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Paper 1 and Paper 2 Revision Guide

Creative Reading Writers Viewpoints


and Writing and Perspectives

Paper 1 Paper 2

Section A: Section A:
Section B: Section B:
Reading Reading
Writing Writing
1 Unseen Literature 1 Non-Fiction and 1
Fiction Text Descriptive or Nar- Literary Non-Fiction Writing to present a
rative Writing viewpoint
4 Questions 4 Questions

Total exam time: Total exam time:


1 hour and 45 minutes 1 hour and 45 minutes
50% 50%

Name: ____________________________
Class: ____________________________
Teacher: ____________________________

1
Notice the similarities between the
two papers. There are lots of similar
skills involved.

Note: the questions and exemplar material in this booklet


are from Specimen Paper 1 and Specimen Paper 2.

2
English Language
Paper 1
Creative Reading and Writing
What is involved in this exam?
Section A: Reading
A prose literature text from either the 20th or 21st century
It will be an extract from a novel or short story
It will focus on openings, endings, narrative perspectives and points of
view, narrative or descriptive passages, character, atmospheric descrip-
tions and other appropriate narrative and descriptive approaches
You will answer four questions in this section (40 marks)
Section B: Writing
There will be a choice of scenario, either a written prompt or visual image
related to the topic of the reading text in Section A. The scenario sets out
a context for writing with a designated audience, purpose and form that
will differ to those specified on Paper 2.
You will produce your own writing, inspired by the topic that you respond-
ed to in Section A.

English Language
Paper 2
Writers Viewpoints and Perspectives
What is involved in this exam?
Section A: Reading
Two linked sources (one non-fiction and one literary non-fiction) from dif-
ferent time periods (one 19th century and one form either the 20th or
21st century, depending on the time period of the text in Paper 1) and
different genres in order to consider how each presents a perspective or
viewpoint to influence the reader.
Section B: Writing
You will produce a written text to a specified audience, purpose and form
in which you give your own perspective on the theme that has been intro-
duced in Section A.

3
Meaning
what is the extract about? Paper 1, Section A:
what happens in the extract?
Theme(s) of the extract - what is it really about?
First Responses to Unseen Prose
where does the extract get to from start to end?
Character
Tone
who is the telling the story?
What is the mood and atmosphere of the extract? (angry,
sad, nostalgic, bitter, humorous, frightening etc. What is the narrative voice? Is it first or third person?
What characters do we meet?
How are the characters introduced?
Imagery and Language What do we learn about the characters that might be
important?
Alliteration - the repeating of initial sounds.
Metaphor - comparing two things by saying one is the other.
Setting
Simile - comparing two things saying one is like or as the other.
What location is described? How do you know?
Personification - giving something non-human human qualities. What is the weather like?
Onomatopoeia - words that sound like the thing they describe. What time of day is it?
Repetition - does the writer repeat words or phrases? What period is it set in? How do you know?
What kinds of words are used?
Connotation - associations that words have Structure
Ambiguity - is the word or phrase deliberately unclear? Could it mean Sentences- what shapes, styles and patterns can you see?
opposite things or many different things? Opening how does the extract begin?
Word order - are the words in an unusual order why? Ending how does the extract finish? Is there a clear resolution?

Adjectives - what are the key describing words? Flashbacks are any included? What do they reveal?
Slang or unusual words and misspellings - Does the writer use Repetition are any ideas or patterns repeated? Why?
slang or informal language? Connections how do the paragraphs link together?
Characters - how do they speak? Do they all sound the same? Narrative perspective does this stay the same throughout?
Linear/non linear is there a clear order to the events?

4
5
This question tests your ability to find information or ideas in the text.
The information will either be:
Explicitobvious meaning OR Implicityou can work out the meaning from
what is said

The facts that you use


must be from the part
of the text mentioned
in the question. This part of the question
will change depending on
the topic of the text.

You need to list the


facts (in quotes or
your own words).
You will get one
mark for each.

6
Make sure you analyse
this part of the text.

This part of the question will


change depending on the text.

How always means Use technical terms to


that you need to write describe the writer's
about the methods use of language.
used and their effect Make sure your answer
on the reader. includes quotes that
demonstrate each of
these bullet points.

