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September 12, 2011

#IOTW : Idiom Of The Week #4


1. Sluggish : dari kata slug yang berarti siput. Makna : sangat lamban. Cth : She's a
sluggish worker.

2. Holy cow! Makna : astaga! Cth : Holy cow! Does he really care about what we eat?!

3. Henpecked. Makna : suami yang takut dengan istri. Cth : Who is a hen-pecked
husband?

4. Sitting duck. Makna : tidal berdaya. Cth : That sweet old lady was a sitting fuck for the
aggressive salesman.

5. Ferret. Dari hewan pengerat. Makna : mengorek. Cth : She ferreted out the truth.

6. Buy Pig in a Poke. Maknanya sama seperti 'membeli kucing dalam karung'. Cth : Is it
really a great deal or just a pig in a poke?

7. Swan song. Makna : pertunjukan terakhir karir seseorang. Cth : She is ready for her
swan song.

8. Sheepish. Makna : tersipu-sipu. Cth : A girl seemed sheepish when she visited her
boyfriend.

9. Goatee. Makna : jenggot yang panjang. Cth : Do you know how to grow a goatee?

10. Lion's share. Makna : Porsi paling besar. Cth : The winner will get lion's share of the
contract!

September 12, 2011

#EngTips: Parafrase
Parafrase adalah cara mengungkapkan suatu konsep dengan cara yang berbeda tanpa mengubah
makna.

Ketika kita mendengarkan suatu pernyataan dan tidak yakin apakah kita mengerti pernyataan
tersebut, kita bisa tanyakan kembali maksudnya.
Ada beberapa kalimat yang dapat digunakan untuk mengklarifikasi pernyataan.

1. "Are you saying that..." Arti : Jadi kamu mengatakan bahwa...

2. "Do you mean..." Arti : Maksudmu...

3. "What are you getting at?" Arti : Apa maksudmu?

4. "If I understand you correctly, you are saying..." Arti : Jika aku benar-benar paham, kamu
mengatakan bahwa...

5. "So you are saying... Right?" Arti : Jadi kamu mengatakan bahwa... Ya kan?

6. "Did I get that right?" Arti : Benar tidak?

#GrammarTrivia: sometimes VS sometime

DYK? "sometimes" = kadang-kadang. "sometime" = kapan-kapan. e.g. "I sometimes cook.";


"Why don't you visit us sometime?

September 11, 2011

#EngClass: English verb tenses


English verb tenses (tunggal: tense; jamak: tenses) adalah kategori penggunaan kata kerja
berdasarkan waktu. Kata kunci: verb, time.

Wajib diketahui terlebih dahulu bahwa dalam tenses, waktu dibedakan menjadi 3: past (lampau),
present (kini), future (masa depan). Selain 3 perbedaan waktu, secara ringkas kategori tenses
dibedakan ke dalam 4 kategori: simple, continuous, perfect, perfect continuous. Harap dicatat,
istilah "continuous" memiliki arti yang sama dengan "progressive". Yang pertama lebih ke
British English, yang ke dua cenderung ke American English.

Jadi... Jika 3 perbedaan waktu tadi dikalikan dengan 4 kategori tenses tadi, maka berapa
hasilnya? Benar! Ada 12 kategori verb tenses. Maka 12 verb tenses adalah perpaduan antara
"past, present, future" dan "simple, continuous, perfect, perfect continuous". 12 verb tenses ini
belum termasuk 4 kategori lain, yaitu: conditional, conditional continuous, conditional perfect,
dan future be going to. Sekarang kita tidak akan membahas 4 kategori lain tadi, yang jika
ditambahkan 12 kategori yang disebut sebelumnya akan berjumlah 16 verb tenses.

Kembali ke 12 verb tenses. Untuk memudahkan, mari mengkategorikannya berdasarkan 4


kategori tenses tadi, sebagai berikut...
SIMPLE: 1) present simple 2) past simple 3) future simple

CONTINUOUS: 4) present continuous 5) past continuous 6) future continuous

PERFECT: 7) present perfect 8) past perfect 9) future perfect

PERFECT CONTINUOUS: 10) present perfect continuous 11) past perfect continuous 12) future
perfect continuous

Beberapa catatan penting: A) Ciri utama kategori CONTINUOUS tenses adalah penggunaan
verb-ing/ present participle. B) Ciri utama kategori PERFECT tenses adalah penggunaan
auxiliary/ kata bantu "have/ has/ had" + verb 3/ past participle. C) Ciri utama kategori PERFECT
CONTINUOUS tenses adalah penggunaan auxiliary "have/ has/ had" + been + verb-ing/ present
participle.

Berikut penjelasan sederhana kapan tiap tense digunakan:

1) present simple: untuk rutinitas, fakta alam/ dll yang tidak terpengaruh waktu. Contoh: "I go to
work every day."; "She always reads books in her free time."; "The sun rises in the East."

2) past simple: hal yang terjadi di satu waktu di masa lampau (dengan keterangan waktu yang
jelas). Dimulai dan selesai di masa lampau. Contoh: "I went to Bogor yesterday."; "John never
studied English before."; "They watched a movie last night."

3) future simple: hal yang akan terjadi di satu waktu di masa depan. Contoh: "I will go to Bogor
tomorrow."; "John will study English next month."; "They will watch a movie tonight."

4) present continuous: hal yang sedang berlangsung pada saat dibicarakan. Dimulai di masa
lampau dan mungkin akan berlanjut di masa depan. Contoh: "I am working at the office right
now."; "He is studying English at the moment."; "They are watching a movie now."

5) past continuous: hal yang sedang berlangsung pada satu waktu di masa lampau. Contoh
situasi: film yang dimulai pk 14.00 dan selesai pk 15.00 tadi siang. Contoh kalimat: "I was
working at the office when he called."; "They were watching a movie when it rained."

6) future continuous: hal yang sedang berlangsung pada satu waktu di masa depan. Contoh: film
yang diputar pk 21.00 - 22.00 nanti malam. Contoh: "I will be working at the office when you
call."; "They will be watching a movie when it rains."

7) present perfect: hal yang telah terjadi di masa lampau, tapi keterangan waktu tidak disebutkan/
tidak penting untuk diketahui. Contoh: "I have worked for 8 hours."; "John has studied English
since last month."; "They have watched the movie."

8) past perfect: hal yang telah selesai dilakukan sebelum hal lain terjadi di masa lampau. Contoh
situasi: Saya sudah selesai bekerja sebelum kamu datang tadi. Contoh: "I had finished working
when you called."; "They had watched the movie when they read the review."
9) future perfect: hal yang telah selesai dilakukan sebelum hal lain terjadi di masa depan. Contoh
situasi: Saya akan telah selesai bekerja sebelum kamu datang nanti. Contoh: "I will have finished
working when you call."; "They will have watched the movie when they read the review."

10) present perfect continuous: hal yang telah berlangsung. Dimulai di masa lampau, terjadi
hingga kini/ sekarang. Contoh: "I have been working for 8 hours."; "John has been studying
English since last month."; "They have been watching."

11) past perfect continuous: hal yang telah berlangsung sebelum hal lain terjadi di masa lampau.
Contoh: "I had been working for 8 hours before you called."; "John had been studying English
for a month before the test."

12) future perfect continuous: hal yang telah berlangsung sebelum hal lain terjadi di masa depan.
12) contoh: "I will have been working for 8 hours by the time you call me."; "They will have
been watching by the time you come."

