. to Poiynices.

Dr. Ma. Antoinette C. Montcalegre PNU LET Reviewer T I E t

English - World Literature General Education

3. Antigone seems to value more the idea that the __ _____________ Read the poem below and choose the best answer to the questions that follow.
A. law of the dead must be respected over the law of the living VIII
B. power of the king is limitless over his subjects
C. divine law is superior over human law 1 Whether at Naishapur or Babylon,
D. living help the dead to pass on to the after life 2 Whether the Cup with sweet or bitter run,
3 The Wine o f Life keeps oozing drop by drop,
The b e st answ er is C. Antigone uses the superiority o f the divine law as her justification 4 The Leaves o f Life keep falling one by one.
for her act o f defiance against the will of the king. The last dialogue o f Antigone in the
excerpt evidently supports this. from The Rubaiyat

4. The Greek word for overweening pride is _________________ . 3. The figure of speech used in Lines 3 and 4 is _________________
A. hubris C. mimesis A. personification C. simile
B. hammartia D. peripeteia (fa ) metaphor D. apostrophe
The b e st an sw er is A. This kind o f question asks for your prior knowledge. The correct 4. lin e s 3 and 4 suggest that life is ____________________ .
answer is needed. In an interpretation question, the best answer is needed. <7Rs is short and temporary
N r can be intoxicating and tiring
5. Creon suffers the consequence of his overweening pride. He lost his loved ones. C. can be sweet and beautiful
This reversal of fortune of Creon is termed a s __________________ . D. is cruel and painful
A. ananke B. danke C. mimesis D. peripeteia Read the proverb and then choose the best answer to the questions that follow.
The king who tastes his kingdom like
The b e st an sw er is D. Again this question asks for your prior knowledge. This calls for
Elixir, b it by bit,
the use o f your stock knowledge.
Who does not overtax its life,
Will fully relish it.

from the Panchatantra

General Directions: Write the letter only of your answer.
5. Theproverbimpliesthatakingwhoruleswellisonewho__________________
1. Gilgamesh, Mahabharata, and Aeneid are examples o f_____ A. believes he is a god enjoying his power
J \. a metrical romance C. a metrical tale B. can make his country prosperous
l ( j j \ an epic D. an allegory C-^does not exact high taxes
2. Wnich is not a lyric poem? l\Jtreasures his kingdom not his position
A. ballad B. sonnet elegy D. ode

116 PNU LET Reviewer Dr. Ma. Antoinette C. Montealegre

General Education English - World l iterature
6. The figure of speech used in lin e r" is 8. !n lines 1 -8 Achilles is saying that Agamemnon is________________________ .
A. personification J simile A. such an ugly man inside and out _
B. metaphor i. apostrophe A a drunkard, a greedy man, and a coward
Read the poem and choose the best answer to the questions that follow. u no better than a dog or a deer
Poverty's child D. a worthless and an irresponsible person
He starts to grind the rice 9. In lines 10-14 Achilles, feeling angry, insulted and offended, predicts that
And gazes at the moon. without him _______________________
- Basho A. the Trojans will be defeated by the Achaians
B. Agamemnon will die in the hands of Hektor
( p all of the Achaians will suffer a tragic defeat
D. Agamemnon will not gain fame as a hero
Identify the figure of speech used in these lines. Choose the correct answer.
C. humans are lucky to see the moon on a clear night 10. 'My love is like a red, red rose'
D. poverty makes the child feel hopeless and pitiful A. synecdoche C. metonymy
Read the passage below from The Ilia d and choose the best answer to the B. metaphor 0 simile
questions that follow. 11. 'All eyes were on him
[Achilles, still very angry because Briseis is going to be taken from him, speaks to A. metonymy C. personification
Agamemnon after talking with the Goddess Athene who told him not to fight with synecdoche D. hyperbole
Agamemnon.] 1 2 .T h e setting stars weigh down our heads toward sleep
1 You wine sack, with a dog's eyes, and with a deer's heart. Never A. hyperbole C. oxymoron
2 once have you taken courage in your heart to arm with your people personification D. litotes
3 for battle, go into ambuscade with the best o f the Achaians [the Greeks], Read the poem below and choose the best answer to the questions that follow.
4 No, for in such things you see death. Far better to your mind
5 is it, all along the widespread host o f the Achaians
6 to take away the gifts o f any man who speaks up against you. From Africa by David Diop
7 King who feeds on your people, since you rule nonentities,
8 otherwise, son ofAtreus, this were your last outrage. 1 Africa, tell me, Africa
9 ... And this shall be a great oath before you: 2 Is this you?
10 some day longing for Achiileus will come to the sons o f the Achaians, 3 This back that is bent
11 all o f them. Then stricken at heart though you be, you will be able
12 to do nothing, when in their numbers before man-slaughtering Hektor 4 This back that breaks under the weight of humiliation
13 they drop and die. And then you will eat out the heart within you 5 This back trembling with red sears
14 in sorrow, that you did no honor to the best o f the Achaians." 6 And saying yes to the whip of the midday sun

Dr. M a. A ntoinette C. M ontealegre PNU LET Reviewer 117

English - World Literature General Education

13. The tone of the persona is _____________________. 17. The dominant atmosphere in the passage quoted is evidently
- 0 angry and bitter C. envious and spiteful
B. ironic and sarcastic'- f S '' cautious and fearful terrifying and horrifying C. dramatic and suspenseful
14 . _______________________ is the figure of speech used in line 1. Eft sad and tranquil D. tense and exciting
A. Oxymoron / T p Apostrophe he image that helps the most to create the atmosphere is ______________ .
B. Metonymy u. Litotes A. the musicians who stopped performing
15. The word back in lines 3-5 emphasizes and suggests the B. the waltzers who paused from their dancing
/L hard life of the black people in working on their land the sound of the clock which chimed every hour
suffering of Africa under the hands of the colonizers the older people who held their brows in confusion
tragic consequence of being born black and poor 19. The expression the brazen lungs of the clock shows the use of
D. Ignorance of the Africans about their human rights ______________ __ as a figure of speech.
16. The word back in lines 3-5 shows the use of the figure speech called simile C. metaphor
personification 0. metonymy
A. metonymy C. metaphor 20. The passage appeals the most to the sense o f__________________ to create
B. simile (t^ ) synecdoche the dominant atmosphere.
Read the passage below and then choose the best answer to the questions that hearing C. smell
follow. sight D. touch
21. The overriding issue tackled in the epic The Song of Roland is
It was in this apartment also, that there stood against the western wall, a gigantic
clock o f ebony. Its pendulum swung to and fro with a dull, heavy, monotonous clang; and
when the minute-hand made the circuit of the face, and the hour was to be stricken, there A. good vs. evil
came from the brazen lungs o f the clock a sound which was clear and bud and deep B. God is powerful
and exceedingly musical, but o f so peculiar a note and emphasis that, at each lapse of - ft. loyalty to God and king
an hour, the musicians o f the orchestra were constrained to pause, momentarily, in their ^ man's place in this world
performance, to hearken the sound; and thus the waltzers perforce ceased their evolutions;
and there was a brief disconcert of the whole gay company; and while the chimes o f the 22. One of the questions which the epic Divine Comedy seeks for the readers to
clock yet rang, it was observed that the giddiest grew pale, and the more aged and sedate ponder upon is .
passed their hands over their brows as if in confused reverie or meditation. What is the purpose of life?
from The Masque o f the Red Death by Edgar Allan Poe f Is there heaven and hell?

Is there forgiveness?
D. Who is God?

118 PNU LET Reviewer Dr. Ma. Antoinette C. Montcalegre

General Education English - World Literature
23. These lines are taken from the poem______________ by
To see the world in a grain o t sand,
And a heaven in a wild flower;
Hold infinity in the palm o f your hand,
And eternity in an hour. Read the excerpt below from a poem and then choose the letter of the best answer
to the questions that follow.
A. For Once Then Something - Robert Frost
B. Auguries of Innocence - William Blake "... Palm o f my hand, soles o f my feet
Are peroxide blond. Friction, caused -
O The Wild Honeysuckle - Philip Freneau Foolishly, madam -
U. Psalm of Life - Henry Wadsworth Longfellow By sitting down, has turned
24. These are all written by Leo Tolstoy except___________________ . My bottom raven black - One moment, madam! - sensing
A A Clean, Well Lighted Race Her receiver rearing on the thunderclap
0 How Much Land Does a Man Need? About my ears - Madam, I pleaded, wouldn 't you rather
See for yourself?"
C. God Sees the Truth but Waits
D. Where Love is, There God is Also from Telephone Conversation by Wole Soyinka
25. Gullivers Travels is a kind of satire. A satire is a writing that
1. The tone of the persona in the passage is ______________________ .
A. gives a sermon or a lecture to teach people to behave properly A. angry andarrogant (J p sarcasticand rude
B. aims to entertain and give pleasure B. apologetic andpolite D. respectful and considerate
C. traces the etymology of things 2. The lines thatmost convincingly supportyour answer are____________________
0 ridicules or holds in contempt the faults of individuals or groups A lines 1-2 C. lines 5-6
B. lines 3-4 ( 3 lines 7-8
Read the passage below and choose the best answer to the questions that follow.

Teiresias: 1say thou art the murderer o f the man 1

Whose murderer thou pursuest. 2
Oedipus: Thou shalt rue it 3
Twice to repeat so gross a calumny. 4
Teiresias: Must 1say more to aggravate thy rage? 5
Oedipius: Say all thou wilt; it will be but waste o f breath. 6

Or. Ma. Antoinette C. Montealegre

PNU LET Reviewer 119
English - World Literature General Education

Teiresias: I say thou livest with thy nearest kin 7 Read the excerpt below and choose the best answer to the questions that follow.
In infamy, unwitting in thy shame. 8 It tastes like licorice," the girl said and put the glass down.
Oedipus: Thinks t thou for aye unscathed to wag thy tongue? 9 "That's the way with everything.
Teiresias: Yea, if the might o f truth can aught prevail. 10 Yes, said the girl. Everything tastes of licorice. Especially all the things youve wanted
Oedipus: With other men, but not with thee, for thou 11 so long for, like absinthe."
In ear, wit, eye, in everything blind. 12 Oh, cut it out."
Teiresias: Poor fool to utter gibes at me which all 13 You started it," the girl said. I was being amused. I was having a fun time."
Here present will cast back on thee ere long. 14 Well, let's try and have a fine time."
Allright. Iwastrying. I said the mountains looked like white elephants. Wasn'tthatbright?"
From Oedipus Rex by Sophocles That was bright."
I wanted to try this new drink. That's all we do, isnt it - look at things and try new
I guess so."
3. The exchange of witty, biting dialogue in a drama just like what is in the excerpt
The girl looked across a t the hills.
from Oedipus Rex is an example o f_________________________ . They're lovely hills," she said. They don't really look like white elephants. I ju st meant
A. stichomythia C. hubris the coloring of their skin through the trees."
B. in medias res D. hammartia Should we have another drink?
4. Teiresias reveals in lines 1 and 2 that Oedipus is the man who murdered the A ll right."
The warm wind blew the bead curtain against the table.
former king of Thebes, but Oedipus does not know this. Everybody in the play
The beers nice and cool," the man said.
knows that Oedipus is the murderer except himself. Sophocles, the dramatist, "It's lovely," the girl said.
used to emphasize the sad fate of Oedipus. Its really an awfully simple operation, Jig," the man said. It's not really an operation
A. epiphany C. mimesis at a ll.
B. peripeteia D. irony The girl looked at the ground the table legs rested on.
I know you wouldn't mind it, Jig. It's really not anything. It's ju s t to let the air in.
5. Based on his lines, Oedipus shows h is __ toward
The girl did not say anything.
Teiresias. I'll go with you and I'll stay with you all the time. They just let the 'air in and then it's
arrogance perfectly natural.
B. respect
6. On the other hand, Teiresias looks at Oedipus with in his from Hills Like White Elephants by Ernest Hemingway
A. guilt 1. The characters in the story are actually confronted with a problem. It seems
B. fear D. hatred that the solution the man is suggesting is ___________________ .
A. to break up to cool off
B. to get an abortion D. to get married

120 PNU LET Reviewer Df. Ma. Antoinette C. Montealcgre

Genera] Education English - World Literature

8. The expression the mountains looked like white elephants shows the use of 12. In the first eight lines, the persona says that he______________________.
_________________ as a figure of speech. @ is poor and envious of people who have more wealth and talent
^ simile C. oxymoron B. feels embarrassed every time he sees the person he loves
B. metaphor D. synecdoche C. has been abandoned by God and he has no one else in this world
9. In the exchange of the dialogue, the female character is evidently_______ _ . D. feels shy when other people look at him with pity in their eyes
@ tired and uneasy . angry and sarcastic 13. In the last six lines of the poem, the persona compares himself to a lark. He
B. sad and disappointed D. irritable and impatient realizes then that h e _____________________ .
10. In the last part of the excerpt, the female character did not say anything to the A. will remain poor all his life C. is luckier than the lark
mans suggestion. Her silence could mean that she __________ ;__________ . ( & ) should be happy withhis life D. can be a king someday.
A. agrees with the suggestion of the man 14. Tne use of 'deaf heaven in line 3 is an example of a
B. wants to drink more and just forget about the problem A. metaphor C. hyperbole '
C. is touched by the mans concern for her B. synecdoche D. metonymy
(Ey realizes the sad state of her relationship with the man 15. Theuseof'menseyes' in line 1 is an example of a ________________________ .
11. The idea that a thing is like a white elephant means that it is ______________ . A. metaphor C. hyperbole
A. precious and rare beautiful but useless synecdoche D. metonymy
8. remarkable but obsolete v . distinct and special Read the excerpt below and choose the best answer to answer the questions that follow.
Read the poem below and then choose the best answer to the questions that follow.
From The Song o f Roland (ft171)
Sonnet XXIX
William Shakespeare Now Roland the Count feels: his sight is gone;
gets on his feet, draws on his final strength,
When, in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes, the color on his face lost now for good.
I all alone beweep my outcast state, Before him stands a rock; and on that dark rock
And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries, in rage and bitterness he strikes ten blows:
And look upon myself and curse my fate, the steel blade grates, it will not break, it stands unmarked.
Wishing me like to one more rich in hope, A h!" said the Count, Blessed Mary, your help!
Featured like him, like him with friends possessed, Ah Durendal, good sword, your unlucky day,
Desiring this man's art and that man's scope, for I am lost and cannot keep you in my care.
With what I most enjoy contented least; The battles I have won, fighting with you,
Yet in these thoughts myself almost despising, the mighty lands that holding you I conquered,
Haply I think on thee, - and then my state, that Charles rules now, our King, whose beard is white!
Like to the lark a t break o f day arising Now you faH to another: it must not be
From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven's gate; a man who'd run before another man!
For thy sweet love remembered such wealth brings For a long while a good vassal held you:
That then I scorn to change my state with kings there'll never be the like in Frances holy land.'

Dr. Ma. Antoinette C. Montealegrc PNU LET Reviewer 121

General Education
English - World Literature
23. One outstanding and distinct feature of Latin American literature is the use of
16. The narrator is perhaps_______ _________'
A. another soldier a monk
A. the stream of consciousness technique
B. Charles, the King D. a vassal
B. local color
17. Given the description in this scene, this is the_______ of the story.
GQ magic realism
< 50 falling action C. rising action
D. flashback and flashforward
Ti. exposition D. climax
24. All are Nobel Prize winners except_________________ .
18. Roland is saying good-bye to his sword in this scene. This shows the use of
A. William Faulkner
B. Rabindranath Tagore
A. hyperbole C. oxymoron
C. Gabriel Garcia Marquez
B. personification 0 apostrophe
(?6y ChinuaAchebe
19. in this scene, Roland is evidently_________________________ .
25.Vne following passage is from _____________________ by Yoshida Kenko.
A. relieved and contented
sad and regretful 'Emptiness accommodates everything. I wonder if thought o f all kinds intrude
C. angry and bitter themselves at will on our minds because what we call our minds are vacant?
D. grateful and happy If our mind were occupied, surely so many things would not enter them.
20. The sword is precious to Roland as shown in this scene. The sword is a
Essays in Idleness C. Rig-veda
metaphor for Rolands _______________________ .
Bhagavad Gita D. The Analects
A. devotion and loyalty to the king
B. supremacy and skill in battle
{ 0 courage and heroic conquests
D. faith and trust in the Lord
21. The characters Kriemhild and Siegfried are found in the epic_____________ .
A. The Aeneid
The Nibelungenlied
C. The Shah-nama
D. ElCid
22. J h e Nymphs Reply to the Shepherd is a parody o f________________ ____.
6\J The Passionate Shepherd to His Love
B. Song to Celia
C. The Indian Serenade
"5 0 - Ode to the West Wind
Dr. Ma. Antoinette C. Montcalcgrc
j j t22
f c l PNU LET Reviewer
Filipino - Komunikasyon sa Akademikong 1 ilipino

Komunikasyon B A H A G I I - B A L IK -A R A L S A N IL A L A M A N :

sa Akademikong 1. Pagbibigay kahulugan sa wikang Filipino

Filipino Ang wikang Filipino kung ating susuriin ay maaaring pag-usapan at talakayin
isang wika
- pambansang lingua franca
- wikang pambansa
Inihanda ni:
- wikang opisyal
Arsenia R. Emperado, Ph.D.
isang midyum
- larangan ng edukasyon
- larangan ng komunikasyon
: Kasanayan: isang disiplina o aralin
- elementarya
- sekundarya
: Nagagamit nang may latong - tersyarya
j mataas na antas ng kasanayan Pambansang lingua franca, kung ginagamit upang magkaunawaan at
makapag-ugnayan ang mga nag uusap na may magkaibang katutubong
j at kahusayan ang Filipino sa wika na nagmula sa ibat ibang probinsya
* akademikong pangangailangan. Wikang pambansa, ayon sa Saligang Batas ng 1987, Artikulo XIV Seksyon
6 na nagsasaad:
Ang wikang pambansa ng Pilipinas ay Filipino. Samantalang nililinang, ito
ay dapat payabungin a t pagyamanin pa salig sa um iiral na wika sa Pilipinas
a t sa iba pang mga wika. Alinsunod sa mga tadhana ng batas a t sang-ayon
sa nararapat na maaaring ipasya ng kongreso, dapat magsagawa ng mga
hakbangin ang pamahalaan upang ibunsod at puspusang itaguyod ang
paggamit ng Filipino bilang midyum na opisyal ng komunikasyon at bilang
ih Ajvciu.* R. Kmpcratio wika ng pagtuturo sa sistemang pang-edukasyon
PNU LET Reviewer 123
General Education
Filipino - Komnnikasyon sa Akademikong Filipino
4. Kaugnay ng nabanggit na kaisipan sa Big. 2, ang pag-aaral ng isang wika tulad
> Wikang opisyal, ayon sa Seksyon 7: ng Filipino ay binubuo ng dalawang kakayahan:
Ukol sa mga layunin ng komnnikasyon a t pagtuturo, ang mga wikang kakayahang makabuo ng mga pahayag o pangungusap na may wastong
opisyal ng Pilipinas ay Filipino at, hangga't walang itinatadhana ang batas, kayariang pambalarila; tinatawag itong kakayahang panlinggwistika o
Ingles." linguistic competence
> tsang midyum, sa Seksyon 7, tiniyak ang mga wikang panturo. Bilang kakayahang maunawaan at magamit ang mga pangungusap na may
pagtugon sa batas, naglunsad ang Department of Education, Culture wastong pambalarilang kayarian sa angkop na panlipunang kapaligiran
and Sports (dating Ministri ng Edukasyon, Kultura at Isports) ng palisi sa ayon sa hinihingi ng sitwasyon; tinatawag itong kakayahang komunikatibo
edukasyong bilinggwal na nakasaad sa DECS Order No. 52, s, 1987 (dating o communicative competence
Kautusang Pangkagawaran Big. 25, s, 1974).
> Layunin ng kautusan ang pagtatamo ng kompetens sa Filipino at Ingles 5. Ang isang ispiker ng wika ay nag-aangkin ng kakayahang panlinggw istika
sa lebel pambansa sa pamamagitan ng pagtuturo ng dalawang wika at o linguistic competence dahil nasa kanyang subconscious ang kabuuan ng
paggarnit ng mga ito bilang midyum ng pagtuturo sa lahat ng antas ng pamamaraan ng pagbuo ng salita, pangungusap, at kombinasyon ng mga ito.
edukasyon. Pangarap ng kinauukulan na magkaroon ng kasanayan ang Samakatuwid ang mga patem at mga tuntunin sa pagbuo ng mga pangungusap
buong sambayanang Pilipino sa wikang Filipino at kasanayan sa wikang ang gram m ar ng isang wika.
Ingles upang matugunan ang pangangailangan ng bansa pati na rin ang
pangangailangang global. 6. Kaugnay ng kaisipan sa Big. 5, mahalagang maunawaan na lahat ng wika ay
> Bilang disiplina, hindi lamang wikang panturo, kundi mga tiyak na may grammar at nahahati sa sumusunod: ponolohiya, morpolohiya, sintaks,
sabdyek / aralin mula antas elementarya hanggang kolehiyo semantika
6.1 Ponolohiya - patem o kumbinasyon ng mga tunog sa loob ng isang wika
2. Ginagamit ng tao ang wika sa kanyang pag-iisip, sa kanyang pakikipag- Mga Ponemang Segm ental - ito ang mga tunog na ginagamitan ng
ugnayan at pakikipag-usap sa ibang tao, at maging sa pakikipag-usap sa sarili. mga katumbas na letra o titik upang mabasa at mabigkas
Samakatuwid, wika ang behikulo ng ating ekspresyon at komunikasyon na o Katiniq - ipinakikita ang mga ponemang ito batay sa paraan ng
epektibong magagamit. artikulasyon (pamaraan ng pagpapalabas ng hangin) at punto ng
artikulasyon (bahagi ng bibig na ginagamit para makalusot ang
3. Sa panahong maging ganap na ang pagkatuto ng tao ng kanyang wikang hangin)
kinagisnan, nasa kanya na hindi lamang ang kakayahang bumuo ng anumang o Patiniq - may limang pangunahing patinig ang Filipino (a, e, i,
pangungusap na ibinabagay niya sa kahit ano pa mang sitwasyon kundi o, u); ang mga tunog /e/ at /i/, gayundin ng /o/ at /u / -
pati umunawa ng kahit ano ring pangungusap na maririnig niya sa unang ay mga tunog na maaaring magkapalitan na hindi nababago ang
pagkakataon sa kanyang wika. kahulugan ng salita. Hal. babae - babai; noon - nuon

Dr. Arscnia R. Emperado

124 PNU LET Reviewer
General Education Filipino - Komunikasyon sa Akademikong Filipino
o PiptonQao - pinagsamang tunog ng isang patinig (a, e, i, o, u) d. pagkakaltas bili + han = bilihan = bilhan
at isang malapatinig (w, y). Hal. bahay, reyna, baliw, tutoy e. pagdaragdag paalala + han = paaialahan;
Klaster / kambal katinia - magkasunod na tunog katinig, paalatahan+ an = paatalahanan
karaniwang salitang hiram ang may ganitong tunog. Hal. bruha, f. pag-aangkop hintay + ka = teka
droga, globo Bahagi pa rin ng mga paraan ng pagbuo, pati ng pagpapalawak, ang
Mga Ponemang Suprasegm ental - karaniwang hindi tinutumbasan mga bahagi ng pananalita ng wikang Filipino. Ginagamit sa iba't ibang
ng mga letra sa pagsulat kundi mga simbolo lamang upang matukoy pagpapahayag ang mga sumusunod na saklaw ng pambalarilang
ang paraan ng pagbigkas kayarian (grammatical structures):
o diin Mga Salitang Pangnilalamarr (Content Words)
o tono, intonasyon, punto a. Mga Nominal
o hinto / antala - Pangngalan
A lfabetong F ilipino - may 28 letra; tulad din ng tawag sa Ingles - Panghalip
ang tawag sa bawat letra, maliban sa letrang n na bigkas - Kastila b. Pandiwa
Silabikasyon - paghahati ng mga pantig sa wikang Filipino; mga - Pokus
halimbawang patern ng silabikasyon sa wikang ito: - Aspekto
PKK - eks - tra c. Panuring
KPKK - is - kawt - Pang-uri
KKPK - trak - Pang-abay
KKPKK - mag - drayb > Mga Salitang Pangkayarian (Functional Words)
KPKKK - a - nawns - ment a. Mga Pang-ugnay
6.2 Morpolohiya - may kinalaman sa pagbuo ng salita - Pangatnig
Mga paraan ng pagbuo ng salita - Pang-angkop
a. paggamit ng salitang ugat- sariwa - Pang-ukol
b. paglalapi - napaka-sariwa b. Mga pananda
c. pag-uulit - maganda-ganda - Pantukoy
d. pagtatambal - siHd-aklatan - Pangawing
Mga pagbabagong morpoponemiko 6.3 Sintaks - pagbuo at pagpapahaba ng mga pangungusap
a. asimilasyon pang + bansa = pambansa Batayang pangungusap at mga bahagi nito:
b. pagpapalit ano + ano = anu-ano Panaguri
c. paglilipat y + in + akap = yinakap = niyakap Paksa

1>i. Arsenic R. Emperado PNU LET Reviewer 125

Filipino Komunikasyon sa Akademikong Filipino (cncral liiuiatiim

Sa Filipino, normal o karaniwan ang pagsasabi muna ng panaguri, v ' Pamaraan - Malikot matulog + ang sanggol.
kasunod ang paksa tulad nito: s Pantunan - Sa Baguio nagbakasyon + ang mag-anak.
Kumakanta si Martin Nievera Magagamit na paksa (simuno, topic, pinag-uusapan7sentro, pokus ng
(Panaguri + Paksa) usapan) sa pangungusap ang mga pariralang nominal. Inihuhudyat ng
sa halip na: nauunang pananda o marker ang (para sa pangngalang pambalana),
Si Martin Nievera ay kumakanta si / sina (para sa mga tangi o personal na pangalan) ang paksa ng
(paksa + ay + panaguri) pangungusap sa Filipino.
Magagamit na panaguri ng pangungusap ang iba't ibang bahagi ng
pananalita, kabiiang ang nominal, pang-uri, pandiwa, atpang-abay, Ginagamit ang ang sa anumang bahagi ng pananalita na ginawang
tulad ng mga sumusunod na halimbawa: nominal, maging ito ay pangngalan, pang-uri, pandiwa, o pang-abay.
Pangungusap = Panaguri + Paksa Pangungusap = Panaguri + paksa
> Mga nominal a. Pariralang Pangngalan = Nagwawalis + ang Metro Aide.
f Pangngalan - Doktor + ang kapitbahay ko. b. Pariralang Pang-uri = Nagwagi +ang pinakamataassa lahat.
s Panghalip - Sila + ang barkada ko. c. Pariralanag Pandiwa = Isabay mo + ang mga nahuli.
s Panghalip Pamatlig lyon + ang alaga niyang aso. d. Pariralang Pang-abay = Binati ko + ang nanalo kahapon.
s Pariralang Nomina! - Ang dalagang iyan + ang nililiyag ko. Sa mga pangungusap na verbal (kung saan pandiwa ang panaguri),
Pangungusap = Panaguri + Paksa nagiging pokus ng pangungusap ang paksa pagkat nagkakaroon ng
> Pang-uri semantic na relasyon ang pandiwa sa paksa.
s Payak - Duwag + si Berto. Halimbawa:
s Maylapi - Mataba + si Berto. Batayang Pangungusap (BP)
s Inuulit - Maligayang-maligaya + si Berto. Naglinis (ng mesa) ang nanay (sa kusina).
S Tambalan - Balat-sibuyas + si Berto.
s Pariralang Pang-uri - May makinis na balat + si Berto. Sa BP na ito, nakapokus sa aktor / tagaganap (ang nanay) ang
> Pandiwa pangungusap, at mga komplemento naman ang ng mesa (layon)
s Walang komplernento- Naglalaba + ang nanay. sa kusina (ganapan).
s May komplemento Naglilinis ng mesa sa kusina + ang nanay
(aktor, layon, taga-tanggap, ganapan atbp) Sa pagbabago ng panlapi, pansining maipopokus ang ibat ibang
> Pang-abay komplemento tulad ng sumusunod:
/ Pamanahon - Kamakalawa pa inilibing + ang napatay s Pokus sa layon: Nilinis ng nanay ang mesa sa kusina.
na sundalo. s Pokus sa ganapan: Pinaglilinisan ng nanay ng mesa
ang kusina.