7
Model Answer

The writers uses the word "gusts" of wind to describe them as a strong force. The
fact that the wind came in gusts means it isnt a constant flowing wind and like
waves and water it gathers energy then hits. The writer uses the word "exposed" to
describe places on the high ground insinuating that there is a battle between the
wind and the high ground. They describe the weather to be the stronger force and
the high ground subject to it as the victim.
The writer also uses the simile, "like a drunken man" to describe the body of
the coach rocking to illustrate how it is uncontrolabe and has little balanced.
The wind causing the coach to act "like a drunken man" also connotes that the
coach has gone numb to the wind as it has grown used to its ways.
Additionally, the author writes in long sentences littered with commers. This
is a technique to slow down the reader reading much like how the cold, harsh
weather seems to prolong time.
The weather affects the mood of the entire piece of writing and all living
forms described in it. For example, the horses are "disprited" displaying their re-
sentment for the weather and the negative impact it has on them. The weather is
described to almost take something away from the horses; like hope, they "ploddle
sullenly to his command,".
The writer uses the illiteration "soft splattered" when describing the mud to
contrast with the harshness of the "constant driving rain" rain. This contrast be-
tween the rain and the mud portrays further the

Mark: 7/8
Detailed understanding of language with several
clear explanations of the effects of language with
hint of perception in paragraph one, confirmed in
paragraph 5.

Number Whats Written How its Written


of Marks
7-8 Marks In-depth and insightful analyse of the ef- Sophisticated terminology is used
Level 4 fects of a variety of language features. accurately. A perceptive selection
of references.
5-6 Marks The effects of a selection of relevant lan- Technical terminology is used ac-
Level 3 guage features are all clearly explained. curately. A variety of suitable ref-
erences.
3-4 Marks Some language features are identified and Some technical terminology is
Level 2 their effects commented on. used. Might not always be accu-
rate. Some relevant references.
1-2 Marks Limited understanding of language fea- Simple or no use of subject termi-
Level 1 tures, with occasional comment. nology. Few points are supported.
0 Marks Nothing written about language.

8
How to introduce
effects of language:
Here are some indicative content phrases taken from the different
SAMS mark schemes on the AQA web-site
Paper 1 Q2
Level 4
perhaps reflecting
evoke the idea of
the cumulative effect of the
suggesting the
perhaps suggesting
to emphasise how
captures the
it helps the reader to visualise
It reinforces his
the writer prepares us for
can be interpreted at two levels
it can simply imply
On another level though
helps to encompass most readers because
which suggests
reinforces our preconceived idea
repulses us.

9
Look at the overall
structure.

This part of the ques-


tion will stay con-
sistent in each series.
Try to use technical You must comment on
terms. the reader.

Make sure your answer


includes examples that
demonstrate each of
these bullet points.

10
Model Answer

The writer perposely starts the novel describing the weather to create an atmos-
phere for the novel using a technique called pathetic fallacy. This captures the readers at-
tention as it forms an unusual aura about the novel.
The terrific weather may also foreshadow an event later on in the novel or be an ex-
plaination for why a later event occurred
In the second paragraph the writer begins to create tension as, "the whole body of
the coach trembled and swayed". The reader now is sensing danger and wants to continue
to read.
The passage progressed to speak to first the bus driver and then the people in the bus. The
writer may have intentionally described the driver "bent over his seat" first so we feel sym-
pathy towards him before we hear the passengers view on the situation and their com-
plaints.
There is a change in perspective as the author goes onto feature the people traveling
on the coach. The author especially draws attention to the "red-faced women in a blue
coat" who seeming was annoying also with her remarks. Lastly we are introduced "Mary
Yellan" - the only character we currently know the name of. Mary Yellan could potentially
be a main character in the novel as her name is the only one identified and she is the one
we are introduced to last. The writter may have purposely introduced us to Mary last to
make her more memorable as she is most likely more important than the bus driver who
was only mentioned briefly.
The description of Mary is quite intriguing as she seems to be the only character with
"desperate interest that some ray of light would break the heavy blanket of sky". The writ-
er may be intentionally accosiating Mary with a ray of light or hope so as the reader we
have a connection or like her.
The passage ends with Mary riminising about the lost blue heaven that had mantled
Helford yesterday echoing the begining of the novel where the author states "the weather
had changed overnight," The references to a glorious yesterday may be implying that
events have taken a sudden turn for the worst and a dramatic event will arise. Throughout
the passage the author repeats the fact about the atrocious weather with the people on the
coach reiterating and the women stating "it is the dirtiest night she ever remembered. The
repition is used to remind the reader of the mood of the novel and that trouble lies ahead -
foreshadowing.

Mark: 8/8
Detailed and perceptive understanding of structural features.