September 11, 2011

#EngTrivia: coin, bill, note


DYK? Di Amerika Serikat dan Inggris, uang koin disebut "coin". Sementara itu, di Amerika
Serikat, uang kertas disebut "bill"; dan di Inggris, disebut "note".

September 11, 2011

#GrammarTrivia: due to
"due to" is used to express reason & cause. It is similar in meaning to "because of" or "owing to".

e.g. 1) Her success was due to hard work. 2) Due to bad weather, the flight is cancelled. 3) It is
expensive, due to rarity.

September 10, 2011


#GrammarTrivia: "make" VS "do"
DYK? Make and do can be confused in English because their meanings are so
similar.

Since the difference between make and do is tested on the TOEFL, it is good to learn
how to distinguish them.

Make has the idea of creating or constructing. Do often has the idea of completing or
performing.

Sederhananya, penggunaan make biasanya mengacu pada adanya perubahan dlm


suatu proses, sedangkan do digunakan jika tidak ada perubahan.

Example for make usage: - She likes to make her own clothes. Would you like to
make a cake for dessert?

Example for do usage: - The students are doing the assignments. This morning she
did all the dishes.

September 9, 2011

#GrammarTrivia: zero plural


DYK? "zero plural" is another name of a plural form when a noun has the same exact form
between its singular and plural form.

Some examples of nouns having a "zero plural": a sheep - several sheep; a series - some series;
one Chinese - many Chinese.

September 5, 2011

#USSlang: American slang #4


All wet: completely wrong. Contoh: "Your ideas about politics are all wet."
Blown away: greatly impressed. Contoh: "I was blown away by your attitude."

Booze: alcohol. Contoh: "I need some booze tonight."

Break it up: stop it. Contoh: "Break it up or I will call your parents."

Con: deceive (menipu). Contoh: "Don't try to con me!"

Cut: dilute (melarutkan). Contoh: "Could you cut my juice with a little water? It's too sweet."

Dork: strange person. Contoh: "Oh He's such a dork"

Flaky: unreliable (tidak dapat diandalkan). Contoh: "He's too flaky to do those things."

Goofy: foolish, silly. Contoh: "She's so goofy! We couldn't stop laughing!"

Have a buzz on: slightly intoxicated. Contoh: "I had a buzz on after the third glasses of beer."

Heaved: vomited. Contoh: "I heaved on the floor last night."

Pain in the neck: annoying. Contoh: "My friend is a pain in the neck."

There are 2 kinds of success: success in the worlds eyes & success in Gods eyes.
David Archuleta

September 1, 2011

#GrammarTrivia: "can't help"


DYK? Istilah cant help digunakan jika kita tidak bisa berhenti atau mencegah diri kita
untuk melakukan sesuatu.

Example: Sorry I broke your cup I couldnt help it.

Cant help biasa diikuti dengan gerunds (V+ing) atau but + V tetapi keduanya
memiliki arti yang sama.

Example: I can't help wondering what I should do next. I can't help but wonder what I
should do next.
September 1, 2011

#EngTips: greeting people we haven't seen


for a long time
There are many ways of greeting people that we haven't seen for a long time, both
formal & informal. Here are some of the examples.

1) Formal : "What have you been up to all these years?", "I'm so happy to see you
again.", "It has been a long time."

2) Informal: "Long time no see.", "How come I never see you?", "Where have you been
hiding?", "It's been ages since we last met."

August 28, 2011

#EngProverb: English proverbs #3


"Absence makes the heart grow fonder" - When you are away from someone you love, you love
them even more.

"Beauty is in the eye of the beholder" - A person's character is more important than their
appearance.

"Losers weepers, finders keepers" - If you lose something you weep, if you find something you
keep it.

"Marry in haste, repent at leisure" - If you get married too quickly, you may spend all your life
regretting it.

"The truth is in the wine" - People speak more freely under the influence of alcohol.

"To err is human, to forgive divine" - It is human nature to make mistakes, therefore one should
forgive.

"Stolen fruit is the sweetest" - What is forbidden is the most tempting.

"Put all your eggs in one basket" - Risk everything by relying on one plan.
"Loose lips sink ships" - Disclosing important information could result in large.

"If life deals you lemons, make lemonade" - You should make the best of a bad situation.

August 28, 2011

#EngClass: interjections
Interjection merupakan seruan atau kata seru di dalam Bahasa Inggris. Banyak sekali contoh
interjection misalnya: "Oh!" "Um" Ah!" Kurang lebih mirip seperti Bahasa Indonesia yang
banyak kata-kata seruannya juga.

Interjection sebenarnya berfungsi agar suatu kalimat jadi tidak kaku. Bayangkan kalau kita
berbicara dengan teman tanpa kata seruan. Rasanya datar bukan?

1) "Ah". Makna: mengungkapkan kepuasan. Ex: Ah, that feels good.

2) "Ah". Makna: terkejut. Ex: Ah! I've won!

3) "Alas". Makna: berkabung atau sedih. Ex: Alas, she's dead now.

4) "Dear". Makna: kasihan. Ex: Oh dear! Does it hurt?

5) "Dear". Makna: terkejut. Ex: Dear me! That's a surprise!

6) "Eh". Makna: meminta pengulangan. Ex: It's hot today. "Eh?" I said it's hot today.

7) "Eh". Makna: menekankan pertanyaan. Ex: What do you think of that, eh?

8) "Eh". Makna: meminta persetujuan. Ex: Let's go, eh?

9) "Er". Makna: keraguan. Ex: Monalisa is made by er Leonardo Da Vinci.

10) "Hello". Makna: terkejut. Ex: Hello! My car is gone!

11) "Hello". Makna: mengucap salam. Ex: Hello mom. How are you today?

12) "Hey". Makna: meminta perhatian. Ex: Hey! Look at that!

13) "Hey". Makna: menungkapkan rasa senang. Ex: Hey! What a good idea!

14) "Hmm". Makna: keraguan. Ex: Hmm I'm not sure about that
15) "Oh". Makna: kaget. Ex: Oh! You're here!

16) "Oh". Makna: seperti memohon. Ex: Oh, please say 'yes'!

17) "Ouch". Makna: seperti kesakitan. Ex: Ouch! That hurts!

18) "Uh". Makna: keraguan. Ex: Uh I don't know if it's true

19) "Uh-huh". Makna: menyetujui. Ex: Shall we go? "Uh-huh".

20) "Um or umm". Makna: keraguan. Ex: She likes um to dance.

21) "Well". Makna: awal sebuah ucapan. Ex: Well, what did he say?

22) "Meh". Makna: ungkapan ketidaktertarikan akan suatu hal. Ex: How was your weekened?
"Meh!" (Thanks to @kaoshitam for adding this word)

23) "Naah" or "Nah". Makna: ungkapan penolakan tentang sesuatu hal. Ex: Naah! That's not
what I try to explain. (Thanks to @kaoshitam for adding this word)

Dengan adanya interjection, sebuah percakapan di layar komputer atau handphone akan terasa
lebih akrab.

August 26, 2011

#EngTips: abbreviations used in speaking or


texting
1) gonna = is/am going to (do something), example: I'm gonna call him now.

2) wanna = want to, example: I wanna speak to you.

3) gotta = has / have got to (or have got), example: I gotta go!

4) ain't = isn't / haven't / hasn't, example: - He ain't finished yet. - I ain't seen him today.

5) ya = you, example: Do ya now what I mean?

6) lemme = let me, example: Lemme see tomorrow's a good time.

7) gimme = give me, example: Gimme your pencil


8) kinda = kind of, example: The babys kinda cute.