1 2 6 PNU LET Reviewer Dr. Arsenia R. Eniperatio

General Education Filipino - Komunikasyon sa Akademikong Filipino
s Pokus sa sanhi: Ikinapagod ng nanay ang paglilinis Hum ihingi ng alternatibo
ng mesa sa kusina.
Umalis na ba o hindi pa ang mga panauhin?
s Pokus sa instrumento: Ipinanltnis ng nanay ng mesa
Alin ang gusto mo: iyan o ito?
sa kusina ang tubig sa timba. Ano ang uunahin ko: ito ba o iyan?
s Pokus sa direksyon: Puntahan mo ang kusina
o Mga Pangungusap na tiniyak ang panaguri
(na pinaglilinisan ng mesa ng nanay).
Bukod pa sa batayang pangungusap, na binubuo ng kompletong
panaguri at paksa, mayroon pang ibang uri ng pangungusap sa wikang Batayang Pangungusap (BP) Hangong Pangungusap (HP)
Filipino: Bakla ang nakita niya. Ang bakla ang nakita niya.
Pangungusap na Hango sa Batayang Pangungusap (Sino ang nakita niya?) (Tinitiyak kung sino ang nakita.)
o Nasa anyong tanong
BP: Kumain na ang mga panauhin. o Mga konstruksyong binaliktad o inverted
Mga tanong na hango sa BP a. Inverted ay - ito ang tinutukoy na di-karaniwang ayos sa
Masasagot ng Oo o Hindi Filipino na malimit gamitin sa mga nasusulat na literature at
Kumain na ba ang mga panauhin? formal na rehistro.
Kumain na ang mga panauhin di ba? Pangungusap = Paksa + ay fy) + Panaguri
Talaga bang kumain na ang mga panauhin? BP: Nagmeryenda na si Nanang.
Ano, kumain na ang mga panauhin? HP: Si Nanang ay nagmeryenda na.
b. Iba pang konstruksyong binaliktad o inverted
Hum ihingi ng impormasyon BP: Umalis na kahapon ang mga balikbayan.
Sino ang kumain na? HP: Kahapon, umalis na ang mga balikbayan (hindi ngayon).
Kailan kumain ang mga panauhin? o Mga Pangungusap na naghahayag ng negasyon
Paano kumain ang mga panauhin? BP: Umakyat ang mga bata.
Saan pupunta ang mga panauhin? HP: Hindi / Di-dapat umakyat ang mga bata.
Ano ang ginawa ng mga panauhin? Ayaw kong umakyat ang mga bata.
Ilang panauhin ang umalis na? Huwag sanang umakyat ang mga bata.
Mga Pangungusap na Walang Tiyak na Paksa
Masasagot ng mayroon o wala o Penominal - tumutukoy sa kalagayang pangkalikasan
May umalis na bang mga panauhin? (Binubuo ng panaguring pandiwa na
Wala pa bang umaalis na mga panauhin? may kasamang pang-abay)
Umuulan! Lilindol daw.
Dr. Arsenia R. Emperado PNU LET Reviewer 127
Filipino - Komunikasyon sa Akademikong Filipino General Education

o Temporal nagsasaad ng kalagayan o panahong panandalian Paano ang pagbibigay o nairerepresenta sa isipan ng tao ang
(Binubuo ng pang-uri na may kahulugan?
kasamang pang-abay) o denotasyon at konotasyon
Mainit! Kay init ngayon. Halimbawa: PASKO
o Eksistensiyat - nagsasaad ng pagka-mayroon > Denotasyon: ika-25 ng Disyembre para sa mga
May mga mag-aaral na sa awditoryum. kristiyano, araw na kapanganakan ni Kristo
Alas diyes na. > Konotasyon: panahon ng pagbibigay ng mga
Lunes ngayon. regalo, pagpunta ng mga inaanak sa
Tag-araw. ninong at ninang, karoling ng mga bata,
Bagong Taon na naman. pagkain ng bibingka at puto-bumbong
o Ka-pandtwa - nagsasaad ng katatapos na kilos o sinonim, antonim, polisemi athomofon
Kaaalis tang niya. > sinonim - mga salitang magkapareho ng kahulugan
o Pambating Halimbawa: payak - simple
panlipunan - magagalang na pananalita ng magbili - magtinda
' pakikipagkapwa-tao magkatulad - magkapareho
Kumusta ka? > antonim - mga salitang magkasalungat ang kahulugan
Salamat. Halimbawa: mataas - mababa
o Panawag panawag na pangkamag-anak maliwanag - madilim
Hoy! Pssst! Tena! Manang! > polisemi - mga salitang may dalawa o mahigit pang
o Pandamdam - nagpapahayag ng matinding damdamin kahulugan na magka-ugnay
Arayko! Sus! Aru! Ow, talaga! Halimbawa: marka
o Modal nangangahulugan ng "gusto" / nais" / Mataas ang marka ng anak ko sa Ingles.
ibig" Nag-iwan ng marka ang kanyang kagat sa
Gusto kong matulog. braso ng bata.
6.4 Semantika - may kinaiaman sa interpretasyon ng mga kahulugan ng mga > homofon - salitang magkapareho ng tunog o anyo
salita at pangungusap subalit magkaiba ang kahulugan. Nagdudulot
ng pagkalito o di kalinawan ang homofon
Nabanggit na sa Simula na binubuo ang grammar ng wika ng ponolohiya, sa pangungusap.
morpolohiya, sintaks at panghuli, ng semantika. Tumutukoy ang naunang Halimbawa: bangka
tatlo sa pag-aaral ng anyo (form) at patern ng wika, tumutukoy naman ang (1) maliit na sasakyang pandagat na yari sa kahoy
semantika sa pag-aaral ng kahulugan mismo sa wika.

S K t e l PNU LET Reviewer Dr. Arsenia R. Emperado

General Education Filipino - Komunikasyon sa Akademikong Filipino

(2) taong tagabigay ng baraha sa isang klase ng suga! B. Pagbabahagi ng damdamin Pakikiramay, pagpuri, pagsang-ayon,
Pangungusap: Hindi pa dumarating ang bangka. (Sharing feelings) pahayag, paglibak, paninisi,
Mahirap alamin ang konteksto. pagsalungat.
Sino/Ano ang tinutukoy?
K. Pagbibigay o pagkuha ng Pag-uulat, pagpapaliwanag, pagtukoy,
Ang sasakyang pandagat o isang manunugal.
impormasyon (Getting factual pagtatanong, pagsagot
o parapreys - mga magkakaparenong kahulugan
ng mga pangungusap.
- 'Kumanta ang koro ng mga lumang kanta D. Pagpapanatili sa pakikipag- Pagbati, pagpapakilala, pagbibiro,
- Mga lumang kanta ang kinanta ng koro kapuwa at pagkakaroon pagpapasalamat, paghingi ng
- Naglaro ang mga bata ng basketbol ng interaksyon sa kapuwa paumanhin.
- Nagbasketbol ang mga bata (Ritualizing function)
E. Pangangarap at paglikha Pagkukuwento, pagsasadula,
7. Matapos na mataiakay ang mga batayang kaalaman sa ilalim ng una, (Imagining/Creating function) pagsasatao, paghula
kakayahang panlinggwistika, dumako naman tayo sa ikalawa ang
kakayahang pangkomunikatibo sa pag-aaral ng wika. > Paano natin maipakikita na nagagamit natin ang wikang Filipino nang may
lalong mataas na antas ng kasanayan at kahusayan?
8. Hindi lamang naaayon sa kaalamang makagamit ng mga pangungusap na may
wastongbalarilakundimaykayahan paring ipakitaatgamitinangalinmanggawing Naririto ang mga halimbawa ng mga inaasahang kasanayan (Belvez, et
pakikipag-usap ('speec/Jtetawororspeectecfsjnaangkopatnaaayonsahinihingi al., 1990):
ng sitwasyon ang kakayahang komunikatibo (communicative competence)
A. Naisasagawa ang ibat ibang uri ng pagpapahayag o gawi ng
9. Kung kahulugang komunikatibo ang susuriin sa isang pahayag, tiyak na iuugnay pagsasalita kaugnay ng pagtugon sa iba't ibang tungkulin ng
ito sa tungkulin ng komunikasyon at ang kaugnay na gawi ng pagsasalita tulad komunikasyong kinakaharap sa pang-araw-araw na sitwasyon.
ng ipinakikita ng sumusunod na tsart ni Gordon Wells. 1. Nagagamit ang angkop na pahayag sa pagdalo sa isang pagtitipon
2. Nakasasali sa isang makabuluhang gawain ukol sa pagtatanong
Tungkulin ng Komunikasyon Gawi ng Pagsasalita ng direksyon, tao o bagay.
(Functions o f Communication) (Speech or Communication Acts) 3. Malinaw na naipapahayag ang iba't ibang kaisipan ayon sa lugai
o sitwasyong kinaroroonan.
A. Pagkontrol sa kilos o gawi ng Pakikiusap, pag-utos, pagmumungkahi,
4. Nasasabi nang malinaw at may paggalang ang pagpapagawa ny
iba (Controlling function) pagpupunyagi, pagtanggi, pagbibigay
isang bagay o gawain.

Dr. Arsenia R. Emperado PNU LET Reviewer 129

Filipino - Komunikasyon sa Akademikong Filipino General Education

5. Nasasabi nang mabisa ang mga iniisip at niloloob. C. Nakakapakinig at nakasasali sa ibat ibang talakayan kaugnay ng
6. NakapaghahatkJ at nakapaghaharap nang mabisa ng ibat ibang ibang lawak ng pag-aaral sa kurikulum
impormasyon. 1. Naririnig nang may pang-unawa at natatalakay nang mabisa ang
7. Naipapahayag at natutukoy ang mga saloobing moral. mga paksa tungkol sa kasaysayan, pamahalaan at konstitusyon
8. Naisasagawa ang wastong pakikipagkapwa. 2. Nakapagpapahayag ng kaisipan at gawaing kaugnay ng musika,
9. Nakalilikha nang pasalita ng ilang tugma, kuwento at patalastas. sining, kagandahang-asal at gawaing pantahanan

B. Naisasagawa nang mabisa ang ibat ibang gawaing komunikasyon sa 1 0. Sa pagsasalita at pagsulat ang wastong paggamit ng mga salitang karaniwan
pag-aaral. ay lubhang kailangan.Kailangang sumusunod ito sa mga alituntuning
1. Nakakapakinig at nakaialahok sa isang talakayan ng panayam na panggramatika. Nakatutulong sa maayos, malinaw at mabisang pagpapahayag
napakinggan kung wasto ang gamit ng mga salitang Filipino.
2. Nakapagsasagawa at nakasasagot sa isang interbyu
3. Naibubuod ang balitang nabasa o napakinggan
4. Nalalagom ang kuwento, editoryal o patalastas na narinig
5. Nakapagbabalangkas at nakapag-uulat
6. Nakapagbibigay ng isang panuto at paglalarawan
7. Nakakasali nang mabisa sa isahang pagbigkas
8. Nakapag-uusap tungkol sa mga tsart, grap, mapa at larawang-
9. Natutukoy ang pangunahing paksa ng mga narinig na paglalahad
10. Nakapagbibigay-katwiran, kuru-kuro o opinyon tungkol sa mga
balita o pangyayaring narinig o nabasa
11. Nakapagsasagawa ng isang biglaang pagpapahayag
(extemporaneous speech)
12. Nagsasabi nang makabuluhan sa isang pagpupulong
13. Nakapagbibigay ng isang gawaing padikta (Gagamiting paksa rito
ang ibat ibang lawak ng pag-aaral sa kurikulum.)

K jc fc S pW i LET Reviewer Dr. Arsenia R. Emperado

General Education Filipino - Komunikasyon sa Akatiemikong Filipino

B A H A G I I! -P A G S U S U R I S A M G A A Y T E M mga wika na higit na mahalaga ang tono, tulad ng Mandarin at Thai na

M G A T E K N IK S A P A G S A G O T N G M G A T A N O N G itinuturing na tone language. May mga wika naming higit na mahalaga ang
diin, tulad ng Ingles. At may wika naming higit na mahalaga ang haba tulad
ng Filipino.

Kapag binago ang haba ng pantig na - sa - sa /kasa . ma / companion,

mababago ang kahulugan ng salita.
Wastong Paggamit ng Ponemang Suprasegmental
(Tono, Haba, Diin, Antala) Opsyon A.
Tono, tumutukoy sa taas-baba na iniuukol natin sa pagbigkas ng pantig ng
Item 1. isang salita. Walang magiging pagbabago sa kahulugan kahit na baguhin pa
ang tono.
Alin sa mga sumusunod ang makapagpapabago ng kahulugan ng salitang / kasa.
ma / = companion? (a)
B a guhinang_____________ng bigkas ng salita. ka
A. tono (b)
B. diin
C. haba *ka
D. antala 'ma

C ang tamang sagot. Opsyon B.

Diin, tumutukoy sa lakas ng bigkas sa pantig ng salita. Kahrt pagbagu-
Anotasyon baguhin ang lakas ng pagbigkas sa tatlong pantig na ka-, - s a - at - ma
Mga Teknik sa Pagtukoy ng Wastong Gamit ng Ponemang Suprasegmental mananatili pa rin ang kahulugan ng salita.
(Tono, Haba, Diin, Antala)
Opsyon D.
Ang tamang sagot ay C. Antala, ang saglit na pagtigil sa pagsasalita, wala pa rin itong magiging
May ibat ibang halaga sa bawat wika ang ponemang suprasegmental. May epekto sa kahulugan ng salitang / kasa. ma / = 'companion

Dr. Arsenia R. Emperado PNU LET ReviewerliESl

Filipino - Komunikasyon sa Akademikong Filipino General Education

Kawastuan sa Pagbuo ng Pangungusap

Kawastuan sa Pagbuo ng Salita
(Gamit ang mga Uri ng Pandiwa)
(Kayarian ng Pangngalan)
Rem 3.
Item 2.

Sa pamamagitan ng ibat ibang paraan, maaaring makabuo ng mga pangngalan Alin sa mga sumusunod na pangungusap ang di wasto ang pagkabuo o walang
mula sa salitang-ugat na bayan. Aling salita ang di dapat maisama sa pangkat? kabuuan ang diwa?

A. bayan-bayan A. Kumuto ang tubig

B. batikbayan B. Nagpatay si Mang Ousting.
C. kabayanan C. Kumain siya.
D. kabayanihan D. Kumain siya ng pansit luglog sa paiengke.

Ang tam ang sagot ay D. Ang tam ang sagot ay B.

Anotasyon Anotasyon
Mga Tekriik sa Pagtukoy ng Kawastuan sa Pagbuo ng Salita Mga Teknik sa Pagtukoy ng Kawastuan sa Pagbuo ng Pangungusap
(Kayarian ng Pangngalan) (Gamit ang mga Uri ng Pandiwa)

D ang tamang sagot. B ang tamang sagot.

Ang salitang ugat ay bayan. Ang satitang kabayanihan ay mula sa salitang-
ugat na bayani. May tatlong uri ng pandiwa:
a) pandiwang katawanin
Opsyon A. b) pandiwang ganap na palipat
Batay sa kayarian ng pagbuo ng salita ito ay halimbawa ng pangngalang c) pandiwang di-sapilitang palipat
inuulit. (bayan-bayan)
Ganap na palipat yaong pandiwang may kasamang tuwirang layon. Sa ganitong
Opsyon B.
uri ng pandiwa ay hindi maaaring alisin ang tuwirang layon nang hindi masisira
Batikbayan, halimbawa ng pangngalang tambaian. (balik + bayan)
ang kabuuan ng diwa ng pangungusap.
Opsyon C.
Pangngalang maylapi / hinango ang tawag sa kabayanan.
Dr. Arsenia R. Emperado
132 PNU LET R eview er
General Education Filipino - Komunikasyon sa Akademikong Filipino

Kaya't sa pangungusap na Nagpatay s i M ang G usting kulang at di btio ang C. Ang ganda naman ng damit mo! Saan ba ang lakad mo?
kaisipan dahil kulang ng tuwirang layon. Upang maging wasto: D. Ang kyut-kyut mo! Para kang bibinyagan!

Nagpatay ng baboy/m anok s i M ang Gusting. Ang tamang sagot ay C

Opsyon A. Anotasyon
Mga Teknik sa Pagtukoy ng Wastong Pagbabahagi ng Damdamin
Ito ay isang halimbawa ng pandiwang katawanin, yaong pandiwang likas na di (Pagpuri)
pangangailangan o di malalagyan ng tuwirang layon.

Mga Opsyon C at D. Basahin nang mabuti ang tanong.

Mga halimbawa ng mga pandiwang di sapilitang patipat, yaong maaaring 1. Ituon ang pansin sa hinihinging tungkuling pangwika. (Pagbabahagi ng
mayroon tulad ng Opsyon D at walang kasamang tuwirang layon tulad ng Damdamin - Pagpuri)
Opsyon C.
2. Pag-aratang mabuti ang mga pagpipiliang sagot.

3. Ang tamang sagot ay C. Isang magandang gawi ang pagiging matapat kung
Item 4. tayoy pumupuri sa ating kapwa. Karaniwan, pinupuri natin ang kasuotan ng
kausap kung talagang dapat purihin.
Likas na palahanga ang mga mamamayang Filipino. Nagpapahayag tayo ng
paghanga at pagpuri sa ibat ibang pagkakataon at gumagamit tayo ng ibat Ibang Mga Opsyon A at D. Dapat tayong mag-ingat tungkol sa pagbati ng
ekspresyon. Kung magkaminsan, ginagamit natin ang ekspresyon sa paghanga pangangatawan ng kapwa. Mangyari, may mga taong ayaw mababati ang
upang batiin ang taong / kaibigang ating nasasalubong. paglaki ng katawan (pagtaba)o pagpayat kaya.

Alin sa mga sumusunod na pahayag ang angkop at mabuting gamitin sa ganiteK} Opsyon D. Kung hindi rin lang tapat sa ating kalooban ang sasabihin, mas
pagkakataon? mainam na huwag nang kumibo.

A. Napakapayat mo ngayon, a. Naospital ka ba? 4. Iba pang kaisipan:

B. DiyosKo! Bakit nagkaganyan ka? Ang taba taba mo! Gumagamit tayo ng ibat ibang kaantasan ng pang-uri sa pagpapahayag
ng paghanga. Tatlo ang kaantasan ng mga pang-uri:

Dr. Arsenia-R. Kmperaclo PNU LET Reviewer 133

Filipino - Komunikasyon sa Akademikong Filipino General Education
a) Lantay - nasa payak na anyo at walang paghahambing na nagaganap.
Halimbawa: Ang ganda naman ng damit mo! Anotasyon
b) Pahambing - kung nagtutulad sa dalawang tao o bagay; nahahati Mga Teknik sa Pagtukoy ng Wika ayon sa Pormalkiad ng Pagkagamit
sa dalawang uri - magkatulad at di magkatulad; sa tao/bagay na
magkatulad ginagamit ang sing, magsing, kasing, magkasing sa
Upang maisagawa ang mabisang pakikipagkomunikasyon gamit ang wikang
pagpapahayag; sa tao/bagay na di magkatulad ginagamit ang lalo,
Filipino, dapat na makilala ng tagagamit ng wika/ispiker ang katangian ng ibat
higit, kaysa, digaano, dituladng, nitulad, digayang atbp.
ibang istilo/barayti ng wika para maunawaan kung paano ito gagamitin para sa
c) pasukdol - kung naghahambing ng isang tao, bagay, pook o
mabisang interaksyon sa angkop na sitwasyon.
pangyayari sa dalawa o higit pang tao o bagay; ginagamit ang mga
panlaping napaka, pinaka- at ka-an.
Opsyon D ang tamang sagot.

Wika Ayon sa Pormalidad ng Pagkagamit Sa pag-uuri sa istilo ng wika o pahayag batay sa pormalidad ng pagkagamit,
binibigyan ng konsiderasyon ang paksa, papel na ginagampanan at lugar,
kung bakit nagkakaroon ng pagbabago sa istilo ng wika.
Item b.
paksa - Kaisipang pinag-uusapan (bayad sa pasahe)
papel na ginagampanan - Ano ang relasyon ng nag-uusap?
Basahin ang sumusunod na dayalogo/usapan. Kilalanin mo ang salita / pangungusap
(drayber -pasahero)
ayon sa pormalidad ng pagkagamit.
lugar - Nasaan ang pag-uusap?(sa loob ng dyip) Ano ang palatandaan ng
Ang Pasahero a t ang Drayber istilo ng usapang kaswal?
walang ingat sa pagpili ng mga salita
Pasahero: Mama, ito ho ang bayad!
Drayber : Saan ito !
bahagyang mababa ang sosyal na pamantayan
Pasahero: Isa tang ho.
Drayber llan 'to? Opsyon A.
Pasahero: Sa Esparia lang ho.
Iba ang katangian ng istilong pormal:
Uriin ang isblo ng usapan gamit ang batayan: wika ayon sa pormalidad ng pagkagamit.
nakaplano, iskripted
gumagamit ng mga buong pahayag/pangungusap
A. formal oseryoso
mga pangungusap na may kaayusang gramatikal
B. intimeyt o kilalang-kilala
C. konsultatibo o sumasangguni
D. kaswal

134 PNU LET Reviewer Dr. Arsenia R. Emperado

General Education Filipino - Komunikasyon sa Akademikong Filipino
Opsyon B. 11. Lagyan ng kapares ang salita upang makabuo ng pagpaparis na magkasama
kagaya ng sumusunod:
Katangian ng istHong intimeyt: langit at lupa
usapan sa pamilya, mga mahal sa buhay at pinakamalatapit na kaibtgan liwanag at dilim
pagtatapat ng pinakatatagong lihim puno at dulo
sanhi a t ___________
Opsyon C. A. dahilan buti
B. buhay D.) bunga
Katangian ng istitong konsultatibo o sumasangguni: 12. Alin ang salitang may karaniwang kahulugan dala ng diksyunaryo o ginagamit
transaksyong pangnegosyo, usapang doktor-pasyente, usapang p r o - sa pinakakaraniwan at simpleng pahayag?
mag-aaral Makunat ang taong iyan.
'By Ayaw ko ng bola," ang sabi ng bata.
Item C. Berde ang kanyang utak.
6. May mga pagkakataon na maaaring palitan ng ibang ponema / tunog ang D. Ayaw ko ng bola, ang sabi ng dalaga.
isang ponema nang hindi magbabago ang kahulugan ng salita tulad ng 13. Alin sa mga sumusunod na salita ang may klaster?
A. diyes C. daram
A. ewan - iwan C. lataki - lalake B. diyip ( d) drakula
B. diles - riles D. uso - oso 14. Anong pagbabagong morpoponemiko ang matatagpuan sa salitang bakuran?
7. Piliin ang salitang may diptonggo. A. pagpapalit ng ponema C. paglilipat diin
A. Yoyong C. lawa B. asimilasyon D. metatesis
B. kamay D. tihaya 15. Ano ang pormasyon ng pantig sa mga titik na pahilig? prin sesa
8. May iba't ibang posrsyon ang kinalalagyan ng paniapi sa salita. Anong uri n KKPK C. K P K
panlapi ang matatagpuan sa salitang ipagsumigawan? f t KKP D. KP
A. unlapi C. hulapi 16. Ang mga kasamahan mo ay nagsasabing higit na mainam daw magtrabaho
B. gitlapi f).) laguhan sa ibang bansa pagkatapos ng pag-aaral sa Pilipinas. Iba naman ang nasa
9. Alin ang dapat atisin sa pangkat? isipan mo. Paano mo sisimulang ilahad nang magalang ang iyong lubusang
A. kahali-halina kaakit-akit pagsalungat?
B. kabighani-bighani Dt kaliga- ligaya A. A. Parang maling-mali ka ..........
10. Ano ang kasalungat / antonim ng nratatag? B. Sa puntong iyan, tama ka, pero........
A. matibay C. mabuway C. Nirerespeto ko ang opinyon mo, pero___
B. malakas D. mataba D. Sa isip ko tama ka . . . .