Number Whats Written How its Written


of Marks

7-8 Marks Analyses the effects of a range of structur- Sophisticated terminology is used
Level 4 al features confidently and in detail. accurately. A perceptive selection
of references.
5-6 Marks The effects of a variety of structural fea- Technical terminology is used ac-
Level 3 tures are clearly explained. curately. A variety of suitable ref-
erences.
3-4 Marks The effects of some structural features are Some technical terminology is
Level 2 explained. used. Might not always be accu-
rate. Some relevant references.
1-2 Marks Basic attempts to comment on a few Simple or no use of subject termi-
Level 1 structural features in a simple manner. nology. Few points are supported.

0 Marks Nothing written about structure.

11
Consider key questions of the text.
Possible key questions move from the what, to how and on to why. They
could include:
1. When I first start to read the text, what is the writer focusing my at-
tention on?
2. How is this being developed?
3. What feature of structure is evident at this point?
4. Why might the writer have deliberately chosen to begin the text with
this focus and therefore make use of this particular feature of struc-
ture?
5. What main points of focus does the writer develop in sequence af-
ter the starting point?
6. How is each being developed?
7. Why is the writer taking me through this particular sequence?
8. How is this specific to helping me relate to the intended meaning(s)
at these points?
9. What does the writer focus my attention on at the end of the text?
10. How is this developed as a structural feature?
11. How am I left thinking or feeling at the end?
12. Why might the writer have sought to bring me to this point of inter-
est/understanding?

Top Tips:
1. Comment on what the writer establishes at the beginning
2. Key phrases: develops, builds on, links back
3. Comment on what the writer leaves us with at the end
4. Is there a key sentence that enlightens the reader and allows them
to re-evaluate something from earlier on?

12
Provides context for Establishes the setting
character and action (social, physical etc.)
Develops readers
response/ Helps create mood/ Invites reader to visualise
relationship to atmosphere and absorb the scene
character Shifting between set- Allows reader to orientate
Adds realism and ting changes the mood themselves
credibility by cre-
ating more dimen-
sions Emphasises differ-
Engages reader ences
Focus on
with character setting Creates tension/
drama
Wider
perspectives

Focus on Contrast
character

Narrative Structure

Sequence of Viewpoint
events

Narrowing
focus

Allows the read-


Develops the plot er to engage
with alternative
Gives sense of chronol- perspectives
ogy Pause/
Freeze Interior view
Flashbacks give back- gives insight
ground information into characters
thoughts/
feelings
Delays action to create sus- Encourages
Provides depth and detail pense reader to empa-
Creates drama, intensity, an- Heightens the climax which fol- thise
ticipation lows the pause
Helps reader engage with Indicates a change in pace
character/setting
Allows reader to absorb dra-
matic event that has happened
13
Make sure you analyse
this part of the text.

The statement will be tai-


lored to the specific text. Itll
usually focus on the writers
techniques and their effect
Write your own opinion. Explore the
writers methods to make you feel this on the reader.
way. Provide evidence to support your
points.

Top Tips:
Always agree with the statement.
What do you think or feel about the
characters and events?
How does the writer make you think
or feel these things?
How well do they do it?

14
Model Answer
I agree with this statement to a certain extent as despite describing the ap-
pearance of one of the characters the author only scrapes the surface about each
one and their current actions.
The "old fellow" who had kept up a constant complaint is portrayed first. He is
clearly very on edge and is a character not afraid to voice his opinion as he hurls
abuse at the driver, "cursing him in a high petulant voice". The fact that the author
describes the mans voice to be of a "high" pitch shows he is paniced about the sit-
uation and he is worried for his safety as a persons voice raising in pitch is a result
of that.
The word "petulant" indicates the man is bad tempered and sulky; like a
child, which contrasts with his appearance of being an "old fellow". By cursing the
driver the man also appears to be ill mannered and when he let the window down
consequently in "bringing a shower of rain upon himself and his fellow passengers,"
he is displayed as being inconsiderate to others. The man may feel he holds more
importance than the other passengers on the coach as there are no apologies given
for his actions after having "thoroughly chilled the interior of the coach," This state-
ment may not just be physically due to the cold weather but also down to the cold,
awkward atmosphere the man has created inside the bus after his petulant shouts.
Additionally, the man "mutters into his beard", which is a sign the man is
lonely or prefers to be in the presence of just himself rather than others. The fact
the man likes to be alone may be why he was so rude to the driver as he isnt used
to human company especially when he isnt in control of the situation.
Neighbouring the man is "a jovial, red-faced woman in a blue cloak,". The
womens red-face indicates she is out of breath and may potentially be unfit. This is
confirmed when "she brought out a great hunk of cake and plunged into it." The
women eats the cake for comfort and it seems like a natural response when she
was, "burrowing into the depths of a large basket". The women appears to be used
to stressful situations as she is more calm than the old man and also is sociable and
likes to be noticed, "sighed heavily,".