9) whadd'ya = what do you , example: Whadd'ya mean, you don't want to watch the
game?

10) whatcha (1) = what are you, example: Whatcha gonna do?

11) whatcha (2) = what have you, example: Whatcha got there?

12) shoulda = should have, example : You shoulda done it!

August 23, 2011

#EngClass: linking verb


Linking verb adalah kata kerja penghubung yang menghubungkan subjek dengan
pelengkap yang menerangkannya.

Linking verb juga dikenal dengan istilah copulas atau copular verb.

Linking verb menyatakan suatu keadaan,bukan suatu aksi. Oleh karena itu,linking verb
biasanya diikuti oleh adjective bukan adverb.

Linking verb terbagi dalam 2 kelompok, yaitu "verb that are ALWAYS LINKING verb" &
"verb that can be both ACTION & LINKING verbs".

Berikut ini adalah linking verb yang selalu berfungsi sebagai linking verb: segala bentuk
be (am,is,are,was,etc.), become, & seem.

Sementara itu, linking verb yang dapat berfungsi sebagai action verb & linking verb:
appear, feel, grow, look, prove, remain, smell, sound, taste, & turn.

Formula: subject + linking verb + information about the subject. E.g.: 1) I am happy. 2)
She looks nice. 3) The soup smells good.

Lalu, bagaimana kita bisa mengetahui kapan suatu verb pada kalimat tertentu berfungsi
sebagai linking verb atau action verb?

Jika kita bisa mengganti verb tersebut dengan is, am, are dan artinya masih terdengar
masuk akal, maka ia adalah linking verb.
Jika setelah diganti, arti dari kalimat tersebut tidak terdengar masuk akal, maka ia
berfungsi sebagai action verb.

Contoh:My dog Oreo felt the wet grass beneath her paws. Oreo is the wet grass? No.
Felt di sini berfungsi sebagai action verb.

The chicken mushroom pizza smells heavenly. The pizza is heavenly? Yes,definitely!
Smell berfungsi sebagai linking verb.

August 21, 2011

#GrammarTrivia: "How do you do?" vs


"How are you?"
DYK? Apa perbedaan antara "How do you do?" dan "How are you?"?

How do you do? is not a question. It is another very formal way of saying "Hello.". It is
also very British.

We only really use How do you do? the first time we meet someone.

The correct response of How do you do? are "Pleased to meet you." or "How do you
do." or just "Hello."

What about "How are you?"?

How are you? is a question, but the person asking it does not really want to know the
truth about your condition.

A polite response of How are you? are "I'm fine, thanks. And you?"

August 21, 2011

#EngTrivia: weird English words


We know that English is a wonderful language. However, there are some weird English words
that come from many other languages.

Have you ever heard of 'erinaceous'? It means like a hedgehog.

Another word is 'floccinaucinihilipilification'. It means estimation that something is valueless.

How about 'selcouth'? It means unfamiliar, rare, strange, wonderful. Example: The List Universe
is such a selcouth website!

We all know that the day before yesterday is 'kemarin lusa' in Indonesian. There is also one word
for this sentence in English. It is 'nudiustertian'.

There's also 'mungo'. Mungo is a dumpster diver - one who extracts valuable things from trash.

And last but not least, you can call a weak or foolish person 'pronk'.

August 21, 2011

#EngTips: the determiners = the, a, an


What are determiners actually? Those are words placed in front of a noun to make it clear what
the noun refers to. There are several classes of determiners. For today's lesson, we will discuss
about definite and indefinite articles: 'the', 'a', and 'an'.

Let's start with the definite article: 'the'. 'The' can be used in many ways.

1) To refer to something which has already been mentioned. Example: I just bought an umbrella.
-- Then you forgot and ask to your friend: Where is the umbrella?

2) When both the speaker & listener know what is being talked about. Example: "Where is the
bathroom?" "It's on the first floor."

3) In sentences or clauses where we define or identify a particular person or object. Example: My


house is the one with a red door.

4) To refer to objects we regard as unique. Example: the sun, the moon, the world.

5) Before superlatives and ordinal numbers. Example: the first page, the last chapter.

6) With adjectives, to refer to a whole group of people. Example: the Indonesian.


7) With names of geographical areas and oceans. Example: the Caribbean, the Sahara.

8) With decades, or groups of years. Example: She grew up in the eighties.

How about the indefinite articles: 'a/ an'? You can use 'a' with nouns starting with a consonant
and use 'an' with nouns starting with a vowel.

Example: a boy, an apple, a surgery, an officer.

However, there are some exceptions. You use 'an' before an 'h' mute : an hour, an honour. And
you use 'a' before 'u' and 'eu' when they sound like 'you' : a european, a university, a unit.

You can use the indefinite article in many ways too.

1) To refer to something for the first time. Ex: I've finally got a great job.

2) To refer to a particular member of a group or class. Ex: Mary is a doctor. She's such a
beautiful girl.

Don't forget that there are some exceptions in using the definite article. There is no article for
following situation.

1) Names of countries (if singular). Ex : He's just returned from Indonesia.

2) Names of languages. Ex: Chinese is a pretty difficult language.

3) names of meals. Ex: Dinner is in the evening.

4) People's names (if singular). Ex: Andrew is my uncle. We're having lunch with' the' Morgans
tomorrow.

5) Titles and names. Ex: President Obama is going to Jakarta. 'The' Pope.

6) After the 's possessive case. Ex: His sister's bag.

7) Professions. Ex: He'll probably go into medicine.

8) Names of shops. Ex: I'll get the card at Century.

9) Years. Ex: Do you remember 1998?

10) Uncountable nouns. Ex: War is destructive.

11) Names of individual mountains, lakes, and islands. Ex: Have you visited Lake Toba?

12) Most names of towns, streets, stations, and airports. Ex: She lives in Florence.
13) Some fixed expressions. Ex: by car, by train, on holiday, at work, in bed, etc.

August 16, 2011

#EngTrivia: English fun facts


'Rhythm' is the longest English word without a vowel.

The word 'queue' is the only word in English language that is still pronounced the same way when the last 4 letters
are removed.

There are only 4 English words in common use ending in "-dous": hazardous, horrendous, stupendous, and
tremendous.

'Underground' is the only word in the English language that begins and ends with the letters 'und'.

Only two English words in current use end in '-gry'. They are 'angry' and 'hungry'.

Of all the words in the English language, the word 'set' has the most definitions.

There are more than 125 English dialects worldwide: each dialect uses English in its own way, from pronunciation to
construction.

August 14, 2011

#EngClass: nonprogressive VS progressive


verbs
What is a "nonprogressive verb"? Sebelumnya mari kita bedakan verb (kata kerja) ke dalam 2
kelompok: nonprogressive dan progressive.

nonprogressive = verb yang tidak bisa digunakan dalam bentuk progressive (bentuk -ing).
progressive = verb yang bisa digunakan dalam progressive (bentuk -ing).

Mengapa demikian? Karena nonprogressive = menyatakan "existing state" (keadaan yang ada)
sementara progressive = menyatakan "activity" (kegiatan).

Berikut contoh: nonprogressive = "I love you." (love = a state); progressive = "She is watching a
movie." (watching = an activity)
Ingat, yang dimaksud dengan "state" = kondisi yang ada dan tidak menjelaskan aktivitas yang
sedang berlangsung.

Berikut 5 kategori nonprogressive verbs yang umum digunakan:

1) mental state (keadaan mental): know, realize, understand, believe, think, feel, suppose,
imagine, doubt, recognize, remember, forget, want, need, prefer, mean, etc.