Dr. Arsenia R. Eriiperado PNU LET Reviewer 1 3 5

(m 1'ifiuation

Filipino - Komunikasyon sa Akademikong Filipino

Pinag-uusapan ng iyong mga kaibigan ang pornograpiya sa mga sining Para sa Item 22 - 23. Anong tungkulin ng komunikasyon ang ginagampanan ng
(pelikula, babasahin at iba pa). Nais mong magdagdag ng ibang punto sa mga sumusunod na pahayag?
argumento. Paano mo ito sfeimulan? 22. Tungkol saan ang talakayan ninyo?
A. Pahintulutan mong wakasan k o ___ A. pagkuha ng impormasyon
B. "Bilangpaglalahat . . . . B. pagbabahagi ng damdamin
C. Pero kung tutuusin........ " c pagkontrol ng kilos ng iba
D r Bukod pa riyan ............ D. paglikha
18. May mahalagang bagay kayong naiwan sa babay. Nais ninyong tumawag . Tenat mayklasepatayo.
sa telepono. Hihingi kayo ng pahintulot sa kalihim ng inyong dekano upang A. pagpapanatili sa pakikipagkapwa
magamit ang telepono. Ano ang magandang Simula? B. pagbabahagi ng damdamin
A. Sige n a ........ C. pangangarap o paglikha
B. Sa kabuuan........ D. pagkontrol sa kilos ng iba
C Sa maikling sa b i___ . Alin sa mga sumusunod ang di-pormal na pahayag?
D. Maaari po b a n g ........... A. Paalam na po.
19. Sa pangungusap sa ibaba, nilalagyan ng isang bar if) angisang sagiit na B. Hay! Kumustaka?
paghinto at ng dobleng bar (II) angkatapusan ng pahayag. Ano ang ibig C. May maitutulong po ba ako?
sabihin ng pangungusap na ito? Tito / Juan Anton ang pangalan niya. // D. Ipagpatawad mo.
A. Sinasabi ang buong pangalan ng ipinakikilala. . Alin ang di-tahas o mataHnghagang pahayag?
(B? Kinakausap si Tito, o kayay isang tiyo, at ipinakikilala si Juan Anton. A. Mainit ngayon. Buksan mo ang bentilador.
C. Kausap ang isang tiyo na Juan ang pangalan. Ipinakikilala si Anton. B. Tumigil ka na sa iyong pagsasalita.
E. Lahat tama. JC. Nakapapaso ang init ng araw ngayon.
Para sa Item 20 - 22. Anong gawi ng pagsasalita ang ginagampanan ng mga D. Malamig ang panahon. Umuulan.
sumusunod na pahayag?
20. "Kumusta ka na?"
'k . pagbati C. pagpapasalamat
B. pagbibiro D. pagpapakilala
21. Pumunta kat baka dumating din ako.
A. pakikiusap C. pagtanggi
B. pag-uutos D. pagpupunyagi

136 PNU LET Reviewer Dr. Arsenia R. Empcrado

General Education Filipino - Komunikasyon sa Akademikong Filipino

6. Alin ang batayang pangungusap sa sumusunod na pahayag?

- A. Ang mag-aaral na babaing iyon ay iskolar. < ------
B. Ang mag-aaral ay iskolar.
C. Ang mag-aaral na babae ay iskolar.
D. Ang matalinong mag-aaral ay iskolar.
7. Ang batayang pangungusap ay Umalis ang mag-anak. Alin sa mga sumusunod
na pahayag ang may pampalawak na pang-abay?
f A. / Umalis ang mayamang mag-anak.
1. Isang paraan upang maipakita ang pagkokontrast ng mga ponema / tunog ay B. Umalis ang mag-anak na iyon. ,
ang paggamit ng pares minimal. Alin ang di dapat isama sa pangkat? C. Umalis agad ang mag-anak.
A. lasa - tasa C. bibi - bibe D. Ang mag-anak na nagmamadali ay umate
Br' mesa - misa D. tela - tila 8. Aljn sa mga sumusunod na pahayag ang may pw mgtt?
2. May ponema / tunog na malayang nagpapalitan. Alin ang di dapat isama sa A. Kalabaw raw ni Kuya ang nawala.
pangkat? B. Kalabaw ni Kuya sa bukid ang nawala.
A. pinanunuod -pinanunood C. Ang kalabaw na mataba ni Kuya ang nawate
B. karsada -kalsada D. walang tamang sagot.
C. marusing -madusing 9. Alin sa mga sumusunod nasalita ang may cfcfjtonggo?
D. loro - lolo A. salaysay C. sayawaa
3. Alin sa mga sumusunod na salita ang magbabago ang kahulugan kapag inalis B. aliwan D. luya
ang gitling? 10. Ano ang katangian ng mga sumusunod na salta?
i'A, may-ari C. pag-asa Magbasa, umibig, maligaya, paalis.
B. pag-ibig D. tag-ulan Pare-parehong m a y ________________.
4. May sadyang gamit ang gitling sa palabaybayang ^ilipino. Alin ang di-dapat ' A unlapi C. hulapi
gamitan ng gitling? B. gitlapi D. laguhan,
A. gabi-gabi C. taga-Bulacan 11. Alin sa pangkat ng salita ang ginamitan ng huiapi?
B. paru-paro D. ika-10 A. lupa, bayani. bandila, langit
5. Alin sa mga sumusunod na pangngalan ang inuulit? B. maglaro, umalis, matakot, palayo
A. sarisari C. lapulapu C. sumayaw, lumakad, sinagot, ginawa
B. gamugamo D. sabi-sabi D. ibigin, sulatan, sabihin, sabihan

Dr. Arsenia R. Empcrado PNU LET Reviewer 137

Filipino - Komunikasyon sa Akademikong Filipino (ic iu licttH'iition

12. Alin sa mga sumusunod na satita ang maykattas o nawawaiang poneraa / 18. Panguk) ka ng Kabataang Baranggay sa inyong lugar. Tumawag ka ng isang
tunog? ispesyal na pulong na dinaluhan ng mga kasapi.
A. dalhin C. teka Ano ang angkop na sabihin upang mapasimulan ang pulong?
B. hagkan 0 .; tena A. Puwede bang simulan na natin ang pulong?
Para sa Item 13 - 1 5 Ating pahayag ang tumutukoy sa kalagayan / sitwasyon sa ibaba. B. Mangyaring sumaayos ang kapulungan.
13. Ipinakikilala mo ang iyong kasintahan sa isang Duktor at kay Jenny. C. Bukas na ang hapag.
A. Jenny / ang girlfriend ko / Duktor. D. Mangyaring tumahimik ang lahat.
B. Duktor / Jenny / ang girlfriend ko. 19. Bagong lipat ka sa isang lugar. Hindi mo pa alam kung paano pupunta sa
C. Duktor Jenny / ang girlfriend ko. bayan. Balak mong magtanong sa pulis. Paano mo iio sasabihln?
D. Lahat tama. A. Mamang pulis, saan po kaya ako makasasakay papuntang bayan?
14. Ayaw mong tanggapin na si Roily ang nanalo sa paligsahan. B. Mamang pulis, ituro ninyo nga sa akin ang sakayan papuntang bayan?
A. Hindi si Roily / ang kampeon. C. Mamang pulis, saan ba ako sasakay papuntang bayan?
B. Hindi / si Roily ang kampeon. D. Saan ba ang sakayan papuntang bayan?
C.-, Hindi si Roily ang kampeon.// 20. Alin sa sumusunod na mga salita ang wasto ang pagkabaybay?
D. walang tamang sagot A. panbukid C. pam-bukid
15. Itinuturo sa pulis ang salarin. B. pambukid D. pangbukid
A. Tinyente Magtanggol Luis / siya ang salarin. 2 t. Alin ang di-wasto ang pagkabaybay sa mga sumusunod na salita?
B. Tinyente Magtanggol / Luis / siya ang salarin. A. kasingganda C. hatinggabi
C. Tinyente / Magtanggol Luis / siya ang salarin. B. mangagawa D. alalahanin
D. Lahat tama. 22. Matagal ka nang nakikipag-usap sa telepono. Sinenyasan ka ng iyong pinsan
16. Alin sa mga sumusunod na pahayag ng paghingi ng tawad ang di pormai? na tapusin mo na ang iyong pakikipag-usap. Paano mo ito sasabihin?
A. Pasensiya ka na. A. Ibaba mo na ang telepono. Kailangang tumawag ang pinsan ko.
B. Patawarin mo ako. B. Sigena. Nagagalit na ang pinsan ko.
C. Pagsisikapan kong di na mangyari itong muli. C. Mamaya na uli tayo mag-usap. Gagamitin kasi ng pinsan ko ang telepono.
D. Huwag ka nang magalit Hindi ko na gagawin muli. D. Sige. Tama na ang kuwento.
17. 23. Alin sa mga halimbawa ang di-dapat isama sa pangkat ng pangungusap na
Naglilinis ng bakuran ang mga lalaki samantalang nagluluto ang mga babae. walang paksa.
A. Ang tapang mo pala! C. Umuulan
Ito ay halimbawa ng pangungusap na may kayariang_______________.
B. Arayl D. Ginto ang aiahas.
A. tambalan C. hugnayan
B. payak D. langkapan

138 PNU LET Reviewer Dr. Arsenia R. Emperado

General Education Filipino - Komunikasyon sa Akademikong Filipino
24. Alin sa mga pangungusap ang pokus sa aktor / tagaganap?
I D Bumili ng laruan si Gel sa SM para sa kanyang inaanak
B. Biniti ni Gelling laruan sa SM para sa kanyang inaanak.
C. Binilhan ni Gel ng laruan ang SM para sa kanyang inaanak.
D. Ibinili ni Gel ng laruan ang kanyang inaanak sa SM.
25. Alin ang tamang pangungusap na patanong na hango sa batayang pangungusap
na pasalaysay?
BP: Mamamasyal sila sa Biyemes.
A. Saan sila mamamasyal?
B. Kanino sila pupunta?
C. Bakit sila mamamasyal?
D. Kailan sila mamamasyal?

Dr. Arsenia R. Emperado PNU LET Reviewer 139

F ilip in o - Paghasa at Pagsulat tun go sa Pananaliksik General Education

Pagbasa at B A H A G II - B A L IK -A R A L S A N 1L A L A M A N

Pagsulat tungo 1. Pagpapakahulugan sa pagbasa

Pagkilala at pagkuha ng mga ideya at kaisipan sa mga simbolong
nakalimbag upang mabigkas nang pasalita ang mga ito. Pag-unawa ito sa
wika ng awtor o manunulat ng mga nakasulat na simbolo (Semorlan, et al.,

sa Pananaliksik 1999).
Sinasabing unang hakbang sa pagtatamo ng kaalaman. Tumutukoy sa
kognitibong proseso ng pag-unawa sa mensahe ng wikang nakasulat.
Isang proseso ng pagkuhang muli at pag-unawa sa mensahe ng ilang anyo
Inihanda ni: ng nakaimbak na mga impormasyon o mga ideya (Alejo, et al., 2005).
Arsenia R. Emperado, Ph.D. Mahalagang salik sa pagbasa ang papel ng dating kaalaman o ang teorya
ng iskema. Inumpisahan ni Barlett (1932) at nilinang nina Anderson (1977)
at Rumelhart (1981) ang teoryang ito na nagsasaad na nakaiimpluwensiya
nang malaki sa pag-unawa kung ano ang mga alam na o hindi- alam ng
jKasanayan: mambabasa.

Mga uri ng iskema:

! Nababasa nang may wastong - content o nilalaman (tumutukoy sa mga sistema ng tunav na
j pag-unawa ang mga teksto sa katotohanan, balyus at kombensiyong kultural)
;* ibat ibang disiptina - formal (tinatawag ding tekstwal na iskema, na may kaugnayan sa
kaalamang retorikal na istruktura ng teksto at mga genre ng panitikan
tulad ng mga nobela, maikling kwento, dula, resipe, patalastas,
! Nagagamit nang mahusay ang talambuhay, liham, jornal, atbp.)
- linggwistika (tinatawag ding iskema ng wika, na tumutukoy sa
i Filipino sa pagbuo ng isang istruktura ng wika, bokabularyo, impleksyong gramatikal at mga gamit
sulating pananaliksik pang-ugnay (cohesive devices).

140 PNU LET R eview er Dr. Arsenia R. Emperado

General Education Filipino - Pagbasa at Pagsulat tango sa Pananaliksik

2. Pagpapakahulugan sa pagsulat Napakahaiaga para sa kasaysayan sa pagbasa at pagsulat ang patuloy na

Paggawa o pagbuo ng mga titik, simbolo, at mga salita. Isang paraan pagpapayaman, pagdaragdag ng bokabularyo/talasalitaan ng mga mag-aaral.
upang ang mga mahahaiagang bagay na hindi matandaan ay muling Haririto ang ilang paraan sa pagpapalawak ng bokabularyo:
mapagbalikan sa isipan (Lorenzo, et al., 2001). kaanyuan/kayarian/pagbuo ng mga salita
Isang mabagal at kompleks na proseso at itinuturing na isang sining na > pagkakabit ng ibat ibang uri ng panlapi sa salitang-ugat upang
nangangailangan ng malalim na pag-unawa at pag-iisip (Badayos, 2000). mabigyan ng ibat ibang kahulugan ang mga ito
3. Makatutulong sa lalong pagkakamit ng mabisang pagpapahayag at pagsulat ng pag-uunlapi = umisip
apat na anyo ng pagpapahayag: paggigitlapi = tumulong
a. paglalahad (nagbibigay impormasyon at nagpapaiiwanag) paghuhulapi = linisin
b. paglalarawan ( nagpapalutang ng mga katangian) pag-uunlapi + paggigitlapi = ikinuha
e. pagsasalaysay ( nagkukuwento) pag-uunlapi + paghuhulapi = pagsabihan
d. pangangatuwiran (nanghihikayat na isaalang-alang ang pananaw ng paggigitlapi + paghuhulapi = tinabasan
manunulat) pag-uunlapi,paggigitlapi at paghuhulapi = pinagsumikapan
pag-uulit ng salita
4. Tinatawag din ng ilan ang apat na anyo ng pagpapahayag bilang genre ng parsyal kani-kanila
wika. Samantalang, tinatawag na genre ng nakasulat na teksto ang maikling ganap tuwang-tuwa
kuwento, sanaysay, mga alamat, talumpati, talambuhay, mga tula, atbp. tambalang salita bahay-kubo
salitang balbal oks, tsekot
5. Ang genre ng nakasulat na teksto ay may dalawang anyo sa paggamit ng salita: salitang kolokyal syota, datung
anyong tuluyan panghihiram ng mga salita - axis, xerox
sanaysay talambuhay - editorial - anekdota - ulat paghahambing ng mga magkakatulad at magkakaibang salita
- balita - alamat - dula - pabula - mito Halimbawa:
- salaysayin - talumpati - atbp. malapad at maluwang makipot at maluwag
anyong patula paggamit ng tayutay parang anghel
- tulang pandarndamin/liriko:elehiya, oda, kantahin, soneto paggamit ng idyomatikong pahayag kamay na bakal
tulang pasalaysay: epiko, awit, kurido ugnayan ng mga salita
- tulang pandulaan paggamit ng context clue
paggamit ng diksyunaryo

ih. Arsenia R. Emperado PNU LET Reviewer 141

Filipino - Pagbasa at Pagsulat tungo sa Pananaliksik General Education

7. Mga pamamaraan sa pagpapaunlad ng pag-unawa sa pagbasa ng mga s Kahulugan ng opinyon (Silapan at Fabros III, 1999)
tekstong akademiko: a. pagpili, paghiling, o malayang pagpili
pagbasang pahapyaw (skimming) - isang paraang ginagamit ng b. kuru-kuro, pala palagay na batay sa punto de bista ng isang
mambabasa upang makuha ang nilaiaman ng teksto o materyal sa tao; maaaring mali ito sa pamamaraan ng iba, subalit isang
mabilisang paraan. Hindi nito pinagtutuunan ang detalye, kundi ang katotohanan sa nagpapahayag nito
kabuuang paksa o pangunahing kaisipan ng isang artikulo o seleksyon c. isang paniniwala na mas malakas pa sa impresyon
para makabuo ng buod o lagom ng binabasa. Higit na mahaba ang oras d. mas mahina sa positibong kaalaman, na batay sa obserbasyon at
para sa skimming kaysa scanning. eksperimento
pagbasang pasuri (scanning) - ito naman ang palaktaw-laktaw na e. isang panghuhusga
pagbabasa na isinasagawa ng mambabasa upang mabihs na matukoy pagkilala sa hulwaran o istilong ginam it ng aw tor sa pagsulat -
o matagpuan ang isang tiyak na impormasyon tutad ng pangalan, kasanayan ito sa pagsusuri kung anong hulwaran o istilo ang ginamit ng
lugar, bilang o petsa. Hindi rin masinsinan ang pagbabasa ng teksto. Sa awtor upang mabuo at maipahayag ang mga kaalaman o ideya sa mga
sandaling makita ang impormasyong hinahanap, hindi na ipagpapatuloy babasahing teksto; maaari rin namang alamin ang layunin, saloobin at
ang pagbasa. panauhan (point o f view) ng manunulat tungkol sa kanyang isinulat.
pagbuo ng prediksyon o hinuha - bumubuo ng palagay o implikasyon Nagbigay sina Montgomery at Moreau (2003) nasa Alejo, et al., (2005:
ang isang bumabasa batay sa mga pahiwatig o implikasyong ibinibigay 107) ng pitong anyo ng tekstong ekspositori. Tingnan ang talahanayan
ng manunulat at tagapagsalita; hindi tuwirang sinasabi ng may-akda ang sa ibaba.
nais niyang sabthin kayat kailangang matuklasan ng mambabasa ang
nakatagong kahulugan ng mga salita sa teksto. Karaniwang
paglalahat o pagiaiagom - naisasagawang maisaayos ang mga Anyo Paglalarawan
impormasyong nakuha sa teksto sa pamamagitan ng pagbubuod,
Saklaw ang lahat ng
pagbabalangkas at pagtatala. Tinipong katibayan sa paksa.
pagbuo ng kongkiusyon - nakabubuo ng kongklusyon sa pamamagitan Paglalarawan Paggamit ng pang-uri at pang-
gawain, sining,
ng mahahalagang detalyeng makukuha sa teksto; pagkatapos, gagamitin abay
musika, P.E.
ang mga detalyeng nabanggit upang maiugnay sa mga karanasang bunga
ng obserbasyon o dili kayay nabasa ng mambabasa. Pag-iisa-isa ng mga halimbawa
Pagtatala Agham, Matematika
pagsuri a t pagkiiaia ng mga ideyang katotohanan a t opinyon na may kaugnayan sa paksa
s Kahulugan ng katotohanan (fact) Pagpapahayag ng kaayusan
a. ang nagawang bagay Pagsusunod-sunod ng mga hakbang, proseso o Agham, Matematika
b. kasaiukuyang ginagawa, binubuo, ginagampanan pamamaraan
c. aktwal na umiiral, subhektibo o obhektibo man ang konsiderasyon

142 PNU LET Reviewer Dr. Arsenia R. Emperado

General Education Filipino - Pagbasa at Pagsulat tungd sa Pananaliksik

Pagpapaliwanag kung bakit Maaari rin namang ganito ang sulatin:

nangyari ang isang bagay. May 1. pinaikling pagsulat ng katha na tinatawag na presi na ang ibig sabihin
Sanhi/Bunga Kasaysayan ay mahigpit na pinanatili ang mga pangunahing kaisipan, ayos ng
naunang pangyayari at may
sumunod na pangyayari pagkakasulat, pananaw ng sumulat at himig ng oribinal (Silapan at
Fabros III, 1999:117).
Pagbibigay ng problemang
2. hawig o parapreys - isang pagpapaliwanag ng isang akda o babasahin
maaaring malutas nang mahigit
na tangkang ibigay ang kahulugan upang maunawaan sa higit na
sa isang solusyon. Kailangang
Problema/Solusyon Agham madaling paraan; karaniwan itong ginagawa sa mga tula o kasabihan
ipahayag ang problema at
sapagkat hindi lantad ang mensahe.
magmungkahi ng piano kung
analisis at balidasyon ng kaalaman - isang paraang lumilinang sa
paano ito malulutas kasanayan sa pag-unawa ng mga mag-aaral upang analisahin/tayahin/
Pagpapakita ng pagkakatulad o ebalweytin ang mga ebidensya ng pangyayari; mula rito makabubuo ng
pagkakaiba ng dalawa o mahigit pangangatuwirang pasaklaw o pangangatuwirang pabuod
pang sangkap o bahagi. pagtukoy sa damdamin, tono, layunin, a t pananaw ng teksto naririto
Paghahambing at Agham Panlipunan,
Kagalingan at kahinaan, ang dapat landaan sa pagtukoy ng damdamin, tono, layunin at pananaw:
Pagkokontrast Heograpiya
sang-ayon at di-sang-ayon, s ang himig (mood) ng isang teksto, ang damdaming nadarama ng
sinang-ayunan at sinalungat na bumabasa
pananaw. (halimbawa: pagkatakot, pagkainis, pagkalungkot, pagtataka o pag-
pagsusulat ng akda o seleksyon sa pamamagitan ng pagbabasa - s tono (tone) ng isang teksto, ang saloobin ng awtor tungkol sa paksang
layunin nito na maisulat ang naging epekto ng binasa sa sariling damdamin, inilalahad
kuru-kuro, kaisipan at ugali ng mambabasa. (halimbawa: mapagbiro, malungkot o nang-uuyarrt)
s layunin o pananaw ng pagkakasulat, karaniwang nasisinag sa tono o
Samakatuwid, lahat ng uri ng paksa ay sinasaklaw nito at lahat ng uri ng dili kayay sa himig
tao ay maaaring tagabasa nito. s uri ng istilo
> pormal o di-pormal
Naririto ang mga halimbawang uri ng sulatin: - > obhetibo o subhetibo
1. personal na uri - impormal na anyo > positibo o negatibo
2. mapanuri o kritikal - pormal na anyo pagbibigay interpretasyon sa mapa, tsart, grap a t talahanayan -
naririto ang mga patnubay upang mabasa ang mga ito nang mabisa:

1 >i . Arsi-nia R. km perado PNU LET Reviewer 143

Filipino - Pagbasa at Pagsulat tungo sa Pananaliksik General Education

v ' basahing mabuti ang legend na karaniwang makikita sa mapa * pagkilala ng pamaksang pangungusap
s basahin ang mga impormasyon sa gilid at ibaba ng grap - Ang pamaksang pangungusap ay pangungusap na kumakatawan sa
basahin ang pamagat at subseksyon ng teksto sentral na ideya sa loob ng isang talata.
pag-uuri ng mga ideya/detalye > Pangungusap itong kumokontrol sa diwa ng talata na nakatutulong
ang pangunahing ideya - ito ang pinakamahalagang diwa tungkol sa sa kalinawan at kaisahan ng ideya.
pinag-uusapan sa isang talata maging ito ay nasa anyong paglalahad, > May 2 bahagi ang paksang pangungusap, simuno at panaguri; sa
paglalarawan, pagsasalaysay o pangangatuwiran ibay tinatawag itong topic at comment.
> Nagagawang malinaw ang isang kumplikado o masalimuot
na paksa sa pamamagitan ng mga pangungusap na tiyakang
sumusuporta sa pangunahing ideya. > May dalawang uri ng pamaksang pangungusap: lantad at di-
> Tinatawag na mga pangunahing detalye ang mga pangungusap
na sumusuporta upang mabuo ang pangunahing diwa ng talata. Matatagpuan ang lantad na pamaksang pangungusap sa -
> Tinatawag namang mga maliliit na kaugnay na detalye ang mga unahan - unat hulihan
pangungusap na nagpapaliwanag sa mga pangunahing detalye.
gitna - hulihan ng talata
lalo na kung ang mga talata ay naglalahad at nangangatuwiran
> Bakit nasa unahang posisyon ang pamaksang pangungusap?
kung ang pangkalahatang ideya ay pinalawak ng mga
argumento o ng mga tiyak na halimbawa o ilustrasyon
> Bakit nasa gitna?
kung naghahambing o nagbibigay impormasyon
> Bakit sa unahan at hulihan?
kung ibig magbigay-diin sa ideyang naipahayag sa una
nagbibigay ito ng impresyon ng kabuuan ng ideya
> Bakit sa hulihan?
kung ang pruweba, ilustrasyon, halimbawa at mga detalye ay
naipakita muna bago ipahayag ang proposisyon
> Ipinahihiwatig lamang ang pamaksang pangungusap sa uring di-
lantad lalo pat ito ay talatang naglalarawan at nagsasalaysay.

144 PNU LET Reviewer Dr. Arsenia R. Emperado

General Education Filipino - Pagbasa at Pagsulat tungo sa Pananaliksik

8. Pananaliksik/Reserts - mapanuri at kritikal na pag-aaral tungkol sa isang isyu, 15. Sa kasalukuyang konteksto ng pananaliksik, mahalaga ang interbyu bilang
konsepto at problema. ___ bagong bukal ng impormasyon kayat dapat na batid ng mananaliksik ang mga
hakbang sa mabisang gamit nito.
9. Mga mapaghahanguan ng paksa
- sarili - internet - dyaryo 16. Dalawang bagay naman ang may bigat sa pananaliksik:
- magasin - radio - tv (cable) proseso ng pagbuo ng mga bagong insights o kabatiran
- mga awtoridad - kaibigan - kakilala panghihikayat upang tanggapin ng iba na totoo at wasto ang bagong
kaklase - guro ideyang natuklasan.

10. Magsisilbing proposal ng sulating pananaliksik ang konseptong papel. Binubuo 17. Upang magkaroon ng kabuluhan ang anumang ideya o kinalabasan ng
ito ng apat na bahagi: pananaliksik kailangang maisulat ito sa isang maayos at mabisang paraan na
Rasyunal (rationale) binibigyang pansin ang mga sumusunod:
Layunin iba't ibang prinsipyo sa pagsulat ng burador
Metodolohiya ang wastong dokumentasyon ng pananaliksik
Inaasahang output o resulta presentasyon ng papel sa maayos na estilo at format.

11. May dalawang panimuiang gawain sa pananaliksik

Paghahanap ng materyales
Paggawa ng pansamantatang bibliograpi

13. Mula sa paghahanap ng datos, susunod ang pagdedesisyon sa form at at uri

ng baiangkas na gagawim para mabuo ang pansamantalang baiangkas ng
napili mong paksa.

14. Magiging batayan ng maayos na dokumentasyon ang anyo o klase ng tala tulad
direktong sipi - buod ng tala - presi
sipi ng sipi - hawig (paraphrase) - salin/sariling salin

Ur. Arsenin R. Em perado PNU LET Reviewer 145

Filipino - Pagbasa at Pagsulat tungo sa Pananaliksik General Education

3. Alin sa mga sumusunod ang hindi kaugnay ng maliliit na detalye?

BAHAG1 II - P A G S U S U R I S A M G A A Y T E M C * hindi totoong kailangan ng tao ang salapi
M G A T E K N IK S A P A G S A G O T N G M G A T A N O N G ~B. hindi mabubuhay ang tao nang maayos kung walang salapi
C. ang salapi ang nagiging ugat ng mga kasamaan
D. hindi dapat maging gahaman ang tao sa salapi
Kasanayan sa Pagkuha ng Pangunahin at Kaugnay na Detalye
Ang tamang sagot sa:
1. D
Panuto: Basahin at unawain ang sumusunod na talata.
2. B
3. A
Item 1

Totoong kailangan ng tao ang salapi sa kanyang pang araw araw na Anotasyon
pangangaiiangan. Hindi siya mabubuhay nang maayos sa daigdig na ito kung Mga Teknik sa Pagkuha ng Pangunahin at Kaugnay na Detalye
wala siyang salapi ngunit may pangyayaring ang salapi ang nagiging ugat ng
mga kasamaan. Maraming tao ang nagpapatayan, marami ring nakukulong
dahil sa pagnanakaw at marami ring pamilya ang nawawasak nang dahil sa Sa pagbasa gumagamit tayo ng Organizational Strategies. Ito ay proseso ng
salapi. Hindi dapat maging gahaman sa salapi sapagkat magbubunga ito ng pagpili ng mahahalagang detalye at ang paggamit sa mga ito upang makabuo
kapahamakan at maaaring humantong sa kamatayan. ng ugnayan ng mga ideya.