Mark: 17/20
Clear evaluative comments on character with supporting examples.
Analyses effects of writers choices with occasional perception.

Number Whats Written How its Written


of Marks
16-20 In-depth, personal response to the state- Opinions are convincingly ex-
Marks ment, with critical, detailed analysis of plained and fully supported with
Level 4 the writers choices. relevant references.
11-15 Clearly explained response to the state- Opinions are clearly expressed and
Marks ment that discusses the effect of the writ- mostly supported with appropriate
Level 3 ers choices. references.
6-10 An attempt at a personal response to the Some opinions are explained and
Marks statement; some comments on the effect supported with references to the
Level 2 of the writers methods. text.
1-5 Marks Limited response to the statement, with Only a few opinions are supported
Level 1 little mention of the effect of the writers with relevant references to the
methods. text.
0 Marks Nothing written that responds to the statement.

15
16
You are always given a
specific focus.

Only answer ONE of the


questions. You might not
24 marks for your descriptive/narrative
get a choice of descriptive
content and organisation. 16 marks for
OR narrative. It might be
your technical accuracy and vocabulary.
two of the same type of
text.

17
Model Answer:

The air was not peaceful on the fourteenth of April: the renowned April Show-
ers had been replaced with collosal winds, able to knock the largest of men off of
their feet, and sweeping, gargangtuan waves, colliding harshly with the weary met-
al structures of passing trains, dangerously close to the coast.
Although this weather had come to be expected in the deep South-West of
Cornwall, the tenacious nature of it was unmatched. It was as if all the weather in
England had been focused onto one point, in a ruthless attack against humanity
from the blackened clouds above.
A single train, still running, typically British, ignorant to the danger it was in;
its old, rusted casing creaked against the wind and was assaulted by barrages of
icy salt water. The once reassuring sound of the solid wheels clanking along the rail-
way was now but a far off memory to the trains few passengers, instead of being
replaced by the constant onslaught of the elements.
The light was dim onboard the tired train, the illuminating lights in the car-
riages, having been drenched in sea water, were no longer operational. All that was
left was the bleak natural light, distorted through the cascading waterfalls on the
windows.
Four people dared such a treacherous journey: a man, slim and measly, sat
uncomfortably, staring nervously at his watch, fiddling with it obsessively; a wom-
an, young and free, caged within an ancient, metal box, staring deeply into the win-
dow; another woman, an older lady, arms crossed looking forward and impatiently
tapping her foot.
Finally, there was the driver, the one man stubborn enough to take on such a
perilous journey. A large, arrogant fool of a man, ready to risk life and limb on a
scenic train trip around the coast of Cornwall. Despite his increased age, he was a
child; a lucky, death defying child.
Attacked ferociously, the train began to shake ever so slightly, weaving with
the omnipotent gale. The distressed man scanned every corner of the train, still
meddling with his watch noiselly, whilst the two women still sat, unphased by the
creaks of the dying train.
A large jolt. The train bounced two feet into the air, forcing the passengers to
fly up from their seats. Screeching furiously, the wheels slid across the tracks, as
the driver wrestled to regain control. The carriage, now filled with screams and
wails, was pushed sideways, thus causing the whole train to turn on itself.
The final moments of the trains life. A wave, unlike any wave before, crashed
into the momentary metal coffin, with the fury of the wind on its side. Clangs of
metal echoed as the wheels of the train escaped the tracks, pushing the can of hu-
mans onto its side.
Travelling at thirty miles per hour, the train collided sharply with the untamed
sea. Water began filling the drivers cabin, engulfing the already unconcious driver,
as he allowed his own demise.
The water of death crashed through the carriage windows. The young woman
was carried with the water and crushed against the opposite wall. Accepting her
fate she closed her eyes and waited for her breath to be lost to the depths. The wall
gave way behind her, sucking her out of the train and into the raging sea. Although
ready for death, she used all of her strength to swim to the surface. Feeling the cold
hand of death take her, she attempted a final breath as her vision became dark.
A tug on her back, sharply pulled her upwards and out of the deathly water.