2) emotional state (keadaan emosional): love, like, appreciate, hate, dislike, fear, envy, mind,
care, etc.

3) possession (kepemilikan): possess, have, own, belong.

4) sense perceptions (persepsi indera): taste, smell, hear, feel, see.

5) other existing states (jenis keadaan yang lain): seem, look, appear, cost, owe, weigh, be, exist,
consist of, contain, include.

Selain nonprogressive verbs yang sudah pasti tadi, ada beberapa verb yang bisa digunakan
sebagai nonprogressive maupun progressive, tetapi dengan arti yang berbeda.

Contoh dari beberapa verb itu adalah: think, have, taste, smell, feel, see, look, appear, weigh, be.
Mari kita lihat perbedaannya dalam contoh:

a) "I think grammar is easy." (think = a state = nonprogressive)

b) "I'm thinking about this lesson." (thinking = an activity = progressive)

August 13, 2011

#EngGame: solve these riddles #2


1) It's the beginning of eternity; the end of time and space; the beginning of every end; and the
end of every place. What is it?

2) Which letter is not me?

3) The person who makes it, sells it. The person who buys it never uses it. The person who uses
it doesn't know they are. What is it?

4) The more you have of it, the less you see. What is it?
5) What kind of pet always stays on the floor?

6) It is greater than God and more evil than the devil. The poor have it, the rich need it and if you
eat it you'll die. What is it?

7) What letter of the alphabet has got lots of water?

8) Forward I'm heavy, but backwards I'm not. What am I?

9) What four letters frighten a thief?

10) What is the word that everybody always says wrong?

--------------------

ANSWER KEY: 1) E 2) U (you) 3) coffin 4) darkness 5) carpet 6) nothing 7) C (sea) 8) ton 9) O


I C U (Oh I see you!) 10) wrong

August 13, 2011

#EngTrivia: same word, different meanings


in UK and US
The differences between UK and US English are somehow interesting. One word can have
different meanings. Here are some of the words that we found pretty funny.

Bogey. In UK: dried nasal mucus. In US: an unidentified aircraft, often assumed to be that of an
enemy.

Entre. In UK: starter of a meal. In US: main course of a meal.

Fall. In UK: to become pregnant. In US: autumn.

First floor (of a building). In UK: the floor above ground level. In US: the floor at ground level
(sometimes).

Intern. In UK: replacement. In US: one temporarily employed for practical training.

Redcap. In UK: a military police officer. In US: a baggage porter (as at a train station).

Through (time). In UK: for a period of time, during. In US: up to, until.
Mate. In UK: friend. In US: spouse or partner.

August 11, 2011

#GrammarTrivia: the passive voice


In English, the active voice is more common than the passive voice, although the passive voice is
acceptable and even preferred at times.

Here are the considerations about when we can use the passive voice in English:

1. The passive voice is preferred when the actor is unknown or unimportant. e.g. That building
was built in 1894. From the 1st example we can see that people who built the building are
unimportant and not mentioned.That's why the passive voice is preferred.

2. The passive voice is often used when discussing history. e.g. The war was fought over gold.

3. Remember to use the active voice when the actor is more important than the action. e.g. The
children ate spaghetti for dinner.

4. Avoid using active and passive in the same sentence if possible. e.g. The flowers were planted
and the trees were trimmed.

5. Use one verb instead of two when possible. e.g. Lia enjoys good food and music. (Not: Lia
enjoys good food and music is also enjoyed by her.)

Maybe some of the following examples can help us to understand more about the use of the
passive voice:

AWKWARD: Workers built the pyramids about 5.000 years ago. BETTER: The pyramids were
built about 5.000 years ago.

AWKWARD: The house was bought by my parents in 1970. BETTER: My parents bought the
house in 1970.

AWKWARD: If you studied more, your test could be easily passed. BETTER: If you studied
more, you could easily pass your test.

AWKWARD: The light was turned on by me as I entered my bedroom. BETTER: I turned on the
light as I entered my bedroom.
AWKWARD: Bob plays the piano and the guitar is played by him also. BETTER: Bob plays
piano and the guitar.

August 9, 2011

#EngProverb: English proverbs #2


"A loaded wagon makes no noise." - Really wealthy people don't talk about money.

"All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy." - Working too hard and not taking the time to
have fun is bad for you.

"Hunger is a good sauce." - All food tastes good when you are hungry.

"However long the night, the dawn will break." - Bad things don't last forever.

"An idle brain is the devil's workshop." - One who has nothing to do will be tempted to do many
mischievous acts.

"Faint heart never won fair lady." - To succeed in life one must have the courage to pursue what
he wants.

"Strike while the iron is hot." - Seize a good opportunity as quickly as possible.

"Absence makes the heart grow fonder." - One usually desires another more when he/she is far
away.

"Laugh and the world laughs with you." - When someone is in a happy and cheerful mood,
people like being with him.

"He who hesitates is lost." - If you delay your decision too long, you may miss a good
opportunity.

"A chicken and egg question." - A mysterious question which can't be answered.

"Diligence is the mother of good fortune." - Working hard will bring you riches and success.

"Every man has his faults." - No one is perfect.

"An apple a day keeps the doctor away." - A small preventive treatment wards off serious
problems.
"An onion a day keeps everyone away." - A humoristic version of "an apple a day...". LOL :D

"Haste makes waste." - Things that are done in a hurry are usually done sloppily and may contain
careless mistakes.

"Old habits die hard." - It is difficult to change a long-time habit.

"Laughter is the shortest distance between two people." - Laughter is the best way to break the
ice between strangers/enemies.

"What goes around, comes around." - How you treat people is how you will eventually be
treated.

August 6, 2011

#EngClass: sentence
So a sentence is the major unit of grammar for language, esp. in written form. The Indonesian?
"kalimat".

A sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a period or full-stop [.] or sometimes with a
[?] or a [!].

Still remember what a clause is, right? Simple sentence consists of one clause; and more than
one clause in a complex sentence.

There are four sentence types: 1) a statement; 2) a question; 3) an imperative; 4) an exclamation.

Examples 1) a statement: "I like you." - "She didn't know you're here." - "We are happy it's
Ramadan again."

Examples 2) a question: "Are you OK?" - "Can you hear me?" - "Did you call me when I was
doing my homework?"

Examples 3) an imperative: "Open the door." - "Stop writing." - "Don't cheat during the test." -
"Eat a lot of vegetables."

Examples 4) an exclamation: "What a great idea!" - "Wow, that was awesome!" -


"Congratulations!" - "How lucky you are!"
August 5, 2011

#EngGame: synonyms; take the odd one out


Rules of the game: 1) Choose the word that is NOT synonymous to the other words. 2) Type the
number of question as you answer.

For example: 1) like 2) cherish 3) enjoy 4) fancy 5) popular - The ANSWER: 5) popular; not
synonymous with 1) 2) 3) 4).

Let's start! 1) a) corrupt b) degrade c) demoralize d) deprave e) disgrace

2) a) beneficial b) useful c) advantageous d) resourceful e) valuable

3) a) kind b) nice c) good d) refined e) pleasant

4) a) choose b) prefer c) rather d) select e) pick

5) a) fellowship b) mentor-ship c) brotherhood d) companionship e) comradeship

6) a) want b) fond c) desire d) wish e) crave

7) a) type b) behavior c) fashion d) manner e) way

8) a) posses b) have c) lose d) hold e) own

9) a) likely b) possible c) potential d) workable e) imaginary

Last but not least! 10) a) merry b) enjoyable c) happy d) cheerful e) joyful

--------------------

ANSWERS: 1) e) disgrace 2) d) resourceful 3) a) kind 4) c) rather 5) b) mentor-ship 6) b) fond


7) a) type 8) c) lose 9) e) imaginary 10) b) enjoyable

August 5, 2011

#GrammarTrivia: clause VS sentence


DYK? A clause is the main structure of which a sentence is built. A sentence contains at least one
main clause.