1. Ano ang paksa o pangunahing ideya ng talata?
A. Ang Ugat ng mga Kasamaan Ang pag-unawa sa pangunahing ideya ay nakatutulong upang makabuo ng isang
B. Ang Pang-araw-araw na Pangangaiiangan
baiangkas para sa pagsasaayos, pag-unawa, at pagtanda sa mga mahahalagang
. Ang Pagkagahaman ng Tao sa Salapi detalye. Kung wala ito, mawawalan ng pokus ang mambabasa at mawawalan ng
D, Ang Pangangaiiangan ng Tao sa Salapi direksyon kung paano gagamitin ang mga detalye.
2. Ano ang pangunahing detalye?
A. pang-araw-araw na pangangaiiangan Mga hakbang sa pagbuo ng pangunahing ideya:
B. pangangaiiangan sa salapi 1. Gamitin/Suriin ang pamagat o ang unang pangungusap upang makagawa ng
G. kawalan ng salapi hipotesis sa kung ano ang pangunahing ideya ng teksto.
D. pangangaiiangan ng tao Opsyon D ang tamang sagot. Halimbawa: Ang salapi sa buhay ng tao.

146 PNU LET Reviewer Dr. Arsenia R. Empcrado

General Education Filipino - Pagbasa at Pagsulat tungo sa Pananaliksik
2. Basahin ang bawat pangungusap at pansinin kung sumusuporta ito sa
hipotesis. Kung hindi, rebisahin ang hipotesis.
3. Kung hindi makagawa ng hipotesis sa kung ano ang partgunahing ideya,
tingnan kung ano ang karaniwan o common sa lahat ng pangungusap.
4. Bumuo ng isang pangungusap na magpapaliwanag ng hipotesis o
nagpapakitang ito ang ibig sabihin ng lahat ng pangungusap sa talata/teksto.
Opsyon B ang tamang sagot. Halimbawa: pangangailangan sa salapi.
5. Sa mga pamilyar na paksa tulad ng Item 1, maaaring himay-himayin
ang teksto. Maaari rin namang magsagawa ng listing o paglilista. Maaari
rin namang gumamit ng graphic organizer tulad ng nasa ibaba kung

Item 2.
Tuklasin kung paano naisasalin ng awtor ang kanyang iniisip sa anyong pasulat
Sa item 1 ganito ang paglilistang lalabas. upang ang makababasa nito ay magaganyak na mag-isip, kumilos at matuto.

Kilalanin kung anong istilo o hulwaran ang ginamit ng awtor sa pagsulat ng pang
akademikong babasahing matatagpuan sa ibaba.

f >f. Arsenia R. Emperado PNU LET Reviewer 147

Filipino - Pagbasa at Pagsulat tungo sa Pananaliksik General Education

Artikulo: Anotasyon
Tatlong (3) Sangkap ng Memorya
Mga Teknik sa Pagkilala sa Hulwaran o Istilo ng Awtor sa Pagsulat

1 Inilalarawan ng teorya nina Atkinson at Shiffren noong 1968 at nina

Waugh at Norman noong 1965 ang kayarian ng memorya bitang sistema Mahalaga ang pagkilala ng mga hulwaran o istilo sa pagsulat. Nasusuri agad
ng magkakaugnay na sangkap na may kakayahang mag-imbak ng ng mambabasa kung anong impormasyon ang maaaring ilahad ng awtor na
impormasyon. nakatutulong sa kanya (mambabasa) sa pag-unawa at paggunita ng mga
2 Ang unang sangkap ng memorya ay ang sensory register. Ditoy naiimbak sa impormasyon.
maikling panahon ang lahat ng pagpasok ng istimulo. Sapagkat di pa ganap
ang istimulasyong pandama, malamang itong masira agad o madaling Opsyon A ang tamang sagot. Ang modelo ng enumerasyon o paglilista o pag-iisa-
mawaglit sa paglipas ng panahon. Halimbawa, ang istimulong biswal ay isa o pagtatala ay tumutukoy sa talaan o listahan ng mga ideya, katotohanan o
maaaring masira sa loob ng 50 m sec. detalye tungkol sa pangunahing ideya. Maaaring magkapalitan ang kaayusan
3 Ang pangalawang sangkap ay ang panandaliang memorya na nakapag- ng mga ideya o detaiye subalit hindi mababago ang kahulugan.
iingat ng impormasyon nang mga 30 segundo. Naiaayos sa pandinig ang Halimbawa - tatlong sangkap ng memorya
impormasyon sa panandaliang memorya. Ang kakayahan ng panandaliang unang sangkap - sensory register
memorya o shortterm memory{stm) ay hanggang pito lang ang impormasyon. pangalawang sangkap - panandaliang memorya
Kaya nga, kung malaki ang kakayahang magbatid ng impormasyon, lalong pangatlong sangkap - permanenteng memorya
maraming kaalaman ang maiingatan. Opsyon B. Ang hulwarang pagsusunud-sunod ay may tatlong uri:
4 Ang permanenteng memorya o memoryang panghabang panahon o -sekwensyal - sekwens o serye ang mga pangyayari na patungo sa
long term memory (Itm) ay ang pangatlong sangkap. Ang paglilipat ng kongklusyon.
impormasyon (Itm) buhat sa (stm) ay nagaganap sa pamamagitan ng pag- kronolohikal - paglilista ng mga hakbang o pangyayari ayon sa
eensayo sa patuloy na pag uulit sa kahulugan ng istimulo hanggang sa pagkapangyayari sa kwento o kasaysayan.
maging pangmatagalan ang memorya. proseso o paraan - nagpapaliwanag ng hakbang/pamamaraan na
5 Upang matandaan ang anumang bagay, tatlong proseso ang kailangan; ang kailangang sundin upang makakuha ng magandang resulta
pagpapahayag, pag-iimbak at pagbawi. Sa pagpapahayag, inihahanda ang Opsyon C. Isang anyo ng pagsusulat na nagbibigay pakahulugan sa isang paksa
istimulong iimbakan, ttoy tumutukoy sa pagbabago ng istimulo upang mag- nang mahaba at detalyado ang hulwarang depinisyon.
anyong maaaring ingatan sa sistemang kognitibo. Ang pag-iimbak ay ang Opsyon D. Paghahambing at pagkokontrast - sa una, ipinaliliwanag ang
proseso ng pag-iingat ng impormasyon para magamit. pagkakatuiad; sa pagkokontrast, ipinaliliwanag naman ang pagkakaiba.

Mula sa: Pagbasa a t Pagsulat

148 PNU LET Reviewer Dr. Arsenia R. Emperado

General Education Filipino - Pagbasa at Pagsulat tungo sa Pananaliksik

Item 3.
t Ang pagkagiliw natin sa nga imported na bagay ay malala nang tulad ng
kanser. Dahil sa ganitonc mentalidad ng mga Pilipino, ang ating industriya
ay hindi umuunlad. Hindi tmang ito, ang mga negosyante at mangangalakal Ang tamang sagot, D. Sanhi at bunga.
sa paggawa - sila a> nag-aalalang maliit ang kanilang kikitain sa May mga bagay na upang maunawaang mabuti, ang kailangang ipaliwanag
kanilang negosyo dahil s ) kakulangan ng kaalaman nila sa teknolohiya at ay kung ano ang pinanggagalingan. Ang pagpapaliwanag na ito ay ang
kasangkapan. tinatawag na paraang pagpapakilala ng pinagmulan, sanhi at bunga. Hindi ito
2 Isa pay naakit na silanj ilagak ang kanilang salapi sa (along madaling magagawa sa pamamagitan ng hula-hula lamang.
mapagkakakitaang prodi (to tulad ng asukal, tabako, abaka at troso.
3 Ang nangyari tuloy ay te y/o ang angkatan ng mga likas na kagamitan ng Maaari kang makabuo ng talata sa pamamagitan ng simpleng pagtatanong:
produksyon. B akit nangyari ito o b a k it nagkaganoon? Ninanais nating malaman ang
4 Tayo rin ang naging a qkatan ng kanilang mga tapos na produktong dahiian ng isang bagay o pangyayari.
ginagamit sa produksyoi. Tayo rin ang bagsakan ng kanilang mga tapos
na produkto. Binibili nth sa atin ang mga pangunahing kagamitan sa Sa Item 3
produksyon nang mura ut pagkatapos ay ipagbibili nila rito ng mahal ang
mga tapos na produkto. Ang sanhi (pinagmulan/dahilan ng isang bagay): Ang pagkagiliw natin sa mga
imported na bagay

Anong hulwaran ng organisasy >n o paano inilahad ng awtor ang mga impormasyon Ang bunga (kinalabasan): ang industriyang Pilipino ay hindi umuunlad.
o ideya sa teksto?
A. pagbibigay depinisyor Opsyon A. Isang karaniwang paraan pa sa pagbuo ng talata ay ang pagbibigay ng
B. enumerasyon o pag-ii ;a-isa depinisyon/katuturan.
C. paghahambing at kon ?ast
D. sanhi at bunga Sapagkat ang wika ay buhay, kaya laging tumatanggap ng mga bagong salita.
Sa talatang binasa, ginamit ang salitang imported. Sa ating pakikisangkot
Aug tamang sagot - D. sa industriyalisadong bansa upang makaagapay tayo sa kanilang kaunlaran,
malawakan ang dating ng mga bago o hiram na salita.

l>r. Arsenia R. Emperado PNU LET Reviewer 149

Filipino - Pagbasa at Pagsulat tungo sa Pananaliksik General Education

Subatit hindi gumamit ang manunulat ng pagbibigay depinisyon / katuturan sa Qpsyon B. Enumerasyon o pag-iisa-isa - hindi ito ginamit ng manunuiat.
pagbuo ng teksto. Gayunpaman, dapat tandaan na hindi lamang mga bagong Ang enumerasyon ay simpieng pag-iisa-isa ng mga bagay na inilalahad.
salita, ang dapat bigyang katuturan. Depende ito sa pangangailangan. Halimbawa:
Maaaring karaniwan ang salita pero may teknikal na kahulugang dapat Nais mong ipaalam ang mga bolpen mong ginagamit, isa-isahin mong isulat
manggaling sa diksyunaryo. ang mga brand.
Rotring, Bic, Pilot, Panda, Reynolds
Ipagpalagay nating nais nating makita kung paano gagamitin ng awtor ang Maaari mong ayusin ang pag-iisa-isa ng mga bagay sa paraang paalpabeto.
hulwarang pagbibigay depinisyon sa paglalahad ng impormasyon sa teksto. Bic, Panda, Pilot, Reynolds, Rotring
Gamitin natin ang salitang imported na bagay. Opsyon C. Paghahambing at Kontrast - hindi ito ginamit sa pagbuo ng talata.
Ginagamit ito sa mga paksang di-masyadong kilala o di-nalalaman. Upang
Dalawang paraan ang maaari niyang gamitin sa pagbibigay depinisyon sa makilala, inihahambing at ikinokontrast ito sa mga paksang kilala.
salitang imported. Halimbawa:
Margaret Thatcher - Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
a. Pormal - sa pagbibigay katuturan dapat na maipakita ang sumusunod: (di-masyadong kilala) (kilala)
sa anong uri ito kabilang
ano ang ikinaiba niya sa iba pang kauri nito
Halimbawa: imported na baoav Kasanayan sa Pagbuo ng Hinuha o Palagay

Item A ____________________________________________________________
1 Sitwasyon: Nagkaroon ng suliranin si Nena tungkol sa kalusugan ng anak.
2 Kotustrum ang tawag sa unang labas ng gatas ng ina. Ito ay malapot, manilaw-
nilaw at masustansya. Ito ay may anti-bodies na panlaban sa pagtatae,
pulmunya at iba pang sakit na maaaring dumapo sa bagong silang na sanggol.
Mainam din ang kolustrum pamurga at laksatibo o pampalabas ng taon.
b. Di-pormal - maaaring gamitin ang palasak na pamamaraan: 3 Ganito ang ginawa ni Nena.
pagbibigay halimbawa 4 Kapanganganak pa lamang ni Nena. Napansin niyang manilaw-nilaw ang
imported na sigarilyo - Marlboro gatas na lumalabas sa kanya. Inisip niyang panis ito. Hindi niya ito ipinasuso
imported na tsokolate MM sa kanyang sanggol. Makaraan ang isang buwan, napansin ni Nena na
imported na sapatos - Florscheim malimit magtae ang kanyang sanggol. Hindi naman ito tinutubuan ng ngipin.
imported na bag Gucci Mahina rin ang katawan ng kanyang sanggol.

mmm LET Reviewer Dr. Arsenia R. Emperado

General Education Filipino - Pagbasa at Pagsulat tungo sa Pananaliksik

1. Bakit nagkaroon ng suliranin si Nena? Pagbuo ng Hinuha:

A. Hindi piftasuso ang bata Ayon kina Winnie, Graham, at Prock (nabanggit kay Gunning, 1996) may
B. Watang gatas si Nena daiawang uri ng pagbuo ng hinuha: schema-based a t text-based.
C. Panis ang gatas ni Nena Sa schema-based inference, hinahayaan ang mambabasa na magdagdag
D. Mahina ang gatas ni Nena sa nilalaman ng teksto ng mga impormasyon batay sa ipinahihiwatig ng
2. Paano ipinahiwatig (implikasyon) ng may-akda/manunulat na may suliranin may-akda.
sa kalusugan ang bata? Sa text-based inference, nangangailangan ito ng pagbuo ng impormasyon
A. malimit magtae sa pamamagitan ng pagtatagpi ng dalawa o mahigit pang bahagi o
B. tinubuan ng ngipin piraso ng pangyayari/impormasyon mula sa teksto.
C. payat ang katawan
D. manilaw-nilaw Kasanayan sa Pagbuo ng Baiangkas
3. Mula sa pahiwatig, ano sa palagay mo ang kalagayan ng anak ni Nena?
A. malambing C. masayahin Maa Prinsipvo no Paababalanakas
B. masakitin D. matampuhin
Mataki ang naitutulong ng baiangkas sa pagbibigay gabay at direksyon sa
Ang tamang sagot sa: pananaliksik. Basahing mabuti at suriin ang bawat bahagi.
t. - A
2. - A Item 5. Alin sa mga naririto ang sumusunod sa prinsipyo ng pagbabalangkas?
3. - B
5.1 Ukol sa pamaaat na maa bahaai
Mga Teknik sa Pagbuo ng Hinuha o Palagay A. I. Simula
Inilalarawan ni Kenneth Goodman na ang pagbasa ay isang saykolinggwistikong tarong B.
pahulaan. Samakatuwid, sa larong ito, ang mambabasa ang taya . Mamimili B. II. Naidudulot ng beer sa tao at lipunan
siya ng pinakakaunting pahiwatig na kailangan niya sa pagbibigay ng hinuha. A. Kabutihang naidudulot
Sa Item 4, ipinakita lamang ng manunulat ang mga palatandaan o pahiwatig at B. Kapinsalaang naidudulot
hindi tiyakartg sinabi o ipinahayag ang kalagayan ng bata. Sa pagkakataong ito C. II. Katawan
inferential comprehension ang gagawin ng mambabasa. Itoy kinapapalooban D.lll. Wakas
ng masusing pagbabasa at matalinong panghuhula sa ipinahihiwatig ng may-
akda. B ang tamang sagot.
!)r. Arsenia R. Lmperado PNU LET Reviewer 151
Filipino - Pagbasa at Pagsulat tungo sa Pananaliksik General Education

Anotasyon Anotasyon
MgaTeknik sa Pagsunod sa mga Prinsipyo ng Pagbabaiangkas MgaTeknik sa Pagsunod sa mga Prinsipyo ng Pagbabalangkas

Ang tamang sagot ay B. Item 5.2

Mga ideya ang talagang inilalagay sa bahaging ito. B ang tamang sagot.
Tiyakin na ang mga ideyang ilalagay sa Bahagi I, II, at III ay talagang
Opsyon A, C at D. pangunahin, pangkalahatan o pinakamahalagang ideya at hindi pansuporta o
Hindi gumagamit ng Simula, Katawan, at Wakas bilang pangunahing bahagi di-pangunahing ideya.
o heading ng isang balangkas.
Sa maikling salita, tiyakin ang mga posisyon ng pangunahin at pansuportang
5.2 Ukol sa panaunahin at di- panaunahino ideva ideya.

Opsyon A at C, higit na malawak ang sakiaw ng kalikasan kaysa gamit at

A. I. Gamit ng computer katangian.
A. Kalikasan
B. Katangian 5.3 Ukol sa paralelismo no maa ideva
B. I. Kalikasan ng computer
A. Katangian A. f. Kapinsalaang dulot ng beer sa tao
B. Gamit A. Pangkalusugan
C. I. Katangian ng computer B. Pangkultura
A. Kalikasan B. II. Kapinsalaang dulot ng beer sa tao
B. Gamit A. Pangkalusugan
D. Walang tamang sagot B. Kultura
C. II. Panahon ng Martial Law
III. Ibat ibang panahon
B ang tam ang sagot. D. II. Panahon ng Pananakop
A. Kastila

A ang tamang sagot.

152 PNU LET Reviewer Dr. Arsenia R. Emperado

General Education Filipino - Pagbasa at Pagsulat tungo sa Pananali sik

Anotasyon A. II. Kalikasan ng beer

Mga Teknik sa Pagsunod sa mga Prinsipyo ng Pagbabalangkas A. Mga katangian nito
B. May mga uri ito.
B. II. Kalikasan ng beer
Item 5.3 A. Katangian
Opsyon A ang tamang sagot. B. Uri
Nakatutulong sa ikalilinaw hindi lamang ng baiangkas kundi pati na ng ideya C. II. Mga Uri ng Bawal na Gamot
at ng nilalaman nito kung magagamit ang paralelismo sa pagpapahayag tulad A. Narkotiko
ng sa istruktura ng dalawang salita: pangkalusugan at pangkultura. B. Hallucinogens- kasama rito ang LSD,
mescaline at psilocybin.
Parehong gumamit ng panlaping pang-. Samakatuwid, gurnamit ng paralel D. III. Mga Uri ng Bawal na Gamot
na konstruksyon ng mga ideya / salita. A. Depressants tulad ng bartiturates
at hypnotics
Opsyon B. Walang paralelismo sa istruktura ng mga salitang: pangkalusugan at B. Stimulants

Gumamit ng panlapi ang una (pangkalusugan) at hindi naman gumamit ang B ang tamang sagot
ikalawa (kultural).

Opsyon C. May paralelismo rin ayon sa kronolohiya. Di-paralel ang dalawang Anotasyon
pahayag sa Opsyon C. Sa una, binanggit ang tiyak na panahon. Dapat tiyak Mga Teknik sa Pagsunod sa mga Prinsipyo ng Pagbabalangkas
ang panahon sa III. Halimbawa: Panahon ng Edsa Revolution.
Item 5.4
Opsyon D. Bitin ang ideya sa opsyong ito. Kung may A, dapat may B. Hindi dapat Opsyon B ang tamang sagot.
hayaang bitin ang mga ideya sa bawat bahagi ng baiangkas. Tiyaking may Kailangang maging konsistent ang anyo o ang mga bahagi ng sang
di-bababa sa dalawang ideya sa bawat lebel ng baiangkas. balangkas. Sa B, balangkas papaksa ang uring ginamit, bawat bah gi ay
binubuo ng mga salita kayat konsistent ang uri.
5.4 Ukol sa oaoiQina konsistent no uri no baiangkas
Opsyon A. Di-konsistent ang mga bahagi. Sa una, papaksa; ang ikalawa n may

Dr. Arsenia R. Empcrado PNU LET Reviewer rm

Filipino - Pagbasa at Pagsulat tungo sa Pananaliksik General Education

Opsyon C. Di-konsistent ang mga bahagi. Sa una, papaksa; papangungusap ang Anotasyon
huli. Mga Teknik sa Pagsunod sa mga Prinsipyo ng Pagbabalangkas

Opsyon D. Di-konsistent sa istruktura. Sa una, papangungusap; papaksa sa

ikalawa. Item 5.5
Opsyon B ang tamang sagot.
5.5 Iba pano baaav na dapat ding maoino konsistent. Hindi lamang sa uri ng baiangkas dapat maging konsistent ang mga bahagi
kundi pati na rin sa bantas at format.

Ang Aming Pamantasan May depekto o mali ang bahaging ito:

IIA at IIB kaysa II a at II b
A. I. Ang iokasyon nito
A. Anglayo Dapat walang tuldok (period) sa pangunahin at sumusuportang ideya.
B. Anglaki
B. II. Ang nakaraan nito. Opsyon A at C ay may wastong pagkakaayos ng ideya pati na sa bantas at format.
A. Pagkakatatag.
B. Pag-unlad. Item 6.
C. HI. Ang kalagayan nito sa kasatukuyan Sa pagpili ng paksa, suriin mong mabuti kung ang saklaw nito ay lubhang
A. Mgagusali napakalawak at hindi mo kayang isakatuparan. Kinakailangan.kung gayon,
B. Mgaguro na ito'y limitahan mo lamang sa aspektong maisasagawa mo sa loob ng
C. Mgamag-aaral itinakdang panahon. Halimbawang nais mong talakayin ang tungkol sa
D. Lahat tama ang sagot. paksang polyusyon sa tubig sa Pilipinas. Malawak ang saklaw ng paksang ito.
Maaaring paliitin ang saklaw ng paksa sa pamamagitan ng pagsasaalang-
aiang lamang sa alinman sa mga sumusunod na subtopic o aspekto. Alin sa
mga sumusunod ang hindi maliit ang saklaw ng paksa?
Aling bahagi ng balangkas ang may mali?
A. Ang kahalagahan ng pagkontrol ng polyusyon sa mga ilog at lawa
B. Ang bahaging ginagampanan ng mga industriya at mga ahensya ng
B ang tamang sagot.
pamahalaan sa pagdurumi ng mga ilog at lawa
C. Ang talaorasan (time table) sa pagkontrol ng polyusyon sa mga ilog at lawa
D? Ang epekto ng polyusyon sa buong Pilipinas

Hr. Arsenia R. Empcrado

(PNU LET Reviewer
General Education Filipino - Pagbasa at Pagsulat tungo sa Pananaliksik

tem 7. A. Ead-Eys C. POE-PYT

Halimbawang ang napili mong paksa mula sa talaang ibinigay ng guro ay - B. PAC-PLUM D. Q A F - QUIRK
PAGHAHALAMAN. Pinaliit mo ito at ang tiyak na paksa ay MGA HALAMAN6
GAMOT. Upang malinartg ang pagtalakay sa paksa, kailangang maghanda ng mga Para sa Item 10 11 .Sa pananaliksik, nagsisilbi Ra ring isang proposal ang
katanungang nagsusuri, tumitiyak, nagbibigay sintesis (pagbubuo) tumutunton konseptong papel na nabuo. Binubuo ito ng apat na bahagi: I - rasyunal II -
sa pinagmulan, naghahambing o kayay nagtatatag. Alin sa mga sumusunod layunin III - metodolohiya at IV - inaasahang output o resuita. Ang mga pahayag
na tanong ang hindi nagsaalang-alang sa patnubay na nabanggit sa itaas? sa ibaba ay hindi nakaayos batay sa format na nabanggit sa unahan. Aiin sa
A. Paano nakikilala ang mga halamang gamot? sumusunod ang tama ang pagkakaayos?
B Ibigay ang kahulugan ng halamang gamot.
C. Anu-anong halamang gamot ang magagamit sa iba't ibang sakit? Item 10.
Dy Gaano nakatutulong sa ordinaryong mamamayang Pilipino ang mga
1. Mag-iinterbyu ng mga hematologist, mga doktor na espesyalista sa pagsusuri
halamang gamot?
ng dugo.
2. Sisiyasatin ang mga sanhi ng leukemia.
Stem 8.
Pagkatapos mong mapili ang paksa, ang pagsisiyasat ng mga materyales 3. Batay sa DOH, pantima ang leukemia sa sanhi ng kamatayan ng mga Pilipino.
sa aklatan na mapagkukunan ng mga kinakailangan mong impormasyon 4. Bubuo ng modyul kaugnay ng sakit na ito.
ang isusunod mong hakbang. Suriin mong mabuti ang pagkakasunud-sunod A. 3 - 4 - 1 - 2 C. 3 - 2 - 1 - 4
ng mga kard. Pagkatapos, piliin kung anong kard ang kinapapalooban ng B.^ 2 3 1 4 D. 2 - 3 - 4 - 1
binabanggit na paksa sa ibaba.
Item 11.
1. Pakikipanayam sa mga namumuno sa lokal na pamahalaan kaugnay ng
A. A B I-A U C. PO L-PUT kanilang environmental campaign.
B. PAIN-PLUM D. QUA-QUO 2. Malaking suliranin ang maruruming ilog sa lalawigan ng Bulacan.
3. Tatangkaing sugpuin ang patuloy na karumihan ng mga ilog.
Item 9. 4. Pagpapalabas ng sirkulasyon ng babasahin ukoi sa wastong pangangalaga
Narito naman ang talaan ng pinagsamang Author - Title Cards. Piliin kung sa kapaligiran.
anong drawer ang kinapapalooban ng sumusunod na awtor ng aklat.

Peters, Edward I. A. 2 - 3 - 1 - 4 C. 1 - 4 - 3 - 2
B. 3 - 2 - 4 - 1 D. 4 - 2 - 1 - 2

Arsenia R. Emperado PNU LET Reviewer 155

General Education
Filipino - Pagbasa at Pagsulat tungo sa Pananaliksik

item 12. (Mga Proseso/Daynamik na Development ng Grupo)

Naririto ang mga impormasyong bibiiyograpikal. Pitiir> ang tamang
pormat. Artikulo:
Simplicio P. Bisa Leadership
Retorika para sa mabisa at masining na pagsulat Ano ang pamumuno?
De La Salle University Press, inc. Kapag iniisip mo ang tungkol sa pamumuno, ano ang pumapasok sa iyong
1999 isipan? Ang walang takot na tagapag-utos na opisyales na pinamumunuan ang
Maynila kanyang tropa patungo sa labanan? Ang presidente ng Amerika na nagtatalumpati
sa kanyang bansa sa pamamagitan ng telebisyong pangnasyonal? Ang pinuno
A. Bisa, Simplicio P. (1999). Retorika na representante ng mga estudyante? Maaari ring iniisip mo ang namumuno ng
para sa mabisa at masining komite o lupon na iyong kinabibilangan. Kadalasan, ang pag-aaral tungkol sa
na pagsulat. Maynila: De pamumuno ay nakasentro sa mga taong naging matagumpay sa pagkakaroon ng
La Salle University Press, Inc.
posisyong namumuno. Ayon sa mga mananaliksik, sa pamamagitan ng pagtingin
B. Bisa, Simplicio P. (1999). Maynila.
sa mga matatagumpay na mga pinuno ay maaari nilang kilalanin at alamin ang
Maynila: De La Salle University Press, Inc.
mga kadahilanan o mga indibidwal na katangian na makapagsasabi ng mga
para sa mabisa at masining na pagsulat
abilidad at kakayahan ng tamang pamumuno. Ang pag-alam sa mga katangiang
C. Bisa, Simplicio P. (1999). De la Salle
University Press, Inc. Retorika para sa
ito ay malaki ang magiging kahalagahan sa larangan ng negosyo, gobyerno, o
mabisa at masining na pagsulat. Maynila sa militar na may responsibilidad sa pagtataguyod o pagbibigay sa ibang tao ng
D. Bisa, Simplicio P. (1999). posisyon ng pagkalider.
Retorika para sa mabisa at Retorika Mula sa: Semorlan, e t al. (1999). Pagbasa a t Pagsulat
Masining na pagsulat. De La Salle sa Ibat Ibang Disiplina.
University Press. d. 119- 120

Para sa Item 1 3 - 1 5 . Basahin at unawain ang artikute.