Mark:

AO5: 23/24

AO6: 15/16

18
Content and Organisation (AO5)
19-24 marks Imaginative use of structure and language techniques,
Level 4 thoroughly matched to form, purpose and audience. En-
gaging, well-developed, sophisticated ideas in well-
controlled paragraphs.
13-18 marks Effective writing, using a clear structure and language
Level 3 techniques. Matched to form, purpose and audience. In-
teresting, clearly connected ideas in organised para-
graphs.
7-12 marks Mostly matched to form, purpose and audience. Some
Level 2 language techniques and structural features. A range of
ideas in logical paragraphs.
1-6 marks Some sense of form, purpose and audience, with a mostly
Level 1 disorganised structure. A few relevant ideas in poorly con-
trolled paragraphs.
0 marks Nothing meaningful written.

Technical Accuracy (AO6)


13-16 marks Ambitious use of vocabulary with highly accurate spelling;
Level 4 confidently uses a wide range of grammar and punctua-
tion.
9-12 marks Largely suitable, varied vocabulary with accurate spelling;
Level 3 a range of mostly correct grammar and punctuation.

5-8 marks Attempts a variety of vocabulary, punctuation and gram-


Level 2 mar, sometimes successfully. Some accurate spelling.

1-4 marks Simple vocabulary, grammar and punctuation ae used with


Level 1 inaccuracies throughout. Basic spelling may be correct.

0 marks Poor spelling, grammar and punctuation, which prevents


understanding.

19
Mind Mapping:

Story Mountain:

20
A. Advanced Adjectives: VOCABULARY BANK C. Advanced Nouns
Characteristics B. Advanced Verbs

1. charis- influential 1. alleviate improve 1. synonyms similar meanings


matic

2. eloquent convincing 2. augment increase 2. antonyms opposite mean-


ings

3. intrepid adventurous 3. coerce force 3. crescendo climax

4. patriotic devoted to the coun- 4. collaborate work together 4. satire criticism, mockery
try

5. stoical calm 5. empathise understand 5. schaden- pleasure in seeing


freude misery

6. tenacious determined 6. emulate imitate 6. paragon role model

7. belliger- warlike 7. endeavour try 7. stoicism calm self-control


ent

8. choleric angry 8. epitomise embody 8. animosity hatred

9. compla- lazy 9. exacerbate worsen 9. zenith highest point


cent

10. hypo- mismatching words 10. interrogate question 10. nadir lowest point
critical and actions

11. melan- sad 11. ostracise alienate 11. melancholy sadness


cholic

12. menda- lying 12. reconcile forgive 12. malevo- evil-wishing


cious lence

13. narcis- self-obsessed 13. retaliate hit back 13. benevo- well-wishing
sistic lence

14. ostenta- showy 14. satirise criticise 14. eulogy speech in praise
tious

15. vindic- vengeful 15. tantalise tempt 15. invective speech in attack
tive

21
Meaning
what is the extract about? Paper 1, Section A:
what happens in the extract?
Theme(s) of the extract - what is it really about?
First Responses to Unseen Prose
where does the extract get to from start to end?
Character
Tone
who is the telling the story?
What is the mood and atmosphere of the extract? (angry,
sad, nostalgic, bitter, humorous, frightening etc. What is the narrative voice? Is it first or third person?
What characters do we meet?
How are the characters introduced?
Imagery and Language What do we learn about the characters that might be
important?
Alliteration - the repeating of initial sounds.
Metaphor - comparing two things by saying one is the other.
Setting
Simile - comparing two things saying one is like or as the other.
What location is described? How do you know?
Personification - giving something non-human human qualities. What is the weather like?
Onomatopoeia - words that sound like the thing they describe. What time of day is it?
Repetition - does the writer repeat words or phrases? What period is it set in? How do you know?
What kinds of words are used?
Connotation - associations that words have Structure
Ambiguity - is the word or phrase deliberately unclear? Could it mean Sentences- what shapes, styles and patterns can you see?
opposite things or many different things? Opening how does the extract begin?
Word order - are the words in an unusual order why? Ending how does the extract finish? Is there a clear resolution?

Adjectives - what are the key describing words? Flashbacks are any included? What do they reveal?
Slang or unusual words and misspellings - Does the writer use Repetition are any ideas or patterns repeated? Why?
slang or informal language? Connections how do the paragraphs link together?
Characters - how do they speak? Do they all sound the same? Narrative perspective does this stay the same throughout?
Linear/non linear is there a clear order to the events?

22
Make sure you focus on
these line numbers.

You just need to pick out


the FOUR true statements
and shade the boxes.

You will get one


mark for each.
The facts might be im-
plicit or explicit. Make
sure you read the
question carefully!

23
Use information from
Pick out bits of implicit both sources.
and explicit infor- This question will ask you
mation to support your about something that both
points. Remember to texts have in commonit
include quotes. might be a topic or a pair of
characters.