A sentence contains of at least one main clause. It may also contain subordinate clause.

A clause with 2 elements: "Annie (subject) cried (verb)." A clause with 3 elements: "I (subject)
like (verb) pizza (object)."

A simple sentence is a sentence that has only one main clause. Example: "I like pizza."

A complex sentence is made by joining clauses together by either subordination or coordination


or both. Example: "I like pizza (main clause), but she doesn't like it (subordinate clause)."

The simplest way to differentiate a sentence with a clause is through punctuation. A sentence
always ends with (.) (?) (!).

August 2, 2011

#EngClass: adverb #1
"adverb" dalam Bahasa Indonesia disebut sebagai kata keterangan atau tambahan. Kata "slowly"
dalam "I walk slowly." adalah adverb.

Secara garis besar ada 2 fungsi utama adverb:

1) menambahkan informasi pada sebuah clause (klausa), seperti waktu atau tempat dari suatu
tindakan. Untuk fungsi yang pertama, adverb dalam kategori ini disebut sebagai "adverbial".

2) menambahkan informasi pada sebuah kata lain, seperti adjective (kata sifat) atau pun adverb
lain. Untuk fungsi ke 2, adverb dalam kategori ini disebut sebagai "modifier".

1) Contoh adverb sebagai adverbial: "I walk slowly." (adverb "slowly" menambahkan informasi
pada clause "I walk").

2) Contoh adverb sebagai modifier: "extremely slowly" (adverb "extremely" menambahkan


informasi pada adverb "slowly").

Berdasarkan artinya, ada banyak jenis adverb. Berikut 5 jenis yang paling umum digunakan
beserta contohnya:

a) adverb of manner (menunjukkan bagaimana sesuatu dilakukan): well, badly, how, quickly,
slowly, hard, fast, etc.
b) adverb of place (menunjukkan tempat): up, there, here, above, upstairs, anywhere,
somewhere, etc.

c) adverb of time (menunjukkan waktu): then, now, soon, recently, afterwards, today, yesterday,
tomorrow, etc

d) adverb of degree (menunjukkan tingkatan atau intensitas): very, so, too, really, quite, much,
extremely, etc.

e) adverb of frequency (menujukkan frekuensi atau seberapa sering sesuatu dilakukan): never,
always, often, sometimes, generally, etc.

Berikut contoh penggunaan masing-masing jenis adverb dalam kalimat:

a) adverb of manner: "He plays the piano well." b) adverb of place: "The book can be
anywhere." c) adverb of time: "She will finish her homework soon." d) adverb of degree: "I
really love you." e) adverb of frequency: "I always play football twice a week."

Catatan: adverb bisa ditmptkan di depan, tengah, atau belakang.

Untuk posisi di depan, letaknya sebelum S (Subject). Contoh: "Usually I play football twice a
week."

Untuk posisi di tengah, penggunaannya bisa sesudah auxiliary yang pertama, setelah "be", atau
sebelum verb (kata kerja). Contoh: "She is never late."

Untuk posisi di belakng, pengunaannya pada akhir clause. Contoh: "He plays the piano well."

August 1, 2011

#EngClass: participial adjective


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Hari ini kita membahas "participial adjective". Apa itu? Pernah dengar "boring" VS "bored"
kan?

Yang dimaksud dengan "participial adjective" adalah kata sifat yang diambil dari "the past
participle" (-ed) dan "the present participle" (-ing).

YES: "I'm interested in English." NO: "I'm interesting in English." YES: "English is interesting."
NO: "English is interested."

"the past participle" (interested) menjelaskan apa yang dirasakan seseorang. interested =
tertarik. "Saya tertarik dgn .."

"the present participle" (interesting) menjelaskan penyebab dari perasaan tertarik tadi. Di
contoh kalimat penyebabnya = "English". interesting = menarik. Arti dalam Bahasa Indonesia:
".. (suatu hal) itu menarik."

"I'm interested in English." -> "interested" menjelaskan bagaimana perasaan saya. "English"
adalah penyebab dari rasa ketertarikan saya itu.

Seperti struktur kalimat lain yang menggunakan adjective atau kata sifat, struktur kalimat
dengan "participial adjective": "S + be + adjective".

Berikut contoh kalimat lain: "I was surprised."; "The news was surprising." BUKAN "I was
surprising."; "The news was surprised."

Exercise:

1) I don't like our new teacher. He really bores me. I think he is a . . . (boring/bored) person.

2) I don't understand these formulas. They are so . . . (confusing/confused).

3) Have you heard about the latest news? I'm so . . . (exciting/excited) to tell you!

4) I had never been to Raja Ampat before. But when I was there, I was really . . .
(fascinating/fascinated).

5) Everyone was . . . (shocking/shocked) when they heard the minister's corruption scandal for
the first time.

6) I will never sing in front of the class again! It was so . . . (embarrassing/embarrassed).

7) I feel very . . . (tiring/tired) after the long trip.

8) I don't think I can watch that movie. It's so very . . . (depressing/depressed).


9) Oh my goodness, look at the size of that cake! It's very . . . (tempting/tempted). I want to eat
it!

10) She never really finished that work. I guess she's already . . . (frustrating/frustrated) because
of it.

--------------------

ANSWERS:

1) boring 2) confusing 3) excited 4) fascinated 5) shocked 6) embarrassing 7) tired 8) depressing


9) tempting 10) frustrated

August 1, 2011

#IOTW: idioms using the word "dog"


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Do you like or have dogs? Apparently there are some English idioms that use the word "dog".
Check them out and their meanings!

"dog eat dog" (in business, politics): situasi dengan persaingan yang kejam; orang bisa saling
mencelakai untuk menang. "It's a dog eat dog world."

"a dog in the manger": seseorang yang menghentikan orang lain menikmati sesuatu yang tidak
bisa dia gunakan atau tidak ia sukai. "Such a dog in the manger."

"a dog's breakfast/dinner": kekacauan; sesuatu yang dikerjakan dengan buruk. "You have made a
dog's dinner out of this work."

"a dog's life": hidup yang tidak bahagia; penuh dengan masalah dan perlakuan tidak adil. "I feel
so depressed. It's like living a dog's life."
"let sleeping dogs lie": jangan mencari kesulitan atau masalah. "Leave him alone. Let sleeping
dogs lie."

"every dog has his/its day": tiap orang pasti pernah merasakan sukses dalam hidupnya. "I enjoy
my life. I guess every dog has his day."

"rain cats and dogs": hujan yang sangat lebat. "I can barely go out the whole day. It's been
raining cats and dogs."

"give a dog a bad name": adalah sangat sulit untuk menghilangkan reputasi buruk. "Mind what
you say. You already gave a dog a bad name."

"not have a dog's chance": sama sekali tidak mempunyai kesempatan. "That's too bad. We haven't
got a dog's chance to win the game."

"the tail wagging the dog": situasi dimana hal kecil pada suatu hal mengontrol hal besar di
dalamnya. "It's like the tail wagging the dog."

"can't teach an old dog new tricks": kita tidak bisa sepenuhnya berhasil mengajak orang yang
sudah tua mengubah ide atau cara kerjanya."