Item 13.
Halimbawa ito ng artikulo/babasahing may hulwarang_______.
A. pag-iisa-isa C. paghahambing at pagkokontrast
B. depinisyonD. problema at solusyon

mffim LET Reviewer

Dr. Arsenia R.. F.mperado
G enera] E du cation Filipino - Pagbasa at Pagsulat tungo sa Pananaliksik

Item 14.
ng pagpapahintulot imbes na pagbabago mula sa lipunan. Ang kulto ay
Aling salita ang walang kaugnayan sa pangunahing ideya ng artikulo?
maaaring maghanap ng transpormasyon sa komunidad at kaasalang
A. pinuno C. presidente
nagpopokus sa pagbuo ng maganda at nararapat na ekspiryensya ng-grupo.
B. tagapag-utos . d ! mananaliksik
Ang denominasyon ay isang pangunahing relihiyosong grupo na nagnanais
ng paghihiwalay ng simbahan at estado upang ito ay maging impluwensyal
Item 15.
kahit hindi dominante. Ang eklesya ay isang simbahan na nagbibigay-pansin
Gamit ang graphic organizeram-anong salita ang maiuugnay sa pamumund?
sa ispiritwal na ekspresyon ng buong komunidad.
A. tropa, bansa, komite 4 Ang lumalabas na tungkulin ng reiihiyon ay naipapakita sa obhetibong
B. opisyal, presidente, kinatawan pagiapit sa mga tao at paghikayat sa kanila na ipakita o gawin ang mga
C. militar, gobyerno, negosyo gawaing panrelihiyon at suportahan ang simbahan. Ang nakatagong
D. walang tamang sagot tungkulin ay kadalasang hindi nakikita, maaaring ito ay pabor o hindi sa mga
nakikita o obhetibong pinapakita o kinikilala ng simbahan. Binubuo ng mga
natatagong tungkulin ang pagbibigay ng tulong sa mga nangangailangan.
Para sa item 1 6 - 1 8 . Basahin at unawain ang artikulo.
Hango sa:Sem orian,etal.(1999).
Artikulo (Sosyolohiya)
Pagbasa at Pagsulat sa Iba'flbang Disiplina.
d. 12 6-127

1 Ang sikolohiya ng relihiyon ay ang pag-aaral ng mutwal na interaksyon ng

relihiyoso at ibang sosyal na institusyon. Ang relihiyon ay sinasabirig matatag Item 16.
na kasagutan ng mga tao laban sa supernatural na bagay kahit na ang ilang Kiialanin ang mga istilong ginamit ng awtor sa paglalahad ng teksto. Alin ang
mga gawain ay nagpapakita ng paniniwaia sa ritwai na sistema. dapat pang idagdag? Depinisyon, pag-iisa-isa o enumerasyon,____________
2 Ang relihiyong sibil o cM I religion ay tumutukoy sa sistema nang malawak A. Paghahambing at pagkokontrast
na paniniwalang panreiihiyon, maaaring hindi ipapahayag nang buo ng isang B. Problemaatsolusyon
grupo, at sinasabing may malaking impluwensya sa pulitikal na buhay ng C. Pagsusunud-sunod (paraan o pFoseso)
mgaAmerikano. D. Walang tamang sagot
3 Ang mga klasipikasyon ng simbahan sa kulto, sekta, denominasyons
(denominasyon) at eklesyas (ecclessias) ay nagpapakita ng iba't ibang Item 17.
paraan sa pag-uugnay sa lipunan. Ang sekta ay nagpapataw ng mahigpit Anong uri ng klasipikasyon ang inilalahad dito?
na modelb'ng hulwarang asal sa mga miyembro nito pero naghahanap A .' lipunan " C. simbahan
B. pamahalaan D. paaralan'

O r. A rscn ia R . Eropcrado PNU LET Review er

F ilip in o - Pagbasa at Pagsulat tango sa Pananaliksik G eneral E d u ca tio n

Para sa ltm 1S - 20. Basahin at unawain.

Item 18. .
Kung gagamiti'n ang graphic organizer na nasa ibaba, makatutulong ito upang
maiayos mo ang impormasyong nabasa. Saklaw (Abnormal na Sikolohiya)

IBATIBANG PARAAN NG PAG-UUGNAY SA UPUNAN May dalawang epekto ng pagkakahiyang sa gamot. Ekis na pagkakahiyang
at baligtad na pagkakahiyang. Ang Ekis na pagkakahiyang ay kung saan ang
KLASIPIKASYON KATANGIAN isang tao ay nagpapakita ng pagkakahiyang sa isang gamot at magpapakita din
ng pagkakahiyang sa ibang gamot na pareho lamang ang epekto. Ang Baligtad
na pagkakahiyang naman ay nagpapakita ng pagkakahiyang kahit na mababa
2 ang dosage ng gamot.
3 Mula sa: Semorlan, et al.
(1999). Pagbasa at Pagsulat
sa Iba't Ibang Disiplina.
d. 107
Alin ang maliwanag na nagpapakita ng pagkakatulad at pagkakaiba ng
impormasyon? Item 19.
A. Kulto, sekta, denominasyon, eklesyas Anong dalawang bagay ang pinaghahambing?
B. Sekta - modelo ng huwarang aral A. uri ng tao C. pagkahiyang sa gamot
Kulto - transpormasyon sa komunidad B. uri ng gamut D. dosageng gamot
Denominasyon - paghihiwalay ng simbahan at estado
Eklesyas - ispiritwal na ekspresyon Item 20.
C. Sekta - nagpapataw Paano nagkakaiba ang dalawang bagay na pinaghahambing sa Item 19?
Kulto - naghahanap A. dosage C. gamot
Denominasyon - nagnanais B. epekto D. tao
Eklesyas - nagbibigay pansin
D. Sekta- modelo Item 21.
Kulto ekspiryensya Ano ang pinakaangkop na damdaming napapaloob sa sumusunod na pahayag?
Denominasyon - impluwensiyal
Marahil malapit na akong suwertehin. Sa susunod na buwan, higit na
Eklesyas - ekspresyon _ maraming tiket ang akmg bibilhin.
A. panghihinayang C.. kawalang pag.-asa
B. 'pag-asa D. kasiyahan
____________________________________________________ __
E f i i i l PNU LET Reviewer D r. Arsenin R . Em pcrado
G enera! E d u catio n Filipino - Pagbasa at Pagsulat tungo sa Pananaliksik

Item 23. Item 24.

Anong damdamin ang ipinahihiwatig ng sumusunod na pahayag? Pagkatapos mong basahirj ang artikulo, anong kaisipian ang nabuo mo?
Hustisya! Meron pa ba niyan? " A. maaaring magdulot ng pagkabingrang'aksidente
A. pagmamahal C. panghihinayang B. isang pambihirang kaso ang pagkabingi ni Anne
B. pag-asam D. i poot e: ang bingi ay nakababasa ng galaw ng labi
D. maaaring pagsamahin ang. pagkokondisyon at suhestiyon apang
Para'sa Item 24 - 25. Basahin at unawain. gumaiing ang isang bingi

Artikulo: (Abnormal na Sikolohiya) Item 25.

Gamit ang ugnayang sanhi - bunga, piliin ang angkop para sa istorya ni
Ang Istorya ni Anne: Isang kaso ng Pagkabingi Anne.
A. walang reaksyon -> pagkabingi
1 Si Anne ay isang batang babae na naging bingi dahil sa tensyon sa pamilya. B. maiakas na tunog -> pagkabingi
Ang kanyang relasyon sa kanyang ina ay malayo, at ang pagkabingi ay C .. duiot ng aksidente -> pagkabingi
isang pag-iwas sa boses ng kanyang ina. Si Anne ay hindi nagpapakita ng D. tensyon sa pamilya -> pagkabingi
reaksyon sa mga biglang malalakas na tunog. Nagpapakita siya ng tagong
reaksyon sa mga tunog sa unang pagsubok na sinukat sa pamamagrtan ng
eiektro myogram (EMG). Ang unang pagsubok ng EMG ay may reaksyon mula
sa leeg matapos ang malakas na tunog. Matapos ang 60 na segundo, sa
pangalawang pagkakataon ay wala siyang reaksyon.
2 Sa dahilan na kayang bumasa ni Anne ng galaw ng labi, pinagsama ng
therapist ang pagkokondisyon at suhestiyon na nagsasabi kay Anne na
malapit na siyang makarinig.
3 Minsan sa isang aksideiite na muntik nang kumitil sa buhay ni Anne, ang
kanyang pandinig ay nanunumbalik nang nadinig niya ang busina ng trak.

Mula sa : Semorlan, et al. 1999.

Pagbasa at Pagsulat sa iba 't ibang Disiplina.
d 107

PNU LET Review er

Filipino - Pagbasa ac Pagsulac tungo sa PananaLiksik G eneral E dn cation

A. nakabubulag . C. masangsang
B. nagmumulat D. malinamnam

Item 4.
Ang maawain ay sa tao
Item 1. Ang matalas ay sa itak na .bagong hasa
Kilalanin ang mga salita sa pamamagitan ng paghahambing ng mga Ang kislap ay kutitap
magkakatulad na kahulugan. Aliri ang di-dapat maisama sa pangkat? Ang kinang ay s a ____________
A. Maganda at masining ang kaniyang maikling kuwento. A. kalawakan C. bahaghari
B. Makitid at makipot ang iandas patungo sa kalangitan. B. alapaap D. alahas
C. Matalas at matalim ang dila ng babae.
D. Matamis at mapait ang pag-ibig. Item 5.
Nagbibigay ang mga salitang nilalapian, ng kahulugang JUa, earn o halos.
Item 2. Aling salita ang di dapat maisama sa pangkat?
Lahat ng pares ng salita ay magkakatulad ang kahulugan maliban sa isang A .': malapot C. malasutla
pares. Alin ang di-dapat maisama sa pangkat? B.' malarosas D. malakanin
A. Malupit at mabagsik ang pinunong iyon.
B. Ayaw kong pag-usapan ninuman ang saya at lungkot na aming naranasan. Item 6.
C. Matibay at matatag ang asawa ni Francis Magalona. May dalawang paraan ng paglalarawan: ang masining at ang karaniwan.
D. Mapag-imbot at mapaghangad ang kapatid niya sa ama. mga sumusunod na pahayag tukuyin ang halimbawa ng isang karaniwang
Para sa Item 3 - 4 . May mga salitang haios magkakasingkahulugan subalit may A. Malalaki at mabibilog ang pakwan.
mga tiyak na disiplinang kinauugnayan. Suriin ang mga salita upang magamit sa B. Amoy pinipig ang simoy ng hangin.
tiyak na larangang kinauugnayan. C. Nadama niya ang matinding sakit na nagpapakirot ng buo niyang
katawan^--------- -----
Item 3. D. Saklot ng matinding takot ang inang nakatingin sa nakahandusay na
Ang saluhan ay sa baakain
" ' ~ M glM w a[[a y sa musika
Ang ningning ay nakaslsilaw Para sa Item 7 - 8 . May mga salitang magkasingkahulugan ngunit bawat isa
Ang lim nag ay ______________ ay may tiyak na gamit at hindi maaaring pagpalitin. So/iJn ang ugnayan ng salita

160 PNU LET Review er D r. A rscn ia R . Em peracio

General Education Filipino - P agb asa at Pagsulat tmigo sa Pananaliksik

Item 7. . . A. .mabata C. binata

Alin sa mga sumusunod na pahayag ang naiiba ang diwa? B. magbata D. pagkabata
. A . . Matavoo ang lipad ng saranggola.
B. Matangkad ang kaniyang bayaw. Item 12.

D. Malaki ang puno ng niyog. pang kaanak na ang iba ay nagdadala sa iba pa sa relasyon na tinutukoy ng
salitang ugat?
Item 8. A. mag-aaral C. magkapitbahay
A. Bansot ang halamang nabili mo sa naglalako. B. magkakasama D. mag-aama
B .; Mababa ang pagtingin niya sa lalaking lasenggero.
'C. Hamak na hamak ang itsura niya. Para sa Item 13 -17.
D. Pandak ang tindera ng isda sa palengke.
item 13.
Item 9. Basahin ang teksto sa ibaba.
Mga halimbawa ito ng mga salitang may nagkakaiba/nagkakasalungat na
kahulugan. Alin sa mga pares na ito ang hindi kabilang sa pangkat? Artikulo: (Malikhaing Sining at Musika)
A. Malinis at marumi ang mga damit sa sampayan.
B. Langit at lupa ang kanilang agwat sa buhay. Sa Kulay (colors)
C. Mabuti at marangal ang hanapbuhay ng kanyang Ninang sa Australia.
D. Katulad nila'y tubig at langis na di-pwedeng pagsamahin. May isang araling tinatalakay sa kursong ito tungkol sa mga kulay na
pwedeng gamitin. Ito ay ang kahalagahan ng mga kulay. Sa pagtuturo tungkol
Item 10. sa kulay, maaaring gamitin itong pagkukuwento para lalong maintindihan ng mga
Sa mga pares ng salita alin ang may magkatulad na kahulugang magagamit bata ang leksyon. Halimbawa ng kwento; minsan daw, nag-away-away ang mga
sa paglalarawan ng isang panauhin sa isang handaan? kulay. Nagsalita ang kulay berde at ang sabi, siya raw ang pinaka-importanteng
matakaw at masiba C. marami at kakaunti kulay dahil ang kalawakan na sinasaka ay kulay berde at ang mga gulay rin ay
B. matangkad at pandak D. malapit at malayo kulay berde. Ngunit hindi sumang-ayon ang kulay asul dahil para sa kanya siya
ang pinaka-importanteng kulay dahil ang kalangitan daw ay kulay asul. Subalit
Item 11. hindi sumang-ayon ang kulay dilaw, siya raw ang pinaka-importanteng kulay dahil
Kung ang salitang ugat na tjata ay gagamitan ng iba't ibang panlapi, ang kulay ng araw ay dilaw. Ngunit sumagot naman ang kulay kahel, sabi niya siya
magbibigay ito ng ibat ibang kahulugan. Alin sa mga sumusunod ang hindi raw ang pinaka-importanteng kulay dahil ang lahat ng kulay kahel ay nagbibigay
' dapat maisama sa pangkat batay sa kaanyuan ng salita?

O r. A rsen ia R . m p cra d o PNU LET Reviewer 161

F ilip in o - Pagbasa at Pagsulat tungo sa Pananaiiksik G eneral E d u ca tio n

ng sustansiya sa kalusugan. Patuloy ang kanilang naging pagtatalo. Hanggang URI NG KULAY . - KATANGIAN
dumating ang kulog at bumuhos ang ulan. Pagkatapos ay may tinig na nagsalita.
16. dilaw A. sustansiya sa kalusugan
magkapit kamay kayo." At ano ang nakita nila? Isang babaghari na tinataglay ang
B. araw
kulay nila. Naging mas malaki at malapad sila at nagkaroon ng pagkakaisa.
C. kalangitan
D. gulay
Mula sa:Pagbasa at Pagsulat
17. asul A. kalawakan ng sinasaka
Sa Iba'tibang Disiplina (1999).
B. pinaka-importante
Semorian eta! d. 213 - 214
C. kalusugan
D. kalangitan
Ibigay ang pangunahing ideya na ipinahihiwatig ng awtor.
A. kahalagahan ng mga kulay Item 18. Basahin at unawain.
B. pagtatalo ng mga kulay
Artikulo: (Produksyong Pantelebisyon at Panradyo)
,C. sama-samang pakikisama at pagkakaisa
D. ang kulay ay bahaghari
Programang Pantelebisyon para sa Kabataan
Television Shows For the Youth
Item 1 4 - 1 7 . Gamit ang graphic organizer na T-chart paghambingin mo ang
mga kulay. Piliin ang titik ng tamang sagot sa mga tanong na makatutulong sa 1 Ating isa-isahin at suriin ang mga programang pantelebisyon mga
pagbuo nito. kabataan: Nandiyan ang Teen Talk, na tumatalakay ng mga maseselang
suliranin ng mga tinedyer, Kada, at ang Five and Up, na nagpapakita ng
mga iba't ibang balita sa larangan ng isports, showbiz, at iba pa. Ang mga
programang ito ay tumatalakay sa buhay ng mga kabataan, mga problema
14. kahel A. kalawakan at masasayang karanasan ng isang tinedyer. Sa pamamagitan ng panonood
B. kalangitan ng mga programang ito, mas madaling makahambing ang mga kabataan sa
c : sustansiya sa kalusugan kanilang pinanonood.
D. gulay ' 2 Samantala, kung katatawanan naman ang kanilang hanap, nariyan ang
Tropang Trumpo at Ang TV. Hindi lamang ngkapagbibigay ng aiiw, saya at aral
- ^ A _ kalawakan na sinasaka ang mga programang ito, pati rin ang mga artista sa mga nasabing programa
C. kapayapaan
A. D, bahaghari Mula sa:Pagbasa at Pagsulat
Sa Iba't ibang Disiplina (1999).
Seifiorlan et al d. 145

162 PNU LET Reviewer

D r. A rscn ia R . Em perado
General Education Filipino - Pagbasa at Pagsulat tungo sa Pananaliksik

Anong katangian ng hulwaran o istilo ng organfsasyon ng teksto ang ginamit. Item 22. Basahin at unawain.
ng awtor?
fy- payiatala-o-pagtiiista_l; aepHsyoo ; ___________ :m m
"B. pagsusunud-sunod .D. sanhiatbunga
T Ngunit Ano Ba ang Demand at Suplay?
Item 19. Basahin ang pangunahing ideya sa kahon:
1 Ang demand ay nagsasaad ng dami ng produkto at serbisyong ninanais
Programang Pantelebisyon para sa Kabataan bilhin ng isang mamimili, sa iba't ibang alternatibong presyo sa isang
takdang panahon. Sa sistema ng bilihan, halos ang lahat ng bagay ay may
Alin sa mga sumusunod ang hindi halimbawa ng pangunahing ideya? demand. May demand sa damit, sa sapatos, pagkain, pabango, bahay,
A. Teen Talk shampoo at lahat pa. Halimbawa, ang demand sa bigas ay nagsasaad ng
dami ng bigas (sa kilo) na bibilhin ng mga mamimili sa presyong (ilang piso
B. Kada
bawat kilo) itinakda ang bilihan sa isang takdang panahon.
C. Five and Up
2 Ang suplay naman ay ang dami ng produkto o serbisyong handang ipagbili
D. Ang programang ito ay tumatalakay sa buhay ng kabataan. ng mga negosyante sa bilihan sa bawat alternatibong presyo sa isang
takdang panahon. Kung may demand sa lahat ng bagay, ito ay tumutugon
Item 20. sa sistema ng bilihan sa pamamagitan ng panghihikayat sa mga
Alin naman sa mga sumusunod ang hindi nagpapaliwanag sa pangunahing ideya? negosyante upang gumawa at isuplay ang mga produkto at serbisyong
A. Tumatalakay sa maseselang suliranin ng mga tinedyer may demand.
B. Nagpapakita ng mga ibat ibang balita
i C. Tropang Trumpo, Ang TV Mula sa:Pagbasa at Pagsulat
d r ' Nagsisilbing modelo sa kabataan natin ngayon Sa Iba't ibang Disiplina (1999).
Semorlan, e ta i, d. 183
Item 21.
Ang mga pangungusap sa ibaba ay magkaugnay MALIBAN sa isa. Alin ang 'Saan nagkakaiba ang depinisyon ng salitang demand at suplay?
pangungusap na ito? A. dami ng produkto C. takdang panahon
A. Pangarap niyang.makarating sa ibang bansa. * B. sistema ng bilihan D. walang tamang sagot
S." Masarap magbakasyon sa ibang bansa.
C. Isang araw, may nabasa siyang.anunsyo na nangangailangan ng mga
manggagawa sa ibang bansa.
Q. Dali-dali niyang kinuha ang adres ng kompanya at sumulat siya upang .

Dr. A rsen ia R . E m p crad o PNU LET Review er 16a

Filipino - Pagba^a a t P agsulat tungo sa Panunaliksik g e n e r a l Education

Item 22. Basahin at unawain.

2. Ang kompyutasyon sa pagkuha ng interes, mga diskawnt, buwis,
Sa Makati at Dibisorya, komisyon, at paglaki ng produksyon ay nakabase sa pagkuha ng
Denims ang Hanap Nila persentahe. Ang mga problema ukol sa pagkuha ng persentahe ay
Valerio L. Nofuente nagtataglay ng tatlong elemento: ang beys, kung anong tinutukoy sa
problema; and reyt, ang halaga o digri ng isang bagay katulad ng reyt ng
Hindi mapasubaliang ang may tangan ng korona sa larangan ng moda sa interest; reyt ng paglaki at iba pa, at ang persentahe, dami o bilang ng
damit ay maong o denims. Tila uniporme ng Pinoy ang pantalong maong lalo aytem na isinalalarawan ng reyt.
na sa mga siyudad, at matatagpuang namamayani sa mga kampus, pabrika, 3. Ang pormula sa pagkuha ng persentahe ay ang pagmumultiplay ng beys at
opisina, subdibisyon at pook-iskwater. Ito'y isinusuot ng traysikel boy at reyt (PP = P*R; kung saan P = persentahe B = beys R = reyt). Halimbawa
executive, disc jockey at kanto boy, naka-Mercedes Benz at naka-dyip, babae, ng ganitong aplikasyon ay kung pagkukumparahin ang populasyon noong
bakla, matrona at mukhang tatay, estudyante at drop-out. 1985 at 1986. Gaano karami ang halaga ng paglaki ng populasyon
noong 1986 kung ito'y lumaki ng labintatlong porsyento (13%) mula sa
Mula sa: Likha (1998). populasyong 5 bilyon noong 1985? Ang sagot ay 65,000,000 (P - 5b\13).
Santos, Benilda d. 99 Ang ibig sabihin nito ay noong 1986 ay naragdagan ng 650,000,000 ang
populasyon at naging 5,650,000,000 na ito. Mahalaga ang pagkuha ng
Anong kongklusyon ang mabubuo mo pagkatapos mabasa ang artikulo? persentahe para sa mga rekord at istatistiks.
A. Usong kasuotan ang maong
B. Matatagpuan sa Makati at Dibisorya Mula sa.Pagbasa at Pagsulat
C. Lahat ng uri ng taoy nagsusuot ng maong Sa Iba't Ibang Disiplina (1999).
Semorlan et a.,1 d. 188-189
D'. Inihahambing ito sa uniporme

Item 24. Basahin at unawain.

1. Alin sa mga sumusunod na terminolohiya ang hindi ginamit sa tekstong
Artikulo (Matematikang Pangnegosyo) binasa kaugnay ng matematikang pangnegosyo?
A. persentahe C. produksyon
Pagkuha ng Persentahe * .
B. komisyon D'. kultura '.
2. Alin sa mga sumusunod na salita ang ft/nrf/hiniram sa Ingles?_____________ _
ay kalimitan tayong nagkukumpara ng mga bagay lalo na ng mga numero A. beys- C- istatistiks----------------------------------
at halaga. Maaari, halimbawa, pagkumparahin ang paglaki ng populasyon B. reyt . D. pormula
ngayong taon. Sa mga ganitong pagkakataon ay gumagamit tayo ng
pormula sa pagkuha ng persent&hp o kung gaano kalaki-ang isang bagay
pa dagdag sa kabuuan.

IPNU LET Review er D r. A rsen ia R . Em pcrado

' Q eeral Education

Item 25. Suriin at bigyan ng interpretasyon ang bar graph sa ibaba.

M A G S islP A G T A P O S
S V 2008-2009

400 -
w Kahulugan:
350 -
300 - CASS: College of Arts & Social Sciences

250 - CEO: CoRege of Education
o CLLL: College of Languages, Linguistics
200 -
& Literature
150 COS: College of Sciences
S lO O -j
50 -I



Gamitin ang bar graph upang matulungan ka sa pagsagot sa mga tanong na

nasa ibaba.

1. Aling kolehiyo ang may pinakamataas na bilang ng magsisipagtapos?

2. Alin namang kolehiyo ang may pinakamababang bilang ng mga
3. Ilpn ang bilang ng kolehiyo?
. A' 4 B. 2 C. 1 D. 3
4. Anong taong pampaaralan ang datos ng magsisipagtapos?
A. 2008-2009 C. 2007-2008
B. 2009-2010 D. 2006-2007-

D r. A rsen ia R . E m p erad o
Filipino - M asining na Pagpapahayag G eneral E du cation



Pagpapahayag 1. Sa lahat ng uri ng gawain, kailangan ng tao ang makipagtala'stasan sa

kanyang kapwa. Isinasagawa ito sa dalawang paraan- pagpapahayag na
pasalita at pagpapahayag na pasulat.

2. Ang retorika ay may mahalagang papel sa masining at mabisang

Inihand a n i:
pagpapahayag. (Bisa, 1999:2)
A rsenia R . Eniperado, P h .D .
Anumang may sining ay maganda; maganda kung ang mga salitang
gagamitin ay magsasaalang-alang sa himig o .tono, sa ritmo, sa
talinghaga, sa diksyon.
; Kasanayan: Anumang mabisa ay nagbibigay ng mabuti o magandang resulta o bunga;
mabisa kung magiging paraan ang paggamit ng wika para makapaghatid ng
maliwanag na impormasyon, makapagpahayag ng makabuluhang ideya, at
j Nagagamit ang angkop makapagkintal ng mga impresyon sa isipan ng mambabasa o tagapakinig.

j na repertwa ng wika sa 3. Samakatuwid sa paggamit ng dalawang salitang nabanggit sa kaisipan Big. 2

j pagpapahayag ng kaalaman, kaugnay ng wika, ang masining at mabisang pagpapahayag ay ang maayos,

; karanasan at saloobin. maganda, malinaw, tama at epektibong pagpapahayag ng ano mang naiisip,
nadarama sa paraang maaaring pasalita o pasulat.