Top Tips:
Point from Text 1 + quotation + interpret information
Point from Text 2 + quotation + interpret information
Connective/conjunction and make links between the texts
No need for methods in this answer

24
Model Answer

Eddie was a child who attend(ed)s school in 2013 where as Henry was a child
who attended school in 1822. This is where their differences stem from.

Eddie goes home and becomes too busy killing things, while talking on Skype
to his friend; making recreational use of modern day technology. Obviously in
1822, young Henry could not have done this and instead goes to church and writes
letters in order communicate instead of skype.

Henrys relationship with his father is also very different to the one Eddie has.
For example, he writes the letter in a very formal way, signing it off as your re-
spectful son and addresses his father as my dear father. This is different to how
Eddie treats his dad, as Eddie jokily remarks "you cant think of one can you?" as to
take the micky out of his father. This shows how Eddie has less respect for his fa-
ther than Henry does; this is also shown when Eddie doesnt look up from his com-
puter' when his dad enters.

Eddie also appears to enjoy school which is connoted when he announced


what he was doing in english at the dinner table. Henry on the other hand clearly
does not enjoy school as he has the worst meals and would work all my life time
than remain here.

Mark: 7/8
Shows clear understanding of differences between the boys.

Occasional perceptive interpretation in final two paragraphs


with judicious selection of quotations from Source A.

Number of Whats Written How its Written


Marks
7-8 Marks In-depth understanding of the Links the two texts in a perceptive way.
Level 4 differences. Interpreting some details.
5-6 Marks A good understanding of the dif- Makes connections between the texts and
Level 3 ferences. starts to analyse them.
3-4 Marks Some differences between the Some attempts to make inferences. Links
Level 2 two texts are pointed out. the two texts together.
1-2 Marks Mentions simple differences be- Paraphrases the texts and makes simple
Level 1 tween the two texts. links between them.
0 Marks Nothing written about language.

25
Only look at the one This part of the question will
Again, you need to source that is specified change depending on the pur-
look at the writers in the question. pose of the text e.g. to de-
methods and how they scribe or to influence
are used to achieve a (persuade)
purpose.

Top Tips:
Select evidence that answers the question e.g. to influence
means look for persuasive language and to describe means
look for descriptive/figurative language.
Aim for around 5 different methods to analyse using P.E.E.

26
Model Answer
Henry is quite clearly trying to pursuade his father to leave the school and express his unhap-
piness whilst he is at school.
In the first paragraph, Henry describes his letter as a sly letter which implies that whatever
he is writing, will be implying something deeper, meaner, than what appears on the surface. We
know he is doing this as he is trying to tell his Father how bad the school is without being overly
rude and directly stating it.
In terms of language devices, Henry directly states that the bread is made from the worst
Barley Meal. As it IS the worst his father may have a different more extreme perception of the
worst Barley Meal so that he will be more pursuaded to bring Henry home.
Henry also says that he is used more like Bears than Christians which leads his father to be-
lieve that Henry is being treated like an animal rather then a human. Further influencing his father
to collect him from the school.
Also by saying that he was obliged and examined with his letters shows how the school
may force the pupils into doing things rather than giving opportunities and if these things were not
done, Henry would meet the consequences in this case, the teacher would flog him.
Henry, by putting George is quite well but very unhappy as a direct statement which is very
open to his fathers interpretation as it is not elaborated upon, further pursuades his father to bring
him home. As he is quite well it suggests that he could be anywhere on the spectrum of being well,
worrying his father on Georges state using but as a conjunctive suggests that he is well in health
but very unhappy, Henry by saying this and then repeating how he is unhappy, surely believes that
his father believes that mindset and emotional well being comes before physical health.
Henry has also included a man called Mr Harmer whom is a good friend the fact that his
kindest friend is by the sounds of it a grown man, could connote that Henry has had difficulty in
making friends with the other students. By including that he is friends with Mr Harmer (a grown
man) could indeed worry his father as he may not want Henry to have friends who arent children,
he may want Henry to have a childhood.
He uses the language which he has chosen to pursuade his father to let him leave the school
which he is attending.

Mark: 9/12
Clearly explains the effects of selected language with relevant
textual detail.

Focus lost in final two paragraphs which refers to content rather


than language.

Quotations here are not linked to language.