"go to the dogs": jatuh ke dalam keadaan yang buruk atau terpuruk. "The company has gone to
the dogs since last year."

"treat somebody like a dog": memperlakukan seseorang tanpa rasa hormat sedikit pun. "He
treats his workers like a dog."

July 31, 2011

#USSlang: American slang #3


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"da bomb". Definition: Excellent, the best. "He's da bomb! I think he's the best guitar player I've
ever known."

"jock". Definition: An athlete, particularly a male athlete. "He's a jock. He's used to winning
sport games."
"downer". Definition: Something or someone that is depressing; anything that makes one sad.
"She's a downer. I don't like her around."

"blow it". Definition: To lose or waste something; to do very poorly or fail miserably. "Don't
blow it. This is your last chance."

"green thumb". Definition: A special talent for gardening. "Your garden in lovely. You must have
a green thumb."

"know-it-all". Definition: A person who thinks they know everything. "It's Mr know-it-all who
can't stop interrupting our speech."

"cold feet". Definition: Loss of courage; fear. "I always get cold feet every time I have to speak
in front of public."

"raise the roof". Definition: To have fun and make a lot of noise. "The party is on. Let's raise the
roof."

"hog". Definition: To selfishly claim all of something; to eat or take everything. "Don't hog the
car. It's not yours."

"high five". Definition: A way to say "Bravo!" or "Good job!" by slapping someone's hand in the
air. "Great job! Give me high five!"

July 25, 2011

#EngClass: conditional sentence


First thing First. Dalam sebuah conditional sentence terdapat 2 clause (klausa) atau bentuk dasar
kalimat, yaitu: "if clause" dan "result clause".

Contoh: "If I have more money, I'll buy a car." "If I have more money" = if clause. "I'll buy a car"
= result clause.

Ada 4 jenis conditional sentence, masing-masing dengan fungsi yang berbeda, yaitu: zero, first,
second, dan third conditional.

1) Kita mulai dengan zero conditional. Digunakan untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang selalu benar
(seperti contohnya kebenaran ilmiah). Struktur: "if clause (present simple), result clause (present
simple)". e.g. "If we heat ice, it melts." Arti kalimat: "Jika kita menghangatkan es, es akan
mencair." Hal ini merupakan sebuah kepastian yang tidak bisa diragukan.
2) first conditional. Digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sesuatu yang benar terjadi saat ini atau di
masa depan (true in the present or future). Struktur: "if clause (present simple), result clause
(will/can + V1). e.g. "If I have more money, I'll buy a car." Kalimat contoh berarti: "Jika di masa
depan saya punya lebih banyak uang, sangat mungkin sekali saya akan membeli mobil."

3) second conditional. Digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sesuatu yang tidak benar atau
berlawanan dengan kenyataan saat ini (untrue in the present). Struktur: "if clause (past simple),
result clause (would/could + V1)". e.g. "If I had more money, I'd buy a car." Kalimat contoh
berarti: Kalau saja saya punya lebih banyak uang, saya akan membeli mobil. Pada kenyataannya
saya tidak punya uang lebih.

4) third conditional. Digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sesuatu yang tidak benar atau
berlawanan dengan kenyataan di masa lalu (untrue in the past). Struktur: "if clause (past
perfect), result clause (would have/could have + V3)." e.g. "If I had more money, I could have
bought a car." Kalimat contoh berarti: Kalau saja dulu saya punya lebih banyak uang, saya bisa
saja membeli mobil. Pada kenyataannya, dulu saya tidak punya uang lebih, maka saya tidak bisa
membeli mobil.

Baiklah, sekian penjelasan. Admin akan memberi beberapa contoh kalimat lain.

1) If you don't eat, you'll die. - If you don't try, you will never know.

2) If I meet the girl I like, I'll ask her out. - If I do good at school, I will be happy

3) If I had the guts, I'd ask her out. - If I had wings, I could fly.

4) If I had had the guts, I would have asked her out. - If we had won, we would have brought the
prizes.

July 25, 2011

#EngQuotes: English quotes #1


"Anyone who stops learning is old, whether at twenty or eighty. Anyone who keeps learning
stays young." - Henry Ford

"You haven't failed, until you stop trying" - Unknown

"One must learn by doing the thing; for though you think you know it, you have no certainty,
until you try." - Sophocles

"Every artist was at first an amateur." - Ralph W. Emerson


"Learning is never done without errors and defeat." - Vladimir Lenin

July 24, 2011

#GrammarTrivia: -ise VS -ize


DYK? The ending "-ise" and "-ize" in verbs such as "recognise" and "recognize" are both used in
UK. However, "-ize" only used in US.

July 24, 2011

#GrammarTrivia: afraid
DYK? The adjective "afraid" can also be used for reporting "bad news". e.g. "I'm afraid the
service isn't available."

July 24, 2011

#GrammarTrivia: accusative
DYK? In grammar, the term "accusative" has the same meaning as "object pronoun". They are:
me, us, him, her, them.

July 24, 2011

#GrammarTrivia: certainly
DYK? "certainly" means "without doubt" or "of course". It is an emphatic form of "yes". e.g.
"Can you help me?" | "Certainly."

July 23, 2011

#EngGame: common spelling mistakes


Rules of the game: 1) Type the number of the question as you answer. 2) Choose the right
spelling between 2 words.

Let's start! 1) cemetery OR cemetary?

2) espresso OR expresso?

3) government OR goverment?

4) enlightment OR enlightenment?

5) forty OR fourty?

6) pronounciation OR pronunciation?

7) writting OR writing?

8) ninth OR nineth?

9) acknowledge OR aknowlegde?

10) beautiful OR beautifull?

11) bussiness OR business?

12) misspell OR mispell?

13) devide OR divide?

14) grammer OR grammar?

15) bycicle OR bicycle?

16) Chinese OR Chinesse?


17) until OR untill?

18) potatoes OR potatos?

19) strength OR strenght?

Last but not least! 20) dissappear OR disappear?

--------------------

ANSWERS: 1) cemetery 2) espresso 3) government 4) enlightenment 5) forty 6) pronunciation


7) writing 8) ninth 9) acknowledge 10) beautiful 11) business 12) misspell 13) divide 14)
grammar 15) bicycle 16) Chinese (with capital letter) 17) until 18) potatoes 19) strength 20
disappear

July 22, 2011

#EngClass: modal auxiliary


The modal auxiliaries (singular: auxiliary): can, may, might, could, would, will, shall, must,
should, ought to, used to.

"modal auxiliary" digunakan untuk menunjukkan seberapa yakin kita akan suatu hal. Secara
umum bisa dibedakan ke dalam 2 kelompok: stronger & weaker.

stronger & weaker: jika kita tidak mengetahui kebenaran akan suatu hal, kita menggunakan
"modal auxiliary" untuk menyatakan kita yakin atau tidak.

Utk lebih jelasnya, berikut ilustrasi menggunakan beberapa modal auxiliary yang berbeda.
Perhatikan bagaimana tiap modal auxiliary memiliki efek yang berbeda.

Telepon berdering, kita tidak mengetahui siapa yang menelepon. Respon yang mungkin muncul:
"It will be Ana." atau "It must be Ana." atau "It should be Ana." atau "It may be Ana." atau "It
might be Ana." atau "It could be Ana." atau "It won't be Ana." atau "It can't be Ana." atau "It
couldn't be Ana." Jika respon diurutkan, kalimat yang pertama paling yakin dan yang terakhir
paling tidak yakin.

Berikut contoh modal auxiliary, arti, serta contoh penggunaannya dalam kalimat.