4. Dalawang mahahalagang bagay ang hindi maaaring paghiwalayin sa pag-

aarai ng masining-at mabisang pagpapahayag:
- - r e t n r ik a i (Aynp s a k la sikn n q rtepinisynn) (R aria yn s.P n m : 4 )

a.~ agfiamng pagpapahinuhod-(Soerates, 30-BC)

b. kakayahan sa pagwawari o paglilirip sa bawat pagkakataon ng
anumang paraan ng paghimok (Aristotle) . .
c. .a n g sining ng argumentatibong komposisyon .(Richard Whatley)

l I S f i l PNU LET Reviewer D r. A rseaia R . Em perau o

G eneral Education F ilipino - M asining na Pagpapahayag

retorika2 ( Ayon sa kontemporaryong depinisyon) b) Kasabihan - Mga bukambibig na_ hinango mula sa karanasan ng
- ang pinakamabisang pagpili/ paggamit ng mga salita upang buhay na nagsisilbing patnubay s*a -mga dapat na ugaliin ng tao.
makabuo ng isang makabuluhan at epektibong mensahe Naglalaman ng mga kaisipang nagpapahayag ng mga katotohanan
gramroar/balarila - ang wastong gamit/pagkakaayos ng mga salita na sadyang may pagkakaugnayan ang buhay sa kaasalan ng tao.
upang makabuo ng mga pangungusap na gramatikal Halimbawa:
Pili nang pili, nauwi sa bungi.
5. Kung gayon sa mga kaalamangpambalarjla (tulad ng wastong gamit, tamang (Sa kapipili o sobrang pagkapihikan maaaring matapat sa pangit
mga panuring, pandiwa, atbp.) nakasalalay ang kawastuan at kalinawan ng o may kapansanan.)
ating pagsasalita at pagsulat. Kahit na maganda ang pahayag kung hindi Mahahalagang pahayag din na kinuha o hinugot sa mga akda ng
wasto ang mga gamit at ugnayan ng mga salita, hindi lamang makababawas kilalang tao o lider ng bansa. .
iyon sa kalinawan ng pahayag kundi gayundin sa pagiging kaakit-akit nito. Mga halimbawa:
Samakatuwid, kasama ng retorika ang balarila para makamit ang mabisang Ang katapatan ko sa aking partido ay magwawakas sa
pagpapahayag. . pagsisimula ng katapatan ko sa aking bayan. (M.L.Quezon)
Ang kabataan ang pag-asa ng bayan. (Jose P. Rizal)
6. Paano ba ginagamit ang retorika sa proseso ng mabisang pagpapahayag? . c) Kawikaan - Iba ang kawikaan kaysa salawikain. Ang kawikaan ay
Paggamit ng mga alusyon at talinghaga hindi nagtataglay ng talinghaga kaya tiyak ang kahulugan. Karaniwan
Alusyon - mga karunungang bayan na minana pa natiri sa ating mga nang binubuo ito ng taludtod o mga taludtod na maaaring may sukat
ninuno. at tugma at maaari ring wala.
Nagdaragdag ito ng kasiningan sa pagpapahayag tulad ng mga Mga halimbawa:
sumusunod: Nasa Diyos ang awa, nasa tao ang gawa.
a) Salawikain - Matalinghaga ang salawikain at karaniwang kapupulutan Huwag ipagpabukas ang kaya mong gawin ngayon.
ng aral hinggil sa buhay at pamumuhay. Ito ay mga taludtod na Paggamit ng mga salitang ginagamit na idyoma/ sawikain
may sukat at tugma. Itinuturing na hiyas ng ating wika ang mga Mga lipon ng salita na ang dalang kahulugan ay iba kaysa sa kahulugang
salawikain sapagkat tulad ng isang hiyas, ito ay nakapagpapaganda literal ng mga salitang bumubuo nito. Nakatutulong sa mabisa, makulay
jig pagpapahayag. at makahulugang pagpapahayag ang paggamit ng idyoma.
Aanhin ko ang bahay' na bato kung ang nakatira ay kwago. Pinakapuso ng lahat ng salita ang idyoma (Santiago, 1994). Kapag inalis
(Ito ay tungkol sa maayos na pakikitungo sa kapwa tao o sa mga ang mga idyoma-ng isang wika, masisira ang komunikasyon ng mga
kapitbahay.) taong gumagamit nito. Yumayaman at yurnavabong ana isano palinyMn
kung ginagamitan ng idyoma na minana pa natirt sa ating mga ninuno.

>r. Arsenia R . Em pcrado PNU LET Reviewer 167

Filipino - M asihing n a Pagpapahayag G eneral Education

Gayunpaman kung susuriin ang kahulugan ng bawat salita, tila mali at kawangis ng, gaya ng, animo'y, atbp.
lihis ito sa mga tuntuning pambalarila. Halimbawa:
Tinik slya sa lalamunan ni Angelo.
Ayon kay David Minsberg (nasa Tanauan, et al., 2003:4) maaaring c) Paahihioav-katauhan (personification) - pagsasalin ng mga
. malaman ang kahulugan ng bawat idyoma sa pamamagitan ng: katangian ng tao sa isang bagay. Naipapahayag ito sa pamamagitan
a) pag-unawa sa kaugnayan nito sa ibang bagay ng paggamit ng pandiwa.
b) pagsuri sa kaugnayan nito sa ibang salita sa loob ng pangungusap Halimbawa:
c) paggamit nito nang malimit hanggang sa itoy maging bahagi na ng Sumasayaw ang mga aion sa karagatan.
sariling bokabularyo d) Paomamalabis (hyperbolej - isang pahayag na eksaherado o labis sa
Mga halimbawa: katotohanan.
naghugas ng kamay Halimbawa:
buhay alamang Nagliliyab ang mga mata ng galit na galit na lalaki.
buwaya sa katihan e) Paotawaa (apostrophe) - isang pabulalas na pagkausap sa isang tao
Paggamit ng tayutay/patalinghagang anyo ng pagpapahayag (karaniwang patay o wala sa isang tiyak na pook) o isang bagay o
Iniuugnay ang kaalamang retorika sa patalinghagang pagpapahayag o sa bahagi ng kalikasan na binibigyan ng katangiang pantao.
ibang salita'y tayutay. Halimbawa:
Tayutay - Isang pahayag na sadyang masining at kaakit-akit. Naghahayag Pag -ibig! Masdan ang ginawa mo.
ito ng makulay at mabisang pagpapakahulugan. f) Paapapalit-tawaQ (metonymy) - paggamit ng isang salitang
panumbas o nagpapahiwatig ng kahulugan ng di-tinukoy na salita;
Pangunahing layunin ng retorika na makapagpahayag nang maganda, ang pagpapalit ng katawagan o ngalan sa bagay na tinutukoy.
masining, at maayos. Halimbawa:
Malalim na pilat ang naiwan sa kanyang puso.
Ang mga sumusunod ay mga uri ng patalinghagang pagpapahayag o g) Paonaoalit-saklaw (synecdoche) - pagbanggit sa bahagi bilang
tayutay: pagtukoy sa kabuuan; maaari rin namang nag-iisang tao ang
a) Paotutulad (simile) - paggamit ng tuwirang pagkukumpara ng kumakatawan sa isang pangkat.
dalawang bagay na magkaiba ng uri. Halimbawa:
Halimbawa: Isang kayumanggi ang pinarangalan sa larangan ng boksing.
Ang tren ay parang alupihan. h) Paohihimio (onomatopoeia) - paggamit ng mga salitang ang tunog
b) Paowawa'nais (metaphor) - paggamit ng mga pahayag na ay gumagagad sa inilalarawan; naipapahiwatig dito ang kahulugan
nagpapahiwatig ng pagkukumpara ng dalawang bagay na magkaiba . sa pamamagitan ng tunog o himig ng mga salita.
ng uri. Hindi na ito ginagamitan ng mga pariralang tulad ng, Halimbawa:

168 PNU LET Review er D r. A rsen ia R . Em penuJo

G eneral E du cation Filipino - M asining na P agpapahayag

Kumalabog sa matigas na lupa ang bumagsak na kargamento . b. ginagamit bilang pang-ukol na ang katumbas ay tamang
mula sa trak. pagkakaugnay ng mga salita sa isang pahayag upang makabuo
i) PaasalunQat/oksimoron/epiaram (oxymoron) - paggamit ng ng malinaw na.kaisipan o diwa.
dalawang salitang magkasalungat o pahayag na nagsasalungatan.. (Pinalo niya ng kahoy ang magnanakaw.)
Mga halimbawa: c. ginagamit bilang pang-ukol na ang katumbas ay sa
tumatawa'y umiiyak (Ang mga iskawt ay nagpunta ng Baguio.)
may lungkot at tuwa d. ginagamit bilang pang-ukol na nagpapakilala ng pangngalang
mabuting kaaway paari
j) Paralelismo (parallelism) - paggamit ng inihahanay na kaisipan sa (Tumanggap ng plake ang kanyang anak.)
magkakahawig na istruktura, tulad ng: e. ginagamit bilang tagatanggap ng kilos
sama-samang nabubuhay (Ayaw siyang layuan ng agam-agam.)
sama-samang namamatay f. ginagamit na pananda sa tuwirang layon ng pandiwang palipat
k) Paolumanav (euphemism)-paggamit ng mga salitang nagpapaganda (Gumagawa siya ng manika.)
ng pangit na pahayag; pagpapahayag na gumagamit ng mga g. ginagamit na pananda ng aktor o tagaganap ng pandiwa sa tinig
malumanay at magagandang pananalita upang tukuyin ang isang na balintiyak
pangyayari na maaaring kung sasabihin nang tiyakan ay masakit o (Tinulungan ng kapatid ang kanyang ina sa pagluluto.)
pangit sa pandinig. h. ginagamit kapag nagsasaad ng pagmamay-ari ng isang bagay o
Halimbawa: katangian
Ang babaeng naglalaro ng apoy (nagtataksil) ay humantong sa (Nabali ang mga paa .ng mesa.)
isang makabagbag damdaming tagpo sa harap ng kapitbahay. nang
a. ginagamit bilang pang-abay
7. Paano naman ginagamit ang balarilasaprosesongmabisang pagpapahayag? (Itinali nang mahigpit ang bihag.)
Saklaw ng balarila o grammar ang mga sumusunod: (1) tamang gamit ng b. ginagamit bilang salitang nangangahulugan din ng para" o
mga salita; (2) tamang pag-aaral ng anyo at uri ng mga salita; (3) tamang upang"
pagkakaugnay ng mga salita sa isang pahayag upang makabuo ng malinaw (Sumulat ka nang sumulat ng mga kuwento nang manalo ka sa
na kaisipan o diwa. . . patimpalak.) .
Paggamit ng mga tamang salita c. ginagamit bilang salitang panggitna sa mga salitang inuulit
A. ang ng at nang (lyak nang iyak ang dalagang malungkot.)
ng d. ginagamit ha pangatnig sa mga hugnayang pangungusap at ito
a. ginagamit bilang pantukoy rin ang panitnula ng katulong na sugnay;
(Maluwang ang looban ng simbahan.) (Maghugas ka ng pinggan nang makakain na kayo.)

D r. A rsenia R . Em perado
PNU LET Review er 169]
Filipino - M asining na Pagpapahayag G eneral Education

B. ang din at tin, daw at raw F. m ayatm ayroon

rin a tra w may - Ginagamit ang may kung ang sumusunod o kasunod na salita ay:
Ginagamit Kung ang sinusundancf salita "ay nagtatapos sa patinig at a. pangngalan' -
sa malapatinig na w at y. (May tao sa tanghalan.)
(siya raw / rin b. pandiwa
ikaw raw / rin (May pumatay sa mga ipis na nasa kabinet.)
tinalakay raw / rin) c. pang-uri
din at daw (May mataas na sapatos ang guro niya.)
Ginagamit kung ang salitang sinusundan ay nagtatapos sa katinig d. pantukoy
maliban sa /w/ at /y/. (May mga panoorin sa patyo ng simbahan.)
(takot din / daw e. pang -ukol na sa
malakas din / daw) (May sa daga ang anak mong iyan.)
C. ang sina at sila mayroon - Ginagamit ang mayroon kung:
a. sina - ginagamit kapag ito ay sinusundan ng mga pangngalan a. sinusundan ng panghalip
na tinutukoy sa pangungusap. (Mayroon kayong libreng gamot sa baranggay.)
(Naglilinis sina Gel at Lisette ng bahay.) b. sinusundan ng isang kataga
b. sila - ginagamit bilahg panghalip na panao. (Mayroon yatang pagsusulit ngayon.)
(Umalis na sila kangina pang umaga.) c. bilang panagot sa tanong
D. pinto, pintuan (May kapatid ka pa ba? Mayroon.)
a. pinto - bahagi ng daanan na isinasara at ibinubukas Pag-aaral ng anyo at uri ng mga salita
(Isinara niya ang pinto upang hindi makapasok ang magnanakaw.) Nabanggit na, na may dalawang uri ng pagpapahayag: pasalita at
b. pintuan - ang kinalalagyan ng pinto pasulat. Bakit tayo nagsusulat? Mahalaga ang katanungang ito sapagkat
(Hindi pa napipinturahan ang pinto sa pintuan.) kasangkot na sa ibat ibang layunin ng pagsulat ang ating mambabasa.
E. pahirin, pahiran Kapag nabanggit ang mambabasa, isinasaalang-alang na rin ang uri ng
a. pahirin - alisin sa pamamagitan ng pamunas o sa pamamagitan wikang gagamitin, pati na ang tono at istilo ng pagpapahayag.
ng kamay.
(Pahirin mo ang sipon sa kanyang ilong.) Ang mga salita ay may kaantasan din. Isinasaalang-alang ng mga aral
b. pahiran - lagyan ng isang bagay sa pamamagitan .ng pamunas sa wika ang kaantasang ito. Sa gayon ang mga salitang bibitiwan o
o sa pamamagitan ng kamay. gagamitin ay bufhabagay sa kanyang katayuan, sa liinihingi ng panahon
(Pahiran mo ng langis ang natutuyo mong balat.) at pook at sa okasyong dinadaluhan.

E l r f l l PNu LET Review er D r. A rsen ia R . Em perado

G eneral E du cation
F ilipino - M asining na Pagpapahayag

Sa ganang kabagayang ito ng mga salita, masasabing may pormal at

di-pormal na mga salita. .
Salitang porm al - mga salitang istandard dahil ito'y kinikilala,. saan naroon sanaron
tinatanggap at ginagamit ng karamihang nakapag-aral sa wika. naroon.naroroon naron
Nasa ilalaim ng uring ito ang: nasaan nasan
a. Pambansa - mga salitang ginagamit sa mga aklat at babasahing kaniya kanya
may sirkulasyon sa buong kapuluan at lahat ng paaralan. kani-kaniya kanya-kanya
b. Pampanitikan - mga salitang matayog, malalim, mabigat, almirol almidon, almirol
makulay at sadyang mataas ang uri. Ito ang mga salitang aywan ewan
ginagamit ng mga manunulat at dalubwika. piyesta pista

Salitang hindi porm al o impormal - mga salitang karaniwan at

palasak na ginagamit sa mga pang-araw-araw na pakikipag-usap at
pakikipagsulatan sa mga kakilala at kaibigan.. Pambansa Pampanitikan Lalawiganin Balbal
Kasama dito ang: kapatid kapusod tugang ( Bikol) utol
a. Lalawiganin - mga salitang kilala at saklaw lamang ng pook baliw nasisiraang-bait buang ( Bisaya) buwang
na pinaggagamitan nito; tatak ito ng mga maka- rehiyonal na
kaugalian ng tao. - ang tono ng mga salitang gagamitin ay maaaring pauyam, malisyoso,
b. Balbal - tinatawag ding slang sa Ingles.Tinatawag ding salitang- seryoso, nakikiusap o maaaring neutral
kanto, salitang-lansangan, salita ng mga bakla.
c. Kolokyal (colloquial) - mga pang araw-araw na mga salita Tamang pagkakaugnay ng mga salita sa isang pahayag upang makabuo
ngunit may kagaspangan at pagka- bulgar, bagamat may anyorig ng malinaw na kaisipan o diwa.
repinado at malinis ayon sa kung sino ang nagsasalita.
Kailangan ang kaisahan sa pangungusap para maging epektibo ito.
Narito ang ilang patnubay upang magawa ang kaisahan sa pangungusap
(Tumangan, et al., 1997:21 -22):

D r. A rsenia R . Em pcrado
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Filipino - M asining na Pagpapahayag General Education

a. Huwag pagsamahin sa pangungusap ang hindi magkakaugnay na . Mga uri ng pagpapahayag / diskurso
kaisipan. '
b. Ang pagtataglay ng maraming kaisipan sa pangungusap ay labag sa Maraming paraan ng pagpapahayag na maisasagawa sa paraang pasalita
kaisahan ng pangungusap dahil lumalabo ang pangunahing isipang o pasulat na makatutulong upang makaakit at maging mabisa ang ating
ipinahahayag. pagpapahayag. . -
c. Gawing malinaw sa pangungusap kung alin ang pangunahing sugnay a. paglaiahad - hangarin nito na magpaliwanag nang obhetibo o walang
at ang panulong na sugnay. pagkampi na may sapat na detalye na pawang pampalawak ng kaaiaman
d. Huwag ilayo ang salitang panuring sa tinuturingan ng salita. sa paksang binibigyang linaw nang iubos na maunawaan ng may interes
e. Ilapit ang panghalip na pamanggit sa pangngalang kinakatawan nito (Arrogante, 1994:117).
f. Sa Filipino, nauuna ang panaguri kaysa sa simuno sa karaniwang b. paglalarawan - hangarin nito na sa pamamagitan ng mga angkop na
ayos ng pangungusap. salita, maipakita ang kaanyuan at kabuuan ng tad, bagay, sitwasyon,
insidente o senaryo.
Sa kabilang banda, nagiging malinaw ang mga pangungusap ng talata c. pagsasalaysay - hangarin nito na mag - ulat ng mga pangyayari sa isang
kapag may wastong paglilipat-diwa. May mga salita at pariralang maayos na pagkakahanay (Tumangan, et al., 1986:3).
ginagamit sa paglilipat-diwa na nakatutulong upang maunawaan ang d. pangangatwiran - hangarin nito na hikayatin ang iba pa na tanggapin ang
tamang pagkakaugnay-ugnay ng mga pangungusap. Sa bawat kaisipang katotohanan o kawastuan ng isang paninindigan o diii kaya'y baguhin
ililipat, naririto ang angkop na salita o pariralang maaaring gamitin: ang kanilang pag-iisip o impluwensyahan ang kanilang pag-uugali at
a. kaisipang idinaragdag - at, saka, pati, gayundin pagkilos sa pamamagitan ng mga makatwirang pahayag (Semorian, et
b. kaisipang sumasalungat - ngunit, subalit, datapwat, bagaman, al., 1999:155).
kahiman, sa kabilang dako
c. kaisipang naghahambing - katulad, kawangis ng, animo'y, anaki'y
d. kaisipang nagbubuod - sa katagang sabi, sa madaling sabi, kaya
e. kaisipang nagsasabi ng bunga o kinalabasan - sa wakas, sa dakong
huli, kung gayon, sa ganoon .
f. paglipas ng panahon - noon, habang, di-naglaon, samantala, sa di-
kawasa, hanggang

Dr. Arsenia R. Empci k! o

172 PNU LET Review er
General E du cation F ilipino - M asin in g na Pagpapahayag


MGA TEKNIK SA PAGSAGOT NG MGA TANONG Mga Teknik sa Pagtukoy ng Wastong Paggamit ng
Alusyon Bilang Pamamaraang Panretorika

Kompetensi: Nagagamit ang angkop na repertwa ng wika sa pagpapahayag ng Basahin nang mabuti ang tanong.
kaalaman, karanasan at saloobin. Ituon ang pansin sa hinihinging kasanayan.
Pag-aralang mabuti ang mga pagpipiliang sagot.
Ang tamang sagot ay C.
Paggamit ng mga Alusyon Gumamit ang pangungusap ng kasangkapan/pamamaraang panretorika.
(Pamamaraang panretorika)
Alusyon - pamamaraang panretorika na gumagamit ng pagtukoy sa isang tao,
Item 1. pook, katotohanan, kaisipan o pangyayari na iniingatan sa pinakatagong sulok
ng alaala ng isang taong may pinag-aralan." (Alejandro, 1970, nasa Bisa, 1999)
Bilang isang sining ng mahusay na pagsulat, ang retorika ay nagsasaalang-
alang sa maingat na pagpili ng pananalita, sa mabisang paghahanay ng Mga uri ng alusyon at mga halimbawa nito (Bisa, 1999):
mga ito at sa paggamit ng iba pang kasangkapang panretorika. Alin sa mga
sumusunod na pangungusap ang gumamit ng alusyon bilang pamamaraang Alusyon sa heograpiya: Ang Bulkang Mayon ang Fujiyama ng Pilipinas.
A. Pinagdarayo ng maraming tao taun-taon ang Antipolo. Alusyon sa Bibliya: Ang hukom ay naging isang Solomon sa paghatol sa kaso ng
B. Ang Antipolo ay isang bayan sa Rizal na pinagdarayo ng maraming tao dalawang babaeng kapwa nagsasabing sila ang ina ng batang babae.
C. Ang Antipolo, ang Lourdes ng Pilipinas, ay pinagdarayo ng maraming tao Alusyon sa mitolohiya: Si Florante ay binanggit sa Florante at Lauca na isang
taun-taon. Adonis o kaya'y isang Narciso.
D. Lahat tama ang sagot.
Alusyon sa literatura: Isa siyang makabagong Simoun nang bumalik sa sariling
C ang tamang sagot. bayan.. . -

Dr. Arsenia R . Em perad o PNU LET Reviewer 173

Filipino - M asining na Pagpapahayag G eneral Education

Opsyon A. Ito ay isang haHmbawa ng payak na pangungusap subalit hindi

gumagamit ng alusyon.
Mga Teknik sa Pagtukoy ng Wastong Paggamit ng
Opsyon B. Halimbawa ito ng'isang pangungusap na may kaganapang pansimuno,
Alusyon Bilang Pamamaraang Panretorika
isang bayan sa Rizal.
May isang sugnay na di-makapag-iisa na ginagamit na pang-uri, na
pinagdarayo ng maraming tao taun-taon.
Ang tamang sagot ay B.
Wala ring alusyong ginamit.
Ang pagtatambis o tambisan (antithesis) ay ang paglalahad ng isang bagay
laban sa iba namang bagay na nagkakasalungat upang higit na maging
Paggamit ng mga Tayutay mabisa ang pangingibabaw ng isang kaisipang natatangi.
(Pamamaraan ng Patalinghagang Pagpapahayag) Halimbawa: Mahirap kausap ang taong iyan, ngayon ay oo, mamaya ay hindi.

Item 2. Opsyon A. Gumagamit ang pag-uyam (irony) ng mga salitang nangungutya sa tao
o bagay sa pamamagitan ng mga salitang tila kapuri-puri ngunit ang tunay
Nagkita ang magkaibigan sa mall. Nagkumustahan, nagbalitaan tungkol sa na kahulugan ay mauunawaan ayon sa paraan ng pagsasalita ng isang tao.
kani-kanilang buhay. Kapwa ina, nagpalitan sila ng karanasan tungkol sa Halimbawa: Kay sipag mong mag-aral, palagi kang bagsak sa pagsusuiit.
kanilang mga anak. Sabi ng isa:
Opsyon C. Gumagamit ang pagtanggi (litotes) ng salitang hindi sa pagpapahayag
Ang batang si Angeli ay napakahirap unawain, hinahanap ako ngunit upang maipahiwatig ang lalong makahulugang di-pagsang-ayon sa sinasabi
itinataboy kapag dumating, inaantok daw siya ngunit ayaw matulog, ng salitang sumusunod.
nagugutom siya ngunit ayaw kumain, ayaw ng maingay ngunit ayaw rin ng Halimbawa: Hindi siya bulag para hindi makita ang mga mali mo.
tahimik dahil naluiungkot daw siya.
Opsyon D. Kahawig ng pagtatambis ang pagsalungat (epigram) ngunit higit itong
Anong uri ng tayutay ang ginamit upang maging mabisa ang paglalarawan? maikli kaysa sa pagtatambis. Magkasalungat ang kahulugan ng mga salitang
A. pag-uyam (irony) pinag-uugnay sa uring ito.
B. pagtatambis o tambisan (antithesis) Halimbawa: Itihutulak ng bibig, kinakabig naman ng dibdib.
C. pagtanggi (litotes)
D. pagsasalungat (epigram/oxymoron)

B ang tamang sagot.

174 PNU LET Review er Dr. A rsen ia R . E m perad o

General E du cation F ilipino - M asining na Pagpapahayag

Opsyon A. Karaniwang ginagamit na pangatnig sa mga hugnayang pangungusap

Ang Balarila sa Proseso ng Mabisang Pagpapahayag
af ito ang panimula ng katulong na sugnay. .
(Paggamit ng Tamang Salita)

nang (pangatnig) makapasa kayong magkakapatid (pantulong na sugnay)

Item 3.
Opsyon B. Ginagamit bilang pang-abay. Ito ay nanggaling sa na at inaangkupan
Isinasaalang-alang sa gramatika/balarila ang mga bahagi at tungkulin ng ng ng at inilalagay sa pagitan ng pandiwa at ng panuring nito.
mga salita sa pangungusap. Hadlang sa malinaw na pagpapahayag ang
maling gamit ng salita. May mga salitang magkasing-anyo subalit may iba, Opsyon C. Ginagamit ang nang sa gitna ng dalawang salitang-ugat na inuulit
tiyak at angkop na gamit. May mga pagkakataon na nagkakapalit ang gamit (dasal nang dasal), dalawang pawatas (magdasal nang magdasal) at
ng salita sa pangungusap. dalawang pandiwang inuulit (mag-abuloy nang mag-abuloy).

Sa mga pahayag na sumusunod, alin ang pangungusap na di-angkop ang

gamit ng salitang nancft
Item 4.
A. Mag-aral kayong mabuti nang makapasa kayong magkakapatid.
B. Umalis nang maaga ang dalaga.
Hindi maitatanggi na sa ating pang-araw-araw na karanasan sa pakikipag-
C. Magsikap nang magsikap .upang lalong umunlad.
usap, higit nating ibig kausapin at pakinggan ang isang taong malinaw na
D. Gumagawa ang magkakapatid nang takdang aralin.
nakapagpapahayag ng anumang nais niyang sabihin sapagkat madali natin
siyang mauunawaan.
D ang tamang sa g ot

Alin sa mga sumusunod na pahayag ang maayos at tama ang pagkagamit ng

mga salita?
A. Nag-aaral magsalita ng bata.
Paggamit ng Tamang Salita
B. Ang Pangujo ay hinahagupit ang mga pinunong nagsasamgntala sa
kanilang tungkulin. * .
Ang tamang sagot ay D. C. Mali ang guro sa kanyang mga eskuwela magdisiplina.
Ng at hindi nana ang dapat gamitin. Ginagamit ang ng bilang pananda sa D. Ang tao ay nabubuhay nang hindi para sa sarili lamang.
tuwirang layon ng pandiwang palipat.
Halimbawa: Nagtanim ng mga gulay sa kanilang bakuran s i Daphne. D ang tamang sagot. .

Dr. Arsenia R . Em pcrado PNU LET Reviewer

Filipino - Masining na Pagpapahayag G eneral Education

Maaari rin namang - ' *

Anotasyon Hinahagupit hg Pangulo ang mga pinunong nagsasamantala sa kanilang
MgaTeknik sa Pagtukoy ng Wastong Pagkagamit ng mga Salita tungkulin.