Number Whats Written How its Written


of Marks
10-12 In-depth and insightful analysis of the ef- Sophisticated technical terminolo-
Marks fects of a variety of language features. gy. Perceptive analysis.
Level 4
7-9 Marks The effects of a selection of relevant lan- Technical terminology. Variety of
Level 3 guage features are all clearly explained. references.
4-6 Marks Some language features are identified and Some technical terminology. Some
Level 2 their effects commented on. relevant references. Not always
accurate.
1-3 Marks Limited understanding of language fea- Simple or no use of terminology.
Level 1 tures, with occasional comment. Inaccurate. Few points supported.
0 Marks Nothing written about language.

27
How to introduce
effects of language:
Here are some indicative content phrases taken from the
different SAMS mark schemes on the AQA web-site
Paper 2 Q3
Level 4
which suggests
shows how
reinforces that
suggests to the reader this may not be
draws the modern reader into
makes effective use of
creates the impression of a
is suggestive of
which suggests
forewarns us of
pulls the reader into
is seductive for the reader
intriguing of itself for the modern reader,
is engaging for the reader,
elicits help and sympathy from her readers
conveys a picture of
emphasises the
strengthen the mental image

28
This part of the ques-
tion will change de-
pending on the texts.

Make sure you cover


everything in the bul-
let pointsyou need Remember to include
to write about the supporting quotes. Identify how the writers have
writers attitudes and used language and structure
how they are similar to show subtle differences in
or different. their attitudes.

Top Tips:
This brings together the skills shown in all of the other ques-
tions in Paper 2.
Identify ideas and perspectives in the two texts.
Explain the similarities/differences between the ideas and per-
spectives of the two texts.
Comment on and analyse how they convey their ideas e.g.
language, structure, implied meaning and tone.

29
Model Answer
In both sources, I can identify profound contrasts both in parenting style and general
attitudes towards the current education system. The father of Henry is shown to be a confi-
dent man with extremely high expectations for both his child and the education given to
him. In his letter, he retains respect for the reader of his letter (sir) and shows signs of un-
derstanding the possibility of a false image forged by Henry, however, William then contin-
ues on to express opinions of great dissapproval towards the Education System ("I do not
approve of the System of education, for they do not appear to have improved")
This shows a strong personal view of the education system, without using Henrys
situation as reinforcement or as a reference.
William also uses a form of blackmail in this source in order to achieve his goal of at-
tending a private interview ("If you should not be able to get a private interview with them
in the course of a fortnight, I shall be obliged by your writing to me to say so, and I will im-
mediately give notice to Mr. Smith that I intend to have them home at Christmas". The lan-
guage shown here may be civilised and polite, but it is quite clearly a threat that intended
to make a strong impact on the reader.
Overall, William takes a very well-mannered approach to the situation, but still displays a strong
dissaproval for the system of education and conveys a strong understanding of the entirety of the current
situation.
Jay, however, shows an entirely different approach to the situation, an approach that
highly contrasts Willliams response and thus produces a controversy over the true effec-
tiveness of the System of education.
Jay constantly gives the system of education nothing but praise, however, jokingly, Jay con-
sistently mocks it for allowing children to be able to outsmart their parents ("This is what
happens if you feed and educate your children. They grow up, become clever and remorse-
lessly take the mickey out of you"). Whilst this is a clear sign of admiration for the effectiveness of
the System of education, perhaps purely for satire, Jay does provides some negatives to this
situation.
Overall, the parenting styles and the attitudes towards the system of education re-
main in profound contrast and continue to provide the foundations, either way, for an argu-
ment to the effectivness of the current System of education. Jay shows nothing but praise for
the CURRENT era of education, but nothing but remorse for the PREVIOUS era of educa-
tion whereas William shows clear signs of dissaproval for the current system and may sublinimally im-
ply that the education in his era was far more advanced than the current.

Mark: 14/16
Perceptive understanding of attitudes to education with relevant
quotations from both texts and detailed comparisons.

Analyses how methods are used in both texts.

Number Whats Written How its Written


of Marks
13-16 Detailed and insightful comparison of the Points consistently supported by a
Marks writers attitudes. Perceptive understand- good range of precise evidence
Level 4 ing. from both texts.
9-12 Writers attitudes are clearly compared Appropriate references to both
Marks showing an understanding of the differ- texts to support points.
Level 3 ences.
5-8 Marks Some attempt to compare writers atti- Includes references to the texts,
Level 2 tudes, identifying some differences be- but not always relevant.
tween viewpoints.
1-4 Marks Basic identification of the two writers at- Some basic textual details or ref-
Level 1 titudes and the differences between them. erences, but many points are un-
supported.
0 Marks Nothing written about language.