1) can: memiliki 3 arti. a) possibility. "The news about him can be true." b) ability. "I can play the
piano well." c) permission. "You can go now," my mother said.
2) may: memiliki 3 arti. a) possibility. "It may rain tonight." b) permission. "You may go now,"
my mother said. c) volition (or wish). "May your dreams come true.

3) might: memiliki 3 arti. a) possibility. "It might rain tonight." b) permission. "You might go
now," my mother said. c) unreal meaning. "I might have won the game."

4) could: memiliki 4 arti. a) possibility. "It could rain tonight." b) ability. "I could play the piano
when I was six." c) permission. "My mother said I could go." d) unreal meaning. "I could have
won the game."

5) would: memiliki 4 arti. a) habit. "When I was six, I would go to my parents' room and sleep
there." b) volition (or wish). "I wish it would rain tonight." c) prediction (or future). "It would
rain tonight." .. .. d) unreal meaning. "I would have won the game."

6) will: memiliki 2 arti. a) volition (or wish). "I hope it will be fine." b) prediction (or future). "It
will rain tonight."

7) shall: memiliki 2 arti. a) volition (or wish). "I hope it shall be fine." b) prediction (or future).
"Shall we go now?"

8) must: memiliki 2 arti. a) obligation. "You must finish your work." b) deduction. "It must be
Ana."

9) should: memiliki 4 arti. a) unreal meaning. "I should have won the game." b) 'tentative'
meaning. "Should there be a problem, call me." c) obligation. "You should finish your work." d)
deduction. "It should be Ana."

10) ought to: memiliki 2 arti. a) obligation. "You ought to finish your work." b) deduction. "It
ought to be Ana."

11) used to: memiliki 1 arti. a) past state or habit. "When I was six, I used to go to my parents'
room and sleep there."

July 22, 2011

#EngClass: British VS American English in


Harry Potter books
Ada yang mention mau ngomong tentang Harry Potter. DYK? Buku Harry Potter dalam Bahasa
Inggris dicetak dalam 2 versi, untuk Inggris (UK) dan Amerika Serikat (US).
Ada yang koleksi buku Harry Potter dalam Bahasa Inggris? Kalau kamu bandingkan, perbedaan
ada di British dan American English yang digunakan.

Contohnya ada di judul buku Harry Potter pertama. UK: Harry Potter and the Philosopher's
Stone. US: Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone.

Berikut daftar penamaan hal-hal yang berbeda dalam British English dan American English di
dalam buku Harry Potter:

British English (UK): car park. American English (US): parking lot. Arti: tempat parkir.

UK: jumper. US: sweater. Arti: baju hangat.

UK: nutter. US: maniac. Arti: orang gila.

UK: cupboard. US: closet. Arti: lemari.

UK: torch. US: flashlight. Arti: lampu senter.

UK: biscuits. US: cookies. Arti: kue kering.

UK: letter boxes. US: mailboxes. Arti: kotak surat.

UK: dustbin. US: trash can. Arti: tempat sampah.

UK: cooker. US: stove. Arti: kompor.

UK: fringe. US: bangs. Arti: poni (rambut).

UK: motorbike. US: motorcycle. Arti: sepeda motor.

UK: comprehensive. US: public school. Arti: sekolah negeri.

UK: football. US: soccer. Arti: sepak bola.

UK: trolley. US: cart. Arti: kereta barang.

UK: rucksack. US: backpack. Arti: tas punggung.

UK: driver. US: conductor. Arti: masinis.

UK: trainers. US: sneakers. Arti: sepatu olahraga.

UK: sports lessons. US: gym. Arti: kelas olahraga.

UK: chips. US: fries. Arti: kentang goreng.


UK: queuing. US: lining up. Arti: mengantri.

UK: register. US: roll call. Arti: absensi.

UK: toilet. US: bathroom. Arti: kamar mandi.

UK: changing room. US: locker room. Arti: ruang ganti.

UK: dressing gown. US: bathrobe. Arti: jubah mandi.

UK: time-table. US: schedule. Arti: jadwal.

DYK? The ending "-ise" and "-ize" in verbs such as "recognise" and "recognize" are both used in
UK. However, "-ize" only used in US.

July 22, 2011

#EngGame: solve these riddles #1


Who wants to play some English games? Let's solve some riddles, shall we?

riddle -n. a question or statement so framed as to exercise one's ingenuity in answering it or


discovering its meaning. Indonesian: teka-teki.

Rules of the game: 1) Type the number of the question as you answer. 2) Clues will be given on
how many letters the answer is.

Let's start! 1) What goes around the world and stays in a corner? _ _ _ _ _ (5 letters)

2) What can fill a room but takes up no space? _ _ _ _ _ (5 letters)

3) Take off my skin, I won't cry, but you will. What am I? _ _ _ _ _ (5 letters)

4) What has to be broken before it can be used? _ _ _ (3 letters)

5) You answer me although I never ask you questions. What am I? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (9 letters)

6) It's in the middle of the sea. It appears in the evening and disappears in the morning. Love
without it is nothing. _ (1 letter)

7) What goes round the house and in the house but never touches the house? _ _ _ (3 letters)
8) What holds water yet is full of holes? _ _ _ _ _ _ (6 letters)

9) What comes once in a minute, twice in a moment, but never in a thousand years? _ (1 letter)

Last but not least: 10) What gets wet when drying? _ _ _ _ _ (5 letters)

--------------------

ANSWERS: Let's check your answers! 1) stamp - 2) light - 3) onion - 4) egg - 5) telephone - 6)
E - 7) sun - 8) sponge - 9) M - 10) towel

DYK? The ending "-ise" and "-ize" in verbs such as "recognise" and "recognize" are both used in
UK. However, "-ize" only used in US.

July 19, 2011

#GrammarTrivia: actually
DYK? Kata "actually" memiliki arti yang sama dengan "in fact"/ "in reality" (pada
kenyataannya). Digunakan untuk 1) menegaskan sesuatu. 2) tidak menyetujui sesuatu.

Kata "actually" artinya tidak sama dengan "now"/ "at present" (saat ini).

1) "actually" digunakan untuk menekankan sesuatu, ketika kita ingin mengungkapkan fakta yang
mengejutkan. Digunakan di tengah kalimat.

1) Contoh: "There is this very beautiful girl next door. You can actually see her from across the
street."

1) Contoh: "That company's revenue grows bigger every year. The owner actually does all the
jobs himself."

2) "actually" digunakan untuk tidak menyetujui sesuatu. Jika kita pikir yang dikatakan atau
dilakukan seseorang salah, kita bisa mengoreksinya dengan "actually".

2) Untuk fungsi yang ke-2, "actually" digunakan di awal atau akhir kalimat.

2) Contoh: "People say love brings happiness. Actually it's the other way around."

2) Contoh: "Thanks for helping me with my school assignment. | Well, it wasn't me. It was Andy
who helped you, actually."
July 19, 2011

#EngClass: agreement
"agreement" adalah kecocokan antara subject (subyek) dan verb (kata kerja) dalam suatu clause
(klausa). Clause: struktur utama kalimat.

Sedikit tentang clause: sebuah kalimat setidaknya terdiri dari satu clause. Bentuk clause pada
umumnya terdiri dari: S(ubject)+V(erb).

Contoh clause: "The baby cries." (S+V); "I like apples." (S+V+O); etc. Sebuah kalimat bisa
terdiri dari lebih dari satu clause.