Ang tamang sagotay D. Dalavya ang tinig ng pandiwa: .

Tungkol sa kailanan ng pandiwa, hindi nagdudulot ng kalabuan sa diwa ng Tahasan - ang simuno ng pangungusap ang gumagawa ng kilos na
mga pangungusap kung ang maramihang simuno ay gamitan ng isahang sinasabi ng pandiwa.
pandiwa tulad ng: Ang mga mag-aaral ay tumungo sa aklatan. Halimbawa: Ang paaralan ay mahigpit na nagpapatupad ng tuntunin sa
pagsusuot ng uniporme.
Ngunit dapat tandaan na ang isahang simuno ay hindi maaaring gamitan
ng maramihang pandiwa. Hindi wastong sabihin: Ang tao ay nangabubuhay Balintiyak - hindi gumagawa ng kilos ang simuno, kung hindi ito ang
nang hindi para sa sarili iamang. tumatanggap hg kilos na isinasaad ng pandiwa.
Halimbawa: Ang tuntunin sa pagsuot ng uniporme ay mahigpit na
Opsyon A. Karaniwan nang nagkakamali sa gamit ng ang at ng. ipinapatupad ng paaralan.
Ginagamit ang panandang ang para tukuyin ang isang pangngalang ginagamit
na simuno/paksa ng pangungusap o kaukulang palagyo. Opsyon C. Kabilang ang mga pang-uri at pang-abay sa mga panuring. Maaaring
Halimbawa: Nag-aaral magsalita ang bata. nasa anyo ng salita, parirala o sugnay.

Kapag maramihan, sinasamahan ang ang ng mga. Sa pagbubuo ng pangungusap, hanggat maaari dapat na malapit ang mga
Halimbawa: Nag-aaral magsalita ang mga bata. panuring sa salitang tinuturingan.
Halimbawa: Mating magdisiplina ang guro sa kanyang eskuwela.
Opsyon B. Upang maging malinaw at tama ang pangungusap, dapat na ang
maging simuno ng pangungusap ay ang mga pinunong nagsasamantala sa Kaysa:
kanilang tungkulin. Mali ang guro sa kanyang mga eskuwela magdisiplina.

Kaya, dapat ganito ang pangungusap:

Ang mga pinunong nagsasamantala sa kanilang tungkulin ay hinahagupit ng

176 PNU L E T R eview er D r. A rsen ia R . Em pcrado

General Education Filipino - M asining na Pagpapahayag

sugnay at malayang sugnay. Ang isang payak na pangungusap ay _

Batayan ng Mabisang Pagpapahayag
isang sugnay na makapag-iisa. '
(Kasanayan sa Pagbuo ng Tama at Mabisang Pangungusap)
Mahina ang produkyson ng langis.
Item 5. Magkakaroon tayo ng pagkakaisa.-
b. Sugnay na di-makapag-iisa - tinatawag din itong sugnay na
Ang mga pangungusap na hindi tama o hindi mabuti ang pagkabuo ay malabo pantulong at sugnay na di-malaya. May ibat iba itong gamit: (Nasa
at hindi mauunawaan. Maaaring ang maling pagbubuo ng mga pangungusap opsyon A, B, C at D).
ay dahilan sa kakulangan ng kaalaman sa mga sugnay. Suriin ang gamit ng Ginagamit itong pantulong sa isang sugnay na makapag-iisa upang
sugnay na di-makapag-iisa sa ibaba. makabuo ng hugnayang pangungusap.

Sila ay dumating nang umuulan nang malakas. Opsyon A.

Ginagamit na simuno ng pangungusap.
A. Ginagamit na simuno ng isang pangungusap. Halimbawa:
B. Ginagamit na tuwirang layon ng isang pangungusap. Mga manggagamotanq magbibigay lunas sa mga maysakit.
C. Ginagamit na pang-uri na nagbibigay turing sa pangngalan o panghalip. Si Prop. Villafuente ang mahusayna puno ng Kagawaran ng Filipino.
D. Ginagamit na pantulong sa isang sugnay na makapag-iisa.
Opsyon B.
D ang tamang sa g ot Ginagamit na tuwirang layon ng isang pangungusap.
Napagkasunduan na, na ikaw ang direktor ng seminar.
Alam ng lahat na wala kang kasalanan.
Kasanayan sa Pagbuo ng Tama at Mabisang Pangungusap

Opsyon C.
Ang tamang sagot ay D. Ginagamit na pang-uri kapag nagbibigay turing sa pangngalan o
Ang sugnay ay kalipunan ng mga salita na maaaring may buong diwa panghalip. Kung ginagamit na pang-uri ang sugnay, ito ay nagsisimula
at maaari rin namang wala subalit nagagamit na bahagi ng isang sa mga panghalip na pamanggit na -g, -ng, o na. '
pangungusap. May dalawang uri ng sugnay. (Rubin, et al., 1987) Halimbawa:
a. Sugnay na makapag-iisa anp tawag sa sugnay na nagbibigay ng Isa sa mga bayan ang mga pinunong mahilig
buong diwa. Tinatawag' din itong punong sugnay, pangunahing mangurakot'sa kabang bayan.

D r. A rsen ia R . E m p e rad o PNII LET Review er K W

Filipino - M asining na Pagpapahayag G eneral E du cation

Hem 6. Item 8.

Sa iyong mga kapitbahay, si Beth ang itinuturing mong pinakamalapit sa iyo.

Isa pang nakapagpapaganda at nakapagdaragdag ng kasiningan sa
Alin sa mga sumusunod na pasawikain/idyomatikong pahayag ang di angkop
pagpapahayag ay ang mga karunungang bayan na minana pa natin sa
gamitin kung ipalalarawan sa iyo si Beth?
ating mga ninuno. Nagsisilbi itong tagapagpaalala ng mabuting kaasalan at
A. asal-hudas
kaugalian. Basahin ang halimbawang Kawikaan.
B. kahiramang-suklay
C: kabungguang-balikat
Pagkataas-taas man ng lipad, siyang lagapak kung bumagsak.
D. kaututang-dila

Maaari mong gamltin ang hallmbawang kawikaan upang ipaalala ang ugaling
Item 9.
A. pagpapakumbaba
Pinapayuhan ka ng iyong tiyahin na huwag maging bulanggugo. Hindi bale
B. pagtitiyaga
na raw______________ , upang makaipon ka ng pera at may magamit sa oras ng
C. paglingap sa mahirap
D. pagiglng tapat sa kaibigan
A. ahasnatulog
B. may uwang sa puwit
Item 7.
. mahaba ang dila
B puti ang tainga
Galit na galit ang iyong lola. Nalaman kasi niyang nabundol ng motorsiklo ang
iyong kapatid subalit nagwalang-bahala lamang sa nangyari ang iyong ama. Sa
ating kaugalian at kultura anong pasawikaing pagpapahayag ang naglalarawan Item 10.

sa ikinilos ng ama?
Naatasan ang inyong samahan na pumili sa baranggay ng mga taong
A. di-mahapayang gatang
pagkakalooban ng pamaskong regalo. Alin sa mga sumusunod na mga
B. naghalukipkip ng kamay
katangian ang maaaring isama bilang isa sa mga batayan ng pagpili?
C. nagdilat ng mata
A kukulu-kulo ang tiyan
D. nagbuhat ng sariling bangko
B. halang ang bituka
C. mababaw ang luha
D. sanga-sangang dila

178 PNU LET Reviewer D r. A rscn ia R . Em pcrsdo

G eneral Education Filipino - Masining na Pagpapahayag

Basahin ang mga sumusunod na pahayag mula sa mga piling aktia. Suriin ang mga Item 13.
tayutay na ginamit.
Ngunit hindi kumikilos sa pagkakahiga ang batang babae. Nakatitig lamang ito
Item 11. sa maaliwalas na mukha ng langit. Nagtaka ang batang lalaki.

Ang pangalan ni Derang ay isang mabangong bulaklak sa kanyang kanayon, at Mula sa: Bagong Paraiso
ang kanyang kabuhayan ay isang bukas na aklat sa Tulikan. ni.Efren R. Abueg

Mula sa : Nagbibihis na ang Nayon Piliin ang tayutay sa nabanggit na pahayag at tukuyin ang uri.
ni: Brigido C. Batungbakal A. paglumanay
B. paglilipat-wika
Piliin ang uri ng tayutay na ginamit sa akda. ~C. pagpapalit tawag
A. -pagtutulad (simile) D. pagpapalit saklaw
B. pagwawangis (metaphor)
C. pagmamalabis (hyperbole) item 14.
D. pagbibigay katauhan (personification)
Kung minsan sa panahong masamang masama ang iyong loob nasasambit
Item 12. mo ang ganitong pahayag:"Kayo ang puno at dulo ng aking mga kasawian sa
Kalupitan ay palasong bumabalik,
Kaapiha'y tila gatong, nagliliyab.
Katipuna'y naging tabak ng himagsik, Ang puno at dulo ay dalawang salitang magkasalungat na itinuturing nating
At ang bayay sumiklab sa Balintawak. halimbawa ng tayutay na:
Mula sa: Bonifacio A. pagsalungat (epigram/oxymoron)
ni: Amado V. Hernandez B. paralelismo
C. pag-uyam
Anong uri ng tayutay ang ginamit sa ikalawang taludtod ng saknong? 0. pagwawangis
A. pagmamalabis
B. pagbibigay katauhan
C. pagwawangis
-D. pagtutulad

D r. A rsen ia R . E m p erad o PNU LET Review er 179

Filipino - M asining na Pagpapahayag G eneral E d u catio n

Item 18. # .
Para saltern 1 5 - 1 7 . .

Narinig mong ipinagmamapuri ng inyong kapitbahay sa iyong ina ang nabili

Item 15.
niyang blusa sa SM. Nang tanungin ang nagmamapuri kung maraming tao,
Ang mga pahayag na sumusunod ay nalikom mula sa kalipunan ng mga ganito ang kanyang naging tugon:
pang-umagang pahayagan. Bilang guro, balak mong gamiting bahagi ng
mga pagsasanay sa wastong gamit ang mga sumusunod. Ganito ang iyong "Ang nagkakagulong grupo ng mga tao sa midnight sale ngSM ay nagpapaalala
panuto: Suriin ang pahayag na may di-wastong gamit ng salita at di-angkop na sa hitsura ng mga langgam na nabulabog sa kanilang taguan.

maisama sa pangkat.
A. Subukin mo ang pabangong ito at napakahusay. Ang pahayag na nabanggit ay isang anyo ng
A.- paglalarawan
B. Susubukin namin kung may talino ka sa.pag-awit.
Subukan mo ang ginagawa ng mga alkalde sa pulong. 8. pagsasalaysay
Aalis sila nang maaga at susubukin nila ang ginagawang pagsasanay ng C. pangangatuwiran

kalaban nilang koponan sa basketbol. D. paglalahad

Item 19.
Item 16.

Malapit na ang tag-init. Namimili ang isang samahan ng lugar na

' A. Namatay ang ilaw at naghari ang kadiliman sa buong kapaligiran.
mapupuntahan para sa isang educational trip. Narito ang pahayag ng kanilang
B. Napatay pa\a ng baranggay tanod ang magnanakaw.
t . Ang binata ay napatay sa biglang dalamhating sumapit sa kanyang buhay.
D. Napatay ng pusa ang daga.
Mas sulit na magbakasyon sa Baguio kaysa sa Boracay. Mapatutunayan ito
kung ikukumpara ang pagkain, akomodasyon, tanawin, presyo ng mga bilihin
Item 17.
at serbisyo sa dalawang lugar - mga bagay na dapat timbangin ng sinumang
A. Bumangon ka na at nang makaalis na tayo. mga bakasyunista.
B. Nagbangon siya ng mga punong saging na ibinuwal ng bagyo. .
, SumakayYa na at aalis na ang traysikel. Anong batayang anyo ng pagpapahayag ang ginamit ng pangulo ng samahan
D. ^SasakaysWa ng kabang-kabang bigas sa trak. upang mahikayat ang kasamahan na tanggapin ang kawastuan ng kanyang
paninindigan? .

i E f i l PNU LET Review er Dr. A rsenia R . Em perado

General Education
Filipino - Masining na Pagpapahayag

A. paglalahad _ '
Item 21.
. B. pagsasalaysay
Cr. paglalarawan
Hinampas ng malakas na hangin ang kanilang bangkang sinasakyan, Patuloy
D.' pangangatwiran
pa rin sila sa paglalayag.

Item 20.
A. gayundin
BT. sa kabila nito
Mabigat ang loob ng mga nakatira sa Maynila na lumipat at tumira sa probinsya
C. walang duda
kahit pa may proyekong pabahay ang pamahalaan doon. Para sa marami sa
D. bilang patunay

Item 22.
Mas magandang tumira sa lungsod kapag pinansyal at ekonomikong aspekto
ang pag-uusapan. Malaki ang oportunidad dito para sa paghahanapbuhay.
Lalo silang huhusay. Susunod sila sa namumuno.

Anong batayang anyo ng pagpapahayag ang makaiimpluwensiya sa kanilang

A. samantala
pag-iisip na maaaring makapagpabago sa kanilang pag-uugali at pagkilos?
B. walang alinlangan
A. paglalahad
,G. kapag
B. pangangatuwiran
\5. kaya
C. pagsasalaysay
D. paglalarawan
Item 23.

Nagiging malinaw ang mga pangungusap ng talata kapag may wastong

Nagkaroon sila ng pagdiriwang. Ang lahat ay nagalak.
paglilipat-diwa. Sa bawat isipang ililipat, may angkop na salita o pariralang
A. sa kabilang dako
B. bukod dito
Para sa Item 21 - 24. Gawing isang pangungusap ang mga sumusunod na pares ng
C. hanggang
pangungusap sa pamamagitan ng paggamit ng angkop na pag-ugnay (pangatnig o D. kung gayon
transisyunal na ekspresyon).

D r. A rsen ia R . E m p crad o PNU LET Reviewer 131

Filipino - M asining na Pagpapahayag G en eral Education

Item 24.
Ang mga masisipag ay nakinabang. Ang'mga tamad ay nawalan. SA PAGKUHA NG PAGSUSULIT

B. sa kabuuan
C. sa w'akas
1. Masarap pakinggan ang ating matatanda sa kanilang pangangaral dahil
D. saganangakin
sa ang bawat pangaral na kanilang ibinibigay ay may kasunod na mga
salawikain/kawikaan na nakararagdag sa kasiningan ng pagpapahayag tulad
Item 25.

Higit na malinaw ang daloy ng kaisipan sa binabasa kapag ang mga pasulat na Kapag may isinuksok, may madudukot.
pangungusap ay gumagamit ng mga tamang bantas.
Maaari mong gamiting panawag pansin sa panimula ng komposisyon ang
salawikain o kawikaan. Ang halimbawang ibinigay ay bagay sa komposisyon
Piliin ang wastong bantas na dapat gamitin kapag hindi pinag-uugnay ng
ukol s a _____________ .
pangatnig ang mga sugnay ng tambalang pangungusap tulad ng sumusunod.
A. katipiran
B. kasipagan
Ang Diyos ang Siyang nagbigay ng buhay__ Siya rin ang may karapatang
C. katapangan
bumawi niyon. D. katamaran
A. . C.)
2. Paano mo ilalarawan ang isang ahente na mahusay kumumbinsi o humikayat
B. , or.- sa pamamagitan ng mga salita?
fit. may tali ang dila
B. matamis ang dila
C. mahaba ang dila
D. may dilang anghel
3. Kapag napagod taytf sa katatanaw sa taong ating hinihintay, sinasabi natin:
A. Nanghahaba na ang akingleegsa katatanaw sa iyo.
B. Itaga mo sa bato.
C. Itanim mo-sa iyong isip.
D. Ilista mo sa'tubig.

182 PRU LET Reviewer

D r. A rs cn ia R . Em perad o
General Education
Filipino - M asining na Pagpapahayag

4. Saawitna: . .
7. Alin sa mga sumusunod na pahayag ang pangit sa pandinig at maaari pang
. 0, ang babae kapag minamahal
mapaganda sa pamamagitan ng paglumanay o (euphemism)?
May kursunada'y aayaw-ayavy A. Hinalay' kagabi sa kanyang pag-uwi ang babaeng nagtatrabaho sa call
Pag panay ang dalaw ay nayayamot
Huwag mong dalawin, dadabog-dabog." 'J j Buntis ka ba?
C. Matabil ang kanyang bibig.-
Anong uri ng tayutay ang matatagpuan?
D. Ang bunso niyang anak ay sumakabilang buhay.
A. pag-uyam
8. Isa pa sa sinasadyang paglayo sa paggamit ng mga karaniwang salita
B. pagtawag
upang maging kaakit-akit at mabisa ang pagpapahayag ay ang pagtawag
C. pagsalungat (apostrophe). Kahawig ito ng pagbibigay-katauhan (personification). Dito,
D. pagtatambis ginagawa ang pakikipag-usap sa karaniwang bagay na tila ba nakikipag-
5. Rung ang pagpapalit-tawag (metonymy) ay nagpapalit ng katawagan o usapsatao..
pangaian sa bagay na tinutukoy, alin sa mga sumusunod na halimbawa ang
di-dapat maisama sa pangkat? ' Alin sa mga sumusunod na pahayag ang di-dapat maisama sa pangkat?
A. Tatlong baso ang nainom ni Gel dahil sa matinding uhaw. A; Hangin, pumarito ka at pawiin ang matinding init.
B. Natanggap ni Lisette ang hampas ng langit sa mabibigat niyang B. Buwan, sumikat ka na at pawiin ang kadilimang lumulukob sa kapaligiran.
S L. Hinaplos ng hangin ang nagpupuyos niyang damdamin.
_ C. Dapat nating igalang ang pitting buhok. D.. Pag-asa, halika attugunin ang mga tanong kong magbibigay-buhay sa
D. Ang kahabag-habag na payong ay nahulog sa kanal. akin.
6. Isa pang sangkap na nagbibigay buhay at kulay sa pakikipagtalastasan ay ang 9. Kung ikaw ay gagamit ng paghihimig (onomatopoeia) sa pahayag na ito, alin
paggamit ng tanong retorikal. Magagamit ito sa pagsisimula at pagwawakas sa mga sumusunod na tunog o himig ng mga salita ang angkop na piliin mo?
ng isang komposisyon. Kung ang paksa ng iyong komposisyon ay tungkol sa
tao, alin sa mga sumusunod na pahayag ang di-angkop gamitin? _____________________ ang hanging dumating dala ng malakas na bagyo.
,A Ang hayop bay may talinong katulad ng tao? A. Dumadagundong
B. May lalaki kayang makatatagal na makisamasa isangbabaeng B. Kumakalabog
bungangera, tamad, bulagsak sa kabuhayan, at mabagsik sa anak? C. Rumaragasa
C. Ang tao bang hindi marunong lumingon sa pinanggalingan ay inaasahan D. Umuugong
mong magtagumpay?
D. Ang isa kayang matalinong propesyunal ay agad maniniwala sa mga

JDr. A rsenin Em perad o

PtfU LET Review er t83
i m>)f
Filipino - M asining na Pagpapahayag G eneral E d u catio n

Para sa Item 1 0 - 11v 12. A. 'Kurrrakain na ang mga panauhin. .

10. Tayong mga tao ay sadyang mausisa. Habang hindi tayo nasisiyahan sa mga Ep Malakas lumamon ang baboy niya.
sagot sa ating katanungan, mahalaga ang paglalahad. Sa pang-araw-araw C{ Lumalamoh na ang mga panauhin.
na pakikipag-usap ang karaniwang salitang ating ginagamit ay nabibigyan ng D. Lahat tama ang sagot.
napakaraming kahulugan. 13. A. Magandang malasin ang Lawa ng Laguna.
. B. Maluwang ang bibig ng mama. . .
Piliin ang taglay na kahulugan na iba kaysa karaniwang pakahulugan sa mga C. May pilat sa mukhasi Annie.
sumusunod na pahayag. D' May pilat sa pagmumukha si Annie.
Para sa Item 14 - 1 5
Mataas ang kanilang paminggalan. Naisipan ng inyong guro na magpabasa ng mga talata upang pagalawin ang inyong
guniguni nang makita ang isang larawang buhay na buhay sa pamamagitan ng
A. ambisyoso isang masining na paglalarawan. Basahing mabuti.
Br maramot 14.
"C. kuripot
Nilanghap niya ang hangin. Inihatid sa kanya ang bango ng sari-saring bulaklak
D. kumain diii
sa halamanan. Kilalang-kilala niya ang mabagsik na halimuyak ng dama de
11 .____________________________________________________________________
noche. Nalanghap ang matamis na amoy ng sampaguita, at ang mailap at
Malakas ang hangin ni Emi, siya na naman ang bida. mahinhing bango ng mga rosas. Manaka-naka ay sumasalit ang masansang na
amoy ng bulaklak ng sanggumay. Hindi kataka-taka, kahit gabi ay naglalamay
A, matalino
ang mga kulisap sa pagsimsim ng mga bulaklak.
'B. mayabang
cT madaldal
D. matapang Sa halimbawang babasahin binibigyang-pokus ang kabuuang detalye ng mga
Para sa Item 1 2 - 1 3 bagay-bagay na nakatatawag-pansin s a _________ _ ng bumabasa.
Kailangang maging maingat sa pagpili ng mga salitang gagamitin sa A. paningin
pagpapahayag. May mga salita tayo na kung titingnan ay tila wasto sa kahulugan B. pandinig
subalit maituturing na mali kayat hindi matatanggap at lumalabag sa tuntunin ng G panlasa
mabuting pagpapahayag. . D. pang-amoy

Piliin sa mga sumusunod na pahayag ang di-wasto ang pagkapili at di-angkop

ang mga salitang ginamit kayat di-dapat maisama sa pangkat.

IMfSNU LET Reviewer D r. Arsenin R . Em perado *

General Education Filipino - M asining na P a g p a p a h a y a g

" 15. Alin sa mga sumusunod na idyomatikong pahayag ang ang'kop gamitin upang
ilarawan ang tauhan sa kuwento?
Napuno ang silid ng malam'bing na tugtugin. Nauna ang pasakalye sa piyano A; sanga-sangang dila
at sinundan ng nanunuot sa damdaming hilis ng mga biyulin, kasabay ang B. mahaba ang dila
taginting ng klarinete.-trumpeta, at iba pang instrumentong hinihipan. Sa C. di-mahapayang gatang
simulay banayad ang kumpas na para kang dinuduyan. Subalit untt-unting D. makapal ang mukha
bumibilis hanggang sa ang iyong mga paa ay hikayatin sa pagsayaw. 17. Pinagsalaysay ka sa harap ng klase. Isinaalang-alang mo ang wika, nilalaman
at pormat. Ganito mo sinimulan ang iyong salaysay.______________ ___
Sa sumunod na babasahin nakatawag pansin naman s a ____ _____________ng
Ang buhay ay parang gulong, minsan nasa ibabaw ka;
bumabasa ang kabuuang detalye kaugnay ng bagay na inilarawan.
minsan namay nasailalim ka.
A. paningin
B. pandinig Anong uri ng panimula ito?
C. panlasa A. Pagsisimula sa usapan
D. pang-amoy B. Pagsisimula sa tunggalian
16. Gamit na gamit ang masining na paglalarawan sa akdang malikhain tulad _C. Pagsisimula sa isang katotohanan na tinataiiggap ng lahat
ng maikling kuwento.Basahin at suriin kung paano inilalarawan ang isang D. Pagsisimula sa paglalarawan
tauhan sa akda. 18. Nabasa mo ito mula sa akda ng isang batikang manunulat. Inilarawan niya
ang pangunahing tauhan sa kuwento.
Kapag sa isang umpukan ng mga kababaihan sa Sapang Nabao, halimbawa'y
Siya si Uyukan. Isa siyang batang Negrito. Maliit lamang siya. Tatlong
sa isang ponda o sa isang sesyon ng kutuhan ng magkakalapit-bahay, ay
talampakan at walong dali lamang ang taas. Nakabahag. Kulot na kulot ang
nakarinig ka ng isang kaylakas at pandalas ng pagsasalita, tiyak na si Nana
kanyang buhok.
Goring na Bunganga iyon. Kung ibig mong ang isang balita ay kumalat na tila
Mula sa: Labuyo
siga sa kugunan, kay Nana Goring na Bunganga mo iyon sabihin.
ni: Reynaldo A. Duque

Ang Maghangad ng Kagitna,

A.P. Tumangan Anong karaniwang pamaraan ng paglalarawan sa pangunahing tauhan ang
Tagumpay, Setyembre 13,1972 ginamit ng may-akda?
A. Mga bahagi ng katawan ng tauhan
B. Kaisipang naghahari sa kanya'
C. Mga Ikinikilos niya sa harap ng mga pangyayari
D. Damdaming kanyang ginigising^a mga kasamang tauhan

D r. A rsen ia R . E m p crad o PNU LET Review er jm

Filipino - M asining na Pagpapahayag G eneral E d u catio n

19. Dahil sa kahirapang nararanasan ng mga mamamayan lalo sa panig ng mga Sa mabisang pagpapahayag, isa sa saklaw ng gramar'o balarila ay ang
magulang, sumasang-ayon sila sa argumentong ito: tamang pagkakaugnay ng mga salita upang makabuo ng malinaw na
' kaisipang panggramatika.
Dapat makialam ang CHED sa taun-taong pagtaas ng tuition fee.
Para sa Item 22 - 23.
Sa pagsusuri sa pangungusap na ito, anong anyo ng pagpapahayag ang Piliin ang pangungusap na may pinakawastong pagkakaugnayan o pagkakasunud-
dapat isaalang-alang upang makabuo ng isang lohikal at makabuluhang sunod ng mga salita.
-..A. pangangatuwiran 22. A. Dala siya ng isang pumpon ng bulaklak nang magbalik.
8. paglalarawan B. Nagbalik ang isang pumpon ng bulaklak na dala niya.
C. pagsasalaysay C. Nagbalik siya dala ang isang pumpon ng bulaklak.
D. paglalahad D. Nagbalik na dala siya ng isang pumpon ng bulaklak.
20. Sa maikling kuwento o salaysay karaniwang limitado ang panahon ng 23. A. Naramdaman ang aking matinding pamamanhid sa binti ko.
manunulat di-tulad sa nobela. Kailangang maipakita niya ang patuloy na B. Sa aking binti ko naramdaman ang matinding pamamanhid.
pag-unlad ng mga pangyayari sa akda sa pamamagitan ng pagpapahiwatig C." Matinding pamamanhid ko sa binti ang aking naramdaman.
ng kilos o galaw sa bawat salita, usapan at paglalarawang gagamitin. D. Naramdaman ko sa aking binti ang matinding pamamanhid.
Para sa Item 24 - 25.
Alin sa mga sumusunod na pandiwa ang hindi nagsasaad ng tiyak na kilos? Isa sa mga kailanganin ng isang mabuting pagsulat ay pagbabalangkas. Gabay
A. lumundag- ito sa pagdebelop ng kaisipan. Suriin ang mga hulwarang balangkas sa ibaba.
B. tumalon 24.
C. sumugod I. Ang kabataan ay may malaking maitutulong sa bayan.
J3. lumakad A. Dapat silang sumali sa mga proyekto ng pamahalaan.
21. Alin sa mga sumusunod na pahayag ang gumamit ng literal na kahulugan ng B. Dapat nilang iwasan ang mga bisyo.
mga salita? C. Dapat nilang sundin ang mga payo ng mga nakatatanda.
A. Mabigat ang kanyang bibig, kaya huwag mo siyang asahang bumati sa D. Dapat silang magkaroon ng ambisyon sa buhay.
B . ' Nagalit ang ama sa anakna sinungaling. . Ang halimbawang balangkas ay mauuri-na__________ .
C. Tunay na magaan ang kanyang katawan sapagkat buong araw na- siya'y A. paparirala
gumagawa. ^ papangungusap
p. Sumunod siya sa utos, ngunit isang bakol ang mukha. C. patalata '
D. papaksa '

186 PNU LET Reviewer D r. A rsenia R . Em perado

General Education

A. Katuturan nito
B. Mga pinagmumulan ng polyusyon -
C. Mga pook na may polyusyon .
D. Polyusyon, kaaway ng tao

Ang hulwarang balangkas na nasa unahan ay makatutulong upang maging

malinaw ang patutunguhan ng komposisyon. Halimbawa naman ito ng
balangkas n a_______________ .
.A. papaksa
B. patalata
C. paparirala
D. papangungusap

D r. A rsen ia R . E m p erad o
M ath em atics - Fundam en tals o f M athem atics__________________ G en eral E d u ca tio n
............ jl


of Mathematics The Number System

Prepared by:
A tty. A nton io V. Ferrer

Counting numbers - numbers that we use in counting; also called natural

numbers. Using the roster method, N = [1 ,2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ..]