30
31
The task will usually
ask you to respond to The question will give
a prompt. It might be you a specific form, 24 marks for your persuasive/
an opinion, scenario or purpose and audience. argumentative/explanatory con-
a statement. You must show tent and organisation. 16 marks
awareness of your for your technical accuracy and
audience. vocabulary.

32
Model Answer:
The agruement for and against homework is a perennial topic; homework has
been proven to boost exam results but corrispondingly increase students stress lev-
els. Is it really fair to enforce more work on a child after a previous six hours of gru-
elling work? The senible response may seem to extend the school day to allow stu-
dents free time at home. Nevertheless, problems then arise of tiredness and the in-
ability to process information if the school day is prolonged.
The reasoning behind homework is to implement and engrave what has been
taught in the lesson into the childs brain so that information isnt lost. By revising
what has been covered in class the child should then be able to retain the infor-
mation in the lesson after, thus the teacher doesnt have to constantly repeat them-
selves.
I agree if the homework is set efficiently and to aid the learning of the pupils
it is a good idea, however I do not condone meaningless homework for the sake of
giving homework.
Excessive amounts of homework can drive a pupil into a state of mind where-
by they feel as though they cant cope or reduce efforts put into homework in order
to complete it in time. For this reason a senisble time frame is needed for home-
work and communication between other teachers is vital to prevent placing too
much stress on pupils.
I do digress that implementing homework from a young age does prepare
children for studing in later life and allows them to become accustomed to it. More-
over, it means they are familiar with time contrainsts which occurs in a real job.
Despite the advantages, pupils who are unable to complete homework at
home due to enviromental factors are put at a disadvantage to those who can. Pu-
pils unable to complete homework at home may be punished or forced to complete
it during XXX hours resulting in lack of break or lunch.
To make the circumstances more fair for those unable to complete homework,
an after school homework club should be manditory in every school.
Not only will an after school homework club provide features such as comput-
ers, also help and encouragement from members of staff supervising.
This leads me on to the dilema of how much help a parent should give their
child. Some children are becoming co-dependant on their parents help with home-
work and are therefore struggling in lessons to work individually. There is also the
issue of how much of the homework is the childs and does that excessive help from
their parents put them at an advantage to those whose parents contributed par-
ticually by only guiding their child in the right direction.
The interference of parents would not be a problem if all of the work was done
at home. Family time would then increase if work was kept in school and pupils
amount of activity and exercise may also increase due to more free time. An in-
creased amount of exercise in the youth will lower obesity levels and also has many
health benefits which include increased concentration and many others to aid pupils
learning.
As previously touched upon, excessive amounts of homework have a detri-
mental impact on a pupils health and mean they are more likely to suffer from
stress and forms of depression. This will impact the pupils effort at school and dis-
trupt their learning.
Ultimately a balance is needed between the correct amount of homework and
the amount of free time a child has. For this reason I dont believe homework
should be permited over breaks off school as it is vital that pupils are able to relax
and arent feeling that stress is constantly inflicted upon them. Time as a child is
limited and regardless of the preparation homework gives us for later life, their are
other life lesson to be descovered to which dont relvolve around school and work.
Mark:

AO5: 20/24

AO6: 13/16

33
34
Content and Organisation (AO5)
19-24 marks Imaginative use of structure and language techniques,
Level 4 thoroughly matched to form, purpose and audience. En-
gaging, well-developed, sophisticated ideas in well-
controlled paragraphs.
13-18 marks Effective writing, using a clear structure and language
Level 3 techniques. Matched to form, purpose and audience. In-
teresting, clearly connected ideas in organised para-
graphs.
7-12 marks Mostly matched to form, purpose and audience. Some
Level 2 language techniques and structural features. A range of
ideas in logical paragraphs.
1-6 marks Some sense of form, purpose and audience, with a mostly
Level 1 disorganised structure. A few relevant ideas in poorly con-
trolled paragraphs.
0 marks Nothing meaningful written.

Technical Accuracy (AO6)


13-16 marks Ambitious use of vocabulary with highly accurate spelling;
Level 4 confidently uses a wide range of grammar and punctua-
tion.
9-12 marks Largely suitable, varied vocabulary with accurate spelling;
Level 3 a range of mostly correct grammar and punctuation.

5-8 marks Attempts a variety of vocabulary, punctuation and gram-


Level 2 mar, sometimes successfully. Some accurate spelling.

1-4 marks Simple vocabulary, grammar and punctuation ae used with


Level 1 inaccuracies throughout. Basic spelling may be correct.

0 marks Poor spelling, grammar and punctuation, which prevents


understanding.

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37
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