Kembali ke "agreement". Jadi yang dimaksud adalah kecocokan antara S "the baby" pada contoh
tadi dengan V "cries". Atau S "I" dengan V "like".

Aturan dasar "agreement": singular subject + singular verb phrase. Atau plural subject + plural
verb phrase. Berlaku untuk kata ganti orang ke-3.

"agreement" berlaku pada penggunaan "present tense" untuk verb; namun juga pada "past tense"
untuk verb "be". Kita beri contohnya ya...

Pada "present tense" (berlaku untuk verb): 1) "They like apples." - "She likes apples." 2) "The
baby cries." - "The babies cry."

Perhatikan perbedaan penggunaan kata "like" pd S "they" (plural) & "she" (singular). Juga
penggunaan kata "cry" pada S "baby" & "babies".

Contoh verb "be": 1) Present tense: "The book is pink." - "The books are pink." 2) Past tense:
"He was sick." - "They were sick."

Perhatikan perbedaan penggunaan bentuk "be" menjadi "is" & "are" pada present tense; dan
"was" & "were" pada past tense, sesuai dengan S.

July 19, 2011

#GrammarTrivia: uncountable noun


DYK? "countable noun" memiliki bentuk singular (tunggal) dan plural (jamak), sementara
"uncountable noun" memiliki bentuk singular saja.

Kebanyakan noun (kata benda) termasuk dalam "countable noun". Contoh: "a baby" (bentuk
singular) - "babies" (bentuk jamak).

"uncountable noun" merujuk pada benda yang tak bisa dihitung. Benda yang termasuk dalam
kategori ini: zat, cairan, gas, ide abstrak.

Contoh "uncountable noun": (zat) paper, gold, rock; (benda cair) water, oil; (gas) smoke, oxygen;
(ide abstrak) music, money.

July 19, 2011

#BusEng: business English verbs #1


All questions are taken from: Business English Verbs by David Evans, published by Penguin
English.

1) advise. "They advised us to go to another bank." The Indonesian word for "advise" is ...

2) assemble. "The cars are assembled at our factory." The Indonesian word for "assemble" is ...

3) auction. "They auctioned the painting today." The Indonesian word for "auction" is ...

4) bribe. "He bribed the customs officer." The Indonesian word for "bribe" is ...

5) confess. "I must confess - I didn't think of that." The Indonesian word for "confess" is ...

6) defraud. "He defrauded his business partner." The Indonesian word for "defraud" is ...

7) endorse. "The French team is endorsing our car." The Indonesian word for "endorse" is ...

8) foot the bill. "We all had to foot the bill." The Indonesian meaning of "foot the bill" is ...

9) go on strike. "They went on strike for more pay." The Indonesian meaning of "go on strike"
is ...

10) go short. "She went short on sterling." The Indonesian meaning of "go short" is ...

--------------------
Answers: 1) advise = menyarankan. 2) assemble = merakit (pasif: dirakit). 3) auction = melelang.
4) bribe = menyuap. 5) confess = mengakui. 6) defraud = menggelapkan uang. 7) endorse =
membiayai/mensponsori/menyokong. 8) shoot the bill = membayar semua biaya/tagihan. 9) go
on strike = mogok (kerja). 10) go short = kekurangan.

DYK? The ending "-ise" and "-ize" in verbs such as "recognise" and "recognize" are both used in
UK. However, "-ize" only used in US.

July 13, 2011

#EngProverb: English proverbs #1


"Learn to walk before you run." - Don't rush into doing something until you know how to do it.

"Money doesn't grow on trees." - You shouldn't waste money because it is not plentiful.

"Patience is a virtue." - It is good to be patient.

"Still waters run deep." - A quiet person can have much knowledge or wisdom.

"The best things in life are free." - You don't have to pay for what is important: happiness,
friendship, good health.

"When in Rome, do as the Romans do." - You should adopt the customs of the people or country
you are visiting.

"Walls have ears." - Be careful. People could be listening.

"It's no use crying over spilt milk." - Don't express regret for something that has happened and
cannot be remedied.

"He who hesitates is lost." - If you delay your decision too long, you may miss a good
opportunity.

"Fools rush in where angels fear to tread." - Inexperienced people act in situations that more
intelligent people would avoid.

July 9, 2011
#EngClass: another, other, others, the other,
the others
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"another", "other", "others", "the other", "the others" semua bersumber dari kata yang sama:
"other".

Sebelumnya mari kita bedakan penggunaan "other" ke dalam 2 kelompok: 1) sebagai adjective
(kata sifat). 2) sebagai pronoun (kata ganti). Dalam masing-masing kelompok, "other" memiliki
bentuk singular (tunggal) dan plural (jamak).

1) "other" sebagai adjective (kata sifat)

Seperti fungsi dari adjective, maka bentuk "other" di kelompok ini berfungsi untuk "memberi
sifat" pada noun (kata benda).

Contoh bentuk "other" sebagai adjective: another, other, the other. Penggunaannya diikuti oleh
noun. Contoh frase: "another book".

another = untuk singular noun. other = untuk plural noun. Sementara "the other" bisa diikuti
oleh singular atau plural noun.

Contoh frase: another book, other books, the other book, the other books. Perhatikan bentuk
penulisan singular dan plural noun.

Contoh: "There are many books in my bag. One is mine. Another book is his. Other books are
hers. The other books are theirs."

2) "other" sebagai pronoun (kata ganti)

Untuk yang ini, kita bisa menggunakan "other" tanpa noun (contoh: tanpa kata "book").

Contoh bentuk "other" sebagai pronoun: another, others, the other, the others. Perhatikan others
dan the others tidak ada pada kelompok 1.

another = untuk singular noun. others = untuk plural noun. the other = untuk singular noun. the
others = untuk plural noun.
Contoh: "There are many books in my bag. One is mine. Another is his. Others are hers. The
others are theirs."

Perhatikan perbedaan pada contoh, "other" sebagai adjective dan pronoun. Contoh: frase "other
books" bisa digantikan dengan "others" saja.

Arti dari bentuk "other":

Yang terakhir, berikut arti dari penggunaan "another", "other", "others", "the other", "the
others", yang berlaku untuk semua kelompok.

another = satu tambahan lagi selain dari yang sudah disebutkan. "another book" = satu buku.

other/ others (tanpa "the") = beberapa tambahan lagi selain dari yang sudah disebutkan. "other
books" = beberapa buku lainnya.

the other/ the others = semua yang tersisa selain dari yang sudah disebutkan. "the other books" =
beberapa sisa buku lainnya/ selebihnya.

July 8, 2011

#TOEFL: vocabulary exercise #2


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Rules: 1) Choose the right synonym of the word in the brackets. 2) Type the number of the
question as you answer.

1) The criminal was asked to aid police in their (enquiry). A) interview B) investigation C)
questions

2) The use of penicillin is (diffuse). A) limited B) widely available C) increasing

3) He (pored over) the questions until he couldn't keep his eyes open anymore. A) asked B)
examined C) memorized
4) You will find the building at the main (intersection). A) ending B) crossing C) roundabout

5) He found the smell of the lotus blossom (repugnant), and asked for a different flower. A)
enjoyable B) disgusting C) delightful

6) His boss (streamlined) company procedures. A) increased B) made easier C) lost

7) Uncertainty about the economy is (widespread). A) limited B) everywhere C) decreased

8) His comments can be rather (harsh) at times. A) pleasant B) extreme C) precise

9) The issue (touched off) an argument between the two parties. A) ended B) began C)
complicated

10) You'd better get a few (winks) before tomorrow. A) dollars B) sleep C) friends

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The answers: all B