Whole numbers - union of the number zero and the set of counting numbers.
Again using the roster method, W ={0,1; 2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,...}

Integers - the union of the set of counting numbers, their negatives, and zero.
Using the roster method, l = {... -2, - 1 ,0 ,1 ,2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ..}

Operations on integers

I. Addition
Like signs - add the absolute values, and prefix the negative sign if the
addends are negative . ,

IpNU LET Reviewer Acty. A n to n io V. Ferrer

G eneral E d u catio n
M athem atics - Fundam entals o f Mathematics

Unlike signs - get the absolute values of the numbers and subtract the
6:. Divisible by 2 and 3. '
smaller absolute value from the other and prefix the negative Sign if the
negative addend has the largef absolute value
7: Difference obtained after subtracting twice the last digit from the number
eg. -4 + (-6) = -10
formed by the remaining digits is divisible by 7.
-2 + 7 = 7 - 2 = 5
e.g. 364-
3 + (-9) = -T9- 3 ) = -6
8: Last three digits form a number that is divisible by 8,
e.g. 1024
II. Subtraction - If the minuend and subtrahend are both positive and the minuend
9: Sum of the digital root is divisible by 9
is greater than the subtrahend, proceed to subtract forthwith. Otherwise,
e.g. 423
change the sign of the supposed subtrahend and proceed as in addition.
10: Last digit is 0
eg. 8 -3 = 5
e.g. 3540
4 - 5 = 4 + -(5) = -1
11: Difference between the sum of the 1s t , 3rd, 5th,... digits, and the sum of the
of the 2nd, 4th, 6th,... digits is divisible by 11.
III. Multiplication (Division) - to multiply (or divide) two integers with
e.g. 90816
Like signs - get the product (or quotient) of their absolute values
12: Divisible by both 3 and 4.
Unlike signs - get the negative of the product (or quotient) of their absolute
e.g. 4128.
13: The sum of four times the last digit and the number formed by the remaining
eg. -5 x -4 = 20
digits is divisible by 13
- 3 x (2) = -6
e.g. 182 is divisible by 13 since 4 times 2 is 8, and 18
12 -r- (-3) = -4
+ 8 = 26 which is divisible by 13.
Divisibility Rules
Divisibility rules for two or more relatively prime numbers (GCF is 1) may be
combined to serve as a divisibility rule for their product.
2: Number ends with 0 ,2 ,4 ,6 or 8, meaning the number is even
e.g. The rules for 3, 4, and 13 may be combined to
e.g. 512
serve as the rule for their product - 156 since 3,4,
3: Sum of the digits (digital root) is divisible by 3.
and 13 are relatively prime.
e.g. 216
4: Last two digits form a number that is divisible by 4.
Prime and Composite Numbers
e.g.. 1012
5: Last digit is 0 or 5.
Prime - counting number that has exactly two factors
e.g. 340
. e.g. 2 ,3 ,5 ,7 ,1 1 ,1 3 ,1 7 ,1 9 ,...

Act\-. A n co n io V. F erre r
PNU LET Review er i m
M ath em atics - Fun dam entals o f M athem atics G eneral E d u ca tio n

Composite - counting number that has more than two factors Greatest Common Factor (GCF) - largest whole number divisor of the given
e.g. 4 ,6 ,8 ,9 ,1 0 ,1 2 ,1 4 ,1 5 ,... numbers. The GCF of two numbers, say a and b, is denoted by (a,t).
e.g. The GCF of 8 and 28 is 4
'Note that 1 is neither prime nor composite and that 2 is the only even prime.
Methods of finding the GCF
Prime Factorization
- refers to both the process as well as to the result of the process of expressing Intersection of Sets Method - for each of the given numbers, list their factors
a counting number as the product of its prime factors from least to greatest and pick out the greatest factor that is common to all lists,
- if the counting number is already prime, its prime factorization is the number e.g. Find (8,28)
e.g 126: 2 x 3 2 x 7 8: {1 ,2 ,4 ,8 }
28: {1 ,2 ,4 ,7 ,1 4 ,2 8 },
Methods of getting the prime factorization of numbers
The GCF is thus 4.
Repeated division by primes
Prime factorization - write the prime factorization for each of the given numbers
e.g. so that common, and only common, prime factors are in the same column. The
126 GCF is the product of the lowest powers occurring in columns common to all prime
_63_ factorizations
21 e.g. Find (12,15,90)
12: 22 x 3
Thus, the prime factorization for 126 is 2 x 32 x 7. 15: 3 x 5
90: 2 x 32 x 5
Factor Tree 126 3 = 3(GCF) -
e.g. Again using 126:. / \ '
2 63 Euclidean Algorithm (may be used if we are looking for the GCF of only two numbers).'
The procedure may be best understood through an illustration,
Thus, again, the prime factorization 9 e.g. For 24 and 28
for 126 is 2x -32x7. / \

|PNU LET Reviewer Aety. A n to n io V. Ferrer

G eneral Education
M athem atics - Fundam entals o f M athem atics

1. Divide the larger number by the other. ' 28 24 = 1, with

e.g. Again, for 12,15 and 30, we have
a remainder of 4.
2. If there is a remainder, divide 24 4 = 6,
12: 22 x 3
the last divisor by this remainder. . with no remainder.
15: 3x5
Repeat this step until no remainder is left.
30: 2 x 3x5
3. The GCF is the last divisor. The GCF is thus 4.
22 x 3 x 5 = 60 (LCM)

Least Common Multiple (LCM) of two or more counting numbers - the smallest
Euclidean Algorithm - the LCM of two numbers may be obtained by dividing their,
non-zero number that is a multiple of the given numbers. The LCM of two number,
product by their GCF. In symbols,
say a and b, is denoted by [a, b].
e.g. The LCM of 5, 6 and 8 is 120 because it is the
t A/ (a* b>
smallest non-zero number that is a multiple of 5,6 ( a bI = fa b )
and 8.

e.g. Find the LCM of 12 and 15.

Methods of finding the LCM

[12,15]=(12x15)/((12,15) )=180/3=60
Intersection of Sets Method - for each of the given numbers, list their multiples
from least to greatest/and pick out the smallest non-zero multiple that is common
Repeated Division - The task is to divide the two numbers by a common prime
to all lists.
factor and dividing the resulting quotients also by a common prime factor. This step
e.g. Find [12,15,30]
is repeated until the resulting quotients are already relatively prime (GCF=1). The
LCM is product of the prime divisors and the relatively prime quotients. This may
12: {0,12, 2 4 ,3 6 ,4 8 ,6 0 ,7 2 ,8 4 ,9 6 ,1 0 8 ,1 2 0 ,...)
better understood through an illustration
15: {0 ,1 5 ,3 0 ,4 5 ,6 0 ,7 5 ,9 0 ,1 0 5 ,1 2 0 ,1 3 5 ,...}
e.g. 12 and'30
30: {0 ,3 0 ,6 0 ,9 0 ,1 2 0 ,1 5 0 ,...]

2 12 30
Prime Factorization - write the prime factorization for each of the given numbers
3 6 15
so that common, and only common, prime factors are in the same column. The
2 5-
LCM is the product of the highest powers occurring in a column of any of the prime
factorizations. *
The LCM is therefore 60.

A tty. A n to n io V. Ferrer
PNU LET Reviewer 191
M ath em atics - Fundam entals o f M athem atics G e n eral E d u catio n

Fractions 2. Division - multiply the supposed dividend by the reciprocal of the supposed
Meanings eg- 4^ 3 _ 4 7 _ 28
a. part of a whole or group
. 5 ^ 7 ~ 5 X 3 - 15
b. indicated division
c. ratio 3. Addition (Subtraction)
a. Similar Fractions - add (subtract) the numerators and copy the
Kinds of Fractions common denominator
e -9- 3_ 2 _ 5
As to relation between the numerator and the denominator U + IT- n
a. Proper - the numerator is less than the denominator, e.g. 3/4
b. Improper - the numerator is equal to or greater than the denominator/e.g. b. Dissimilar Fractions - use a common denominator (preferably the
5/3 least) to make the addends (minuend and subtrahend) similar and do
As to relation of the denominators of two or more fractions as in the preceding rule.
a. Similar - the denominators are equal, e. g. 2/5 and 4/5 e-g- l 2_ 7 10 _ 17
b. Dissimilar - the denominators are not equal, e.g. 3/7 and 4/9
5 + 7 = 35 + 35 = 35

Other classes
a. Equivalent - fractions having the same value e.g. 3/7 and 9/21 Simplifying Fractions
b. Mixed - composed of a whole number and a proper fraction (e.g. 5 'A )
A fraction is in simplest form if the numerator and the denominator are relatively
Rules involving Zero prime (their GCF is 1). Thus, to simplify fractions, express both the numerator
a. Zero numerator and non-zero denominator - the value is zero and the denominator as products of a number and their GCF. The fraction is then
b. Zero denominator - no value, undefined decomposed into two fractions one of which has the GCF both asits numerator and
c. Zero value - the numerator is zero its denominator. This fraction reduces to 1. The other fractionthusisthedesired
simplest form. -
Operations on Fractions e.g Simplify
1. Multiplication - multiply numerator by numerator and denominator by
denominator to get the numerator and denominator respectively of the product 16 4x 4 4 4 4
e-9- .3 . 28- 4 x 7 _ 4 X 7~7

5 * 4 20 .

192 PNU LET Reviewer Acty. A n to n io V. Ferrer

G eneral E du cation
M athem atics - Fundam entals o f Mathematics

jOrdering Fractions -
Operations on decimals

Two fractions are equivalent if their cross products are equal. Otherwise, that fraction Addition (Subtraction)
the numerator of which was used to. get the greater of the two cross products is
the larger fraction.
Addition of decimals is facilitated by writing them in a column so that their decimal
e.g. = points are aligned. Thus aligned, digits with the same place vgfues would be in the
- : 4 2 same cofumn, and the addends (or the minuend and the subtrahend) are added (or
subtracted) as if they were whole numbers, the decimal point in the sum (difference)
Since the two cross products 3(20) and 4(15) are both 60 and therefore equal, the in the same position as the addends (minuend and subtrahend).
two fractions are equivalent.
On the other hand, for the two fractions below, the left cross product is 7(8) or 56
while the right cross-product is 66. Thus, the fraction on the right is greater, Multiply the numbers as if they were whole and so place the decimal point in the
e.g. result as to have as many decimal places in it as there are in the factors combined.
7 3
22 < H
e.g. To multiply
21.4 x 0.32, we write
21 4x32 = 6848

Since there are a total of 3 decimal places in the factors,

The place value chart we place the decimal point between 6 and 8 to have
also 3 decimal places in the result. Thus, 21.4 x 0.32 =


To divide a,
100000 10000 1000 100 10 1 . 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.0001 0.00001
a. decimal by a whole number, do as intJividing whole numbers but writing the
decimal point directly above that of the dividend
b. number by a decimal, multiply both dividend and divisor by that power of ten
such that the divisor becomes the least whole number, and then proceed as in
(a) above!

Arcy. A n to n io V . Ferrer
PNU LET Reviewer 193
M athem atics - Fundam entals o f M athem atics G eneral Education

* Conversion * * * 2. Multiply the number by such power of J 0 as would move trie repeating
. portion next to the decimal point. . . -
1. Fractions to Decimals 10x=1.6~
Divide the numerator by the denominator .3. Subtract the result of step 2 from that of step 1.
e.g. 5/8 = 0.625 90*=15
2. Decimals to Percents . - 4. Simplify - -
Multiply by 100%. The same result may be had by moving the decimal point 15 1
two places to the right and prefixing the % sign. X 90 6
e.g. 0.625 = 0 .6 2 5 x 1 0 0 % Ratio and Proportion
= 62.5%
3. Percents to Decimals Ratio - comparison of two numbers a and b, where b * 0, and expressed as a to
Divide by 100%. The same result may be had by removing the % sign and b, or a:b, or a/b.
moving the decimal point two places to the left.
e.g. 62.5%=62.5%-f 100%=.625 Proportion - a statement of equality between two ratios
4. Decimals to Fractions
a. Terminating Decimals Given two equal ratios, one comparing a to b and another comparing c to d, the
Multiply the decimal by a fraction the numerator and denominator of which proportion may be expressed thus:
are both equal to such power of ten with as many zeroes as there are a : b :: c : d, or alternatively, a/b = c/d.
decimal places in the given decimal, and then simplify,
e.g. In either of the above forms, a and d are referred to as extremes, while b and c
1OO0 625 5 are referred to as the means.
0.625 = 0.625 x - ---- = --------
1000 1000 8
Note: If a/b = c/d, its alternation (a/c = b/d) and inversion (b/a = d/c) are both
b. Repeating Decimals true provided a, b, c, d * 0.
The procedure is outlined below together with an example to illustrate
each step. _ Finding the missing term of a proportion - As ratios may be treated as fractions,-
To convert x=0.16 and proportions as equations relating two equivalent fractions, then a missing term
1. Multiply the number by such power of 10 as would move one repeating of a proportion may be found by equating the cross products and solving for the
portion across the decimal point. unknown. Stated differently, the product of the means equals the product of the
100jc=16.6" extremes. In symbols, given the proportion a : b :: c : d ,'
ad = be.

i b Z f PNU LET Reviewer Aery. A n to n io V. Ferref

G eneral E du cation M athem atics - Fundamentals o f M athem atics

e.g. Find kin 3 ^5 :: k : 30.

Solution; ad = be then the size of the A* partition may be computed as follows:
3(30) = 5k e.g. If 24 hours is to be partitioned into 3 parts so that the parts are in the ratio
k = 18 1 : 2 : 5 , how many hours would the third part be?

Word Problems Involving

p. = - x 24
' 1+2+5
Direct Proportion - the ratios of two quantities being compared is constant.
= x 2 4 = 15

e.g. Five bananas weigh as much as 3 star apples. At this rate, how many star
apples will weigh as much as 30 bananas? Per Cent - literally meaning "per hundred, it is one way of writing fractions in
which the denominator which is required to be 100 is written as %, and read as
The ratio of the weight of bananas b ,: a, - b 2: a2 per cent.
to that of apples is 5 :3 . pn 3 75
We thus have 9 r = 75%
5aj = 3 (30)
as =18
Percentage, Base and Rate - in the statement 15 ic 30% of 50, three
quantities are involved - Percentage (P), Rate (R), and Base (B).
Inverse Proportion - the product of two quantities being compared is constant.
Percentage is that which bear to the base in the same ratio as the rate.
e.g. If 10 of a certain car model a = r*t
running for 3 hours use up 150 liters The statement 15 is 30% of 50, is telling us that 15 (the percentage) bears to
ri x t , = r2 x t2
of gas, how many of the same car 50 (the base) in the same ratio as 30% (the rate). In symbols, 15 = 30% x 50.
1 0 x 33 = r2 x 6
= l2
model running for 6 hours will use up
5 = r,
the same amount of gas? The basic formula P = R x B, has two other useful forms: R = P/B and B =
Partitive Proportion
If-a quantity q is to be partitioned into p } , p 2, p , , ..-., p n , so that, the
partitions are in the ratio a x : : a . : . . . : c in ,

Acty. A n to n io V. Ferrer
PNU-LET Reviewer 1 E B
M athem atics - Fundam entals o f M athem atics G eneral E d u catio n

ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA 5. Polynomial - an algebraic expression consisting only of non-negative

integer powers of variables, and with no variable in a denominator. Among
A. Properties of Real Numbers the examples of the algebraic expression above, only the last is not
1. Closure Property - For any real numbers a and b, a -t- b and a x b are also polynomial
real numbers 6. Term of a polynomial - a constant or a constant multiplied by non-negative
2. Commutative Property - For any real numbers a and b, a + b = b + a and integer powers of variables. A polynomial with only 1 item is monomial;
axb = bxa. polynomial with 2 is a binomial and a polynomial with 3 is a trinomial.
3. Associative Property - For any real numbers a, b, and c, e.g. -24x2 f 7* is a monomial
(a + b) + c = a + (b + c) and (a x b) x c = a x (b x c) 2x2 - 3y + xy3 is a trinomial
4. Existence of Identity Elements - For any real number a, thereexist real 7. Numerical Coefficient - that constant that is multiplied by the non-negative
numbers 0 and 1, such that a + 0 = a and a x 1 = a. powers of variables in a term.
5. Existence of Inverses - For any real number a, there exists a - a such that 8. Literal Coefficient - the non-negative powers of variables in a term
a + -a = 0, and a 1/a such that a x 1/a = 1. e.g. In - 2x3y2, the numeral coefficient is -2, while the literal coefficient is
6. Distributive Property - For any real numbers a, b and c,a(b + c)= ab + ac. xy
9.- Similar terms - terms with the same literal coefficient. If the terms as not
B. Properties of Equality similar, they are said to be dissimilar.
1. Reflexive - if a is a real number, a = a. 10. Degree of a term - sum of the exponents of all variable factors of a term
2. Symmetric - if a and b are real numbers and a = b, then b = a. 11. Degree of a polynomial - degree of that term of the polynomial with the
3. Transitive - if a, b and c are real numbers and a = b and b = c, then a = c. highest degree

C. Some Basic Terms D. Evaluating Algebraic Expressions

1. Variable - any symbol that is used to represent an element of a set. e.g. x,
y,Q. Evaluating algebraic expressions refers to the process of finding the value of the
2. Domain - the set of all elements represented by a particular variable expression upon substitution of the'given values for the respective variables,
3. Constant - a symbol with only one element in its variable, e.g. 3, -2, n e.g. Evaluate x2y3- 2y2 + 4 when x = 2 and y = -1 .
4. Algebraic expression - a constant, a variable, or any combination (2)2(-1)3-2(-1)2 + 4
of constants and variables involving indicated operations (addition, 4(-1) 2(1) + 4 .
subtraction, multiplication, division, raising to a power, or extraction of a -2
root) on them.
Equation - statement expressing in symbols the relationship of equality between
e-9- -4 2 5 x 2 -1 ,3x3*- 2xy + y l x ~ -v , J x - -L
4 v two quantities

I f c f c l pNlI LET R ev iew er A tcv. A n to n io V. F e rr e r

General Education
M athem atics - Fundartientals o f M athem atics

Linear Equations in one variable - an equation that can be written in the form
Solving Word Problems Involving Linear Equations
ax + b = 0, where a and b are constants and a * 0.
Some Pointers '
e.g. 3x -4 = 0, 4- 2x = 3x +5
1. .Read the problem carefully.
2. Determine what is to be found.
Addition and Subtraction Property of Eq. (APE, SPE)
3. Choose a variable to represent an unknown, usually that which needs to be fouod.
If a, b and c are real numbers and a = b, then
'4. Translate word phrases to algebraic expressions.
a + c = b + c,
5. Formulate the equation.
a - c = b - c.
6. Solve the equation.
7. Solve the problem.
Multiplication and Division Property of Eq.(MPE, DPE)
Exam ple!
If a, b and c are real numbers and a = b, then
Three times the sum of a number and five is 21. What is the number?
a x c = b x c,
3( x + 5) = 21
a/c = b/c, provided c * o.
3x + 15 = 21
Solution of an equation - refers to an element of the domain of the variable that
Example no. 2.
makes the equation true
Arman is Iwice as old as Andrea. Two years ago, Arman was three times as old
as Andrea. Find their ages now.
Solving Linear Equations - refers to the process of finding, through the use of
m = 2n
the properties of equality, all the solutions of the equation
m - 2 = 3(n -2)
2n - 2 = 3n - 6
Some Pointers in solving linear equations
1. Simplify each side of the equation by
a. removing grouping symbols using the distributive law
b. removing fractions by multiplying both sides of the equation by the LCD of all
Inequality - a statement that says one quantity is less than (<) or greater than (>)
another (strict inequality). In some instances, however, one quantity may be less
3. Use the APE/SPE to have all variables only on one side of the equation and the
than or equal to (s), or greater than or equal to (s) to another.
constants on the other
e^g. 3 < 5 x - 2 , 4 x - 5 s x -h 15
4. Use the MPE/DPE to make the numerical coefficient of the variable equal to 1.

Compound Inequality - a compound statement that says one quantity is less than
(or greater than) another but is greater than (or less' than) a third. , .
e.g. -4 < 2x-3 9 . . .

Arty. A n to n io V. Ferrer
PNU LET Reviewer. E H
M athem atics - Fundam entals o f M athem atics General Education

Properties oflnequality
1. Trichotomy-If a and bare real numbers, then a <b, a = b, o r a > b .
2. .Transitive - If a < b and b < c, then a < c.
. If a > b and b > c, th en a> c.
3. Addition Property - If a, b and c are real numbers and a < b.'then a + c < b + c
If a, b and c are real numbers and a > b, then a 1. How many 1/16 are there in 2 5/8?
A .''42 C. 46
Solution of a Linear Inequality - an element of the domain of the variable which B. 44 D. 48
makes the inequality true 2. A blue neon light blinks every 4 seconds. A red one blinks every 5 seconds
while a green one blinks every 6 seconds. How many times will they blink
Solving a Linear Inequality - the process of finding, through the use of the together in half an hour?
properties of inequality, all the solutions of the inequality A. 1 C. 10
Note: Solving a linear inequality is similar to solving linear equations except that B. 5 ff. 30
instead of using the properties of equality, we use the properties of inequality, 3. Which of the following is divisible by 3, but not by 9?
e.g. -4 2x - 3 s 9 4 11,070 C. 45,072
-4 + 3 2x 3 + 3 9 + 3 By 40,206 D. 19,386
- 1 s 2x 12 4. the distance between two towns on a given map is 2 % cm . If Yi cm
- 1/2 s x ^ 6 represents 6 km, what is the distance between the two towns?
A_18km . C. 36 km
Word Problems Involving Linear Inequalities - the steps in solving word problems B. 33 km D. 42 km
involving linear inequalities are the same as those in solving word problems involving 5. Margo paid P400 for a blouse. If the blouse was sold at 20% discount, what
linear equations except that, again, instead of using the properties of equality, we was its original price?
use the properties of inequality. A. P80 C. P500
e.g. Anis grades in the last four tests were 8 5 ,8 9 ,9 0 and 93. What must be B. P480 D. P540
her grade in the fifth and last test to get an average of at least 90? 6. In a sequence of starts and stops, an elevator travels from the first floor to the
85+89 + 90+93 + g5 fifth floor and then to the second floor. From there, the elevator travels to the
Solution 905 5 fourth floor and then to the third floor. If the floors are 4 meters apart, how far
has the elevator traveled?
A. 24 m C. 40 m
450 s 357+g5 . B. 36 m D. 60 m .
93 sg 5

t98 P N l LET Reviewer Arty. A nconio V. Ferrer

A lathematics - Fundam entals o f M ath em atics . General Education

24. Which of the following gives the prime factorization of 54? ' '
B.; 2 x33 D. 2 3 x 3
25. A boat travels 8 kph in still water. If it can tcavel a given distance upstream in
5 hours and the same distance downstream in 3 hours, what is the rate of the .
A. 2 kph C. 6 kph
B! 5 kph D. 9 kph 1. If the sum of a certain number and 8 is divided by 5, the quotient is 5. What
26. What is the value of x - 6 if 2(x - 3) + 5 = 19? is the number?
A. -1- C. 16 A. 5 G 15
B. 4 D. 20 B. 6 D. 17
27. Apo weighs one third as much as her mother Angela. If Apo weighs 43.5 lbs., 2. The product of 0.4 x 0.04 x 0.004 is
how much does Angela weigh? A. 0.64 C. 0.0064
A. 62.5 lbs. C. 130.5 lbs. B. 0.064 D. 0.000064
B. 95.7 lbs. D. 150 lbs. 3. Jeepney fares are computed as follows: P7.50 for the first four kilometers
28. Lucille is 4 times as old as Nicole. Six years from now, she will be twice as old plus P0.50 for every additional kilometer thereafter. How much should Mikey
as Nicole. How old are they now? pay for a ride that covers 11 kilometers?
A, Lucille 12; Nicole 3 C. Lucille 3, Nicole 12 A. P10.00 C. P11.50
B. Lucille 16; Nicole 4 D. Lucille 4 Nicole 16 B. P11.00 D. P12.00
29. The sum of two numbers is 52 and their difference is 20. What is the larger 4. Which of these is greater than 1 ?
number? A. 1 / 3 -1 /4 C. 1/3 x 1/4
A. 16 C. 36 B. 1/3 + 1/4 - /. D. 1/3 4-1/4
B. 26 D. 46 5. Which is a set of equivalent fractions?
30. Two numbers are in the ratio 4:3. What are the numbers if their sum is 84? A? 2/3,4/6,8/12 C. 4/5,3/4,7/10
A, 36 and 48 * C. 24 and 63 B. 2/3,4/6,7/10 D. 3/4,7/10,4/5
B. 36 and 24 D. 12 and 36 6. Robert left 3/4 pan of cake on the table, Karen ate 2/3 of it. How much cake
was left?
A. 1/5 C. 1/3
B. 1/4 ... ' D. 1/2

200 PNU LET Review er Atcy. A ntonio V. Ferrer

General Education M athem atics - Fundam entals of M athem atics

. 7. The distance from C to D is 24 km. The distance from B to C is 2/3 of. the 13. What digit can be inserted in the blank so that the number 59___ J 72 would
distance from C to D. The .distance from A to B is 3/8 of the distance from B be divisible by 3? .
to C. What is the distance from AJo B?